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Focus English

Session 5 Booklet 2
Why Focus English?

Having correct punctuation and grammar can help you significantly when you are doing
assessments in class, e.g. writing narratives, debates and speeches. Knowing the
difference between similar words, what language features are and how to apply them will
help you prepare for college, university and life. It is important to understand the
fundamentals of the English language.

Our Focus is to improve our persuasive writing by using the contents within this booklet.

Contents

Modal verbs Persuasive Writing

Emotive Language Persuasive Writing 2

Speech Marks and Commas Persuasive Writing 3

Similes and Metaphors Persuasive Writing 4

Personification Persuasive Writing 5

Extension Extension

Quiz 1 Quiz 2

Quiz 3 Quiz 4

Quiz 5 Quiz 6

Quiz 7 Quiz 8
Modal verbs
A modal verb is a verb that expresses necessity or possibility. English modal verbs include must, shall,
will, should, would, can, could, may, and might.

Modal Meaning Example

can To express ability I can speak a little Russian.

can To request permission Can I open the window?

may to express possibility I may be home late.

may to request permission May I sit down, please?

must to express obligation I must go now.

must to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old.

should to give advice You should stop smoking.

would to request or offer Would you like a cup of tea?

would in if-sentences If I were you, I would say sorry.

Create your own sentences using modal verbs.

Quiz
http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/multi/modal1.htm
http://www.focus.olsztyn.pl/en-modal-verbs-short-answers.html#.WO7g2UWGMdV
http://www.e-grammar.org/modal-verbs-can-may-must/test1-exercise2/
http://www.e-grammar.org/modal-verbs-can-may-must/test3-exercise1/

Modal verbs
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality - that is likelihood,
ability, permission and obligation. Modal verbs include: can, could, may, might, must,
will, should, shall and would.

Underline or bold each modal verb in the sentence given below.

Example: I could find out my test score next week.

He shall bring the food very soon.

We can definitely win the championship game.

I can speak a little Spanish.

You should stop smoking because it is bad for your health.

May I sit down now?

I can play basketball very well.

I must go now.

Can you help me lift the couch?

I can play basketball very well.

Can you help my lift the couch?

Could you pass the tomato sauce?

It must be very cold in Wanaka.

Using modal verbs - write a short persuasive argument on why we should or should not
do cross country.
Emotive Language: Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns are words such as I, you, he/she, we and they. They are used to
make the reader feel like we are talking to them.

Rewrite these sentences, adding in some personal pronouns.


Try to make the sentences sound more persuasive.

1. Rubbish should go in the bin

Rewrite:

2. School uniforms look smart.

3. Fruit and vegetables are healthy foods.

4. It is important to stay sun smart and wear a hat.

5. Turn the TV off and go play outside.

6. It is important to be kind and helpful.


Sorting Emotive Words
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5cgvk0BLw9s
Cut and paste the words that go under the correct heading.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BT3JbwlpQxU
Low High

may will

could might

certain has to

might not absolutely

must would

sometimes never

Make three sentences using at least one emotive word.


Speech Marks
Put the speech marks in the correct places. Remember: The speech marks go around
what is being said..

1. Hello, said the man.


2. What are you doing? said Fred.
3. Stop! shouted the policeman.
4. Wait a minute, said Mark. Dont I know you from somewhere?
5. I know what well do, said Lucy. Well go to the pictures.

Put the speech marks in the correct places once again. This time, however, you will also
need to add all the other punctuation that is needed as well. Watch out for any
questions or exclamations.

1. Hello said Greg


2. You look tired said Martin
3. Can I come in asked the man
4. No screamed the man
5. Come here said Grandma I want to see how much you have grown 6. Is that my bag
asked Daniel I thought Id lost it
7. Run shouted Sally The dog is after us
8. I know what I want for my birthday said Tina A brand new car

Include quotation marks where needed.

1. Jake blurted out, Ill go last, I really dont mind.

2. Jake said, Nobody else wants to go last.

3. Sara stammered, I really dont want to go to bed!

4. The odds are, well come in last, sighed Joe, but at least well finish.

5. Do you think the cake is done? inquired her mother.

6. Shes been known to sing beautifully, commented Patrick.

7. The blog entry she posted is called Easy Recipes.

8. The talent show begins immediately after lunch, said Joey.

9. Did you see the talent show? asked Jen?

10. There might be a rainbow after the rainfall, said our teacher.
11. Have you been to the new water park yet? asked Pete.
Commas and Speech Marks

Inside or Outside?

