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FM 2115

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved lor public releaoe; distribution is unlimited.

*FM 21-15


Washington, DC, 22 February 1985


Table of Contents

Clothing. . _ 1-1
Boots, Shoes, and Insoles. . .... , . , , . . . .. 1-5
Canvas and Web Equipment. . . .. 1-6
Netting , _. _ 1-6
Fasteners ... 1-7
Coated Items. .1-7


Reasons for Wearing Protective Clothing...... . .. 2-1
Cold Weather Clothing..... . 2-1
Temperate Uniform .. 2-3
Desert Ensemble ... . 2-4
Wet Weather Ensemble. . 2-4
Chemical Protective Ensemble ~: 2-4
Protective Masks. . 2-6
Armor Vest .... ...... . 2-8
Helmet, Ground Troop's, Steel, Type 1 2-10
Helmet, Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops 2-13

This manual supersedes FM 21-15, 15 February 1977.

FM 21-15

Poncho 3-1
Poncho Liner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Shelter Half. .. .... ......... ... .. .. 3-4
Intermediate Cold Weather Sleeping Bag ... 3-7
Extreme Cold Weather Sleeping Bag..... . .. 3-9
Insulated Pneumatic Mattress 3-9
Foam Sleeping Mat... 3-10
Sleeping Hood. . 3-10
Blanket. .. . .. 3-11


Fighting and Existence Load Concept. . .. 4-1
Fighting Load. ... 4-1
Procedures for Assembling Fighting Load
Components 4-3
Existence Load. 4-7
Procedures for Assembling Existence Load
Components . 4-8
Combat Field Pack Closures . .. 4-14
Quick-Release Device. . . 4-15
Universal Load-Carrying Sling .... 4-15
Packboard . .. 4-17
Grenade-Carrier Vest 4-22
Bags _. 4-22


Mosquito Hat and Net . 5-1
Knitted Wool Scarf. 5-1
Identification Tags and Necklace. 5-2
First Aid Packet. ... 5-2
Compass. ...5-2
Waterproof Matchbox .. 5-2
Intrenching Tool . 5-2
Canvas Cot and Insect Bar Frame. 5-3
Insect Bar. 5-4
Multipurpose Net. 5-5
One-Quart Canteen and Cup .. 5-5
Two-Quart Canteen and Cover. 5-5
Mess Gear 5-6

GLOSSARY Glossary-1

FM 21-15



This manual is a guide for all Army personnel who use, care for, or
maintain clothing and equipment issued or sold for personal use. It includes
general instructions for cleaning, pressing, repairing, and storing items of
the uniform. Uses of bivouac equipment, such as the shelter half, sleeping
bag, and poncho, are discussed. Methods of assembling, racking, and using
load-carrying equipment are also discussed. The use and care of various
items of field equipment issued for special purposes or missions are also
covered in this manual. General information, with references for specific
information, is included on clothing for use in arctic, tropical, and other
special environments.

The informatiori.procedures, and equipment described in this manual are
current at the time of preparation. Changes in equipment will require
changes or revisions of the material presented. Field experience may also
suggest changes. The proponent of this publication is the US Army
Quartermaster School. You are encouraged to submit recommended
changes and comments to improve this manual. Make sure you key your
comments to the exact page, paragraph, and line of the text in which the
change is recommended. Provide reasons for each comment to ensure
understanding and complete evaluation. Write your comments on a DA
Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) or in
a letter, and send them to-
US Army Quartermaster School
Fort Lee, VA 23801-5036

FM 21-15


General Care
and Maintenance


You are responsible for keeping your cloth- such as shirts, trousers, and socks, with soap
ing and equipment in good, useful condition. or detergent and hot water, and rinse well.
Your uniform will not look its best and your Air- or machine-dry the clothing.
equipment will not work properly unless they
Wool clothing. Wash wool clothing, such
are clean, in good repair, and stored properly.
as socks and glove inserts, in mild soap or
Proper care of your uniform while you are - detergent and lukewarm or cool water.
wearing it is important. For example, carry Stretch the items into shape while they are
only articles of a suitable size, shape, and air-dried. Do not use hot or boiling water.
weight in your pockets. If you carry
something too large or too heavy, you will Tailored wool clothing. Wool jackets and
destroy the tailored shape of your clothing. trousers and other tailored items must be
Cleaning, pressing, repairing, and storing dry-cleaned. Do not wash tailored wool cloth-
properly are most important for keeping your ing as it will cause the clothing to lose its
uniform serviceable 'and looking its best for shape.
as long as possible. You should follow closely Coated fabric items. Special care is neces-
the cleaning and care instructions that are sary for items which have a coating to protect
attached to most clothing. against chemicals, radiation, moisture, and
Cleaning. Clean clothing regularly when it other elements. Hand-wash the coated item,
is in use. Dirty clothing wears out quickly such as a poncho, in warm water and mild
because dirt cuts textile fibers and retains soap or detergent using a soft"bristle brush.
moisture from rain, snow, and perspiration. Then rinse it thoroughly, and hang it until
completely dry. Do not machine-wash,
Cotton clothing. Wash cotton clothing, machine-dry, dry-clean, hot-press, or hot-iron

FM 21-15

coated fabric items. Do not use cleaning fluid Table 1-1. Procedures for stain removal.
or bleach on coated items.
Synthetic fabrics. Items made of synthetic
fabrics should be washed in lukewarm water
with mild soap or detergent: Do not use hot
water or harsh soaps on synthetic fabrics.
Waterrepellent garments. Wash
water-repellent outer garments, such as
raincoats, by hand or machine. Do not use
starch. Rinse them thoroughly. Restore water
repellency by treating items with the stan- -~
dard water-repellent compound. C ~

Removing Stains, Remove stains or soil as

soon as possible.r'I'he longer the stains
remain; the harder they are to remove. When C ~~
removing stains, start at the center of the
stain, and work toward the.edges. Table 1-1
provides procedures for removing several
kinds of stains from clothing.
Pressing. Press clothing after it has been
cleaned and all stains have been removed.
you press clothing, make sure the tempera-
ture setting is adjusted for the type of
clothing being pressed.
Cotton clothing. Dampen the surface of ~
the clothing and apply the iron directly to it.
Wool clothing. Use a damp cloth between
the iron and the clothing.
Synthetic clothing. Iron clothing with the
temperature setting adjusted to the low
position on the synthetic scale.
Repairing. Repair rips, tears, and frayed
edges as soon as possible before they get
worse. Replace buttons as soon as possible to
avoid losing them and so your clothes will fit
Repairing rips, tears, and frayed
edges. When you repair a ripped seam.
(figure 1-1);ctumthe garment inside out. Then
place. the two edges together and sew. When
you repair a tear (figure 1-2),tum the garment

Dampen stained area with water. Dampen stained area with water. Sponge with cold or lukewarm water.
Apply soap or detergent solution 0 Apply soap at detergent solution D If grease spot remains. launder wesb-
(with ammonia. if ",ailablel. tamp (with ammonia. 'if 'available,. tamp able materials in a soap or detergent
with brush. and flush with water. with brush. and flush with water. solution. using warm water. Do not
rub material.

Use hot water and wash atain while Flush stained area with lukewarm Sponge with cold or lukewarm water.
still moist, water, Apply soap or detergent solu- If grease spot remains. launder wash-
tion. tamp with brush. and flush out able materials in 8 soap or detergent'
with water. (If available. apply lemon solution. using warm water. 00 not
juice or vinegar. and flush thoroughly rub material.
with water.'

Rub stain with cold water; then place Rub stain' with cold water; then place Sponge ,with cold or lukewarm water.
a pad or cloth underneath fabric to a pad or cloth underneath fabric to If grease spot remains. launder wash-
absorb stern. and rub stain.with clean- absorb stain. and rub stain with clean- able materials in 8 soap or detergent
ing fluid. If any stain remains. dry the ing fluid. If any stain remains. drY the solution. using warm water. 00 not
fabric and rub with a soap or detergent fabric and rub with a ~ap or detergent rub material.
solution. 00 not rub exceasivelv. as solution. Do not rub excessively. as
this may damage the finish of t,he this may damage the finish of the
garment. garment.

Scrape off top of stain; then saturate Scrape off top of stain; then saturate Scrape off top of stain. Launderwash-
, stai'ned erea with cleaning fluid. tamp stain~ area with elea'ningfluid. tamp able materials in a soap or detergent
with brush. and flush with cleaning with brush. and flush with cleaning solution. using warm water. Do not
fluid. fluid. rub material.

Dampen stained area with water. Dampen stained area with water. Sponge with cold or lukewarm water.
Apply soap or detergent solution 0 Apply soap or detergent solution 0 If grease spot remains. launder wash-
(with ammonia. if available). tamp (with ammonia. if available). tamp able materials in a soap or detergent
with brush. and flush with water. with brush. and fl",.h with water. solution. using warm water. Do not "
rub material. N
FM 21-15


inside out, place the two edges together, and
WITH GARMENT INSIDE OUT) sew. When you repair a frayed edge

(figure 1-3),turn the edge under and sew.
Replacing buttons. Before replacing a
button, select thread that closely matches the
\ \ color of the material. If this is not possible,
\ \ use the thread you have. Figure 14 shows
\ how to replace a button.
\ Storing. Before storing clothing, make sure
it is clean and dry. Brush thoroughly, and
sun and air-dry all wool and cotton clothing
before storing it. This way it will not mildew
in humid weather. Use naphthalene or
mothballs to protect wool clothing in storage.
The clothing and naphthalene or mothballs
must be in a closed container to be effective.
Before folding coated clothing, make sure it is
cool and dry. If possible, fold the clothing so a
coated side is against an uncoated side. This
will help avoid sticking. Also, make sure it
Figure 11. Repairing a rip. does not come in contact with sharp objects

Figure 1-2. Repairing a tear. Figure 1-3. Repairing a frayed edge.

FM 21-15

Thread a needle, and tie the two ends of thread together.

Insert the needle through the cloth from the inside. Make
two or three stitches through the cloth to anchor the end
of the thread.
, '~

From the outside of the cloth, put the needle through one
of the holes in the button. let the button slide down the
thread into position.

To prevent strain on the cloth, hold the button slightly

away from the cloth. Stitch through the cloth and holes
on one side of the button. Then stitch through the holes
on the other side.

When you have made enough stitches to secure the

button, bring the needle and thread to the outside of the
cloth under the button. Wrap the thread five or six times
around the stitches. between the button and the cloth.
Stitch through the wrapped thread three or four times.
and push the needle through the cloth to the inside. lock
the stitches with a knot.

