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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ROORKEE

LAB MANUAL
PLC & DCS LAB
PIC 852
List of Experiments
1. Study of PLC.
2. Implement AND, OR, NAND and NOR function using PLC ladder.
3. Implement XOR and X-NOR function using PLC ladder.
4. Implement 4:1 MUX by using PLC ladder.
5. Implement an annunciator by using PLC ladder.
6. Make a ladder diagram to control the water level in a tank.
7. Implement a ON-DELAY timer by using PLC ladder.
8. Implement a UP-counter by using a PLC ladder.
9. Study of DCS.
EXPRIMENT NO.1
AIM:Study of PLC Trainer Kit 240B.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Trainer.

THEORY:
INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PLC:

A Programmable Logic Controller is a specialized computer. Since it is a computer, it has


all the basic component parts that any other computer has; a Central Processing Unit,
Memory, Input Interfacing and Output Interfacing. A typical programmable controller
block diagram is shown below,

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the control portion of the PLC.
1. It interprets the program commands retrieved from memory and acts on those
commands.
2. In present day PLC's this unit is a microprocessor based system.
3. The CPU is housed in the processor module of modularized systems.

Memory in the system is generally of two types; ROM and RAM.


1. The ROM memory contains the program information that allows the CPU to interpret and act
on the Ladder Logic program stored in the RAM memory.
2.RAM memory is generally kept alive with an on-board battery so that ladder programming is
not lost when the system power is removed.
3.This battery can be a standard dry cell or rechargeable nickel-cadmium type.
4. Newer PLC units are now available with Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory (EEPROM) which does not require a battery.
5. Memory is also housed in the processor module in modular systems.

Input units can be any of several different types depending on input signals expected as
described above.
1. The input section can accept discrete or analog signals of various voltage and current levels.
2. Present day controllers offer discrete signal inputs of both AC and DC voltages from TTL to
250 VDC and from 5 to 250 VAC.
3. Analog input units can accept input levels such as 10 VDC, 5 VDC and 4-20 ma. current
loop values.
4. Discrete input units present each input to the CPU as a single 1 or 0 while analog input units
contain analog to digital conversion circuitry and present the input voltage to the CPU as
binary number normalized to the maximum count available from the unit.
5. The number of bits representing the input voltage or current depends upon the resolution of
the unit.
6. This number generally contains a defined number of magnitude bits and a sign bit.
7. Register input units present the word input to the CPU as it is received (Binary or BCD).

Output units operate much the same as the input units with the exception that the unit is
either sinking (supplying a ground) or sourcing (providing a voltage) discrete voltages or
sourcing analog voltage or current.
1. These output signals are presented as directed by the CPU. The output circuit of discrete units
can be transistors for TTL and higher DC voltage or Triacs for AC voltage outputs.
2. For higher current applications and situations where a physical contact closure is required,
mechanical relay contacts are available.
3. These higher currents, however, are generally limited to about 2-3 amperes.
4. The analog output units have internal circuitry which performs the digital to analog conversion
and generates the variable voltage or current output.

Extending PLC:

Every PLC controller has a limited number of input/output lines.

If needed this number can be increased through certain additional modules by system
extension through extension lines.

Each module can contain extension both of input and output lines.

Also, extension modules can have inputs and outputs of a different nature from those on
the PLC controller (ex. in case relay outputs are on a controller, transistor outputs can be
on an extension module).

INPUTS:On the PLC Trainer inputs are from X0 to X11 given on the left panel.
COMMON OUTPUTS:On the PLC Trainer inputs are from C0 to C3 given on the right panel.
OUTPUTS: On the PLC Trainer Outputs are from Y0 to Y7 given on the right panel.
PUSH BUTTONS: Provided to give high/low values for inputs.
TIK-TAK BUTTONS: Alternate buttons to give high/low values for inputs.
ANNUNCIATOR: To check output.
RS-232: To communicate PLC with PC.

RESULT: PLC Trainer kit 240B has been studied successfully.


EXPRIMENT NO.2

AIM: Implement AND, OR, NAND and NOR function using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Kit, RS-232,PC,Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

AND Gate: The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it
behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if both the
inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a
LOW output results. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds
the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the maximum. Therefore,
the output is always 0 except when all the inputs are 1s.

INPUT OUTPUT
A B A AND B
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
Fig.1

Symbol of AND Gate Truth Table of AND Gate

Fig. 2

Ladder Diagram of AND Gate


OR Gate: The OR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction - it behaves
according to thetruth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the
gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results. In another sense, the
function of OR effectively finds the maximum between two binary digits, just as the
complementary AND function.

INPUT OUTPUT

A B A OR B

0 0 0
Fig. 3

Symbol of OR Gate 0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 1

Truth Table of ORGate

Ladder Diagram of OR Gate (Fig.4)


NOR GATE:The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves
according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate
are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of
the negation of the OR operator. It can also be seen as an AND gate with all the inputs inverted.

NOR is a functionally completeoperationNOR gates can be combined to generate any


other logical function. By contrast, the ORoperator is monotonic as it can only change LOW to
HIGH but not vice versa.