Commas always go inside speech marks when the comma follows the text in speech
marks. Example: We can ask my mother, said Elizabeth, shell understand. Note the
comma after Elizabeth. It is outside the speech mark because it does not follow any
quoted text.
Another example: Amy said, Can I have a glass of milk? No, said Mum.

Rewrite each sentence below, adding commas in the correct places.

1. You are looking in the wrong direction said the detective.

2. His favorite old televisions shows are I Love Lucy Batman and Bonanza.

3. f you want to go outside said Mrs. Clark you must wear your raincoats.

4. Yes its an important clue replied Vance but more important is the time of the call.

5. Rarely the doctor observed has anyone survived such a fall

6. At camp we sang Daisy Daisy and Happy Birthday

Quiz
1. http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/grammar/quotation_marks/quiz1632.html

2. https://www.quia.com/quiz/1255538.html?AP_rand=589641613

3. http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar_quiz/question_marks_1.asp
Similes and Metaphors

WALT use similes and metaphors in our writing.


WASW we can understand the difference between them and put them into sentences.

Similes Metaphor
A comparison of two unlike things using The comparison of one thing to another
like or as without the use of like or as

The goalkeeper was like a bird. The goalkeeper was a bull.

The puppy was as cute as a button. The puppy was a cute button.
The fox was fluffy like a. She was a

The river was


CREATE YOUR OWN! FIND YOUR OWN PICTURES

Smilie Metaphor
A comparison of two unlike things using The comparison of one thing to another
like or as without the use of like or as

Quiz
https://www.quia.com/quiz/234882.html?AP_rand=49091552
http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/grammar/similes/quiz3468.html
http://www.kidsonthenet.org.uk/dragonsville/metaphor1.htm
http://www.kidsonthenet.org.uk/dragonsville/simile1.htm
Personification

Is It or Isnt It?

Personification is a figurative element that attributes human thoughts, actions,


characteristic or emotions to something that is not human.

Example: The sad clouds were ready to spill their tears upon the funeral.

Read each sentence below. If the sentence uses personification, write personification
in the blank. If it does not use it, write none in the blank.

1) The soft chair wrapped its padded arms around Lisa.

Personification

2) The dog barked loudly at the squirrel, which quickly ran up the tree.

None

3) The eyes of the ladys portrait followed Jean around the room, waiting for a misdeed.

Personification

4) The stairs groaned in agony as Phillip carried the heavy boxes to the attic.

Personification

5) The wind blew steady for three days before the hurricane reached the shore.

Not Personification

6) As we dragged the table across the room, deep scratches appeared on the floor.

Not Personification

7) The coins sang happily in Toms pocket.


Personification

8) The week before the party seemed very long to Ellen.

Not Personification

9) The ship sailed smoothly across the calm, blue lake.

Not Personification

10) The tree bowed politely to the flower.

Personification

Try this quiz!


http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=personification-quiz_1

NOW ITS YOUR TURN!


Create your own sentences making sure you are using personification.

Example: The sad clouds were ready to spill their tears upon the funeral procession.

Personification is a figurative element that attributes human thoughts, actions,


characteristic or emotions to something that is not human.

The Flower Laughed

The Car Cried

The Leaf Sang

The Rainbow Winked

The Sun Streamed


The Stick Danced

The Guitar Smiled

The Bunny Breathed Fire

EXPLAIN THE PERSONIFICATION

Personification is a figurative element that attributes human thoughts, actions,


characteristic or emotions to something that is not human.
Identify and explain the meaning of the personification in the sentences below.

Example: The sad clouds were ready to spill their tears upon the funeral procession.
Clouds cannot be sad, because they do not have tears.

1) The feathers danced in the wind.

This is personification. Because feathers cannot dance.

2) The clock chimed an anxious warning at a quarter to midnight, alerting the children
that the
deadline had almost arrived.

This Is Not A Personification,Because Clocks do alarm you when it is midnight.

3) The flies buzzed with regret as the lion shook its head.

This Is A Personification, Because Flies dont have Emotion.

4) The night was sullen and angry; it became darker with each step Maria took.

This Is A Personification, Because The Night Doesnt Have Emotion.


PERSONIFICATION POETRY
First, make a list of 10 action verbs that describe things that humans do.

SKIP RUN

Now, take a look around the room or look outside and write down 10 objects that you
see.

Pencil Sandwich

Look at your two lists and find funny or interesting ways to combine the objects with
the verbs. For example, you might come up with pencil laughing or sandwich
whispers. Use these word combinations to create poetic sentences about each object.