Figure 1-4. Replacing a button.

that may cause rips or tears. When possible, Breaking In. There are three methods
dust coated clothing with talcum before which will help to break in your boots. Each
storing. of the processes will leave the boots soft,
pliable, and comfortable on the foot. Choose
the method which is easiest for you to do.
The first method is to immerse the boots in
Do not wear the same pair of boots or shoes warm water, preferably while you are
every day. Give the footwear a chance to air wearing them, for no more than 30
between wearings. Wear the ventilating minutes. While the boots are in the water,
insoles so that air can circulate under your manipulate the leather often. Remember
feet. when wet boots are drying, the toes should

FM 21-15


be stuffed with paper. Allow the boots to As with your clothing, you are responsible
dry with no added heat. for keeping your canvas and web equipment
clean and in good repair.
The second method is to apply alcohol to
the leather. Hand manipulate the leather Cleaning. Dip canvas and web equipment
to soften it. Stuff the toe with paper, and let vigorously in a pail of warm water containing
the boot dry. soap or detergent. This makes it last longer
The third method is to rub the boot with and stops it from losing color. If dirty spots
saddle soap. Apply it generously and remain, scrub the spots with a white or
frequently. Follow the application with a colorfast cloth, using warm, soapy water or
brisk brushing. The more often the soap is detergent solution. Do not use chlorine
used, the softer and more pliable the bleach, yellow soap, or cleaning fluids which
leather becomes. will discolor the equipment. Dry the equip-
ment in the shade or indoors. Direct sunlight
Cleaning and Drying. Scrape dirt or mud causes it to lose color. Do not attempt to dye
from boots or shoes with a flat stick, brush, or web equipment. Never machine-wash or
dull instrument which will not cut leather or machine-dry canvas or webbing.
rubber. Wash the boots or shoes with mild
NOTE: Certain items, such as the carrier for
soap and very little water. Remove all the field protective mask and the small arms
soapsuds, and wipe the insides of the ammunition case, may be provided with
footwear with a clean cloth. Stuff paper in the fiberboard or plastic stiffeners. If so, clean
toes of wet footwear to keep the leather from these cases with a damp, soft brush and cool
shrinking. Dry the boots or shoes slowly in a
water only.
warm, dry place. DO NOT DRY FOOTWEAR
BY EXPOSING ITTO HOT SUN, FIRE, OR Repairing. Repair small rips and tears in
OTHER STRONG HEAT. This may damage canvas equipment as soon as you find them.
the rubber or leather. Rub saddle soap into Use the methods described earlier in this
the boots or shoes before they are completely chapter. Replace damaged or missing keepers
dry to help soften the leather. Wash the on the suspenders, small arms ammunition
ventilating insoles with a warm solution of cases, first aid dressing cases, intrenching
mild soap or detergent, and let them air-dry. tool carrier, and canteen cover.
Polishing. Use only stains and polishes
that match the color of the boots or shoes. NETTING
Waxing. Apply silicone sealants, boot and
Wash netting with a solution of warm
shoe oils, greases, and waxes ifnecessary. Be
water and mild soap or detergent. Repair
sure leather is completely dry before applying
small tears and holes by placing pieces of
these treatments.
adhesive tape or waterproof tape over both
Repairing. The direct molded soleis nonrepair- sides of each hole while the netting is lying
able, except for the heel. You should have the flat. DO NOT DRAW AND TIE THE EDGES
heels replaced after wear of seven sixteenths OF THE HOLE TOGETHER, EXCEPT IN
of an inch or more. AN EMERGENCY_

FM 21-15


Besides buttons, the Army uses four other many small nylon loops. When the two
main types of fasteners: snap fasteners, slide sections are pressed together, the hooks catch
fasteners (zippers), hook-and-pile fasteners, the loops on the pile, resulting in a tight
and buckles. If you use these fasteners closure. Open the fastener by firmly pulling
correctly, your uniforms and equipment will one tape section from the other.
fit properly and last longer.
Buckles. Buckles are used to connect the
Snap Fasteners. Be careful when you open ends of belts and adjustment straps. The
snap fasteners. Place your thumb and Army uses three main types of buckles: a D-
forefinger close to the fastener, between the ring with a tongue, a slide buckle, and ahook-
two layers of cloth. Pry the two parts of the type fastener. To maintain these buckles-
fastener apart with your fingers. DO NOT
Make sure buckles are not bent. Ifthey are,
TUG AT THE CLOTH. gently try to straighten them.
Slide Fasteners (Zippers)_ Always use
Watch for rough spots on your buckles.
zippers carefully. When a zipper gets stuck,
They can snag and tear your clothing.
do not yank it or tug at it. Check to see if
fabric is caught in the track. If it is, unzip the
zipper about an inch, smooth out the fabric,
and try again. When the zipper works stiffly,
rub a thin coating of wax or lead-pencil
graphite on each side of the track. After
applying the wax or graphite, work the zipper
IRON COATED ITEMS. Wipe dirty coated
back and forth a few times. The wax or
items with a clean cloth. Wash them byhand
graphite will lubricate the zipper and allow it
using a soft brush, warm water, and mild
to open and close more easily. Close the
soap or synthetic detergent. After rinsing the
zipper before washing the garment.
items, air-dry them. DO NOT USE DIRECT
Hook-and-Pile Fa et en er e . These HEAT TO DRY COATED MATERIALS AS
fasteners are used on equipment and ITWILLCAUSE THEMTO DRY OUT AND
clothing. Each is made up of two sections of CRACK. Make sure that such things as oil,
tape. One sectioncontains many small nylon grease, acid, or insect repellent are washed
hooks; the other section is a woven pile with off as soon as possible.

FM 21-15


Protective Clothing
and Equipment



You wear protective clothing to cover and Cold weather clothing is designed with
protect your body. The mostimportantreason removable insulation, several layers of mate-
you wear clothing is to keep your body rial, and devices for ventilation. Insulation
comfortable so that itcan function normally. slows the flow of heat from the body to the
In hot weather, the best way to keep cool is to outside. Layered material traps warm air
put on lightweight, light-colored, and loose- between layers of clothing. And, ventilation
fitting clothing. This clothing will help keep allows the outside air to cool the overheated
the heat and sunlight away from your body. areas through openings in the clothes, such
In cooler climates, the best way to stay warm as cuffs, flies, and front closures.
is to dress in layers. If you get too warm, you Cold-Wet Ensemble. Cold-wet conditions
can take off a layer of clothing, or you can occur when temperatures are near freezing
ventilate the clothing by adjusting openings and when change. in day and night tempera-
in the garments. The protective clothing and tures cause alternate freezing and thawing.
body armor furnished to you, when required The freezing and thawing are often accompa-
in your duty assignment, will help protect nied by rain and wet snow, causing the
you against both natural and man-made ground to become muddy and slushy. The
hazards. You will have the best clothing cold-wet ensemble (figure 2-1) protects you
which can be produced to maintain your against the hazards of a cold-wet environ-
personal safety, efficiency, and health. ment. The main components ofthis ensemble

FM 21-15

Figure 2-1_ Cold-wet ensemble. Figure 2-2. Cold-dry ensemble.

are full-length underwear, wool socks, wool winter hood, and white rubber insulated
shirt and trousers, wind-resistant coat and boots. To care for each item, read the label on
trousers, coat liner, insulated cap, mittens, the item to find out what kind of material it is.
and black rubber insulated boots. It is impor- Then, refer to chapter 1 for care of this
tant that this clothing be ventilated when material.
necessary to keep the body from perspiring. If Cold Weather Boots. There are two basic
the clothing becomes wet, it will not protect types of boots for use in cold weather. The
the body as well. To care for each item, read black rubber insulated boots (figure 2-3) are
the label on the item to find out what kind of part of the cold-wet ensemble. The white
material itis. Then, refer to chapter 1for care rubber insulated boots (figure 2-4) are part of
of this material. the cold-dry ensemble. The white boots have
Cold-Dry Ensemble. Cold-dry conditions additional insulation to provide greater protec-
occur when average temperatures are lower tion. Although insulation provides protec-
than 14F. The ground is usually frozen, and tion, feet will get very cold if allowed to rest
snow is often in the form of dry, fine crystals. for long periods of time,
The cold-dry ensemble (figure 2-2) protects Cleaning, The boots may be cleaned by
you against the lower temperatures, high washing the outside with mild soap and
winds, and snow of a cold-dry environment. rinsing with water. DO NOT APPLY OIL-
In addition to the components of the cold-wet BASED PAINT OR SOLVENT-BASED
ensemble (with the exception of the wool POLISH TO ANY PART OF THE BOOT_
trousers), the components of this ensemble PAINT OR POLISH WILL CAUSE THE
are trouser liners, parka and parka liner, RUBBER TO DETERIORATE.

FM 21-15

Figure 23. Black rubber insulated boot. Figure 24. White rubber insulated boot.

Repairing. Punctures, tears, cuts, or holes tape, friction tape, or scotch tape. Even
must be repaired promptly (within 1 hour, if chewing gum may serve as a temporary
possi ble) in order to prevent severe damage to patch. The important thing is to seal the hole
the insulation. To make an emergency repair as quickly as possible so that the insulation
of black or white boots, use the maintenance will not get wet.
kit, gray, rubber patch (NSN 846500753-
6335), and proceed as follows:
Clean the area to be patched.
Buff the area thoroughly with The temperate uniform (figure 25) is
abrasive. designed for use in combat, field, and garri-
Tear off the end of the tu be of son environments where the average tempera-
cement, and apply a coat of cement ture does not fall below 40F. This uniform
to the area to be patched. Allow the consists of coat, trousers, field cap, and boots.
cement to dry 3 to 5 minutes. The bush-type coat has breast and lower
Twist and tear off the backing from pockets. The trousers have four standard-
the patch (do not touch the fresh type pockets and a cargo pocket on each leg.
surface). The uniform is loose-fitting, allowing body
Press the patch firmly in place. ventilation. Reinforcement patches are at the
elbows, knees, and seat. The fabric is a four-
If a repair kit is not available, make a color, disruptive camouflage pattern known
temporary repair by patching the hole with a as the "woodland" pattern. To care for each
cold tire patch or with tape, such as rubber item, read the label on the item to find out

FM 21-15

what kind of material it is. Then, refer to

chapter 1 for care of this material.


The desert ensemble is actually two uni-

forms. The day uniform (figure 2-6) is of the
same design as the temperate uniform with
two exceptions. The coat has an internal
back yoke, and the hat is similar to the
standard jungle hat. The fabric is a six-color,
desert camouflage pattern. A hooded parka
with liner and trousers make up the night
desert uniform (figure 2-7). Itis worn over the
day uniform. The color is a light green with
dark green grid print. To care for each item in
this ensemble, read the label on the item to
find out what kind of material it is. Then,
refer to chapter 1 for care of this material.


Figure 2-5. Temperate uniform.
The wet weather ensemble (figure 2-8)
consists of coated nylon parka and trousers.
Use this clothing instead of the poncho when
you need more freedom of movement in rain
or wet snow. It is sized to fit over cold- wet
clothing. Use one size smaller if it is not to be
used over cold-wet clothing. Avoid moisture
buildup in the clothing you wear underneath
the rain suit by wearing fewer underclothes
or by ventilating body heat to the outside. To
care for the wet weather ensem ble, refer to the
coated items paragraph in chapter 1.


The chemical protective ensemble

(figure 29) consists of a two-piece, two-layer
overgarment (coat and trousers), helmet
cover, glove set, footwear covers, and protec-
tive mask. It protects the wearer against
chemical agent vapors, aerosols, and droplets
of liquids; biological agents; toxins; and
Figure 26. Day desert uniform. radioactive alpha and beta particles.

FM 2115

Figure 27. Night. desert uniform. Figure 2-8. Wet weather ensemble.

Overgarment. The overgarment is pack.

aged in a sealed vapor- barrier bag that
protects it from rain, moisture, and sunlight.
Instructions on use of the overgarment are
printed on the label. The overgarment should
not be removed from the bag until it is to be
used. The coat and trousers are made of a
two-layer materiaL The outer layer is nylon-
cotton, and the inner layer is charcoal-
impregnated polyurethane foam. The overgar-
ment is designed to be worn over the uniform.
However, in high temperatures or when
soldiers are engaged in heavy work, itmay be
worn directly over the underwear. The overgar-
ment cannot be decontaminated or reirnpreg-
nated. It is to be discarded when it becomes
contaminated or unserviceable.
Helmet Cover. This cover is intended to
provide the personnel armor system ground
troop (PASGT) helmet with protection from
chemical and biological contamination. It is Figure 29. Chemical protectiue ensemble with
made of one piece of olive-green, butyl-coated M17 Al mask and and hood.