INPUT OUTPUT
A B A NOR B
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Fig. 5

Symbol of NOR Gate Truth Table of NOR Gate

Fig.6

Ladder Diagram of NOR Gate


NAND GATE:In digital electronics, a NAND gate (negative-AND) is a logic gate which
produces an output that is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that
of the AND gate. A LOW (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if
one or both inputs are LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results. It is made using transistors. By De
Morgan's theorem, AB=A+B, a NAND gate is equivalent to inverters followed by an OR gate.

INPUT OUTPUT
A B A NAND B
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
Fig.7

Symbol of NAND Gate Truth Table of NAND Gate

Fig.8

Ladder Diagram of NAND Gate

PROCEDURE :

1. Develop a ladder logic for various functions as shown in above figures.


2. Download the ladder logic in PLC and run theprogram.
RESULT:AND,OR,NAND and NOR functions have been implemented successfully by using
PLC Ladder programming.
EXPRIMENT NO.3

AIM: Implement XOR and X-NOR function using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Kit, RS-232,PC,Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

XOR Gate :The XOR gate (sometimes EOR gate, or EXOR gate and pronounced as Exclusive
OR gate) is a digital logic gate that implements an exclusive or; that is, a true output (1/HIGH)
results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is true.Ifbothinputs are false (0/LOW) or
both are true, a false output results.

XOR represents the inequality function, i.e., the output is true if the inputs are not alike
otherwise the output is false. A way to remember XOR is "one or the other but not both".

INPUT OUTPUT

A B A XOR B

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

(Fig.1)

Symbol of XOR Gate Truth Table of XOR Gate


XNOR Gate:The XNOR gate (sometimes spelled "exnor"or "enor" and rarely written NXOR) is
a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate.
The two-input version implements logical equality behaving according to the truth table to the
right. A HIGH output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. If one but not both
inputs are HIGH (1) then a LOW output (0) results.

INPUT OUTPUT

A B A XNOR B

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1
(Fig.2)

Symbol of XNOR Gate Truth Table of XNOR Gate

Ladder Diagram of XOR Gate(Fig.3)


Ladder Diagram of XNOR Gate(Fig.4)

ROCEDURE:-

1. Take one No bit assign it X0 and take timer from either clicking on T button or on F that
is function button in the menu bar which is encircled in Red.
2. After that take output coil after the timer instruction we can place our output directly,
then take output assign it Y0.
3. Then compile and run the program to see the output.
4. To place a timer to input, just go the timer option as shown in red ellipse. In this
instruction we have to give timer number/ address such as T0, T1, etc in the T Field and
the present time, that how much delay you obtain.
5. For input connect X0 to NO and X1 to another NO switch, for input power supply
connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v to S/S.
6. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT:XOR andX NOR functions have been implemented successfully by using PLC

Ladderprogramming.
EXPERIMENT NO. 4

AIM: Implement 4:1 MUX by using PLC Ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Kit, RS-232,PC,Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

MUX is a device that selects one of the several analog or digital


input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line. A
multiplexer of 2^n inputs has n select lines, which are used to select
which input line send to the output. They are mainly used to increase the
amount of data that can be sent over the network within a certain amount
of time and bandwidth.

(Fig. 1)

4:1 MUX
LADDER DIAGRAM:

(Fig. 2)

Ladder diagram of 4:1 MUX

PROCEDURE:-

1. Make a ladder diagram as shown in above figure. Take two NC bit and one
NO bit in first rung then assign them X0,X1 and X2 them respectively.
2. Take one NC bit and two NO bit in second rung then assign them X0,X1 and
X3 them respectively.
3. Take one NC bit and two NO bit in third rung then assign them X0,X1 and X4
them respectively.
4. Take three NO bit in four rung then assign them X0,X1 and X5 them
respectively.
5. After that take output coil and assign it Y0.
6. Then compile and run the program to see the output.
7. For input power supply connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v
to S/S.
8. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT: The 4:1 MUXhas been implementedsuccessfully by using


PLC Ladder.
EXPERIMENT NO.5

AIM: Implement an annunciator by using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Kit, RS-232,PC,Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

An annunciator panel, also known in some aircraft as the 'Centralized Warning


Panel (CWP), is a group of lights used as a central indicator of status of equipment or systems in
an aircraft, industrial process, building or other installation. Usually, the annunciator panel
includes a main warning lamp or audible signal to draw the attention of operating personnel to
the annunciator panel for abnormal events or conditions.

In the aircraft industry, annunciator panels are groupings of annunciator lights that
indicate status of the aircraft's subsystems. The lights are usually accompanied with a test switch,
which when pressed illuminates all the lights to confirm they are in working order. More
advanced modern aircraft replaces these with the integrated electronic Engine Indicating and
Crew Alerting System or Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor.

