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Tabel cu studii anterioare care si-au propus sa studieze influenta trasaturilor de personalitate asupra

performantei (in vanzari)

Autori Titlul studiului Obiectivul cercetarii Populaia i lotul Design, variabile, instrumente Rezultate
investigat

1. Florin Factori predictivi Cercetarea i propune La cercetare au Pentru realizarea cercetrii s-a utilizat Putem considera ca prima ipotez, care afirma c exist o relaie pozitiv
Dimitriu, ai performantei s determine care sunt participat 132 subieci, Chestionarul Big Fiveplus 209 ntre performana n vnzri i trsturile de personalitate, a fost confirmat.
Ticu personalului de acele trsturi/ faete ale dintre care 83 au fost (Constantin et all., 2008). Analiznd datele obinute, se confirm faptul c persoanele care sunt
Constantin vanzari personalitii care se pot brbai (63 %) i 49 femei contiincioase, extrovertite i cu o deschidere ctre noi experiene au obinut
(Cercetarea constitui predictori ai (37%). n ceea ce privete Variabile dependente: performana n performane mai mari n activitatea de vnzri.
modern n performanei n nivelul studiilor, 26 de vnzri reprezentnd indicele compozit
psihologie : activitatea de vnzri. subieci au doar studii obinut de fiecare subiect la evaluare Cea de a doua ipotez, care susinea c valoarea i semnificaia corelaiilor
individ, grup, personal anual) dintre factorii de personalitate i performan este diferit n funcie de
liceale, iar 106 au studii
organizatie :
universitare. Cu referire la poziia ocupat n firm (ageni de vnzri i coordonatori/ directori de
studii
poziia ocupat n firm, Variabile independente: a) factorii vnzri), a fost i ea confirmat. Rezultatele obinute ne confirm faptul c
aplicative /
113 subieci sunt ageni modelului Big Five (extraversiunea, valorile corelaiilor dintre factorii de personalitate i performana difer n
Marius Milcu
(coord). (cu funcie de execuie) i agreabilitatea, nevrozismul,
Bucuresti : 19 sunt cazul agenilor de cele ale coordonatorilor/directorilor de vnzri. Analiza
Editura contiinciozitatea, deschiderea) i sub- detaliat pe faete/ sub-factori de personalitate a dezvluit c performana n
coordonatori/directori de
Universitar, factorii acestui model; b) variabile socio- vnzri la agenii de vnzri (cei cu funcii de execuie) coreleaz mediu i
vnzri (cu funcie de
2010) profesionale (sex, vrst, studii, vechimea puternic cu sociabilitatea, nivelul de activism, eficiena personal, ambiia,
coordonare). Studiul s-a
n vnzri, vechimea n firm, poziia nevoia de realizare, perseverena, imaginaia i intelectul (factori ai
realizat n cadrul unor
ocupat n firm). modelului Big Five). Aceste caracteristici sunt absolut necesare pentru a
firme de vnzri din zona
Moldovei. putea desfura, cu rezultate bune, o activitate care presupune interaciune
permanent cu clienii, o competiie continu att intern (n cadrul firmei, al
colectivului), ct i extern (cu alte firme concureniale pe acelai domeniu).
n cazul subiecilor care ocup funcii de coordonare /conducere, am obinut
corelaii puternice ntre performana n vnzri i variabilele sociabilitate i
nivel de activism, ceea ce arat c, pentru a avea o performan ridicat,
personalul cu funcii de conducere trebuie s aib un nivel nalt de
sociabilitate, n sensul de a fi comunicativi, expansivi i de a fi nconjurai de
oameni a cror companie i stimuleaz, dar i dispoziia de a fi i a impune
un ritm energic, alert, de a se implica n multiple activiti simultan.