FM 21-15


nylon cloth. It is gathered at the opening by Protective masks are available in two
an elastic band sewn in the hem. categories-the field protective mask issued
to every soldier, and tank and aircraft protec-
Glove Set. The gloves protect against liquid
tive masks provided to crews of armored
chemical agents and vapor hazards. They
vehicles and aircraft. These masks protect
also keep disease-carrying insects and radioac-
the face, eyes, and respiratory tract against
tive dust away from the skin. Each glove
field concentrations of chemical and bio-
consists of an outer glove for protection and
logical agents in the form of gases or aerosols.
an inner glove for absorption of perspiration.
They protect the face and eyes against
The outer glove is made of an impermeable
contamination from splashes and liquid
black butyl-rubber, The inner liner glove is
droplets of the agents.
made of white, thin cotton and can be worn
on either hand. If the outer glove is punctured
or torn, it must be replaced. MI7 AI/ M17 A2 Field Chemical! Biologi-
cal Mask. The M17series mask (figure 2-10)
Footwear Covers. The footwear covers are is the standard field mask. ltdoes not protect
worn over standard combat boots. They against ammonia vapors or carbon monox-
protect the feet from contamination by all ide, and it must not be used for fire fighting.
known chemical agents, vectors, and radiologi- Fi Iter elements, in the cheeks of the facepiece,
cal dust particles. The over boots are imperme- filter contaminated air to remove the agents.
able and have unsupported butyl-rubber The mask does not provide breathable air
soles and butyl-sheet rubber uppers. When (oxygen); so when the air has a low oxygen
the cold-weather insulated boots are worn, content, as in tunnels or caves or when there
the overboots are not necessary. The insu- is a high level of burning smoke mixtures, the
lated boots provide adequate protection in a mask will not provide protection. Accessories
chemical environment. for the field mask are the ABC-M6A2 field


Figure 2-10. MI7-series mask.

FM 21-15

protective mask hood, M4 winterization kit, and accessories are stored in the M13Al
and optical inserts for those who need them. carrier.
ABC-M24 Aircraft Chemical/Biological
M25/ M25Al Tank Chemical/Biological
Mask. This mask (figure2-11) protects person-
~fask. The M25/M25Al masks (figure 2-11) nel while in aircraft or on the ground against
are specially designed for crews of armored all known chemical and biological aerosols
vehicles. Like the M17 series masks, these and vapors. It can be attached to the aircraft
masks protect against all known chemical oxygen supply system by using an MB
and biological agents in vapor or aerosol adapter kit. The facepiece is not force venti-
form. The only difference between the two lated as it is for the tank mask. A microphone
assembly is in the nosecup. Accessories for
masks is that the M25Al has a higher
this mask include an antifogging kit, M2
forehead tab. When used in a tank or other
antiglare eyelens outsert. M3 winterization
armored vehicle, the mask is connected to a
kit, M7 hood, and optical inserts when
filter unit which forces temperature'
conditioned air to the facepiece. This in-
creases protection and reduces stress when Care. When not in use, all masks should be
worn in hot weather. When the mask is worn kept clean and dry and stored in their
outside the tank, the wearer in hales air carriers. To clean any type of mask, use a
through the MlOAl cannister. A microphone clean cloth that has been dipped in warm,
assembly in the mask allows the wearer to soapy water and wrung almost dry. To rinse
communicate through the vehicle communi- the mask, wipe it with a clean, damp cloth.
cations system. Accessories incl ude the ABC- Dry the mask with a lint-free cloth. and then
M5 mask hood, M3 winterization kit, anti- air-dry it. Detailed information on the care
fogging kit, and optical inserts. The mask and use of the field protective mask is in

FACE8LANK------------------ ~~--

Figure 2-11. ABC-M24 end M25Al mask.

FM 21-15

3424027910. Detailed information on Design. The armor vest covers your upper
the care and use of the tank and aircraft body. The three-quarter collar protects the
masks is in 3424028010. neck and throat areas. The vest closes in
front with a hook-and-pile fastener strip. Self-
Carrying Methods. There are two recom- adjusting elastic webbing on the sides pro-
mended positions for carrying protective
vides flexibility. Cloth stops on the inside
masks with the load-carrying equipment
prevent the elastic webbing from stretching
(figure212). Use the method which is best for
too far. The outer and inner shells ofthe vest
you under the conditions in which you are
are made of water-repellent ballistic nylon.
operating or as prescribed in your unit
The outer shell is camouflage printed. The
standing operating procedure.
filler is made of water-repellent Kevlar.

ARMOR VEST Fit. Tables 21 and 22 show the vest size you
should select based on your chest or bust
Approximately 75 percent of all combat measurements. Check the fit while you are
casualties are caused by fragments from bending, stooping, and kneeling. If your vest
mines, mortar shells, grenades, and artillery is too loose, try the next smaller size. If it is
fire. The armor vest(figure 213) helps protect too tight, try the next larger size. Maximum
you from these hazards by slowing down the protection is achieved only when you wear
missile fragments. Multiple layers of mate- the vest with the three-quarter collar up and
rial in the vest form a strong, pliable barrier. the front hook-and-pile fastener properly
A fragment may penetrate the outer layer of closed. Do this by laying the right side over
the vest, butit is slowed down and eventua.lly the left so that the full length of the right
stopped by the inner layers. THE VEST edge meets the flap seam inside the flap. Fold
DOES NOT PROTECT YOU AGAINST the flap, making sure that the flap completely
SMALL ARMS FIRE. covers the pile tape closure. Make sure that


(1 )The should.r carry method i, done
a. foUow.:

Hook shoukler strap (A) to Cnng (8)

and adjust

Hook waist strap (Clto round nng 10)

and adjust

(2) The leg carry method i, don. II


Put shoulder Strap IAl around waist

and hook 10 OrlOg (8) Adjust

80ng waist strap Ie) from back and

around InSIde of leg

Pass waist strap Ie} through round

nng (01, back around InSide 0' leg.
and hook to O,.ng (8) AdjUSt.

Figure 212. Carrying the field protective mask.

FM 2115

indicated with the following uniforms or

Utility (field) uniform and desert ensem
ble. Wear the vest over your coat and under
any additional layers of clothing.
Cold-uiet ensemble. Wear the vest over
your field shirt and under the field jacket
with liner.
Cold-dry ensemble. Wear the vest over the
field shirt and under the field jacket with
liner or the parka with liner.
inspection. Examine your vest often for
tears, cuts, snags, or other damage to the
outer cover and elastic webbing which could
make the vest unserviceable. If such damage
is evident, tum your vest in as soon as
possible. If the ballistic material becomes
creased and folded inside the outer cover, try
to smooth it out by hand. Try to remove
lumps or bunches by inserting your hands
Figure 213. Armor uest. through the armholes and shaking the ballis-
tic material back into position. If you cannot
all snaps of the shoulder pads are securely smooth out the filler material, TURN IN
fastened. THE VEST.
Wear. Wear the armor vest for training or Cleaning Methods. Keep your vest clean to
com bat missions. When you are not wearing prolong its protective life. Brush off mud and
a garment over the vest, you may wear the loose dirt. Wet the vest thoroughly, and apply
straps of load-bearing equipment under or soap or detergent solution. Scrub the vest
over the shou Ider pads. Wear the vest as vigorously; then rinse it thoroughly in warm

Table 21. Armor vest sizes-men. Table 22. Armor vest sizes-women.



33 inches or leu XSMAU

33 inches or Ie.. X-SMAU
between 33 and 37 Inches -"MAU
between 33 end 38 inches -SMAU
between 37 and 4 1 inc he. MEDIUM

bolW n 41 and 46 Inch LARGE

bOlWeen 38 and 42 Incho. MEDIUM
42 inch or more .LARGE
46 inch or more XLARGE

FM 21-15

water to remove all suds. After rinsing, air- and red uces the protective q uali ties. Also, the
dry the vest. KEEP THE VEST AWAY helmet should not be used as a seat, a shovel,
Chin Strap. The chin strap (figure 2-15)
Storing Procedures, When storing the helps hold the helmet on your head during
vest- combat-type activities. Center the chin strap
on your chin, and adjust the tension until it is
Clean it thoroughly.
Close the hook-and-pile fastener.
Replacement. If your helmet has the ball-
Place it in a box, a carton, or an open bin and-hook chin strap, replace it with the
located inside a building or tent. webbing cup. To do this, remove the ball-and-
Cover it with a cloth or plastic sheet to keep hook chin strap by prying up the metal tabs
out dust, dirt, or moisture. with a screwdriver or knife. CAUTION: To
avoid injury, point the screwdriver or
Do not fold it. knife away from you. Attach the chin
strap with the webbing cup by snapping the
slanted hook portion of each buckle over one
HELMET, GROUND TROOP'S, STEEL, of the O-rings attached to each side of the
TYPEl helmet. Make sure the hook is slanting
downward toward the front and the adjusting
This helmet (figure 2-14) is one of two used tabs are to the outside. CAUTION: The
by ground troops. It is used with the chin chin strap with the webbing cup is for
strap and helmet liner. Although it is a ground troops only. It is not designed
sturdy item that can withstand rough treat- for use by parachutists. Information for
ment, you should not use it as a cooking pan; parachutists is in TM 57-220, Technical
heat softens the metal, weakens the helmet, Training of Parachutists.

Figure 214. Helmet, ground troop's, steel, Figure 2-15. Chin strap.
type 1.

FM 2115

Cleaning. Clean the chin strap with mild detachable system uses studs attached to the
soap and warm water, and air-dry it. liner and clip fasteners attached to a fixed
web strap to connect the suspension ~ystem
Helmet Liner. Wear the ground troop's
to the liner. If your liner has the detachable
helmet liner (figure 216) with the ground
system, attach it as follows:
troop's helmet for comfort and added ballistic
protection. You may also wear it. without the Place the suspension web straps in
helmet, as a head covering. The liner includes the liner with the three web strap
a six-point suspension system made up of buckles toward the rear of the liner.
cotton webbing with six slide fastener clips
attached. The headband is attached to the Grasp a web strap and clip fas-
tener, and slide the fastener over
suspension webbing. There are also three
the stud. Pull downward until you
small buckles attached to the neck band.
hear a click.
Clean the helmet liner with mild soap and
warm water. Rinse and dry it thoroughly. Repeat the procedure for the remain-
Clean headbands, neckbands, and chin ing five clips.
straps by scrubbing them with a cloth and
Liner headband. The helmet liner
soapy water. Rinse them thoroughly, and let
headband (figure 218) is a leather-lined web
them air-dry.
strap. It has six metal clips and a buckle for
Liner suspension system. The helmet liner attaching and adjusting the headband to the
suspension system, sometimes called the liner. To install the headband in the Uner-
cradle (figure 2.17). is made up of three
adjustable web straps. Each strap has a Open the six headband clips, and
adjust the headband to a size larger
buckle for adjusting the liner to the proper
than your head size.
height on your head. The liner may be issued
with a fixed or detachable suspension system. Put the headband on your head,
The fixed system is attached with rivets. The making sure the leather portion is


Figure 216. Helmet liner. Figure 217. Liner suspension system.