Fig. 1

Annunciator Panel
Ladder Diagram:

Green Light

Yellow Light

Red Light

Fig. 2

Ladder Diagram for an annunciator

ROCEDURE:-

1. Take one No bit assign it X0 and take timer from either clicking on T button or on F that
is function button in the menu bar which is encircled in Red.
2. After that take output coil after the timer instruction we can place our output directly,
then take output assign it Y0.
3. Then compile and run the program to see the output.
4. To place a timer to input, just go the timer option as shown in red ellipse. In this
instruction we have to give timer number/ address such as T0, T1, etc in the T Field and
the present time, that how much delay you obtain.
5. For input connect X0 to NO and X1 to another NO switch, for input power supply
connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v to S/S.
6. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT: Annunciatorfunction have been implemented successfully by using PLC Ladder.


EXPERIMENT NO.6

AIM: To control the water level of a tank by using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: PLC Kit, RS-232,PC,Connecting Wires.

THEORY: There is a water tank with two level sensors as a inputs and a motor as a output as
shown in figure 1.

Both the inputs are the open. When they are immersed in water will be OFF and when
they are not immersed in water, they will be ON.

(Fig.1)

Water Level Process


Ladder Diagram:

(Fig.2)

Ladder diagram for water level control

ROCEDURE:-

1. Take two No bit and assign them X0 and X1 then take output assign it M0 as internal
relay.
2. In next rungtake M0 as i/p and Y0 as o/p.
3. For input connect X0 to NO and X1 to another NO switch, for input power supply
connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v to S/S.
4. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT: The water level control system has been implemented successfully by using PLC

Ladder.
EXPERIMENT NO.7
OBJECT:- Implement a PLC timer by using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:- PLC Kit, RS-232, PC, connecting wires.

THEORY:-

ON-DELAY TIMER

It starts to time when a rung goes true (all conditions met), and times up when rung is
true for a preset amount of true.
It will wait for a set time after a line of ladder logic has been true before turning on.
With on-delay timers, the output associated with the timing instruction is turned on
after the input is on for some specified time, but it turn off immediately when the input
is turned off.

OFF-DELAY TIMER

It starts to time when a rung goes false (not all conditions met),and times up when
rung is false for a preset amount of time.
An off-delay timer will turn on immediately when a line of ladder logic is true, but it
will delay before turning off.
With off-delay timers, output is turned on immediately when the input is turned on.
However, it remains on for a specified period of time after the input has been turned
off.

LADDER DIAGRAM:-
Fig. 1: ON Delay Timer

Fig 2: OFF Delay Timer

ROCEDURE:-

7. Take one No bit assign it X0 and take timer from either clicking on T button or on F that
is function button in the menu bar which is encircled in Red.
8. After that take output coil after the timer instruction we can place our output directly,
then take output assign it Y0.
9. Then compile and run the program to see the output.
10. To place a timer to input, just go the timer option as shown in red ellipse. In this
instruction we have to give timer number/ address such as T0, T1, etc in the T Field and
the present time, that how much delay you obtain.
11. For input connect X0 to NO and X1 to another NO switch, for input power supply
connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v to S/S.
12. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT :ON Delay Timer has been implemented successfully by using PLC Ladder.
EXPERIMENT NO.8

OBJECT:- Implement a PLC counter by using PLC ladder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:- PLC Kit, RS-232, PC, connecting wires.

THEORY:-Counter is a simple device intended to count numbers of events. There are


following three types of PLC counters.

up-counters:

They only count up such as 1,2,3etc These are called CTU,(count up) CNT,C, or CTR.

down counters:

They only count down such as 9,8,7,etc. These are typically called CTD (count down).

up-down counters:

They count up and/or down like as 1,2,3,4,3,2,3,4,5 These are typically called UDC(up-down
counter).

To use them we must know 3 things:

1. Where the pulses that we want to count are coming from. Typically this is from one of
the inputs.(a sensor connected to input 0000 for example)
2. How many pulses we want to count before we react. Let's count 5 widgets before we box
them, for example.
3. When/how we will reset the counter so it can count again. After we count 5 widgets lets
reset the counter, for example.

When the program is running on the PLC the program typically displays the current or
"accumulated" value for us so we can see the current count value.
Typically counters can count from 0 to 9999, -32,768 to +32,767 or 0 to 65535. Why the weird
numbers? Because most PLCs have 16-bit counters.Where0-9999 is 16-bit BCD (binary coded
decimal) and that -32,768 to 32767 and 0 to 65535 is 16-bit binary.

Fig 1: Two inputs up/down counter

In this counter we need 2 inputs. One goes before the reset line. When this input turns on the
current (accumulated) count value will return to zero.The second input is the address where the
pulses we are counting are coming from.For example, if we are counting how many widgets pass
in front of the sensor that is physically connected to input 0001 then we would put normally open
contacts with the address 0001 in front of the pulse line.

Cxxx is the name of the counter. If we want to call it counter 000 then we would put "C000"
here.

yyyyy is the number of pulses we want to count before doing something. If we want to count 5
widgets before turning on a physical output to box them we would put 5 here. If we wanted to
count 100 widgets then we would put 100 here, etc. When the counter is finished (i.e we counted
yyyyy widgets) it will turn on a separate set of contacts that we also label Cxxx.

