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10 vizualizări57 paginiprinciple to a truss. But first, what is a truss? A truss is a structure that is assumed to have no moment reactions at any joint. This means that each member can only have axial forces. There are two methods used to solve trusses, the first method is the method of joints. This method

May 09, 2017

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principle to a truss. But first, what is a truss? A truss is a structure that is assumed to have no moment reactions at any joint. This means that each member can only have axial forces. There are two methods used to solve trusses, the first method is the method of joints. This method

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10 vizualizări57 paginiprinciple to a truss. But first, what is a truss? A truss is a structure that is assumed to have no moment reactions at any joint. This means that each member can only have axial forces. There are two methods used to solve trusses, the first method is the method of joints. This method

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So, this is the beginning of the blog and the most elementary part of any force relationship in

engineering mechanics. The purpose of "Statics" is to attain a relationship between external

forces applied to an object and the internal forces required to keep the object from moving

(static). The basic equation is:

This equation represents the equilibrium that must exist between internal forces and

external forces for a non moving object.

The summing of forces and distances is vector mechanics. For statics, zero movement of a

system means vector forces must be in equilibrium. Consider the following example, where

the node must be in static equilibrium.

Lets apply this principle to a truss. But first, what is a truss? A truss is a structure that is

assumed to have no moment reactions at any joint. This means that each member can only

have axial forces. There are two methods used to solve trusses, the first method is the

method of joints. This method involved summing the forces in the x and y direction for every

joint in the system. Take a look at this example:

Lets move on to the method of sections. The theory behind this method is that if you sum

moments about any part of the structure, the moments must sum to zero. This method is handy

if you simply want to find one internal force, he is another example of the same truss:

Beam Statics

To keep things simple I'll represent the relationship between internal forces and external forces

with a picture and explain what it means in the context of the static equilibrium equation. For a

beam with external loading:

W is simply the distributed load (force) acting on the beam and the triangle and circle

represent a pin and a roller, respectively. Technically a pin can have a force reaction in the X

(horizontal) direction, bit I'm only trying to convey the internal forces of them beam at this point.

To maintain static equilibrium at any point along the length of the beam, there must be forces

inside the beam that keep the structure from moving. These forces are:

From the same beam as before we cut a demonstrative cross-section to illuminate what

the hell is going on. We still have a distributed load acting on the beam and a reaction force

from the left support. However, we have the additional two forces acting (the internal forces).

The forces are an internal reaction force (V, which you can visualize as another reaction force; it

is simply in the beam instead of an external force) and an internal torque or Moment (M). These

forces are what maintains equilibrium in the beam along it's length. The moment is always

confusing, but look at it like this: it is a force time a distance that attempts to rotate the beam

into equilibrium.

Now that we have figures out the relationship between external in internal loading, lets look at

the most important issue in statics (I like jumping into things): Shear and moment diagrams.

These equations govern what is going on in the beam. All moments, internal, and

external forces must equal zero throughout the extents of the beam.

Shear/Moment Diagrams

Here we see a simply supported (two point forces at the ends) beam with a point force

mid span. Below the beam is the shear diagram and under that is the moment diagram.

Lets walk through this:

The Shear Diagram

Since the beam is loaded directly in the middle, each reaction at the ends

of the beam must be F/2. As we travel from left to right, nothing changes because there in no

loading to induce change. When we reach the middle the force (F) "knocks" the shear diagram

by the magnitude of F (or, the sum of both reactions). As we travel right, nothing changes as the

loading stays the same. However, when we reach point C, the reaction "knocks up" (sorry for the

profanity) the shear diagram by F/2 to reach zero. The shear diagram of a simply supported

beam bust be zero at one extent.

The Moment diagram

One cool way to look at the moment diagram at this stage in our

learning is tho thing of it as the integral of the shear diagram. That is:

This meant that the slope of the moment diagram is the shear

force and that the area of the shear graph is the Magnitude of the moment at any point. Check

it out:

Units

The units for Shear and Simply supported reactions Reactions are the

same, (Kips, lb, N, etc)

The units for moment are (force*Distance)=(kip*ft, N*meter, etc)

Now that the basics of shear and moment have been covered, lets look at more complicated

loading/constraint(external reaction) situations. Here is a cantilevered beam:

A cantilevered beam is different from a simple support in that it the restrains the end.