FM 21-15

against your forehead, the buckle short adjusting tape sewn to the middle. The
is at the back, and the clips are smooth surface of the neckband is opposite
open and are facing upward. that to which the tapes are sewn. To install
the neckband, refer to the figure, and proceed
Adjust the headband to a snug fit.
as follows:
Then remove the headband, and
insert it into the liner so that the Thread the two long tapes into the
clips are toward the crown of the small buckles at each side of the
liner and the buckle is at the back. liner, making sure the smooth
surface of the neckband faces the
Place the clips over the fixed web
front of the liner.
strap of the head suspension band, .
making sure the two front clips are Thread the short tape into the rear
centered. buckle.
Close all clips. Make certain all tapes are straight
and free of kinks.
Adjust the height of the liner by
lengthening or shortening the Put the liner on your head, and
three adjustable straps of the adjust to fit by tightening the long
cradle inside the liner. Adjust the tapes uniformly so that the
straps by using the three buckles neckband fits snugly and comfort-
toward the rear of the liner. ably against the back of your neck.
Liner neckband. The helmet liner Camouflage Cover. The camouflage-
neck band (figure 2-19) is a web strap with a patterned cover (figure 2-20)is reversible and
long adjusting tape sewn to each end and a has slits for inserting twigs or foliage for



Figure 2-18. Helmet liner headband. Figure 219. Liner neckband.


additional camouflage. Attach the cover by Headband. The headband is a padded,

placing it over the helmet, tucking the cover leather-lined web strap. It has six metal clips
flaps inside the helmet and inserting the used to attach the headband to the fixed web
helmet liner into the helmet. strap in the helmet. There is also a rear
buckle to adjust it to your head size. To fit the
HELMET, PERSONNEL ARMOR Open all headband clips.
Make it larger than your size.
This helmet (figure 221), along with your
armor vest, makes up your body armor Put the headband on your head, making
system. It will help protect you against sure that the leather is against your
fragments from exploding munitions. The forehead. The buckle should be at the back,
helmet is issued in extra small, small, and the clips should be open and face
medium, and large sizes. It is made of a high upward.
strength Kevlar laminate. The strength of Adjust the headband until it fits snugly,
this material is close to that of steel. It then take it off.
provides better ballistic protection than does
steel. The helmet has four single parts: Insert the headband into the helmet so the
helmet shell, suspension band, headband, clips are toward the rim of the helmet.
and chin stap. The suspension band and chin Make sure the buckle is at the back.
strap are already installed. All you need to do
is adjust and install the headband and fasten Slip the clips over the fixed web strap, and
the chin strap. center the two front clips. Close all clips.

Figure 220. Camouflage couer on helmet. Figure 221. Helmet, personnel armor system
for ground troops.

FM 21-15

Place the helmet on your head. If it sits on your head, fasten the snap of the chin
too high, adjust the drawstring tab toward strap, making sure the small strap is in front
the crown of the helmet. Ifit sits too low, of the chin. Grasp the adjustment tabs on
adjust the drawstring tab toward the rim each buckle and pull evenly until the chin cup
of the helmet. is sn ug and comfortable. REMEMBER: THIS
Chin Strap. The chin strap consists of a web SNAP FASTENER CAN ONLY BE
strap with an open chin cup, two adjusting OPENED BY PULUNG THE SNAP TAB
buckles and tabs, and one Lift-the-Dot snap DIRECTLY DOWN.
fastener and tab. After adjusting the helmet

FM 21-15


Bivouac Equipment


Theponcho(figure3-1)ismadeof waterproof-
treated nylon cloth. It is rectangular in shape
and has a hood and neck opening in the
center. There is a drawstring in the hood and
one at the waist.
Care. To care for the poncho, follow the
instructions given in the coated items para-
graph in chapter l.
Use. The poncho may be used as a rain
garment, shelter, ground cloth, or sleeping

Rain garment. Wear the poncho as a rain

cape with your arms inside or with your arms
outside for freedom of movement (figure 3-2).
To put on the poncho, slip it over your head
and close the snap fasteners on each side. If Figure 3-1. Poncho.

FM 21-15

you wear the poncho hood, adjust the

dra wstring for proper fit. Wear the helmet
under the hood,
Shelter. Various types of shelters and
lean-tos can be made by attaching ponchos to
trees, tree branches, bushes, sticks, or poles.
Always dig a ditch under the bottom edge of
the shelter to drain off rainwater. Pitch the
poncho with the hood closed, and use as a
shelter for one person. Attach two ponchos to
each other to make various types of shelters
(figure 3-3).
Ground cloth. You can use the poncho as a
ground cloth (figure 3-4)for shelters, and as a
waterproof barrier between the ground and a
sleeping bag.
Sleeping bag. Use the poncho as a sleeping
bag (figure 3-5)when the temperature is 50F
Figure 3-2. Poncho worn as rain garment. or above, Use it with a blanket or poncho

Figure 3-3. Poncho in miscellaneous shelter configurations.


liner for extra warmth. Spread the poncho and carried with your load-carrying equip-
flat on the ground, making sure the hood ment. Fold it in any manner, and carry it in
opening is tightly closed. If you use a blanket, the duffel bag or the field pack if space
place it on top of the poncho, fold the poncho permits. Take care not to press it against
and blanket in half lengthwise, and close the sharp or rough objects which may cause
snap fasteners. Instructions for attaching damage. Fold the poncho for on the
the poncho liner to the poncho are on individual equipment belt as shown in figure
pages 3-4 and 3-5. If you use the poncho 3-6. In some commands you may be told to
without a blanket or liner, snap the sides roll up the poncho to prepare it for carrying.
together and tuck the foot end under to keep
your feet from sticking out. CAUTION: Do
not close the snap fasteners when the PONCHO LINER
poncho is used as a sleeping bag in
combat areas. It cannot be opened The poncho liner (figure 3-7) is similar in
quickly! size and shape to the poncho. It is made of
polyester batting sandwiched between two
Folding and Packing Methods. When
panels of camouflage-patterned, lightweight
possible, completely air-dry the poncho before
nylon fabric. Ithas eight tie tapes to attach it
folding it. If it is necessary to fold the poncho
to the poncho.
while it is wet, unfold, air-dry, and refold it as
soon as possible. The poncho can be folded Care. Hand wash the liner with lukewarm


Figure 3-4. Poncho used as a ground cloth. Figure 3-5. Poncho used as a sleeping bag.

FM 21-15

Lay the poncho flat with the waist drawstring up. Pull the
hood through the neck opening and flatten it toward -
either curved side.

Bring both curved edges of the po-ncho toward the neck

opening until the center grommets of the curved sides

Fold the edge nearest to-you back over the overlap to ,8

ppint 1 O'inches~from the cppcette side.

Fold the neerest edge over to align with the opposite

adg,B. The fold should be about 11 inches wide .. ~

Make one additional fold in the same direction.

FOld in half from right to left.

Fold in half again from right to left. This should result in 8

fold about 6 1/2 inches wide and 16 inches long.

Now fold the poncho over the back of the individual

equipment belt. Tie it around the bottom with a string or
shoelace. or use a rubber_b_snd to hold it in place.



Figure 3-6. Folding poncho for wear on individual equipment belt.

water and a mild soap or detergent. DO NOT
Use. The poncho liner may be used as a
blanket or with the poncho as a sleeping bag
when the temperature is 50F or above.
Figure 3-8 shows how to attach the liner to
the poncho.


The shelter half (figure 3-9) is made of

water-repellent, mildew-resistant cotton and
rayon duck. It is issued with five tent pins, a
three-section. pole, and a guy line. When two
shelter halves are joined together, a shelter
Figure 3-7. Poncho liner. for two people is formed. It is ventilated by

FM 21-15

Spread the poncho on the ground. making sure that the

hood opening is tight-Iy-closed and is on the underside.

Place the liner on the poncho. matching the tie tapes on

the liner with the gromme,ts on the poncho. Tie the liner to
the poncho.

Fold the poncho and the liner in half lengthwise. !lnci close
all snap fasteners along the side. CAUTION: DO NOT
,L ~

r -

I Tuck the foot end under to keep your feet covered.


Figure 3-8. Attaching poncho liner to poncho.

opening one or both ends. The shelter may be

used by itself as a fly for shade and shelter.
To care for the shelter half; follow the
instructions given in the canvas' and web
equipment paragraph of chapter 1.
Pitching the Tuio-Pereon. Tent. Two
people can pitch the two-person tent in 5
minutes. Figure 3-10 shows how to do this,
Striking. Open enough snap fasteners so
that the tent poles can fall to the ground.
When the tent poles are down and the tent is
flat, remove the pins. Unfasten all remaining
snap fasteners, disassemble the poles, and
untie the guy lines from the loops at each end
of the tent. Figure 39. Shelter half.

FM 21-15







Figure 310. Pitching the tuio-persoti tent.

3-6 r
FM 21-15

Folding. To fold the shelter half, see from 10 to 40F.ltis made of water-repellent
figure 3-11. fabric, weighs about 7112 pounds; and comes
in one size. The inner and outer channels are
Carrying. Carry the rolled shelter half
filled with two layers of 6-ounce-per-square-
under the expandable flap of the field pack,
yard polyester batting. The full-length, free-
attached to the bottom of the field pack, or
running zipper has webbing loops attached
inside the field pack or duffel bag.
to the slider for ease of operation. Snap
fasteners are provided in case the zipper fails.
Tapes at the foot ofthe bag are used to tie the
INTERMEDIATE COLD WEATHER bag when it is rolled.
Care. To care for the sleeping bag-
This mummy-shaped bag (figure 3-12)is for Keep it as dryas possible. It is water
use in areas where the temperature ranges repellent, not waterproof.

Spread the shelter half out flat with the "tr.S." side up.
Place the tent pole sections. the pins. and the guy lines in
the center of the wide side of either triangle-shaped end.

Fold the trianqle-sheped-ends toward the center, with the

pointed ends overlapping.

Working at either unfolded side. fold lengthwise. bringing

the edge over one third of the width of the shelter half.
Fold the other unfolded side over the first fold.

Starting at the end where the tent pole sections were

placed. roll the shelter tightly and evenly until about
6 inches from the end.

Fold back all layers except the bottom one on the

opposite. end to form a pocket or envelope. Tuck the
rolled portion into the pocket.

Figure 3-11. Folding the shelter half.


If you can, air it thoroughly each day. of the bag, place the insulated pneumatic
Hang it up by the two webbing loops on the mattress, items of clothing, or tree branches
inside of the foot of the bag. under the bag. Protect against ground mois-
ture by placing the poncho under the sleeping
Fluff the bag before using it.
bag. Whenever possible and needed, wear
Repair all holes and tears as soon as clean, dry winter underwear and socks while
possible, as shown in TM 10-8400-201-23. you are in the" bag. For additional warmth,
wear the wool shirt and trousers. To open the
Remove dirt and grease from the bag by bag, pull the web loop attached to the zipper
spot cleaning with a damp cloth.
down to the foot end of the sleeping bag. FOR
Launder the sleeping bag according to EMERGENCY EXIT, GRASP EACH SIDE
FM 10-280, Formula II, or FM 10-17, OF THE OPENING ABOVE THE ZIPPER
CAUTION: Because of possible health
and fire hazards, do not dry-clean the
sleeping bag. Do not smoke in the sleep-
. Use. When using the sleeping bag, breathe FRONT OPENING .
through the face opening to prevent your
Packing Procedures. To pack the sleeping
breath from wetting the bag. If your face is
cold, make the face opening smaller by
pulling the drawstrings. DO NOT TIE THE Close the zipper; fasten the top, center, and
STRINGS. When you get up, open the bag bottom snaps.
wide, and fluff out the moist, warm air. Avoid
Lay the bag out flat with the zipper side up,
wearing damp clothing while in the sleeping
and fold lengthwise along the zipper.
bag. If you become too warm, ventilate the
sleeping bag by partially opening the zipper. Start at t-he head end, and roll the bag
To prevent cold air from entering the bottom tightly and evenly to the foot end tie tapes.

Figure 3-12. Intermediate cold weather sleeping bag.

FM 21-15

Wrap the foot end tie, tapes around the bag. The mattress weighs about 3112 pounds
rolled bag, tighten the straps, and ,tiewith and, has batting inside each channel for
a bow knot. insulation.
When possible, carry, store, or transport Care. To care for the mattress-
the sleeping bag inside the waterproof
Air-dry a wet mattress befo:e using it. '
clothing bag. '
Check for small holes by, dipping the
EXTREME COLD WEATHER inflated mattress in water ,,';_dlooking for
SLEEPING BAG , air bubbles.
Repair small holes and tears by using the
This sleeping bag is identical to the interme- cold-weather, insulated-boot/pneumatic
diate cold weather sleeping bag except it mattress main tenance k it., Refer to
weighs about 2 pounds more. It contains TM 10-8400-201-23for instructions.
down and polyester batting for insulation. It,
too, comes in one size. It isfor use in areas Use. Always use the mattress (with the inflat-
where temperatures are below 10F. Care for ing tube up) under sleeping equipment to add
and use this sleeping bag in the same way as warmth and' comfort and to keep the equip-
the intermediate cold sleeping bag, with one ment dry. When using the mattress=
difference-always use the insulated pneu- Inflate it by blowing air into it. DO NOT
matic mattress or foam sleeping mat under USE AIRLINES OROTHERMECHANI-
~Do not overinflate, as this decreases sleep-
ing comfort. 'Test the mattress for proper
inflation by sitting on it. When you are
sitting on the mattress;' your buttocks
The insulated pneumatic mattress
should barely touch the ground.
(figure 3-13) is made of rubber-coated nylon
cloth and is shaped to conform to the sleeping Do not bring, a mattress that has been

Figure 3-13. Insulated pneumatic mattress.