i ipoteza 3, care susinea c exist un model predictiv valid al


performanei n vnzri funcie de factorii de personalitate, a fost
confirmat. Att n situaia n care am folosit cei cinci factori ai

modelului Big Five ca variabile predictor ct i n cea n care am folosit 30


de sub-factori ai acestui mdoel (operaionalizai cu ajutorul Chestionarului
Big Fiveplus), ca poteniali predictori ai performanei, am obinut modele
predictive valide. Ecuaiile rezultate din aceste modele ne permit ca, pornind
de la valorile obinute de persoanele evaluate la fiecare dintre cele 9 variabile
de personalitate, s putem estima nivelul de performan pe care aceste
persoane le vor realiza n firma din care s-au cules aceste date. Altfel spus,
performana n vnzri depinde n mare msur de eficiena personal, de
sociabilitate, de activitatea (nivelul de activism), de nevoia de realizare i
ordine-planificare i n mai mic msur de asertivitate i imaginaie. Acestea
sunt cele mai importante faete care trebuie luate n calcul ca ierarhie de
predictori pozitivi ai performanei n vnzri.

2. Murray Conscientiousness We expected that Our sample consisted of INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Although we formally tested relations for only two of the Big Five
R. Barrick, and Performance of individuals high in 91 sales representatives in dimensions, we provide zero-order correlations for the other factors
Michael K. Sales conscientiousness a large - Conscientiousness (emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness to experience). As shown,
Mount, and Representatives: would be more likely to appliancemanufacturing the correlations of these three factors with the two job-performance measures
Judy P. Test of the autonomously set work- organization; 83% of - Extraversion were near zero. However, emotional stability was significantly correlated
Strauss Mediating Effects related goals and that these were men, the with both goal-setting variables.
Instruments use to measure independent
(Journal of of Goal Setting such individuals would median age was 37 years,
variables: Six of the path coefficients were statistically significant (all ps < .05). In
Applied have greater and the average tenure in
Psychology commitment to their the organization was 10 particular, there were significant linkages between conscientiousness and
- GMA. GMA was assessed by the
goals and would exhibit years. The nature of the autonomous goal setting (/? = .44), goal commitment (ft = .35), and
1993, Vol. 78, Wonderlic Personnel Test, Form 5.
higher performance. sales is best classified as supervisory ratings of job performance (ft = .23). Autonomous goal setting
No. 5, 715-
Furthermore, we also wholesale, as the - PCI. We used the PCI to was associated with sales volume (ft = .21) and with supervisory ratings (ft =
722)
expected that customers were appliance comprehensively measure the five .33). Furthermore, there was a significant linkage between GMA and
individuals who had dealers rather than actual personality constructs. supervisory ratings (ft = .34). For the entire model, the multiple correlation
autonomously set goals customers. Subjects was .67 (R2 = .45)
in the past would be completed a
more committed to demographic-data form, Conscientiousness and autonomous goal setting were the most salient
current goals, an ability measure, and a DEPENDENT VARIABLES: predictors of sales volume (.28 and .24, respectively). A major portion of the
personality inventory (the relationship was direct for autonomous goal setting, whereas the major
It should be noted that Personal Characteristics - Autonomous goal setting. Prior goal portion of the relationship was indirect for conscientiousness. The indirect
the model we Inventory, or PCI, which setting referred to whether goals were relationship between conscientiousness and sales volume was primarily
investigated in this measures the Big Five autonomously set the year before the through goal commitment and autonomous goal setting. Two other measures,
study also posits several personality dimensions). current performance period and was based goal commitment and GMA, were related (albeit modestly) to sales volume
relationships that have Subjects also established on representatives' responses to two items: (.17 and .16, respectively). Extraversion had a very small, negative
been identified in sales goals as part of a "Did you set monthly (dollar) sales goals relationship with sales volume (-.05).
previous studies. training seminar on goal over the past year?" and "Did you set
Barrick and Mount monthly sales-call goals over the past Supervisory ratings of performance were predicted most strongly by
setting. Performance data
(1991) meta-analysis year?" conscientiousness (total relationships = .46), which, again, highlights the
consisted of supervisory
demonstrated that, for salience of this variable. For this predictor, the magnitude of the indirect and
ratings of sales
sales representatives, - Goal commitment and goal difficulty. direct relationships was the same. Autonomous goal setting also displayed a
representatives' overall
extraversion (in We assessed goal commitment with the strong relationship with supervisory ratings (.38), with the contribution being
performance over a 6-
addition to abbreviated four-item unidimensional self- primarily direct. GMA also contributed significantly to this criterion (.34). In
month period and the total
conscientiousness) was report scale developed by Hollenbeck and contrast, goal commitment and sales volume had smaller relationships with
volume of sales made
a significant predictor his colleagues (Hollenbeck, Klein, O'Leary, supervisory ratings (. 18 and .11, respectively). Finally, the direct relationship
over the 6-month period
of performance. & Wright, 1989; Hollenbeck, Williams, & between extraversion and supervisory ratings was very small (.03).
by the sales
Therefore, we expected Klein, 1989). We also assessed goal
that conscientiousness representatives. difficulty for each salesperson. First, the Our results show that autonomous goal setting and, to a lesser extent, goal
and extraversion would salesperson was asked to check the level of commitment mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and two
be positively related to difficulty for the goal she or he had set on a measures of job proficiency supervisory ratings of job performance and
supervisory ratings of 4-point scale ranging from nearly sales volume. This indicates that highly conscientious individuals are more
job performance and impossible or very difficult (4), to likely to set goals autonomously, to be committed to subsequent goals, and to
sales volume moderately difficult (3), to moderately easy perform better.
(2), to very easy to achieve (1). In addition,
each salesperson's supervisor was asked to Contrary to expectations, extraversion is not significantly related to either
rate the difficulty of the goal set by the supervisory ratings of job performance or sales volume. Thus, for the sales
subordinate for the specified time frame representatives in this study, being extraverted, outgoing, sociable, and active
using the same scale. was not related to higher performance.