The restraint doesn't allow for "rotation" of the end, meaning that there is a larger (maximum)

moment at the only beam restraint (as the other end is free).

Above are the shear and moment diagrams for the beam, notice that F

and Rb are the same as the loading condition doesn't change until the extent of the beam.

The moment diagram differs significantly from the simply supported beam, in

that, the maximum moment occurs at the beam/wall connection and decreases (or increases

depending on your sign convention) to zero where the beam ends (remember that a moment is a

function of length and an applied force).

Lets go back to the simply supported beam for a second, now lets look at a uniform distributed

load. A uniform distributed load is a load that has a constant magnitude across the length of

the member. Here is an example:

As described above, the load is a magnitude W across the length of the beam. What

does this mean?

The shear force will have to change. The reaction at the end is of magnitude

WL/2, and the shear constantly changes (decreases) as the distributed load constantly acts down

on the beam. For a non-varying load, the shear force will vary linearly.

Remember, the moment at any point in the beam must equal the slope of the

shear diagram and the magnitude must be equal to the composite area of the shear diagram

from one extreme of the beam to the point of desired moment magnitude. So, if you wanted to

find the moment at x=.75L, just find the area of the left triangle on the shear diagram and

subtract the area of 1/2 the horizontal distance of the second triangle (not 1/2 the area

of the second triangle).

The Centroid or Neutral axis (2d shape) is the distance from a datum that the area moments of

and object are balanced. In other words, the place where the areas of an object are balanced.

Here is the formula to calculate the neutral axis of a 2d object:

Where Ci is the distance from the datum (I usually choose the bottom of the object) to the center

point of an object. Ai is simply the area of the object.

Now lets look at Moment of Inertia. The moment of inertia is a distribution of a cross section's

area. It is used to calculate stresses and deflections in later topics. There are two parts of the

moment of inertia from the parallel axis theorem. Here is the equation:

Here is an example, it will explain the process much better that I can: (x is the location of

the neutral axis)

Next, lets look at an example of a non-square shape (we'll have to use a moment of inertia table

for weird shapes). Here is a triangle

This table should give you everything you'll need to calculate the moment of inertia for a given

geometry:

Summary

So, we've covered everything you need to prepare you for Mechanics of Materials. We've looked

at how to sum forces, shear and moment diagrams, Neutral axis/centroid and the movement of

inertia. If there is anything else needed to be covered (truss, vector stuff, etc.) shoot me an

email or comment on my main page.

Mechanics of Materials I

This section is an advancement of statics. Mechanics of materials applies the same equations

and statics, except that the bodies are now deformable. What does this mean? It means that we

will have to analyze problems using stress/strain relationships.

So, what is stress? Well, it is a force over an area. The same as atmospheric pressure or any

other pressure (except peer pressure). Here is a bar under some axial loading:

What other types of stress are there? Lets keep on thing in mind: no matter what type of stress

an object is experiencing, the units (psi, kN/m^2, etc.) don't change. The other type of stress an

object may experience is shear stress:

Of course the magnitude and direction (sign, +/-) may change, but the concept is the same,

Stress = P/A. I'll define Compressional stress as a stress that shortens an element (squishes) and

tensional stress as one that would elongate an element.

What is the relationship between axial stress and deformation? What are the material properties

involved? Well, it mush have something to do with the applied force, the cross sectional area,

the length, and something else. We need to find a relationship between elongation and material

resistance. Here is how it works:

Where stain is the change in length over the original length. So, for an elastic material (one that

doesn't permanently deform and that he stress and strain are related by Hooke's law[stress =

Elasticity modulus * strain]) the change in length and the stress have a linear relationship (for

reasonable stresses). We denote this relationship with the Modulus of Elasticity (E), for steel it is

29000 Kips/in^2. OK, here is the formula for bar elongation of a bar under axial loads:

Beam Theory!

