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Original Study

Exercise and Sedentary Habits Among Adolescents with PCOS


M. Eleftheriadou MD, MSc 1, L. Michala MRCOG 1,*, K. Stefanidis MD, PhD 1, I. Iliadis PhD 2,
A. Lykeridou PhD 3, A. Antsaklis MD, PhD 1
1 st
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece
2
Music Secondary School of Ilion, Athens, Greece
3
Technical Institute of Athens, School of Midwifery, Athens, Greece

a b s t r a c t
Study Objective: The purpose of this study was the recording of physical activity and sedentary habits of adolescents with polycystic ovarian
syndrome (PCOS).
Methods: We performed a structured interview to assess the level of physical activity and sedentary habits of girls with PCOS. We used
a group of healthy adolescents as controls. All girls had their age, height, weight, hip and waist circumference measured and their BMI
calculated.
Results: 81 girls (35 with PCOS and 46 controls) participated in the study. Girls with PCOS engaged in physical activities less than controls.
Even when they did, the frequency and intensity of exercise was less. Also, girls with PCOS were less likely to be aware of the positive
effects of exercise on their health. Girls in both groups were sedentary in excess of the 4 hours per day limit, which has been linked with
obesity.
Conclusion: Healthy teenagers were involved in a sporting activity more often and more frequently than the PCOS group. Athletic and
sedentary habits of adolescents with PCOS may interact with other factors leading to obesity.
Key Words: Adolescence, PCOS, Sedentary habits, Sporting activity

Introduction indicate that from 1999 to 2004 the overall percentage of


overweight girls increased by nearly two percent.4 Lobstein
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by et al reported that there has been a signicant increase in
chronic oligo- or anovulation, biochemical or clinical child and adolescent obesity in Canada, the United
hyperandrogenism, and the presence of polycystic ovaries Kingdom, China, Germany, France, and Finland.5
on ultrasound.1 It is not clear whether the presence of obesity in the
The major manifestations of the syndrome are hirsutism, general population has affected the prevalence of polycystic
acne, oligomenorrhea and infertility. Although not part of ovaries, although, lately, the impact of environmental
the current diagnostic criteria of PCOS, obesity has been factors on the occurrence and development of the
associated with the syndrome, since its original description syndrome has been strongly reported. Franks argued that
by Stein-Leventhal in the 1930s and it is thought to affect PCOS in adolescents shows the effect of a genetically
40% to 50% of women with the syndrome.2 determined disorder of ovarian function resulting in hyper-
secretion of androgens; however, he believes, environ-
Obesity and PCOS in Puberty mental factors inuence the clinical and biochemical
phenotype. It is likely that the changes in the quantity, type
The presence of PCOS in adolescent women was rst and quality of dietary intake and the degree and type of
reported by Huffman in 1976.3 Initial work in this age group physical activity, can have a signicant impact on reducing
focused mainly on the investigation of menstrual dysfunc- the prevalence of obesity, among women with PCOS.6
tion; however, scientic interest gradually extended to The same has been implied by a recent study by Azziz
metabolic issues related to the syndrome, such as insulin et al, who elaborated on the idea that obesity in families
resistance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. Although PCOS with a history of PCOS is primarily a genetic hypothesis but
in adolescence has not been extensively researched, there is may reect to a considerable extent the effect of environ-
a general agreement that the clinical, metabolic, and mental factors.7
endocrine features of adolescents with PCOS are similar to The aim of this study was to study the degree of physical
those of adult women with the syndrome. activity and sedentary habits among teenage girls with
Over the past two decades the occurrence of obesity in PCOS.
adolescents has greatly increased. Recent data from the U.S.
Materials and Methods
The authors indicate no conicts of interest.
st
* Address correspondence to: Lina Michala, MRCOG 1 Department of Obstetrics
and Gynecology, University of Athens, Vas Soas 80, Athens, Greece The purpose of this study was the recording of physical
E-mail address: linamichalas@hotmail.com (L. Michala). activity and sedentary habits of adolescent girls with PCOS.
1083-3188/$ - see front matter 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2011.11.009
M. Eleftheriadou et al. / J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 25 (2012) 172e174 173