FM 21-15

inflated outdoors into a heated shelter Care. Clean the mat by brushing with a soft
without first letting out the air. The tempera- brush or sponging with soap and water.
ture changes will cause the inner air to
Rolling Method. Lay the mat out with the
expand, and the mattress will tear or burst.
tie tapes on the underside of the end farthest
Folding and Packing Procedure. To fold from you. Roll the mat as tightly as possible,
the mattress for packing- wrap the tie tapes around the mat, and tie
with a bow knot.
Remove the stopper, fold the mattress
lengthwise, and roll the mattress toward Carrying Methods. The rolled mat should
the open valve to release all the air. be placed directly on top (figure 3-15) or
directly beneath (figure -3-16)the three large
Replace the stopper.
cargo pockets on the field pack. Place the flap
Unroll the mattress. tiedown straps over the mat, and pull them
tight to hold the mat in position. If the mat is
Fold the mattress over twice, and place it
on top of the pockets, the pouch flap should be
in the waterproof clothing bag.
over the rolled mat as far as possible.


The foam sleeping mat (figure 3-14) is used
in place of the insulated pneumatic mattress. The sleeping hood (figure 3-17) has chin
It is made of closed cell foam and weighs flaps with a hook-and-pile fastener. Wear it
about 1 114 pounds. It will not absorb water when you are in the sleeping bag. Its purpose
and stays flexible to temperatures of-100"F. is to protect the head area of the sleeping bag

Figure 3-14. Foam sleeping mat.

FM 21-15

Figure 315. Rolled sleeping mat on top of Figure 316. Rolled sleeping mat beneath
field pack. field pack.

from perspiration, dirt, and head or hair oils.

Wash the hood by first closing the fastener
and then hand squeezing it in lukewarm
water and mild detergent. Rinse it in
lukewarm water and squeeze out the excess


Fold the blanket so that it can be carried

inside the field pack under the expandable
flap or outside, attached to the bottom of the
pack with the two adjustable securing straps.
You may also fold it and carry it in your
duffel bag. Wash the blanket frequently with
lukewarm water and mild soap. DO NOT
the blanket back into shape while it is drying.
The blanket can be used with the poncho as a
sleeping bag in mild climates. Figure 317. Sleeping hood.

FM 21-15


1!.<Cla:iI -(CaJ li"li'~DU\1g] . -, ~


~ - - - - ,



The main purpose of th e fig hting a nd

exis te nce load concept is to lighten your loa d.
You s ho uld onl y ca rry th e ite ms necessa ry for
yo ur mis sio n. The load yo u ca r ry shou ld not
inc lude a ny item that ca n be ca r rie d a no t her
way. Becau se th e ty pe of mission, terra in ,
a nd en viro n me nt will affect yo ur clothing
a n d equipmen t requ irem ents , yo ur un it com
mande r ma y decide what ite ms will be in I
yo ur fig ht ing or exis tence load .

f: The ty pical fightin g loa d (fig ure 4-1) is i
made up of essen tial item s of in dividu al
clot h ing , equip ment, weapons , a nd a rnm u
n it ion th at are ca rried by yo u to complete the ' - -. ---'I
immedia te missi on of your unit. Figure 4-1. A typ ical figh ting load .


FM 21-15

Individual Equipment Belt. Carry the

ammunition cases, intrenching tool carrier,
and the canteen cover on the individual
equipment belt (figure 4-2). The belt comes in
two sizes-medium for persons whose bare
waist measures 30 inches or less; large for
persons whose bare waist measures more
than 30 inches.
Individual Equipment Belt Suspenders.
The suspenders (figure 4-3) support the indi
vidual equipment belt when the appropriate
components are attached to the belt. Web
band metal loops are provided on each
suspender strap for attachment of small
Figure 4-2. Individual equipment belt. items such as the first aid/compass case or a
Small-Arms Ammunition Case. The small
arms ammunition case (figure 4-4) holds
three 3D-round magazines (M16 rifle). The
case has fragmentation grenade pockets on
each side and a plastic fastener that can be
opened and closed with one hand.
Intrenching Tool Carrier. This carrier
(figure 4-5) holds the lightweight, collapsible
intrenching tool.
Canteen Cover. The canteen cover
(figure 4-6) holds the plastic canteen and
metal cup. The cover has a small pocket
attached for water purification tablets.
Figure 4-3. Individual equipment
belt suspenders. FirstAidDressing/Compass Case. This

Figure 4-4. Small-arms ammunition case. Figure 4-5. Intrenching tool carrier.

FM 21-15

case (f igure 47) holds either a first aid

dressing or an unmounted magnetic
The procedure for assembling th e fighting
lo ad com ponen ts of the all -purpos e
lightweight individual carrying equ ipment
(ALICE) follows . (A different proc edure must
be followed by parachutists when preparing
for a jump. This pro cedure is described in
TM 57-220.)
Pitting and Adjusting the Belt. Tr yon Figu re 4-7. First aid dressing/compass case.
the individual equipme nt belt . and determin e
the length ne eded for a sn ug- but not tight
fit. Th en if you need to adjust the belt
Slide the two metal keepe rs aw ay from th e
belt a nd the ad justing clamp. Unlock the
adjusting clamp by sprea din g ap a rt the
looped webbing (figure 4-8).
Slide the adjusting clamp toward the belt
buckle to loosen the belt a nd aw ay from the
bu ckle to tighten it . Squeeze th e a dj usting
chi mp to lock th e belt in place; then slide
th e metal keepers so that on e is next to the
adjusting clamp and t he other is next to
the belt buckl e. Each adjusting clamp
should be a bout the same distance from Figure 4-8. Adjusting indiinauat equipm ent
the belt buckl e (figu re 4-9). belt .

:[J : :?

Figure 4-6. Canteen cover. Figure 4-9. Loosening and tightening

individual equipment belt .

FM 21-15

Attaching the Ammunition Cases to the

Individual Equipment Belt. Attach one
a mm unition case to the left side of the belt
next to the belt buckle and the other ammuni
tion ca se to the right side of the belt next to
th e buckle (figure 4-10). To do this
Pull each slide keeper (figure 4-11)attached
to the case to an open position. and slide it
over one thickness of the webbing. Make
s ure the slide keepers are vertical and the
bottom holes are out beyond the webbing.
Push ea ch slide keeper down arid into the
holes to lock it (figure 4-12).
Figure 4-10. Ammunition ca ses on individual
equipment belt. When attaching 20-round ammunition cases,
attach the front suspender snap hooks to the
top eyelet nearest the buckle on each end of
the belt. Fasten the snap hooks on the end of
each ammunition case supporting strap to
the metal loop on the front of each shoulder
strap (figure 4-13).
A ttaching the Suspenders to the Individ
ual Equipment Belt and Ammunition
Cases. To attach the suspenders to the belt
and ammunition cases
Open all suspender snap hooks by pushing
the hooks up and out of the retainers
Figure 4-11. Slide keepers on ammunition cases. (figure 4-14).

Figure 4-12. Locking th e slide k eeper. Figure 4-13. Twentyround ammunition cases
on individual equipmen t belt.

FM 21-15 ' !~;I
i,li"",r,, i1

. Attach the back suspender snap h ooks

into the eyelet a t each side of the two center
top eyelets at the back of the equipment
' ~ belt , Close t he snap hooks .., .:. ..
At{~ch-'the'front s~sp~~d~r snap hooks to ,::11""
th e eyelets on th e back ofthe ammunitionv ;ii;!lt':'
cases . Close the snap hooks (figure 4-15). ' l li : ; ~:
When theammunirioncases are not used, I. I~::
".attach thefrontsuspender sna p hooks to .
, the top eyelet on th e side of eac h belt i1'li1:'"t
buckle , and close' the sna p hook s. '. l l li: ~ I
": li:~~: '
Attaching t1iejnt;~~ching Tool Car i i l~,,>
rier. Using the two slide keepers on th e back ,Iflt,
ofthe ca rrie r.nttach the carrie r to tile belt on '
the left s ide as close as possible to t he:
a mmun ition . case .(fig ure . 4-16). Plac e the
Intrenching' tool' in th e carrier so that the .
blade port ion is to the ba ck of th e car rier. ..
I .. , ' " ,,", . ,: .

Attachingthe Canteen Cover; Using the '

' .' ' - ;-
!illi .: : ~

two slide keepers on the ba ck of the canteen '
cover , attach the cover on the .right side as
close as possibl e to. the am munition case
(figure 4-16).
Attaching the ' First Aid Dressing/
Compass Case. . Usi ng ,the slide keeper on
. .
.r~~ !

. . . !;:i::r,'!
th e back of th e case, attac h th e case to the - ,

webbing loop onthe front of eit her shoulder Figu re 4-15. Attaching suspenders to l)lilt
an d am muni tion cases . ' .


-.~ ,;:
I t:~ .
:..1; "

FM 21-15


.....- - - OR COMPASs CASE



Figure 4-16. Attaching intrenching tool carrier, canteen cover, and first aid dressing/compass
case to belt.

strap. It can also be attached to the right side

of the belt, next to the ammunition case
(figure 4-16). The case should be attached in
an upright position to prevent loss of the
Adjusting the Front andBack Suspender
Straps. After you have attached the equip
ment to the belt and suspenders, put it on and
fasten the buckle. Adjust the length of the
front and back suspender straps using the
loose ends of the straps (figu-re 4-17). Pull
down on the loose end of each strap to raise
the belt. Lift the end of each strap to lower the
belt. Secure the loose ends of the straps with
the elastic loops. When you are finished, the
belt should hang evenly at your waist, and
the yoke should be positioned comfortably.
Although you can adjust the back .strap
yourself, you can do it easier by using the
buddy system. Figure 4-17. Adjusting the front and back
suspender straps.

FM 21 -15


T he t ypical exis tence loa d (fig ure 418) Medium Combat Field Pack. U se th e
con sists of th e fighting loa d plus th ose it em s med ium com bat field pa ck (fig ure 4-19) to
whic h are requ ired to s us tain or pr otect yo u carry exis te nce loads incl uding clo thi ng ,
or wh ich ma y be ne cessary for yo ur in crea sed ration s, a n d perso na l items. The pa ck h a s a
per son al and envi ro n men ta l pr otecti on . U n pouch wit h a draw cord clos ure a n d t hree
less other trans por t a tion is availa ble, both outs ide smaller poc kets. These pockets a re
the figh tin g a nd existen ce load s are ca rried tunneled to th e pouch so th at lon g objects ca n
by yo u, the so ldier . be ca rrie d bet wee n t he pouch a nd each
pocket. The pou ch a lso h a s a special ins ide
Ground Troops Pack Frame. Us e th e
pocket t o ca r ry t he AN/ PRe 25 or 77 radio if
gro un d troops pa ck frame as a mount for the
necess a ry . The pouch fla p h as a pocket t hat
medium or large combat field pa ck.
ca n be ope ne d by pulling t wo ta bs apart.
Pack Frame Straps. Stra ps a ttached to Sm all flat it ems ca n be ca rried in th is pocket.
th e pa ck frame a re a lower ba ck stra p, waist Pressing th e flap si des tog et he r closes it.
stra ps, a nd two shoulder stra ps. There is a Hangers are a lso pr ovid ed to ca r ry in dividua l
qu ick-relea se device on eac h sho ulde r strap. eq ui pme nt or ext ra amm unition. Th is pack
ca n be carrie d dir ectl y on yo ur ba ck or on the
Cargo Support Shelf. Us e th e ca rgo s up
pa ck fra me . In ex tr em ely cold clima tes , you
port s he lf to support bulky load s such as
mu st ca r ry th e pack on th e fr am e.
water , gasoline , a n d a mm uni tion ca n s; field
ration s; a nd radi o.
Large Combat Field Pack. Use th e large
Cargo Tiedown Straps. Use th e two cargo combat field pa ck (fig ure 420) to ca rry
tiedo wn strap s t o secure eq uipment to the excessively large load s-usually during s pe
pa ck fram e. cial mission s or in arctic region s. It is mu ch

POCKET TABS _-=~~~~~~



Figure 4-18. Exis tence load components . Figure 4-19. Medium combat field pack.