- Supervisory ratings of job performance Turning to the goal-setting variables, we found that the relationships of
Supervisors rated subjects performance on autonomously set goals to the two job-proficiency measures were larger than
a 5-point Likert scale ranging from those between goal commitment and the same measures (especially for
consistently exceeds job requirements (5) to supervisory ratings of job performance), although the relationships between
somewhat below job requirements (1). goal setting and performance can be characterized as moderate in size.
However, it should be noted that these relationships represent the unique
- Sales data. The average of the effects attributed to the goal-setting variables, after controlling for
salesperson's monthly sales over the past conscientiousness, ability, and extraversion, as well as for autonomously set
two quarters was subtracted from the mean goals for goal commitment.
sales of their geographic region, and this
number was divided by the average Finally, stronger direct and indirect relationships were observed for
standard deviation of the 14 geographical supervisory ratings of job performance than for sales volume. These findings
regions used by the firm. may be explained in part by using the distinction made by Campbell (1991)
between observable behaviors under the control of the individual and the
results, or outcomes, of those behaviors that are almost certainly affected by
variables outside the control of the individual. The performance-rating
measure assessed behaviors that a sales representative may be able to control,
such as job knowledge, initiative, customer communications, and so on.
Sales volume, on the other hand, is a result or outcome over which a
representative may have limited control. Viewing the two criteria in this way
may also explain why the correlation between supervisory ratings and sales
volume in this study was relatively small and why the relationships modeled
in this study differed for these two measures.