Note that the counter accumulated value ONLY changes at the off to on transition of the pulse
input.
Fig 2: Ladder diagram of up/down counter

Here's the symbol on a ladder showing how we set up a counter (we'll name it counter 000) to
count 100 widgets from input 0001 before turning on output 500. Sensor 0002 resets the counter.

Below is one symbol we may encounter for an up-down counter. We'll use the same abbreviation
as we did for the example above.(i.e. UDCxxx and yyyyy)

Fig 3:Up-down counter

In this up-down counter we need to assign 3 inputs. The reset input has the same function as
above. However, instead of having only one input for the pulse counting we now have 2. One is
for counting up and the other is for counting down. In this example we will call the counter
UDC000 and we will give it a preset value of 1000. (we'll count 1000 total pulses) For inputs
we'll use a sensor which will turn on input 0001 when it sees a target and another sensor at input
0003 will also turn on when it sees a target. When input 0001 turns on we count up and when
input 0003 turns on we count down. When we reach 1000 pulses we will turn on output 500.
Fig 4: Ladder diagram of up-down counter

ROCEDURE:-

13. Take one No bit assign it X0 and take counterby clicking on C button from variable
menu.
14. After that take output coil after the timer instruction we can place our output directly,
then take output assign it Y0.
15. Then compile and run the program to see the output.
16. To place a timer to input, just go the timer option as shown in red ellipse. In this
instruction we have to give timer number/ address such as C0, C1, etc in the T Field and
the present time, that how much delay you obtain.
17. For input connect X0 to NO and X1 to another NO switch, for input power supply
connect +ve of 24v to Sw common and ve of 24v to S/S.
18. For output connect C0 to +ve of 5V and connect Y0 to output of annuciator.

RESULT :UP counter has been implemented successfully by using PLC Ladder.
EXPRIMENT NO.9

AIM: Study of DCS dynamic process plant.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Dynamic process plant.

THEORY:

Dynamic process plant:

Dynamic Process Control System Trainer

The objective of Temflo Dynamic Process Control System Trainer is to demonstratethe operation
of Flow, Level & Pressure control loops. Using the same equipmentsand configuration tools
(software) developed for industrial control applications. In acompact panel, all components of
this loop provide easy access, for the instructorsand learners, not being a structure to be observed
only, but manipulated too. In theimplementation of control is contained the same characteristics
and situations foundby professionals of instrumentation through high technology resources
available inthe market. Temflo Dynamic Process Control System Trainer is monitored
andoperated by one station which monitors data from equipments and presents itthrough
computer in different variation. The dynamic process trainer serves the dualpurpose for
explaining the various process tubes and real time process control usingDCS. To demonstrate
distributed control, two controllers are provided as a part ofsystem. Both the controllers
communicate horizontally. Profinet web server software part is explained in detail.

This is a demo of DCS used in big industries where parameters are distributedcontrolled,
here one Controller ILC 171 controls operation of field instruments likepumps, valves and other
plant instruments and other CONTROLLER ILC 330controls process parameters like flow
measurement, level measurement or ratiocontrol. It also allows configuration of Phoenix contact
make CONTROLLERs ifrequired later. With the help of this trainer, the flow, Level, &
Pressure control loopcan be understood & controlled.

This document is destined to guide Temflo Dynamic Process Control SystemTrainer


users in the first steps using this Industrial Instrumentation and Controllearning tool.

Differential Pressure Transmitter:


The most common and useful industrial pressure measuring instrument is the
differential pressure transmitter.This equipment will sense the difference in pressure between
two ports and produce an output signal with reference to a calibrated pressure range. The
industrial differential pressure transmitters are made of two housings (See Fig-6). Pressure
sensing element is housed in the bottom half, and the electronics are housed at the top half. It
will have two pressure ports The most common and useful industrial pressure measuring
instrument is thedifferential pressure marked as High and Low. It is not compulsory that the
high port will be always at high pressure and the low port always at low pressure. This labeling
has its relation to the effect of the port on the output signal. At this stage, we will try to learn the
internal construction of the transmitter.
FCX-AIII Series is the latest transmitter modeldemonstrating improved accuracy and
long-termstability. The FCX-AIII provides superior reliability,simplified user operation,
expanded menu structure,and reduced size and mass. Reliability and stabilityestablished by
abundant performance andtechnological innovation FCX Series transmitters wereintroduced in
1989 and have an installed base of morethan one million. The FCXAIIIdifferential
pressure(flow) transmitter accurately measures differentialpressure, liquid level, gauge pressure
or flow rate andtransmits a proportional 4 to 20mA signal. Thetransmitter utilizes a unique
micromachinedcapacitance silicon sensor with state-of-the-art microprocessor technology to
provideexceptional performance and functionality
Features
High Accuracy (0.065% Standard)
Extra Long term stability: +/ 0.1% /10 years
Minimum environmental influence
Fuji/HART bilingual communications protocol FCXAIII series transmitter
offers bilingual communications to speak both Fuji proprietary protocol and
HART
Full range of hazardous area approvals
Built-in RFI filter and lightning arrester
5-digit LCD meter with engineering unit
Stainless steel electronics housing
Programmable output Linearization Function
Burnout current flexibility (Under Scale: 3.2 to 4.0mA, Over Scale: 20.0 to
22.5mA)
Dry calibration without reference pressure
Operates on 10.5V to 45V DC attransmitter terminals.10.5V to 32V DC for
theunits with optional arrester.
Over range limit to maximum static pressure limit