FM 21-15

the same as the medium combat field pack,

except that it is larger, and there are three
more small pockets at the top of the pouch. Of
the three lower outside pockets, the two outer
ones are tunneled to the pouch so that long
objects can be carried between the pouch and
each pocket. There are tiedown cords and D
rings inside the pouch to shorten this pack if
it is not filled.
Field Pack Camouflage Cover. Use the
white camouflage field pack cover over the
field pack when operating in snow-covered
terrain or the desert camouflage field pack
cover when in a desert environment.



Procedures for assembling the existence

load components follow. Refer to TM 57220
for parachutist procedures.
Figure 420. Large combat field pack. Attaching and Adjusting the Lower
Back Strap to Pack Frame. The lower
back strap (figure 421) keeps the load away
from your back and lets air circulate between
your back and the load. The strap should be
loose enough to curve in and fit against the
lower part of your back. To attach the lower
back strap
With the padded surface outward, insert
each end of the strap through the metal
loops on the bottom ofthe pack frame.
Attach the quick-release strap to the back
strap by threading the quick-release strap
through the smaller metal loops on the
back strap. To adjust the quick-release
strap, refer to figure.422. .
Attaching Shoulder Strap to Pack
Frame. Both shoulder straps have quick
release assemblies on them. To attach the .'
straps (figure 4-23)
Insert the looped end, from the inside of the
frame, through the plastic grommet to the
Figure 421. Back strap. outside of the frame. Pass the other end of

FM 21 ..15







Figure 4-22. Adjusting quick-release strap.

FM 21-15

th e s ho ulder strap through the loop , and AdjustingShoulder and Waist Straps. Ad
pull tight (A). just th e s ho u l de r a n d waist s traps
(fig ure 424) a fter you h av e put on the frame
In s ert th e webb ed stra p on the sho ulder
with th e load yo u a re going to carry. Each set
pa d th rough the metal keeper on the top of
of straps h as a djus tment buckl es.
the pack frame (B). Make sure the padded
side fac es inwar d. . Sho ulder st raps . To lift the load on your
Thread th e webbing through the nonslip ba ck, shorten the strap by pulling down on
buckl e and tighten . th e loos e en d ofthe webbing (A). To lower the
load , lengthen th e strap by pulling up on the
Attac hing Waist Straps to Pack cord .
Frame . The waist straps are threaded
through th e buckles on the outside of the Waist strap. To tighten the waist strap,
lower back st ra p (C). The strap with the male pull the loose en d of the st ra p on either side
buckle goes on the left sid e. The strap with forward (B). T o loosen th e waist s t ra p, pull
the female buckl e goes on the right side. th e web strap on either bu ckle to the rear .

Figure 4-23. 'A tt aching st raps to pack frame .

FM 21-15

Figure 424. Adjusting shoulder and waist strap.

Attaching Medium Combat Field Pack
to Pack Frame. To a ttac h the medium pack
to the pa ck frame (figure 425)
Insert the bare frame into the envelope on
the back of the pack.
Loop the strap located on the bottom ofthe
pack around the frame twice.
Buckle the end of the strap to the nonslip
Attach and adjust the shoulder straps and
waist straps as pr evi ously described.

Attaching Shoulder Straps to Medium

Combat Field Pack. The medium pack
may be carried using the shoulder straps
without the pack frame. To attach the shoul
der straps to the pack (fig ure 426), insert the
looped end through the Dvring on the bottom
ofthe pack, pass the other end of the shoulder
strap through the loop, and pull tight. Next,
insert the webbing of the loose end of the
shoulder strap through the metal loop at the
top of the pack, making sure the padded side
of the shoulder strap is facing inward. Then
thread the webbing through the nonslip Figure 425. Medium combat field pack
attached to pack fram e.

FM 2115

buckle and tighten. Adjust the shoulder strap frame by hooking it in to the middle or bottom
as previously described. brace of the frame as shown in figure 4-27.
WARNING: When you carry the medium
AttachingCargotoPackFrame. Use the
combat field pack in extreme cold cli
cargo tiedown straps to secure a load (such as
mates, you must wear it on the pack
a 5-gallon can, ammunition case, field ration
frame. Using the pack frame will pre
case, or radio) to the pack frame (figure 4-28).
vent accumulation of sweat in the area
First, wrap the tiedown strap around the load
where the pack contacts your back; this
and the frame. Next, place the flat hook end
moisture can cause you to cool rapidly.
of the tiedown strap into the slot at the
Attaching Large Combat Field Pack to buckle, and pull the loose end to tighten,
Pack Frame. Use the same procedures to leaving a little slack in the strap. Then push
attach the large combat field pack to the pack the fastener into the closed position. This
frame as those used to attach the medium takes up the slack and tightens the strap
combat field pack. around the cargo. Leave enough slack in the
strap so that when you close the fastener, the
Attaching Cargo Shelf to Pack strap will not crush the cargo. To open the
Frame. Attach the cargo shelf to the pack fastener, pull up on the end of the strap.

Figure 4-26. Attaching shoulder straps to Figure 427. Cargo shelf attached to pack
medium combat field pack. frame .

FM 21-15


. .1'.".

Figure 4-28. Attaching cargo to pack frame.

Attaching Sleeping Bag. When using the

large combat field pack, always carry your
sleeping bag inside the pack. When using the
medium combat field pack, carry the sleeping
bag inside or outside the pack. To attach the
bag to the outside of the pack (figure 4-29) ,

Using the cargo tied own straps, pass the I

hook ends of the straps through the I
webbing loops on the bottom of the pack. I
Wrap the straps around the sleeping bag,
and attach the ends of the straps as shown.
Push the fasteners into the closed position,
and tighten the straps. Figure 4-29. Attaching sleeping bag.

FM 21-15

When using the pack frame with the pack loose end to tighten and close the pocket (A).
(figure 4-30), pass the cargo tiedown straps
Three Outside Pockets (B). Make sure the
under and around the horizontal barofthe
two snap fasteners at one end of the webbing
frame a ft er completing step one . Continue
are fastened , then pull the webbing to tighten
as described in steps two and three.
and close the pocket. You can open the pocket
easily by pull ing the tab to unsnap th e snap
fasteners. You can close the pocket again by
COMBAT FIELD PACK CLOSURES snapping the snap fasteners (C).

Close the pockets on either of the combat

Pouch. Pull the two drawstring cord clamp
ends outward. This will gather the top into a
field packs (figure 4-31) by following these
instructions: tight closure (D). To loosen the drawstring,
push the button on the drawstring buckle
Inside (Radio) Pocket. Thread the down, and at the same time, pull the clamp
webbing through the nonslip bu ckle. Pull the down (E) .

PACK FRAME ----2~~~i~~~


Figure4-30. Attaching sleeping bag when Figure 4-31. Combat field pack closures.
using pack frame.
FM 21 -15

Pouch Flap. Inser t t he pouch flap tiedown

str a p (figure 4-32) through th e web loop on
top of the pouch flap , down over th e pouch
flap , a nd into th e bottom non slip buckl e. Pull


Your backpac k, with or wit hout the pack

fram e, ca n be re moved qu ickl y by usin g th e
quick-release devices on th e sh oulder str aps.
Th e q uick-release device (fig ure 433) consists
of two metal loops , a retain er clip (plastic
prongs), a nd a pull tab .
Figure 432. Pouch {lap.
Assembly. To 'a ssemble th e qui ck-rel ease
device, place th e la rge met al loop over .the
sm all metal loop. Insert th e ret ainer clip
(prong s) t h roug h the sma ller metal loop, a nd TWO METAL LOOPS
fasten t he sna p fasten er on th e pull ta b.
Release, To r emove the load qu ickly , pull
up firml y on th e t ab .


The un i v ers al Io a d- c ar r y i n g s ling

(fig ure 434) is a n add ition to the individual Figure 4-33. Quickrelease dev ice. " .:, I
load -carrying syst ems when special loads ar e . -1
to be ca rried-,The adjustable sling is 1 3/ 4 OUICK ADJUSTABLE

in ch es wid e and about 6 1/2 feet long . It has BUCKLE - - - . ,

lightweight hardware components, such as

buckles, slide loops, and Yrings, which can
be shifted to the position required to attach
the various load s. Use th e sling to carry
I ... general utility loads, a mmunition, a nd infan
try crew-ser ved weapons. You can use one
sling by itself, or use two or more a t a ti me,
depending on th e load to be carried. Slings
ca n be used with or without load -carrying QUICK ADJUSTABLE I
Instruction s for assemb ling typical loads
follow. Figur e 434. Uniuersal lood-carrving sling. I

FM 21 -15

Fi be r A m m u n iti o n s Conta iners . A

met ho d for ca rryi ng fiber am m uni t ion s con
taine rs is illustr at ed in fig ure 4-35.
Ammunition Boxes. Figure 436 s ho ws a
method for carrying two boxes of a mm u
niti on . For this load, a djus t th e loop end to
sec ure on e box; use th e a dj us table buckl e
with snap fastener a n d the V-rin g to s ecu re
the othe r box .
F iv e -Gallon Wat er Can. Fig ure 437
s ho ws a meth od for ca rryi ng a 5-ga llon wa ter
ca n usin g two sli ngs . To redu ce lea k a ge, th e
ca n is ca rrie d wit h the spo ut up .

Figure 4-35. Assemb ling fiber am m unit ions Figure 4-36. A m munition boxes.
contai ners in sling .

FM 21 -15


Figure 437. Flue-gallon water can .

Litter. Figure 438 shows a method for can be easily carried, and when necessary,
carrying a litter using four slings. This mor e than 100 pounds can be carried. The
method frees your hands for other uses. packboard consists of a rugged frame of
molded plywood bent at each side, a canvas
backrest fastened to the frame by lacing
PACKBOARD cords, two packboard attachments, shoulder
pads, a lashing rope, and quick-release strap
The plywood packboard (figure 439) is an and buckle assemblies. The packboard can
efficient means to carry loads of considerable vas backrest should fit against your pack,
weight or of irregular sh ap e. Fifty pounds and the packboard frame should support the

" .- ' 1


Figure 438. Litter.