Cool, now lets look at something that is actually interesting: Beam Theory. A beam is something

that is long and slender, it loaded perpendicular to its long axis (it can also be loaded axially).

We'll analyze how a beam reacts to external forces and how the internal forces cause

deformations. This is why shear and moment diagrams are so important. This page is intended

for Engineering students so we won't toil over the boring proofs, we'll stick to what matters and

the general concepts. Lets examine a beam under some loading condition:

We notice that the beam is bent in some parabolic shape that has a radius and a

deflection below its original position. But, what is causing the deformation. Well, we we

concluded that only bending moments contribute to the bending of the member (a good

assumptions shear forces usually only contribute 3-5% of total deformations) we notice the

following:

The bending moment rotates the section. OK, now look at the top of the beam; we see

that is has compressed and that the bottom has elongated. This means the top and bottom are

experiencing compressive and tensile stresses, respectively. For a linear stress/strain material,

the bending stress distribution must also be linear. Look at the top two examples in the following

pic. The bottom picture shows combined bending (bending about both axis).

The point of zero bending stress in the neutral axis and the points of maximum bending

stress are the beams extremes. The formula for the distribution of bending stress is:

Where M is the moment applied at any given point along the beam (from the shear/moment

diagram), Y is the location from the neutral axis that you want to find the bending stress, and I is

the cross sections moment of inertia.

Bending stress is not the only stress that a beam experiences when loaded, there is also a shear

stress assumed by the beam cross section. This stress is weird, the proof behind it is tedious

and I don't want to do it. Here are the basics:

There is a big difference in Bending stress and shear stress. The shear stress in a

material varies parabolically and reaches a maximum at the neutral axis. This phenomenon

related to shear flow. The General formula is:

S= shear stress, Q= the moment about the neutral axis of the area above the

point you want to calculate the shear stress, I = moment of inertia, b= width of desired section.

Here is Q, find the area of the shaded region and multiply it by the centroid

distance. b is .35".

the equation for shear stress near the fillet of the cross section is not accurate.

Beam Deflection

This is really just a preview to what happens in Structural Analysis. Here we are not concerned

about the stresses in a beam, rather the deflection of a beam along its length. The governing

equation of beam deflection is:

Where M is the complete equation for the moment distribution along a beam

Solving deflections using this equation is tedious and requires substitution to solve for the

constants of integration. A much easier way to solve for deflection at this stage is to use the

moment/area method. This method is really cool, all you need to do is formulate the moment

diagram for a beam and calculate the area (up to the desired point of deflection), multiply by the

length of the centroid, and divide by EI. You can also solve for the angle using the same process

on the shear diagram. Example (W is a distributed load):

For really simply loading cases you can simply use the following equations (note that for

combined conditions the deflections and angles may be added to find the desired values):

Buckling

Buckling is one of my favorite topics, it is the theory of beam response due to large axial loads.

For long and skinny beams, a huge load may force a beam to bend perpendicular to the axial

loading axis rather than simply compress. Buckling is dependent on the cross sectional

properties, length, elasticity, loading and end (fixity) conditions. This is the general buckling

formula (maximum axial load) in which you can substitute different effective lengths (length

between mathematical inflection points) based on the column's end conditions:

Mohr's Circle

For combined stresses in a material the maximum stress and angle the stress is acting can be

computed. This is done using Mohr's Circle.

For a piece of material, the above circle governs the principle stresses, that is, the extreme

stresses in the material. the circle also governs shear and normal stresses at any angle in the

material. Here are the equations you need to know:

Torsion

The easiest way to explain torsion is that when you twist a member, such as a drive shaft, the

member must resist the torque applied. The member's resistance has to result in some

deformation, this is torsion. Take a look at the simplest case, torsion of a circular bar or hollow

circular bar:

T is the torque applied to the bar (torque is just a moment applied along the center axis

of the bar). is the the angle of twist (angle of deformation). C is the radius.

Torsion is different than normal deformation (even though it still behaves linearly for

reasonable, forces), in that, it is dependent of the shear modulus G. G represents the resistance

of material planes to slide past one another, G is usually much smaller than E.