Operation of Differential Pressure Transmitter:

Pressure is the force per unit area. Pressure is expressed as P=F/A, F=force and A=area of
application of force. Pressure is described in SI unit as pascal. The other unitsofpressure are bars,
millibars, atmospheres and millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).Lets take a look at some examples
around us. Think of a chamber filled with gas.The countless atoms and molecules of gas will
constantly rebound on the walls of thechamber and exert pressure on it. But, you do not have to
measure the pressure onthe wall. You can measure pressure inside the chamber along any plane.
The thrustof air on the surface of the earth is proportional to the weight of air. This explains
why the pressure will reduce at higher altitude. But when you go underwater deeperand deeper
into the sea, the pressure exerted on your body will go on increasing.In case of fluid, it is
different. Fluid is incompressible and so, when pressure isexerted at a certain point in a volume
of fluid, it gets equally distributed throughoutthe volume of the fluid. This is Pascals law.
Pascal's law states that increase inpressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will give rise to equal
increase in the entirefluid. The concept of hydraulic jack is governed by Pascals law. The
pressure exertedat one point in the oil of a hydraulic jack is transmitted to other points through
theincompressible fluid oil.

construction:

A differential pressure transmitter has three functional parts.


1)Direct Pressure sensing element (located in the lower housing).

The majority of industrial DP Transmitters are fitted with diaphragm as Thepressuresensing


element. This diaphragm is a mechanical device. It is placed in between thetwo pressure inlet
ports. The diaphragm will be deflected bytheapplied pressureThis is clarified in Fig-7. This
deflection is converted into an electrical signal. This isnormally done by the sensors. The
commonly used sensors are (a) Strain Gauge (b)Differential Capacitance (c) Vibrating wire. The
sensor output is proportional to theapplied pressure.

2)Electronic Unit: The electrical signal generated at the lower chamber by thesensor is in
the range of milli-volt only.

This signal is to be amplified to 0-5V or 0-10V range or is to be converted to 4-20mAfor onward


transmission to a remote instrument. This upper housing is theTransmitter portion of the DP
Transmitter which houses the Electronic Unit. See Fig-7 for further clarifications.

3)Wire 4-20mA Current Transmitter:

A DC output current is generated which is directly proportional to the pressure rangeof the
Differential Pressure Transmitter. The lower range is 4mA, and the upper rangeis 20mA. This
controlled current output is not affected by load impedance variationand supply voltage
fluctuations. This 4-20mA output is superimposed with digitalcommunications of BRAIN or
HART FSK protocol.

Industrial applications of Differential Pressure Transmitters:

There are unlimited industrial applications of Differential Pressure Transmitters.


Water and effluent treatment plants. It is largely used to monitor filters in theseplants.
It is used to monitor Sprinkler Systems.
Remote sensing of Heating Systems for Steam or Hot Water.
Pressure drops across valves can be monitored.
Pump control Monitoring.

Types of measurements for pressure?


There are 3 types of pressure measurements:
a) Absolute
b) Gauge
c) Differential

a)Absolute Pressure is measured with reference to Vacuum.

This is explained in Fig.2. The abbreviations used are Pascals Absolute (PAA) orPounds per
Square Inch Absolute (PSIA).

b) Gauge Pressure is measured with reference to ambient atmospheric pressure


(please see Fg.3).

In Gauge Pressure, Pascals Gauge (PAG) or Pound per Square Inch Gauge (PSIG)abbreviations
are used.
b) Gauge Pressure is measured with reference to ambient atmospheric pressure
(please see Fg.3).

In Gauge Pressure, Pascals Gauge (PAG) or Pound per Square Inch Gauge (PSIG)abbreviations
are used.
c) Differential Pressure is measured with reference to a specific reference
pressure (please see Fg.4)
In Differential Pressure, Pascals Differential (PAD) or Pound Per Square Inch
Differential (PSID) abbreviations are used.