\. i
FM 21 -15

l oa d . Be fo r e fas teni ng a lo a d t o t he
packboard, mak e sure the ca nvas backrest is
properly la ced to the fr am e.
Lacing Canvas Backre st to Frame. To
la ce t he ba ckrest to t h e fra me', r efer t o
fig ure 440. Thi s procedure sho uld be followed
to la ce both edges of the canvas.
T ightening Laces . Tighten la ces on the
ca nvas before packing a loa d, a nd retigh ten
th em as ofte n as n ecessary to keep th e ca nvas
QU ICK t au t . T o t ighten la cin gs, twist t he co rd
RELEASE aroun d a s tic k, a n d pull th e co r d t ig h t .
La cin gs m ay a lso be t ig hte ned by pla cin g th e
pa ckboard frame on edge, gradua lly a pplying
gentle pressure un til th e frame is slightly
bowed , a n d the n tighten in g t he la cin gs .
When the pressure is released, th e fr am e will
retu rn to its original shape a nd tigh te n t he
ca nvas.
Using Packboard Attachment. Us e th e
pa ck board a tt ac hment (fig ure 441) to sup
port h ea vy rigid load s at th e bottom. To
a t tach the pa ckboa r d a ttach me n t t o t he
pa ckb oa rd , place t h e fl anges of th e a ttach
Figure 439. Packboard. ment ove r t he lo wer edge of one of t he

Tie the end of a lacing cord into the top eyelet on one side of the
canvas. Hold the canvas so that its edge is about 1 1/4 inches from
the packboard frame, and run the cord around th e' edge of the
padc:board frame and tw ice through the top hole of the frame.

Run the co rd down along the inside of the frame, th rough the
second hole of the frame. around th e edge of the frame. throu gh
the second eyelet of the canvas, around the edge o f the frame,
and again thro ugh the second ho le of the f rame.

Repeat the procedure unt il the co rd reaches th e bottom ho le

of the fram e on one side.

Run the cord twice through the bonom hole of the frame and
around t he edge of the frame and t ie the cord to th e bottom eye let
of the canvas.

CD Be sure the edge o f the canvas is about 1 1/4 inches from the frame
all along the we of the packbo ard.

Figure 440. La cing canvas back rest to fram e.

. ;I

. I

FM 21 -15

ope ni ngs in the fr am e. P a ck a ll loa ds so that

they will be compact and can be ca rried hig h
on yo ur s ho ulders. Fasten t he load to the
pack board wit h a lashing rope or a qui ck
release strap a nd cla mp assembly.
l- Lashing Load to the Packboard With
Rope. Attach bu lky , n onri gid, or irregular
s haped loa ds wit h a la shin g rope. Keep t he
lashing simp le; n ever use t wo loops when one
will do. Use kn ots th at will hold but will not
be h ard to un tie. La shin g by rope is easier to
s ta rt if a s ho rt loop is tied in one end of the
rope so that it ma y be attache d to a hoo k on
t he packboard fra me. Wh en you ca n, use a Figure 4-42. Lashi ng rope wou nd around top
bowline kn ot to form th e loop in th e en d ofthe of packb oard.
rope . Fa sten th e coil with a kn ot , or s lip t he
coil betwee n the ca n vas a nd t he plywood FIRST .
Form a loop in the rope, and place it over hook AA .
fra me. Always keep the lash ing rope at tached
to the pa ckboard. Wind the rop e aro und the SECOND. .
top of t he packboard wh en the packboard is Run the rope across the load to hook A.
not in use (figure 4-42). THIRD .
Run the rope diagonally downw ard Kro SS the load to
Four-hook me thod. One meth od oflashing hook ce. and back across th e &oad to hook C.
a loa d with rope, usin g four packboard hooks , FOURTH. ..
is s h own in fig ure 443. Run the rope back to hoo k AA as shown end then t o
po int K. and secure the rope with .ill knot at po int K.

To ti '-te n the lashing. run t he ro pe from the knot at
po int K up under po int L an d back to po int K. Tie
another knot at po int K. (not Ihown)


- - - H OOK aD

.. ; '

Figur e 441. Packb oard attachm ent. Figu re 4-43 . Rope lashing meth od using
four hook s.

FM 21-15

Six -hook method. Another method oflash

ing loads, using six hooks, is shown in
figure 4-44.
Quick lashing method. Refer to figure 4-45
for a quick lashing method.
Lashing Loads With Quick-Release
Strap and Clamp Assemblies. This meth
od is used when loads must be packed and
unpacked quickly. To use the quick-release
strap, place the load on the packboard with
the packboard attachment supporting the
load at the bottom. Pass the desired number
of straps between the packboard frame and
canvas, and fasten them around the load
(figure 4-46). The procedure for tightening a
quick-release strap and for closing and releas
ing a quick-release clamp is illustrated in
figure 4-47.
Carrying the Packboard Frame. When
I:. using shoulder pads, place each shoulder
strap through the two loops on the surface of
Figure 4-44. Rope lashing method using one ofthe shoulder pads. Adjust the shoulder
',' six hooks. straps so th at the packboard will rest high on

Attach the loop of the rope to hook AA . Hold the rope On the resulting lower loop of the rope. fasten

-t :
I with your right hand at Rand your left hand at L, 8sshown points (1) and 12) to hooks C and CC of the

I pack -board. Tighten the rope .

in the first step . Then twist your wr ist so that

the rope appears as shown in the second and tie it securelv at A .

step .

c r'i....;lf"----'~....,'"I


Figure 445 . Quick lashing method.

" 1

FM 21 -15

yo ur ba ck. If it is n ot h ea vil y load ed, sli ng it

on yo ur s ho ulders as you would any ot her I . PL ACING HOOK OF BUCKLE OVER BAR
p a ck , a n d a dj ust th e s ho ulde r pads for OF CLAMP

com fort. If it is h eavily load ed, pla ce th e CLAMP~

loaded pa ckb oard up right on th e gro un d. Sit
with yo ur back agains t t he ca nvas, a nd place
yo ur arms th rough th e s ho ulde r stra ps . Roll
over on yo ur h ands a nd kn ees, a n d stand. H OO K ~
Caring f or Pack board. Mend or repair
damaged fabric compo ne nts before the da m
age becomes serio us . When fabric becomes
soi led , scrape' off a ny ca ked mud . S cr ub th e
fa bric wit h wat er a nd mild so ap. Rin se it, a n d
let it dr y in t he su n. Brus h sh ould er straps to
rem ove dir t a nd dust. If excessively dirt y ,
wash and dry them us in g the sa me meth od as 3. TIGHTENED STRAP. OUICK R ELEASE CLAMP
for th e ot he r fa br ic. T he ca nvas will n eed
mor e freq uent washi ng a nd su n ni ng th an the
sho ulde r st ra ps . If the h ooks on t he fra me
becom e loose, tig hten the m. Mak e s ure th e
la cings that fas te n the ca nvas b ackres t to the
frame are ta ut eno ug h to prevent the fra me
fro m pressing against yo ur b ack ; a taut
ca n va s a lso a llows air to circ ula te bet ween 4 . TIGHTENED ST RAP . QUICK -R ELEASE

~ liiliDr=


.,..-/ '-

Figu re 4-46. Load las hed with quick -release Figure 447. Adiusting quic k-release st rap
st rap and clam p ass emblies. and clamp assembly .

FM 21-15

the fra me a nd your back. Do n ot dro p the Table 4-1. Grenade-carrier vest sizes.
pa ckb oard; lay it do wn ge ntly. ;r - . . p

' , .

The grenade-carrier vest (fig ure 4-48) is

To 38 inche s SMAll
des ign ed to be worn over the armor vest a nd
t he s us pen de rs of the in dividual load 391042 i nches MEDIUM
ca rrying equi pment. It enables yo u to ca rry
43 inche s or l.r g8' lARGE
fou r 40m illimeter pyr otechnic ca rtri dges
a nd twenty 40-millimeter gre nades for th e
M79 a n d M203 gre nade la unc hers . Each
gre nade is held in pla ce in the pocket by a
ma teri a l or ca n vas. T o clean th em , see the
snap fa sten er closure. Each grenade ca n be
appropriate para gr a ph in chapte r l.
rem oved with one h and . Table 4-1 s ho ws th e
size vest yo u sho uld s elect based on yo ur Barracks Bag. Use th e olive -gr een barrack s
che s t m ea surem ent. To clean th e vest, use a ba g (fig ure 449) for gen er al sto ring a nd
bru sh or a da m p or dry cl oth . Scrub ve ry dirty ca rryi ng pu rp oses. Close th e bag with th e
areas with a s ma ll a mo unt of water . Rin se it draws tring . .
a nd let it ai r-dry .
Clothing Bag. Use the waterproo f cloth in g
ba g (fig ure 4-50) to carry extra clothin g a nd
BAG S perso nal effects that mu st be protected from
moisture , especially du ring am phi bious or
Th ere are several types of bags which h a ve jungle operations. Keep in mind, h owever,
many us es. These bags ar e m ad e of a coated that it is not co nstructed to withstan d rou gh
, ..

Figure 4-48. Grenade-carrier ves t.



FM 21 -15


Figure 4-49. Barrack s bag . Fig ure 450. Clothing bag . t -,

use or ha ndling. You ca n also use the bag to

carry and s tore your sleepi ng bag a nd blan
ket o Close the bag by placing the tie cord
a round the mouth of the bag, inserting the tie
cord ends th ro ugh one of the three attached
loops, wra pping the cord, and tying it with a
bow knot.
Duffel Bag. Use t he duffel bag (fig ure 451)
wit h h a nd le an d s ho ulder straps in the field
to carry individual clothing a nd equipment
not carried in the field pack. Close the duffel
bag by folding the top of the bag in envelope
fashion, placing the grom mets over the U '. ,,
shaped keepe r, a nd attachi ng t he snap on the
carrying strap to the keeper. Carry the bag by iI
the hand le as a s uitcase or by the s houlder 1
straps sl ung over yo ur s ho ulde rs pac k-sty le.
Waterproof Covers. Use t he multipu rpose
wate r p roof cove r s ( bags) to pr ovid e : :1
ligh tw eigh t, waterproof protecti on for sm all I
a rms against rain a nd moisture. Th e dirnen 'I
sions a nd uses of th e cove rs a re s how n in Figure 4-51. Duffel bag. :1
-. j


- - - - =---------~=~-'--=--"=--"
FM 2 1-15

table 4-2. You ca n a lso us e th e mult ipur pose Table 4 -2 . Multipurpose waterproof covers.
waterproof covers for
Carryi ng water.
Prot ecti ng misc ell aneous s mall items of
clothing and equipme n t.
Floating lightweight loads in water 1 _ _ 0 8 by 18 _ For pisto l or perso nal e ffec ts .
cros s in g ope ra tio n s . Th e bag mu st be
in fla ted for th is purpose. 2_ _ 1 0 by 56 For rifl e or ca rbine .

Lin ing the du ffel ba g to for m a n emerge ncy 3 _ _ 1 5 by 45 For su bmac hi ne g un .

waterp roof clothing bag. For th is pu rpose,
use a size 3 cover. Cut about 21 inc hes off 4 _ _ 2 0 by 84 For machi ne g un.
th e top of th e cover to make it s uita ble for
ins erting in th e duffel bag .

4 24


FM21- 15

I -
, {


Miscellaneous Clothing
and Equipment



This equ ipm en t (fig ure 5-1) is worn for used for warm th around the neck, but in
prot ecti on agai nst mos quitoes a nd oth er emergencies yo u ca n use it for other purposes .
insects . The cloth top piece h as a n elastic Fo rexa m ple, it ca n be used a s a h a t orcan be
s us pension t ha t fits over you r h ead or h elm et. wrapped aroun d t he h ands for a dditio nal
You may a lso wea r it bet ween the lin er a nd warmt h.
the h elmet. Met al ri ngs h old the n et a way
from your fa ce a nd n eck , eve n when you are
s lee ping . The h a t a nd mosquito net fit over
t he collar in back. Th ey are held in pl a ce in
fron t by t wo elastic loops th a t ca n be attached
to t he pocket bu ttons of yo ur shirt. An ela stic
dr aw ta pe at the bottom may be drawn t ight
when the net is n ot fastene d to th e poc ket
bott om .To clea n the net, spo t wash ver y dirty
a reas with hot wa ter a nd soap or deterg en t.
Rin se it tho rough ly a nd let it air-dry .