3. Eric G. Re-examining In the present We selected the real The items for each of the study measures The Influence of Goal Orientations on Customer and Selling Orientations
Harris, John Salesperson Goal research, we investigate estate industry for our were assessed on 9-point scales (1 =
C. Mowen, Orientations: the antecedents and study. This context was strongly disagree, 9 = strongly agree) for Hypothesis 1 predicted a positive influence of learning orientation on
Tom J. Personality consequences of chosen because it satisfies ease of response. customer orientation. This hypothesis was supported (standardized path
Brown Influencers, individual differences in the conditions of when coefficient [SPC] = .47, p < .05). Hypothesis 2 was also supported as
(Journal of Customer goal orientations. We customer-oriented selling learning orientation negatively influenced selling orientation (SPC = .28, p
the Academy Orientation, and seek to answer three should be crucial. Two INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: < .05). The positive relationship between performance orientation and selling
of Marketing Work Satisfaction research questions. hundred twenty-five orientation proposed in Hypothesis 3 was also supported (SPC = .37, p < .
Science. First, how do learning surveys were originally Personality influencers. Measures for the 05). However, Hypothesis 4 was not supported as performance orientation
Volume 33, personality influencers were adapted from
and performance goals distributed, and a total of did not significantly influence customer orientation (SPC = .05, p > .05)
No. 1, pages
influence a 198 surveys were Mowen (2000). In this category we have
19-35, 2005)
salespersons returned. Eight surveys the following Independent variables: Personality Influencers of Goal Orientations
customer/selling were discarded due to
orientation? Our second high levels of missing Competitiveness was measured via a 4- Contrary to the expected result predicted in Hypothesis 5, competitiveness
research question data, leaving a total of item measure with sample items including did not exert a significant influence on learning orientation (SPC = .11, p > .
pertains to the 190 usable surveys (n = I enjoy testing my abilities against others 05). This finding fails to corroborate the findings of Wang and Netemeyer
antecedents of goal 190) for the analyses and I feel that winning is extremely (2002). Supporting Hypothesis 6, competitiveness positively influenced
orientations. What (response rate = 84%). important (M= 5.84, = .91). performance orientation (SPC = .43, p < .05). Thus, highly competitive
personality variables The average age of the salespeople are likely to have a higher performance orientation than less
The Need for Learning Scale was a 3-item competitive salespeople. The significant interaction term revealed that a
influence learning and respondents was 49 years;
scale including items such as enjoy tenure increases, the influence of competitiveness on performance orientation
performance 30 percent were male, 70
learning new things more than others and decreases. To further explore this relationship, we examined the slopes of the
orientations? We percent were female. The
enjoy working on new ideas (M= 7.02, interaction term using the ordinary least squares regression approach of
investigate the influence median tenure in the
= .83). Aiken and West (1991). The results revealed that the slope of the regression
of personality industrywas 6 years, and
antecedents, including median tenure with the line was significantly stronger for the low-tenure group (one standard
Materialism was measured via a 4-item deviation below the mean) than for the high-tenure (one standard deviation
the traits of need for current firm was 4 years. measure with sample items including
learning, materialism, above the mean) group ( low = .41, high = .23, p < .05). In sum, Hypothesis
enjoy owning luxurious things and 7 was supported.
trait competitiveness, acquiring valuable things is important to
conscientiousness, and me (M = 5.23, = .91). The need for learning positively influenced learning orientation (SPC = .33,
openness to experience
p < .05); however, the trait did not significantly influence performance
on each goal Conscientiousness was assessed via a 4- orientation (SPC = .11, p > .05). Therefore, Hypothesis 8 was supported, but
orientation. We also item measure with sample items including Hypothesis 9 was not. Materialism also positively influenced both
explore the moderating orderly and efficient (M= 6.41, = . performance orientation (SPC = .42, p < .05) and learning orientation (SPC =
influence of tenure on 92). .25, p < .05), supporting Hypothesis 10 and Hypothesis 11, respectively.
the competitiveness
Neither Hypothesis 12 nor Hypothesis 13 were supported (SPC = .01, p > .
goal orientation Openness to experience was measured
05 and SPC = .04, p > .05), respectively. Openness to experience did not
relationship. Our third with a 4-item scale that included items such
significantly influence learning orientation (SPC = .13, p > .05) but did
research question as frequently highly creative and more
negatively influence performance orientation (SPC = .28, p < .05).
explores the influence original than others (M = 6.19, = .94).
Therefore, Hypothesis 14 was not supported, while Hypothesis 15 was
of goal and selling
DEPENDENT VARIABLES: supported
orientations on overall
work satisfaction. What Influences on Work Satisfaction
is the influence of goal Goal orientation. Both goal orientation
and selling orientations measures were adapted from Kohli et al.
Hypothesis 16 was not supported as the path between
on workplace (1998). Performance orientation was
satisfaction? assessed via a 6-item measure (M= learning orientation and work satisfaction was nonsignificant
5.50,= .83), and learning orientationwas
assessed via a 9-item measure (M= 7.58, (SPC = .02, p > .05). Hypothesis 17 was supported
= .86).
Customer orientation/selling orientation. as performance orientation significantly influenced
Customer orientation was measured via a
12-item measure developed by Brown et al. work satisfaction (SPC = .25, p < .05). The influence of
(2002). Two dimensions of customer
orientation were identified in their study. customer orientation onwork satisfactionwas positive and
Six items assess a satisfy customer needs
significant (SPC = .27, p < .05), and Hypothesis 18 was
dimension (M= 8.30, =.86), and 6 items
assess an enjoyment dimension (M = supported. Inconsistent with Hypothesis 19, the expected
8.19, = .88). The selling orientation
measure was a 6-item adaptation of the influence of selling orientation on work satisfaction was
Saxe and Weitz (1982) selling orientation
dimension (M = 1.80, = .85). The 6 items not significant (SPC = .04, p > .05)
selected for the study had the highest item-
to-total correlations in the original Saxe Research Question 1
andWeitz (1982) study.
Our first research question asked how learning and performance
Work satisfaction. Satisfaction was
measured via a single-item overall measure orientations influence customer/selling orientation.
that assessed the overall satisfaction
We first note that the average score for the selling orientation construct was
derived from work relative to other aspects
relatively low in our sample (M = 1.80, SD = 1.01). While this score is
of the respondents lives (The major
consistent with low scores found in previous research on selling orientation
satisfaction in my life comes from my
(e.g., Thomas et al. 2001), our sample appears to be highly customer- versus
job). The mean for this measure was 5.66.
selling-oriented. Although the mean is low, the results indicate that
performance orientation does indeed influence selling orientation.