Here are the useful equations for cylandircal members:

Equation one is the shear stress at any radius inside the bar.

Equation two is the angle of twist () at any length (l) along the bar's length.

Equation three is the polar moment of inertia for a solid cylinder.

Equation four is the polar moment of inertia for a hollow shaft.

Torsion of non circular bars is extremely complicated, take a look at the deformed shape of an I-

Beam:

We can see that there are many factors involved with this situation, the polar moment of inertia

is some combination of the moment of inertia about both axises (x and y), there is warping, and

geometrical change. To keep things simple in the analysis we say the torsional resistance to

deformation is:

Here are the torsional stiffnesses of an equilateral triangular shaft and a square shaft (found

experimentally) for small deflections:

Conclusion

You've seen the basics of Mechanics of Materials here. Mechanics of Materials is, really, the

first introduction to deformations of solids. It introduces the fundamental principals of stress and

strain as a function of external loading.

Solid Mechanics extends much further, however. More advanced topics in Solid Mechanics

include Vibration Theory, Contact Mechanics, Continuum Mechanics of solids, Finite Element

Methods for solids, Stress Waves in solids, Response to Blast and Loading, the list goes on. The

techniques employed with these methods involve higher level mathematics and numerical

methods, so if these interest you, brush up on calculus of multiple variables, tensor notation,

linear/non-linear algebra and partial differential equations!

Structural Analysis I

The general purpose of Structural Analysis is to understand how a structure behaves under

loads. It is different than Strength of Materials because we are not concerned with stresses,

rather, forces and deformations. Here are the topics I'll cover:

2. Statically determinate beams and frames

1. Double Integral Method

2. Moment Area method

3. Statically Indeterminate beams and frames

1. Force Method

2. Slope/Deflection Method

3. Indeterminate Shear/Moment

4. Matrix Analysis

I've covered the basics in the statics section of my web page. So, I'll go into depth with my

analysis of shear and moment diagrams. I'll try to use more complicated loading conditions and

I'll introduce hinges. Lets start with a simply supported beam:

The simply supported beam above is subjected to a evenly distributed load from L/2 to

L. Both ends are pinned so there can be no moment at either end.

To find the reactions, we place a statically equivalent load in the middle and sum the

forces and moments about on of the support locations and calculate Ra and Rb.

Now that we have Ra, we know the shear force from support A to L/2. At L/2 we know the

shear force must change linearly as the evenly distributed load acts form L/2 to L. We find the

slope of the shear by subtracting Ra from Rb and dividing by the acting length (L/2)

The first half of the moment diagram is a slam dunk. Just like the evenly distributed load

affected the right side of the shear/moment diagram, we can use the same concept on the

moment diagram. it increases linearly from 0 to L/2 with a maximum value equivalent to the

area of the shear diagram.

The point of inflection of the the moment diagram (slope = 0 = flat) is where

the shear force = 0. To find the Maximum moment, add the shear force at L/2 to the area of

the shear triangle from L/2 to the location of zero shear (5L/8) discovered from the third bullet.

From 5L/8 to L, we know the moment must decrease non-linearly (2nd power). Who

cares what it looks like.

Another example worked out in metric with the addition of a hinge. A hinge is an internal

reaction that doesn't allow moments and can only transfer shear force (summing moments about

a hinge = 0, hinges also allow for one extra equation).

Here is another example, except there is a cantilevered end at the end of the simple support

and a concentrated moment.

For my last Shear and Moment diagram example, I'll look at a frame. A frame is a structure that

has ridigidly connected members that allow for moments to be transferred. Don't be

frightened by a frame, it behaves much like a beam, in that, it is a series of beams.

The Frame example isn't complete, but here you can get the gist of the analysis.

Solve for the support reactions

Work your way from one member to another, distributing the moment from one

beam's end to the beginning of the attached beam.

Draw each beams shear and moment diagram accordingly to attain the

transferred moments and shears.

There are a ton of ways to calculate deflections for determinate structures. I've highlighted the

double integration method in the strength of materials section as well as the moment area

method. Honestly, double integration is the most annoying thing to preform as one has to

continually solve for integration constants using boundary conditions, but to be thorough, I'll

include another example of double integration:

OK, that was horrible.