Level measurement using Differential Pressure Transmitters:

In closed vessels any pressure at the topthe vessel will affect the pressure at thebottom. To
measure the true level, the vessel top pressure must be subtractedfrom the pressure reading taken
at thebottom of the vessel. The level may bemeasured by taking a pressure tap fromthe top of the
vessel to a differentialpressure transducer which is alsoconnected to a pressure tap at the
lowpoint of the vessel. The vessel pressure isnow applied to both the measurementand reference
sides of the transducer.The resulting differential pressure isproportional to the liquid
heightmultiplied by the specific gravity of theliquid. A typical installation arrangementfor low
viscosity liquids using a standardDP transducer is shown in the diagram.If a high viscosity or
liquid with solids insuspension is to be measured,A standard DP transmitter cannot be used as
the process port connected to thebottom of the vessel could become blocked. A flanged DP or a
transmitter with aremote seal should be used in these circumstances. In closed vessels any
pressure atthe top of the vessel will affect the pressure at the bottom. To measure the true
level,the vessel top pressure must be subtracted from the pressure reading taken at thebottom of
the vessel. The level may be measured by taking a pressure tap from thetop of the vessel to a
differential pressure transducer which is also connected to a
pressure tap at the low point of the vessel. The vessel pressure is now applied to boththe
measurement and reference sides of the transducer. The resulting differentialpressure is
proportional to the liquid height multiplied by the specific gravity of theliquid. A typical
installation arrangement for low viscosity liquids using a standardDP transducer is shown in the
diagram. If a high viscosity or liquid with solids insuspension is to be measured, a standard DP
transmitter cannot be used as theprocess port connected to the bottom of the vessel could become
blocked. A flangedDP or a transmitter with a remote seal should be used in these
circumstances.Closed pressurised vessel with volatile fluidThe basic measurement
configuration is similar to the non-volatile fluid arrangementdescribed above, however if the gas
above the liquid condenses at thesystem operating temperature, the piping to the reference side
of the transducer willslowly fill up with liquid creating a measurement error. To eliminate this
potentialerror, the impulse pipe to the transducer reference port should be filled withcondensate
or a compatible fluid which has a specific gravity at least as high as theprocess fluid. This
provides a reference port pressure that varies only with the toppressure of the vessel.In this
configuration the fluid-fill in the reference leg will exert a head pressure on the
reference side of the transducer causing the output to be negative when the vessel isempty. This
should be considered when selecting the FSD range of the DP transduceras DP transducers by
design will only respond to a maximum negative pressure inputof 50% FSD. It should also be
remembered that the transmitter electronics will needto be have a zero offset applied to provide
zero output at minimum vessel level.Differential pressure transmitter in volatile media. If a high
viscosity orliquid with solids in suspension is tobe measured, a standard DPtransmitter cannot be
used as theprocess port connected to the bottomof the vessel could become blocked. Aflanged
DP or a transmitter with aremote seal should be used.Alternatively a DP transmitter with two
remote seals can be used. Whilstthe initial transmitter cost is greater,the installation costs and
long termcosts of ownership are lower as theinstallation and maintenance of thefluid filled
reference leg is no longerrequired.The basic measurement configurationis similar to the non-
volatile fluidarrangement described above, however if the gas above the liquid condenses at
thesystem operating temperature, the piping to the reference side of the transducer will
slowly fill up with liquid creating a measurement error. To eliminate this potentialerror, the
impulse pipe to the transducer reference port should be filled withcondensate or a compatible
fluid which has a specific gravity at least as high as theprocess fluid. This provides a reference
port pressure that varies only with the toppressure of the vessel.In this configuration the fluid-fill
in the reference leg will exert a head pressure on thereference side of the transducer causing the
output to be negative when the vessel isempty. This should be considered when selecting the
FSD range of the DP transduceras DP transducers by design will only respond to a maximum
negative pressure input
of 50% FSD. It should also be remembered that the transmitter electronics will needto be have a
zero offset applied to provide zero output at minimum vessel level.If a high viscosity or liquid
with solids in suspension is to be measured, a standardDP transmitter cannot be used as the
process port connected to the bottom of thevessel could become blocked. A flanged DP or a
transmitter with a remote seal shouldbe used. Alternatively a DP transmitter with two remote
seals can be used. Whilst theinitial transmitter cost is greater, the installation costs and long term
costs ofownership are lower as the installation and maintenance of the fluid filled referenceleg is
no longer required. Closed Pipe Flow Measurement

ORIFICE PLATE:
All pressure based closed pipe flow measurement systems use either an Orifice Plate, Pitot Tube,
Venturi or Nozzle, to produce a differential pressure which is
linearly proportional to the square of the flow. In order to obtain a linear to flow signal, a square
root function must be applied either in the DP transmitter it self or to the output signal from the
transmitter. To meet basic accuracy requirements British and International standards specify a
minimum straight pipe length both before and after the flow meter. Most general industrial
applications this can be approximated to a minimum of 10 times pipe diameter upstream and 6
times pipe diameter downstream.
In order to specify a complete flow measurement system the following information needs to be
established.
1. Internal diameter of system pipe work at the point of measurement.
2. Flowing media.
3. Maximum and minimum flow rates.
4. Media temperature and pressure.
5. Flange details for mounting of Orifice plate, Nozzle or Venturi or any special
boss details for a Pitot tube assembly.