The kn itted wool scarf is a seamless tubula r

typ e with rein forced end s. It is ordinarily Figu re 51. Mosquito hat and net.


, !

FM 21-15



Wear your identification tags at all times Striking Disk. The striking disk is
when you are engaged in field training, while mounted on the inside top surface of the cap.
traveling in aircraft, and when outside the It has an abrasive surface for striking safety
continental United States. Suspend one tag matches.
from your neck, underneath your clothing,
Striking Bar. The striking bar is 1oca ted on
using a 25inch, noncorrosive, nontoxic, heat
the bottom of the container. When the bar is
resistant material, looped to form a necklace.
struck with the sharp edge of a knife or some
Attach the second tag to the necklace using a
other piece of metal, a spark will be produced.
2 1/2-inch loop of material similar to that of
the necklace.


The first aid packet is a sealed package The collapsible intrenching tool (figure 5-3)
containing sterilized cotton gauze used for is about 91/2 inches long when collapsed and
emergency dressing of wounds when medical 23 1/2 inches long when fully extended. It
services are not quickly available. DO NOT has'a hollow, triangle-shaped handle. One
NEEDED. Exposure to air may cause the
contents to become soiled and nonsterile.

Use the lensatic compass to establish

direction. An accurate line of direction can be
established for a specific object by using the
arrangement of a lensatic eye lens, a sight BODY---> SIDE view
line, and the object being sighted. When you
are not using the compass, keep it in its case
to protect it from dirt and dust.


The waterproof matchbox (figure 5-2) is

usedto keep matches dry and to start fires by GROOVES
spark ignition in an emergency. The box is a
small, cylinder-shaped, plastic container
with a screw cap, a striking disk, and a BOTTOM view
striking bar.
Screw Cap. A sealing gasket fits inside the
screw cap and provides a tight seal when the
cap is closed by hand, tight onto the cylinder. Figure 5-2.' Waterproof matchbox.

FM 21-15

edge of th e blad e is sharpen ed for cutting. Clearing g round. Turn th e s ho vel blad e to
The ot he r edge is se rra ted t o ai d in diggin g a posi t ion perp en dicul ar (uprig ht) to th e
and cho pping . Th e pos ition of th e bla de ca n h andle so th at it is h oe-shap ed. Tighten th e
be changed by loosen in g th e lockin g nut a t locking nut.
th e blad e end of th e handle, adj usti ng th e
Care. Clea n the intren ching tool 'a fter eac h
blad e to th e desir ed positi on , and tig h teni ng
use. Keep th e thre ads on th e locking nut clean
th e locking nu t.
and oiled so th e nut will turn easily.
Use. Use th e in trenc hi ng t ool for di ggin g,
break in g h ard gro und, cleari ng bru sh or CANVAS COT

und er gr owth, a nd cutting roots, sapli ngs, AND INSECT BAR FRAME

a nd s ma ll t rees. DO NOT US E IT FO R
CUTT ING LARG E-SIZ E TIM BER. The col1aps ible canva s cot (figure 5-4) has
Shoveling or cutti ng . Exte nd th e s ho vel three s ets of fold in g legs. 'T h e in sect bar
bla de out wa rd in a s t raight-line projecti on of frame consis ts of four upright pieces of wood
th e h andl e (ope n pos iti on) . Tighten t he wh ich a re a t tache d to th e en d cot leg s with
lockin g nut. stee l clips. Two crosspieces serve a s br aces.

) ~

~" o."o.o,o
" !

Figur e 53. Intrenching tool. Figure 5-4. Can vas cot and insect bar fram e.



FM 21-15


The in sect bar (figure 55) is a ca no py mad e near t he bott om edges of the insect ba r . T he
fro m fine ly wove n nylon mesh. gro mme ts at the ridge of the ten t s ho uld be
Use. Us e the in se ct bar to pr otect yo u from a lig ne d with th e s lits at th e top of th e insect
mo squ itoes, san d fli es, and ot her small bar. Next, pla ce the ten t poles th ro ugh th e
insects . Us e the following informa tio n to s lots a t t he top of th e insect bar a nd t hro ug h
help you set up the in sect ba r. th e grommets a t th e ridg e of th e t en t. After
folding the ten t end sections over th e s ides of
S us pe nding th e bar oue r a cot or bed. To th e tent, tie th e tapes near th e bottom edges of
use the ins ect bar with a wooden cot'or a bed, th e in sect bar aro und the tent pin s .
a ttach a wooden in sect bar fr ame to eac h en d
of th e cot. Tie th e tie tap es of the in sect bar to S us pe n di n g th e ba r fro m t rees o r
th e top corn ers of eac h fram e. 'To use th e bus hes . For pr otection outdoo rs whe na tent
in sect ba r _with a met al bed , a ttach a T is not a va ilable , s usp end th e in sect bar by
s ha ped metal fra me to eac h ' en d of th e bed. tying t he tie ta pes a t the t op corners to tr ees
T ie th e ti e tapes at the top corners of th e or bus hes .
insect bar to th e ends of the cros spieces a t t he
top of ea ch Tvsh aped frame. Care. Sp ot was h ver y dirty a reas wit h h ot
water a n d soap or detergen t. Rin se th e insect
Fast ening th e bar in side a she lte r-half bar th oroughly a nd a ir-dry it .
te n t. Fas ten the insect bar in side th e she lte r
h al f tent wh ile th e tent is being pitch ed. Fi rst, P ack ing. Fold th e insect bar in to a s mall
snap th e she lte r h al ves together . Pl ace th em bun dle, a nd eithe r pla ce it in the field pa ck or
ove r t he s prea d-out insect ba r so th at th e foot a t ta ch it to th e pa ck. It ma y a lso be pla ced in
stops of t he ten t a re aligned wit h the tie ta pes ' th e duffel bag.

Figure 55. In sect bar .


FM 21 -15


T he nylon multipu rp ose ne t (fig ure 5-6) is

a bout 5 feet wide a nd 9 feet long . Tw o cords ,
a bout 14 feet long, a re packed wit h ea ch net .
When folded , the net can be attache d to th e
indiv idual eq uipme n t belt in a way similar to
that descr ibed for th e pon cho . You ca n use
th e net as a h ammock , a camouflage net , a
carrier for bulky load s , a litter, a n et , a trap
for ga me, a storage place for food or a m muni
ti on, a sni per's roost , a n d many othe r field
expe dien ts . You will find detail ed info r
mation on the multipurpose net in TM 10-276.
Figu re 5-6. Multipurpose net.
i I

Your pla stic (polyeth ylene) water ca ntee n

(figure 5-7) h olds 1 qu art. The olive-g ree n
canteen , wh ich fits into the standard met al
cup, h a s a plas tic screw ca p with an a tta chi ng
s tra p and is ca rried in th e sta ndard ca ntee n
cover . Wa sh th e canteen and"cup wit h wa rm,
so a py wa t er a nd r in se t h em tho ro ug hly.
Keep t he m dr a in ed a n d dr y wh en n ot in use.
Do n ot force th e pla stic ca p on th e ca nteen;
t he ca p m a y s plit . DO NO T P UT TH E
FLA ME OR BU RNE R PLATE. Figure 5-7_ One-quart cant een and cup.


The 2-qua rt ca ntee n (fig ure 5-8)is a colla ps

ible pla stic conta in er . Ca re for it th e sam e
wa y as for the l -qu art ca n teen. The cover for !
the ca n teen a ttaches to the pistol belt with
sta n da rd cli ps an d h as a detachable s ho ulde r
st ra p. Th e case al s o h as an external pouch for
a bottle of iodi n e disinfectant tablets. A bag
a nd case-carrying sling ca n al so be used to
carry the 2-qua rt ca n teen. Clean th e s ling
with mild soap a nd water, and let it dr y. Figur e 5-8. Two-quart canteen and cover.


:j : ~


FM 2 1- 15


Your mes s gear (figure 5-9) con s is ts of th e

mes s kit pan a n d lid a nd the fie ld mess kn ife,
fork , a nd spoon . Before using yo ur mess gear,
clean it a nd di p it in boiling wa ter for at least
LESS APP ETIZING. As s oon as pos sib le
a fte r yo u fini sh eating , s cr ape off foo d
particl es . Dip m ess ge ar in a h ot s oa p,
detergent, or hand-washing solution . Use a
brush , if yo u h a ve one, to wash off food or
gr eas e. Rin s e gear thoroughly for about
30 se conds in cl ean , boili ng wa ter. Air-dry the
gea r by swinging it ba ck and forth until it is
C LOT H OR TOWEL. , Figu re 59. Mess gear.

.,.' .

FM.21 -15


ALI CE a ll-purpose lightweight in dividu a l ca rrying eq uipmen t

DA Dep artment of th e Arm y
F Fah ren heit
FM field m anual
HQ hea dqu a rter s
NBC nuclea r, biologica l, che m ica l
NO num ber
NSN na tion a l s toc k num ber
PA SGT per sonn el a rmo r system ground tr oop
TM tech ni ca l m a n ua l
TR ADOC United St ates Arm y Trai n ing a nd Doctrine Comma nd
US Unit ed Sta tes (of America )

Glossary -'
FM 21-15

Related References

Related references are sources of additional information. They are not required in order to .
understand this publication.


32-4 Special Measurement Clothing and Footwear, Orthopedic
Footwear.. Guidons, Streamers and Flags
640-3 Identification Cards, Tags, and Badges
670-1 'Wear and Appearance of Army Uniform~andInsignia
700-84 Issue and Sale of Personal Clothing
700-86 . Life Cycle Management of Clothing and Individual Equipment


50-900 .Clothing and IndividualEquipment

.DAFORM~ ~--:--....;......; ---..;, :....__

2028 RecommendedChanges toPublications .and Blank Forms

DA PAMPHLETS _----'- ~_----:....---~--_:....----

108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures and Related Audio-Visual Aids

310-1 Consolidated: Index of Army Publications and Blank Forms

.FIELD MANUALS ~ -:-- ~ __

10-16 General Repair of Tents, Canvas, and Webbing
10-17 Army Fixed Laundry, Organization and Operation
10-267 General Repair for Clothing and Textiles
10-280 Field Laundry, Clothing Exchange, and Bath Operations
21-11(TEST) First Aid for Soldiers
21-18 Foot Marches
21-40 NBC (N uclear, Biological, and Chemical) Defense
21-75 Combat Training of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling
22-5 Drill and Ceremonies
22-6 Guard Duty

iO~523 Size Tariff for Clothing, Equipage, and Footwear.

r r


r: QM 13 Clothing, Equipment, and Rations for Use in the Jungle

3-4240-279-10 Operator's Manual: Mask, Chemical-Biological; Field ABC-MI7,
MI7Al, and M17A2
3-4240-2~0-10 Operator's Manual for Mask, Chemical-Biological: Aircraft,
ABC-M24 and Tank, M25 and M25Al and Accessories
9-1300-200 Ammunition, General
10-227 Fitting of Army Uniforms and Footwear
10-276 Hot Weather Clothing and Equipment
10-277 Chemical, Toxicological and Missile Fuel Handlers Protective
. Clothing
10-8340-221-13 Operator's, Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance
Manual: Tent, Shelter Half and Tent, Mountain, Two-Man
10-8400-201-23 Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance Manual:
General Repair Procedure for Clothing and Individual
10-8465-202-23 Organizational and Field (Third Echelon) Maintenance Manual:
Packboard, Plywood
57-220 Technical Training of Parachutists

21-3 Soldier's Handbook for Individual Operations and Survival in

Cold Weather Areas

10-2430 Fitting Army Uniforms and Footwear-Fitting of Footwear
10-3092 Individual Load Carrying Equipment
10-3593 Individual Load Carrying System-Variations of Use
10-4223 Hot Weather Clothing and Equipment
10-4300 Care and Storage of Tentage
10-4780 How to Use Cold Weather Clothing