Lets look at my favorite method again, the Moment Area method. Here are all the basics:

Now, lets look at an more complicated example using applying the Moment Area Method:

Statically Indeterminate Structures

Well, everything we've talked about so far has been structures in which we have enough

equations (three + how ever many hinges are present) to solve for all the internal forces and

external reactions. A statically indeterminate structure is a structure that has more

unknown reactions that can be discovered using the equations of statics (summing forces and

moments). In the indeterminate case, we must use the member properties (E, I, L) to find

reactions.

Force Method

Lets look at the first and easiest method, the Force Method. Basically, the force method is

determine an unknown reaction by calculating the force that would be necessary to bring a

displacement back to equilibrium. First I'll show you an example:

So, this is a pretty simple and handy way to calculate redundant reactions. However, it gets

ridiculously tedious for many degrees of indeterminacy. This is why we have other methods. The

force method, however is the basis for calculating member stiffnesses for more advanced

methods of structural analysis.

Slope/Deflection Method

Before I get into the weeds about what the slope deflection method is, I need to explain what a

fixed end moment is. A fixed end moment (FEM) is the moment caused by a load on a beam with

both ends fixed (a beam cantilevered at both ends). The reason the FEM is so important is

because it is the base point from which we add or subtract moments to find the actual end

moments (don't let this confuse you, just use the equations and it will work out. Now, to find the

FEM for a member, just look at the following equations and plug in the same values give to you in

a problem:

The slope deflection method is the basis for establishing member stiffnesses. Any beam has a

stiffness based off its length, moment of inertia, and modulus of elasticity. I won't go through the

derivation because you probably don't care. However you should know that a member can be

subject to end rotations and translations (perpendicular to the beams major axis), each end

rotation and translation is associated with a member stiffness the resists the impending force.

This is what slope/deflection is based off. Here is are the two governing equations and the

procedure for analyzing any structure (not that theta A and theta B are the left and right

rotations, respectively):

Here is a basic example of a beam to get you started on the slope deflection method, note that K

is used instead of the stiffness coefficient (it doesn't really matter, if E and I are the same for

each span they will cancel anyways):

Indeterminate Shear/Moment Diagrams

The shear/moment diagrams for indeterminate structures function the same as determinate

structures. In most cases you will know the end forces for a section of a beam or frame. This

causes no problem, you will know the external loading and with the member forces you can draw

the diagrams. Lets take a look at a highly indeterminate beam:

The above example is a beam in which we know all the intermediate span end forces.

Given that there is an evenly distributed force along the length of the span we can draw the

approximate parabolic moment diagrams for each beam.

So, after you have analyzed all the forces using some Structural Analysis Method, all you

have to do is be a good bookkeeper to draw the shear and moment diagrams.

Matrix Analysis

Matrix analysis is as far as you can take traditional Structural Analysis, that is, to analyze

each member individually and compute all the internal, external, or end forced. The next level

would be finite element analysis, which breaks down the matrix member analysis to the

element (small element) size.

So, what are the building blocks for Matrix Structural analysis? Well, what we want to do,

ultimately, is find an easy of logging member stiffness based of known values (E,G,L,A,I,J). We

also want to find a way to describe element forces (that is, the forces acting on an individual

member) and input them into a larger matrix that outputs all the desired displacements or

forces.

Here are a few basics I have outlined to help you get a fundamental understanding of what is

going:

Once all the elemental stiffnesses have been assembled they are then transformed to the global

coordinate system and compiled into the structure stiffness matrix. The structure stiffness

matrix includes all elements and may also have additional degrees of freedom such as torsion,

rigid lengths, etc. The structure stiffness matrix may also be condensed (for instance, neglect

axial deformations) or partitioned as the user requests.

Conclusion

I've introduced you to some major concepts and given you a few worked examples to help you

understand deflections and structural reactions. There may be some additions to be made

(Moment distribution method, continuation of matrix analysis, etc.), but I hope what I have given

you is helpful and interesting. Feel free to email me any questions.