An orifice plate is a very simpledevice installed in a straight run ofpipe. The orifice plate
contains ahole smaller than the pipe diameter.The flow constricts, experiences apressure drop,
and then thedifferential pressure can be relatedto a flow. An orifice plate helpsmeasures flow
through the differences in pressure from theupstream side to the downstream side of a partially
obstructed pipe. The plate offers a precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and
forces the flowing substance to constrict. A DP cell allowsthe comparison of the pressure on the
upstream (unobstructed) side and thedownstream (constricted) side.The greater the flow, the
greater thedifference in pressure as the substancemaintains its constricted state for alonger
distance, passing thedownstream element. Different kinds oforifice plates include
concentric,eccentric, and segmental, each of which,has different shapes and placements
formeasuring different processes. Orificeplates are in common use in manyinstallations.
Linearityand betteroxidation resistance. Its characteristicswill be presented with more
detailsfurther.

Types of Orifice Plates:

The different types of orifice plates are:


Concentric.
Segmental.
Eccentric.
Quadrant Edge.

Concentric:
The concentric orifice plate is used for ideal liquid as well as gases and steam service.This
orifice plate beta ratio fall between of 0.15 to 0.75 for liquids and 0.20 to 0.70for gases, and
steam. Best results occur between value of 0.4 and 0.6. beta ratiomeans ratio of the orifice bore
to the internal pipe diameters.
Eccentric:
The eccentric orifice plate has a hole eccentric. Use full for measuring containingsolids, oil
containing water and wet steam. Eccentric plates can use either flange orvena contracta taps, but
the tap must be at 180 or 90 to the eccentric opening.Eccentric orifices have the bore offset
from center to minimize problems in services ofsolids-containing materials.
Segmental:
The segmental orifice place has the hole in the form segment of a circle. This is usedfor colloidal
and slurry flow measurement. For best accuracy, the tap location shouldbe 180 from the center
of tangency.Segmental orifices provide another version of plates useful for solids
containingmaterials.
Quadrant Edge:
It common use in Europe and are particularly useful for pipe sizes less than 2 inchs.

Quadrant edge orifices produce a relatively constant coefficient of discharge for


services with low Reynolds numbers in the range from 100,000 down to 5,000.

GLOBE TYPE CONTROL VALVE:


RAPID control valve

Control Valves is a electrically actuated valve. Their application range covers control tasks in
process engineering and industrialapplications as well as in supply and power plant engineering.
The modular system allowseasy retrofitting and servicing. The control valves consist of the valve
and the actuator. It isequipped with electrical actuator. For controlling purposes and travel
indication, accessoriessuch as positioners, limit switches and solenoid valves can

Globe Valve

Ether be attached directly. The valve bodies are available in castiron. All parts of the valve and
the pneumatic actuator housing in the completely corrosionresistantversion are made of stainless
steel.Control Valves is provided in DN 15 () & up to pressure PN 20 (Class 150). Control
valvesin the standard version are suitable for temperature ranges between 10 and +220 C
(15and 430 F). An insulating section allows the temperature range to be extended to 200
and+450 C (325 and +840 F). The plug stem is sealed by a self-adjusting PTFE V-ring
packing.To meet stricter emissions control requirements, a stainless steel bellows is used.

Principle

Valve body

The valve body, valve bonnet and, in somecases, the bottom flange are subject tointernal stress
caused by the process mediumflowing through the valve. Consequently, thevalves must be
designed to be sufficientlyresistant to mechanical and chemical stress.Under the influence of the
operatingtemperature, the material
strength changes. This behavior can beimproved by combining certain alloys. For
this reason, heat-resisting materials are usedat high temperatures ( e.g. according to DIN EN
10213-1) and cold-resisting materials areused for cryogenic service.

Globe valve

The plug stem is guided in the valve bonnet, and the V-port plug in the screwed-in seat. Theports
of the V-port plug are asymmetric in order to suppressany oscillations. For controlvalves
according to DIN standards, the welding ends conform to EN 12627.For control valvesaccording
to US standards, the welding ends are specified in ASME/ANSI B16.25.

Flow measurement:
ApplicationFlow measurement of liquid and/or dirtiedmedia
Prerequisite
The medium must always remain liquidregardless of the temperature. Adhesionand/or
crystallisation of the medium leadsto blockage of the impulse line.
Installation
The differential pressure transmitter is connected to the measured medium and thepressure
tapping points via impulse lines. This is normally carried out using ovalflange adapters or
compression-type fittings, which allow a simpler connection to theIEC 61518 connection. In the
case of liquid media, the differential pressuretransmitter is mounted below the pressure tapping
point. This avoids air pockets andthus measurement falsification. The impulse lines must be
filled and deaeratedbefore the instrument is put into operation. The offset correction of the
hydrostaticliquid column is then carried out.
Accessories
Different types of valve manifolds serve as shut-off device for disconnecting from thepressure
tapping points as well as for ventilating or filling the impulse line. Thedimensions of the orifice
plate, the Venturi tube or the Pitot tube must be calculatedin dependence on the pipe diameter,
medium and feed pressure. The maximumpressure at maximum flow rate results from this
calculation.
Distributed Control:
Here we are using Phoenix Contact make ILC 171 and ILC 330 two CONTROLLERsto
demonstrate Distributed control process in industries in this Pilot Plant. Here ILC171 controls
Process Instruments and ILC 330 controls Process parameters. There isHorizontal
Communication between the two CONTROLLERs. A distributed controlsystem(DCS) refers to
a control system usually of a manufacturingsystem process or any kind of dynamic system, in
which the controller elements arenot central in location (like the brain) but are distributed
throughout the system witheach component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers.
DCS (Distributed Control System) is a computerized control system used to controlthe
production line in the industry. The entire system of controllers is connected bynetworks for
communication and monitoring. DCS is a very broad term used in avariety of industries, to
monitor and control distributed equipment.