The sample of girls with PCOS came from a tertiary of pleasure than in the control group (91%), this did not
referral center for adolescent gynecology. The PCOS diag- reach statistical signicance (P 5 .433). Nevertheless,
nosis was based on the Rotterdam criteria.8 The control a statistically signicantly higher proportion of girls in the
group included girls without PCOS, attending a public control group (54%) were aware of the health benets of
school in the same geographical area. Exclusion criteria for exercise, as opposed to only 8% of girls with PCOS (P 5 .005).
the control group were: chronic disease, being in a weight Sedentary habits, such as time spent watching television,
loss diet, suffering from food allergies, taking medication working on the computer or surng the internet, were
(hormonal), and pregnancy. similarly high in the two groups, as 67.4% of the control
We developed a questionnaire based on templates group and 71.4% of the PCOS group were sedentary in excess
devised by Godin and Shephard,9 Eisenmann et al,10 Gort- of three hours per day (Table 2).
maker,11 and Epstein et al,12 designed to measure physical
activity. This questionnaire was completed during a struc- Discussion
tured interview with the researcher. All girls had their age,
height, weight, hip and waist circumference measured and Our study showed that girls with PCOS participated in
their BMI calculated. physical activities much less than did controls. This reec-
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17. We ted not only the fact that they were less likely to take up
used the t test for comparison of parametric data, the level physical activity but also that when they did, it was less
of statistical signicance being set at .05. For categorical frequently and less intensely than controls. Generally, our
data, we used chi square for comparisons, and again data agreed with those of Trent et al13 who recorded
statistical signicance was set at .05. reduced physical activity in adolescents suffering from the
We received written informed consent from all parents syndrome, compared to their healthy peers. Wright et al22
or guardians of girls participating in the study. Study in a similar research recorded lower-grade physical
approval was granted from the ethical committee of Alex- activity among adult women with PCOS when compared to
andra hospital, Athens. a healthy control group.
It has been suggested that the minimum time spent in
aerobic exercise per week in order to achieve cardiovascular
Results
benets for adults is 150e180 minutes, depending on age
and sex.14 In children and adolescents, the recommended
We included 35 girls with PCOS and 46 controls. Mean
time of weekly sporting activity is 220e240 minutes.15 We,
age was 15.1 and 14.6 years, respectively. Results of
therefore, observed that all adolescents in our study spent
anthropometric data are shown in Table 1.
less time than the recommended minimum.
Girls with PCOS participated in physical activities much
In recent years, several studies have shown that aerobic
less (12 out of 35, 34.3%) than controls (35 out of 46, 76.1%,
endurance exercise leads to favorable changes in cardiore-
P ! .001). It was further noted that when girls with PCOS
spiratory function, body composition, and metabolism of
engaged in physical exercise they did so at a lesser intensity
women with PCOS.16 It seems that the lifestyle changes that
and lesser frequency. The difference in frequency of
combine reducing food intake for weight loss and regular
sporting activity in particular, reached statistical signi-
exercise are a preferred treatment strategy in overweight
cance, as only 25% of girls with PCOS practiced a sport for
and obese women with PCOS.17
more than three times per week, versus 49% of controls
Despite the known benets of a healthy lifestyle, it was
(P ! .001).
interesting to note that a relatively large number of girls
Similar differences were identied when we performed
with PCOS and controls were not aware of the positive
our analysis in the group of 44 girls who were lean, where
effects of exercise on health, which supports our hypothesis
only 15% of girls with PCOS were engaging in physical
that adolescents and their parents do not have sufcient
activity vs 80% of normal controls (P ! .001). Frequency of
information about the benets of physical activity, partic-
physical activity was also higher in lean controls (58% more
ularly, in relation to the symptomatology of PCOS.
than 3 times per week), when compared to lean girls with
Sedentary habits, such as time spent watching television
PCOS (0%, P 5 .003).
per day, were similar in the two groups. The majority of girls
As part of the questionnaire we elaborated on the
watched television two to three hours per day, which is
reasons for engaging in physical activity. Although a smaller
consistent with previous available evidence.18 Although
proportion of girls with PCOS (83%) took up a sport out
daily time spent watching TV was relatively low, when time
spent using the internet was combined, this exceeded the
four hour per day limit of sedentary activity, which is
Table 1 positively associated with risk of obesity in both children
Anthropometric Data of Girls with PCOS and Controls
and adolescents.19
PCOS Controls t test P value In most research that has dealt with obesity in adult
mean  SD mean  SD women with PCOS, excess weight is linked to endocrine and
BMI 23.8  4.2 22.63  4.5 .240 metabolic factors,20,21 without assessing the contribution of
Waist circumference 78  10.3 75.4  9.9 .245 factors such as lifestyle habits. Other research has focused
Hip circumference 96.3  16 95.4  11.8 .785
primarily on the implementation of medicinal, non-dietary
W:H ratio. 0.81  0.17 0.77  0.05 .285
treatments with the purpose of improving the endocrine
174 M. Eleftheriadou et al. / J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 25 (2012) 172e174

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Acknowledgments
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