In this section, we're discussing the behavior and basics of reinforced concrete under loads. We'll

also discuss designing a member by varying the cross sectional area and the amount of

reinforcement. I'll use ACI 318 equations and provisions. This is what I want to talk about:

1. Concrete structural

2. Flexure Analysis

1. Singly reinforced beam

2. Doubly reinforced beam

3. T beam

3. Flexure Design

4. Shear

5. Bond Development

6. Combined loading (Columns)

Concrete is a material used for its compressive strength. The point of reinforcing a concrete

member is to allow the reinforcement assume tensile requirements in a member, limit cracking

and confine the core (shear and torsion). I'll explain these phenomena when necessary.

We denote the compressive strength of concrete by (f'c) which can range anywhere from 2000

psi to 10000+psi (or 2ksi to 10 ksi). We'll also use the notation (f y) for the yield strength of steel,

which is 60000 psi or 60 ksi. Lets pretend we have a little reinforced column that we want to

crush, we have to add the strength of the reinforcement to the concrete strength. All we do is

compare a ratio of the steel's elasticity modulus to the concrete modulus and make

an equivalent section:

Where N is the ratio of the moduli of elasticity (concrete vs. steel). N is usually 8.

Lets also talk about the modulus of rupture (fr), this is, essentially, the tensile strength of

concrete. When the modulus of rupture is reached in the extreme tensile face of a concrete

member, the member cracks. If the member is not reinforced, it will crack through the cross

section and cause failure. If the beam is reinforced, the crack will propagate to the neutral axis

of the equivalent cracked section. The moment that causes cracking is called the cracking

moment. Look:

If (usually) the beam is found to be cracked follow the below procedure to determine the neutral

axis (kd).

Flexure

Since concrete has such a low tensile capacity (strength), it permissible to neglect any tensile

resistance in a member. That means, for a concrete member in flexure, the capacity is

dependent on the moment created by the couple (forces acting in opposite directions with a

distance between them) of the concrete in compression and the reinforcement in tension.

So, what are the allowable values for concrete and the reduction safety factors? Well, ACI 318

only allows for concrete calculations to use 85% of the actual concrete strength (.85f'c).

However analyze a members moment capacity based off the yield strength of the reinforcement

bars. For tension controlled sections the reduction factor (phi) = .9. Note that the term (1)

is used, its value is .85 for a concrete strength of .85 and reduces by .05 for

ever increase of 1000 psi.

To analyze a singly reinforced beam's flexural capacity (Mn), use the following process:

Flexure Analysis

T-Beam Analysis

Flexure Design

I've already introduced the important concepts regarding strength reduction (safety, phi)

factors in the previous section. Design is an iterative process, keep this in mind. If you first don't

succeed, try bigger values (b and d). Check out this guide for singly reinforced beam design:

Note that a phi value of .9 is used because the section is designed to be

tension controlled. This means that the tension reinforcement yields before the

concrete crushes.

So, I've covered two main topics in flexure design. Doubly reinforced beam design is very

tedious and complicated, and usually involves many iterations to meet ACI specifications. I could

have also included slab and doubly reinforced T-Beam design, however, one way slab design is

really easy (it is similar to singly reinforced flexure design). I will likely include these in the

future. If there is any other flexure topics you would like me to cover, feel free to ask.

Shear

Shear is a completely new topic. Shear capacity of a member is dependent on the shear

capacity of the beam's cross section. The capacity of the cross section to handle design shear

may not be sufficient. For this reason we may needshear reinforcement. Shear reinforcement

maintains the homogeneity of a member by stopping shear cracks from propagating through a

large amount of the beam.

The shear capacity (Vc) of a cross section is dependent on the cross-section's area and the

tensile capacity of a beam (related to f'c). The shear capacity is ultimately based on

experimental results, the best fit equation for shear capacity and the design equation are:

Bond development

This has nothing to do with James Bond, although I've been told I look a lot like Pierce Brosnan.