For example: My ham sandwich whispers loudly that it hates being wrapped in plastic.

Words together Sentences

Sandwich + whispers = My ham sandwich whispers loudly that it


hates being wrapped in plastic.
Personification: a figurative language technique where an object or idea is given human
traits or characteristics.

In each sentence, an object or idea is personified. Identify the object or idea that is
being personified and explain which human trait or action is applied to the object or
idea.

1. The wind whispered through the dark and gloomy forest.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

2. The gardener lovingly added the manure to his crops believing he was making happy
flowers.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

3. As we walked through the scorching desert, the sun beat down on us.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

4. Time crawled as Tim sat in the hot detention room painfully watching the clock tick.
What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

5. The lumberjack leveled the many trees into a clearing and his chainsaw sang its
deadly song.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

6. When Monica walked through the shoe store, each shiny pair of high heels called out
to her.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

7. When the patriots defeated the redcoat army, freedom rang across the fruited plains.

What is being personified?

Which human trait or quality is given?

8. As Alice searched for her missing pencil, she said sarcastically, Well, I guess it just
walked off of my desk. She looked at her classmates accusingly.

What is being personified?


Which human trait or quality is given?
Persuasive Writing

Persuasive Paragraph and Argumentative Paragraph


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD9arWXIddM
What's the difference?
Persuade: I am going to PERSUADE my neighbors to buy tickets to the school fair.
The school fair is right around the corner, and tickets have just gone on sale. We are
selling a limited number of tickets at a discount, so move fast and get yours while they are
still available. This is going to be an event you will not want to miss! First off, the school
fair is a great value when compared with other forms of entertainment. Also, your ticket
purchase will help our school, and when you help the school, it helps the entire
community. But thats not all! Every ticket you purchase enters you in a drawing to win
fabulous prizes. And dont forget, you will have mountains of fun because there are acres
and acres of great rides, fun games, and entertaining attractions! Spend time with your
family and friends at our school fair. Buy your tickets now!

Argue: I am going to present a logical ARGUMENT as to why my neighbor should


attend the school fair.
The school fair is right around the corner, and tickets have just gone on sale. Even though
you may be busy, you will still want to reserve just one day out of an entire year to relax
and have fun with us. Even if you dont have much money, you dont have to worry. The
school fair is a community event, and therefore prices are kept low. Perhaps, you are still
not convinced. Maybe you feel you are too old for fairs, or you just dont like them. Well,
thats what my grandfather thought, but he came to last years school fair and had this to
say about it: I had the best time of my life! While its true you may be able to think of a
reason not to come, Im also sure you can think of several reasons why you must come.
We look forward to seeing you at the school fair!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHCYvNvV68c
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bbWJKIvl2c

Persuade - Topics or Articles Argue - Topics or Articles


Persuasive Writing: 2

WALT write a persuasive letter using language features & correct tense.
We are writing a letter to Nicholas explaining why family is more important than money
(his memories are more important than gold).
WASW we can justify our opinion and use language features to help persuade Nicholas.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgdrQh0pg7w

Dear Nicholas
Persuasive Writing: 3
It is important to make sure you have the following:

1. Be concise. Persuasive letters need to be brief and polite. ...


2. State your main point in the first couple sentences. ...
3. Emphasize the importance of your request in the second paragraph. ...
4. Support your request in the next paragraphs. ...
5. Appeal to the other side. ...
6. Close the letter by restating your request.
7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sJ7u30OG7yk - C.A.R.R

Choose one of the following topics and write a persuasive argument.


1. We need a new school uniform
2. Session 5 should be cancelled
3. We need more school trips
Persuasive Writing: 4
WALT write a persuasive letter to the MBI school board explaining why .
WASW we can justify our opinion and use language features to persuade the MBI school
board.

Dear Chairperson,

DO YOU HAVE

Introduction

3 Paragraphs

Conclusion

Adjectives 10+ (muddy, ugly,


beautiful)

Personal Pronouns (We, You, Us, I)

Examples ( For example)

Rhetorical Questions (Do you


think...)
Persuasive Writing: 5
Topic: Is sport too dangerous?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwIbFh_V_CI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qR9NeHrn8x8

Write a persuasive letter to MBI explaining what the positive outcomes of playing sport
are.

You will need:


Introduction - mention your 4 main points
Main point 1
Main point 2
Main point 3
Conclusion

Start here: