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43 Zuiga, Angel Leo M.

1. What makes parenteral therapy so complex?
Dosage forms must be regulated by trained personnel, and ordinarily requiring more
nursing time than those managed by different courses. It requires strict adherence to
aseptic methodology, and can bring about some agony on infusion. It is harder to reverse
the physiological impacts once a medication has been given parenterally. Likewise as a
result of assembling and bundling prerequisites, parenteral dosage forms are more costly
than similar medications given orally.

2. What makes parenteral therapy dangerous?

The Infusion of a parenteral item into a vein can prompt phlebitis or thrombophlebitis.
Penetration or incidental intra-blood vessel infusion can bring necrosis resulting in tissue
harm, even loss of appendage.

3. Name and discuss some procedures, devices and system that make parenteral therapy
IV push method, use of infusion pumps, IV pumps, and smart pumps.
Automated device functions and safety features make parenteral administration less
onerous for self-treating patients.
Advanced parenteral delivery solutions are affording product differentiation and therapeutic
benefits across a range of therapies.

In needle-based injection, cartridge-based pens and prefilled syringes loaded into

disposable auto injector devices offer features that support easier self administration by

Antares Pharma Vibex injectors feature adjustable needle penetration and adjust to alter
injection speed for viscous product.
Used for daily therapies and those less frequently administered, these devices require
fewer steps and make the injection process less difficult and safer. As more easily used
delivery systems, they promote regimen adherence among self-treating patients.

In transdermal delivery through patch and gel technologies, the side effects of orally
administered drugs that often cause noncompliance are reduced or avoided.

Needle-free injection therapy systemspromising for applications including pediatric

vaccines and self-administered injections for chronic conditionsalso address patient
adherence, as patients facing daily injection dont also have to face a needle.


The patient sets the dose using a unique spinning dose knob that spins as the dose is
administered. The selected dose amount is shown in a small window, says Donna French,
senior director, device development, Genentech.

The spinning knob provides a strong visual indicator. The patient can be assured when the
injection starts, when it is happening, and when it is finished. (In addition), if the patient
accidentally over turns the knob in setting the dose, it can be turned back and forward with
ease to select the correct dose, French says.
After the needle is inserted into the skin, the drug is automatically delivered after the patient
moves a sliding dose activator on the side of the pen.

4. Discuss the pharmacists role in developing safe and effective parenteral therapy.
They guarantee that all staff members are instructed and skilled to work. They
command that the patient's weight and sensitivity status be incorporated on all physician
pharmaceutical requests. They permit just metric units for weight and height to avoid
perplexity and potential dosing mistakes. They give medicines in the most prepared to-
utilize design, ideally in unit-of-use packaging.

5. Why do different patient populations need customized procedures to maintain their safety
during parenteral therapy?
It is because there are distinctive mixture site determination for neonates and pediatrics
and grown-ups. The pharmacist needs to consider their age to apply medication security
during parenteral therapy.