Jus seeing if you were paying attention! haha. Bond Development is my favorite topic in

concrete mechanics. It may seem a bit abstract at first, but you'll see how cool it is once I go

into detail. So, what is bond? Well, if we want to get all the moment capacity we've been

calculating in the previous sections we need to ensure that there is enough length and "friction"

(bond) between the reinforcing bars and the concrete.

At the end of the day we need a certain length of bar past our critical point (the place of

maximum moment, and, thus the maximum force being applied to the rebar). This is called the

development length, and it is a function of the concrete tensile strength, rebar yield strength,

rebar coating (epoxy), concrete cover, spacing, transverse reinforcement, and reinforcement

placement. Yes, this equation is going to get complicated quick, remember, it is just an

equation. Here is the mega bond development equation (discovered from our very own,

University of Kansas!):

The bond development equation is pretty cool, but how does one apply it? Well, this is where

you have to be familiar with the ACI Code. In the code there is a great illustration in section 12,

the bond section, that shows you everything you need to know about development lengths.

There are a ton of bond provisions and requirements to be made, reference the code when in

question.

A lot of the time there is not enough room in a structure to implement the entire development

length, this is why hooks were developed. Simply put, a hook has a shorter bond development

length; this is its advantage. The two most common hooks are the 90 degree and 180 degree

hooks, here are the code provisions for bend diameters and development lengths:

There really is a ton to talk about in bond development. Without getting into super ACI

provisional talk, I hope I gave you a gist of what is going on with bond development. The best

thing you can do with regards to learning bond development is getting to know ACI 318 section

12.

Combined loading is the situation in which a member is experiencing axial (compression) loading

and bending. This situation is pretty neat, remember how concrete preforms poorly in tension?

The following diagram explains how a a column functions under combing loading:

The above diagram demonstrates how a compressive axial force adds only compressive stress to

the column. The non-linear behavior of concrete benefits from this phenomena because the axial

force shifts the neutral axis up, which allows more concrete to be in compression and reduces the

reinforcement tensile stress. Lets look at the design axial force for ashort column:

This example is obvious, of course the design axial capacity is going to be dependent on

the are of reinforcement and the concrete area (along with the reduction factors).

So, we know that concrete favors compression. If we combine the effects of steel reinforcement

and the concrete under compression, we should get some type of interaction curve that favors

compression. The interaction curve should be a function of the axial compression, bending

moment, concrete material properties, the depth of reinforcement and the gross reinforcement

ratio. The relationship is as such:

The chart is clearly labeled to describe the states of the reinforcement in the column. At

the top, where the axial load is the greatest and there is little bending, all reinforcement is

experiencing compression. Zone 2 is a transition zone where the tensile steel is at less that half

the yield strength. In zone 3, the tensile steel is under high stress.

How can we design a column? Well, we need a better diagram with measured inputs and

reduction factors (a reduced curve). The graph must also have a factor for reinforcement depth,

gross reinforcement and reinforcement pattern. Here is the graph and design procedure (design

graph taken from Design of Concrete Structures, Volume 8, Dr. David Darwin, Nilson, Dolan):

Summary

I realize there is a ton of information to be said about basic concrete design, but I've tried to

supplement you learning with some examples and procedures. I hope this has served as an aid

to your studies. If you have any questions or think there is something for me to add, feel free to

email me.

Fracture Mechanics

Conclusion

You've gotten the 'rundown' on the most basic concepts of fracture mechanics. The most

important concepts in this page are that if you limit the stress, improve material toughness and

lower the number of cycles a structure is exposed to; it's life and performance will be enhanced.

Great, but is there more involved with fracture mechanics? Yes.

We looked at fracture and fatigue from a high level of observation. The methods of finding

stresses acting around a fracture can be very complicated (for example, using FEM or continuum

mechanics) and rather inaccurate. There is can be a large degree of uncertainty in

fracture/fatigue mechanics, thus large factors of safety are usually involved when designing a

structure. However, understanding the basics is key to diagnostics and important in the design

process and maintenance of a structure.

I hope you enjoyed this section and learned a bit. I also hope you didn't mind the different

formatting, for the purpose of this page I simply used MS word and copied it over, there were a

ton of pictures and equations that made it tedious to do piecewise!