CONTROLLERS:

Phoenix Contact Make ILC 171


The controller enables integration of I/O signals from MODBUS periphery devices into the
controlprogram via MODBUS/ TCP. Programming takesplace with PC Worx Express or PC
Worx(IEC61131-3). With the ILC 170 ETH 2TX, thehighly modular Inline Controller range
from Phoenix Contact has been extended it include a high-performance compact controller. This
controller can be used to extend the possible field of application of Inline Controllers right down
to smaller applications. With direct integration in the, Inline automation system, the compact
controller is highly modular and can be adapted to the relevant application requirements. Its
integrated E interfaces enable parameterization and programming using PC WorX automation
software according to IEC 6113 it can also exchange data with OPC servers simultaneously and
communicate with TCP/IP-compatible devices.
The Inline controller consists of the following components:
1 Electronics base
2 Slot for the parameterization memory/card holder (SD card)
3 Mode selector switch
4 Reset button
5 RS-232 interface
6 Ethernet connection
7 Connector 1: terminal points for voltage supply
8 Connector 2: output terminal points
9 Connectors 3 and 4: input terminal points
10 Diagnostic and status indicators
11 End plate
ILC 330:
Inline Controller with Ethernet interface for coupling to other controllers and
systems, with programming options according to IEC 61131-3, complete with
plug and labeling field. With the ILC 330 ETH, the highly modular Inline
Controller range from Phoenix Contact has been extended to include a high-
performance compact controller. This controller can be used to extend the field
of application of Inline Controllers through to mediumsized applications. With
direct integration in the Inline automation system, the compact controller is
highly modular and can be adapted to the relevant application requirements.
Its integrated Ethernet interface enables parameterization and programming
using PC WorXautomation software according to IEC 61131, and it can also
exchange data with OPC servers simultaneously and communicate with
TCP/IP-compatible devices.

The Inline Controller range covers a wide performance range. From entry-
levelversions through to high-end controllers, users can find the right
controller for their application. Within the product portfolio, users can choose
between controllers with different computing capacities, with or without
PROFINET IO controllers, and with or without GL approval.

Mode selector switch:

The mode selector switch is used to define the operating state of the applicationprogram. The
RUN/PROG and STOP positions have a toggle button function and the MRESET position a
pushbutton function. After releasing the button in the MRESET position, it returns to STOP.
Programming tool: PC WORX
Diagnostics tool: DIAG+ from version 1.14

Data interfaces:

Interface : INTERBUS local bus (master)


Connection method : Inline data jumper
Transmission speed : 500 kBaud / 2 MBaudumschaltbar
Interface : Parameterization / programming /diagnostics
Connection method : RS-232-C, 6-pos. MINI-DIN socket(PS/2), Ethernet 10/100 (RJ45)
Interface : Ethernet 10Base-T/100Base-TX
Connection method : RJ45 socket
Transmission speed : 10/100 MBit/s

Power supply:

Typical current consumption : 250 mA (no local bus device connectedduring idling, bus
inactive)
Supply voltage : 24 V DC 5 %
Supply voltage range : 20.4 V DC ... 30 V DC
Residual ripple : 5 %
INTERBUSDATA :

INTERBUS masterNumber of Inline terminals which can be : 63


ConnectedNote on the number of Inline terminals : Observe current consumption which canbe
connectedumber of devices with parameter channel : 62(PCP) max.Number of supported devices
: Max. 512 (in total, of which 254 areremote bus devices/bus segments)Number of I/O nodes :
Max. 8192
Direct I/Os :

Input name : Digital inputs


Number of inputs : 12
Connection method : Inline potential distributor
Description of the input : Eight fast inputs, interrupt input
Output name : Digital outputs
Number of outputs : 4

Ethernet:

A standardized Ethernetinterface is available forconnecting the Ethernet


network. The Ethernetnetwork is connected via anRJ45 female connector.
Addresses Defined in ILC 171 and ILC 330 are as follows:

I.P. Address ILC 171 192.168.1.3


I.P. Address ILC 330 192.168.1.2
Default Gateway:

ILC 171 192.168.1.1


ILC 330 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask:

ILC 171 255.255.255.0


ILC 330 255.255.255.0
ILC 330 is Profinet defined whereas ILC 171 is simply Ethernet based we define
ILC 171 in Profinet so that it can be called in the same, and I/O and parameters canbe called
accordingly.

RESUL: Dynamic Process Trainer has been studied successfully.