First, the context of the sales situation (e.g., transaction based versus
relationship based) should be considered. Although conjecture at this point, it
may be that in transaction based selling contexts, the effects of performance-
oriented selling are less severe than in relationship selling situations. Second,
it is possible that salespeople who are more performance oriented may
benefit from training that emphasizes the

importance of solid customer relations and the benefits that come from
increased learning. Finally, we note that the concept of selling orientation
should be carefully considered. It is also important to emphasize that
salespeople may possess varying degrees of each orientationboth learning
and performance (Sujan et al. 1994).

Research Question 2

Regarding our second research question, several findings regarding the


effects of personality on goal orientation are notable. Learning orientation
was shown to be influenced by both materialism and the need for learning,
whereas three antecedents were found to significantly

influence performance orientation. Competitiveness is one important


motivating factor of a performance orientation. This finding suggests that in
the selling context, ahighly competitive salesperson will likely focus on
external recognition and proving ones abilities to others. Given our finding
that tenure with the firm moderates the competitivenessperformance
orientation relationship, newer employees who are highly competitive may
need additional monitoring and training to ensure that theeffects of
performance-oriented selling do not detract from long-term sales success.
Competitiveness did not significantly influence learning orientation. It may
be that the effects of competitiveness vary in relationship and transaction
selling contexts. That is, perhaps the competitive drive motivates a learning
orientation over time and

throughout customer relationship development but not in short-term


transactional selling contexts. Materialism also positively influences

performance orientation. Finally, performance orientation is influenced


negatively by openness to experience. As performance orientation has been
associated with the entity theory of intelligence (e.g., Vermetten et al. 2001)
and with a reluctance to try new approaches (e.g., Sujan et al.

1994), this finding is understandable.

Research Question 3

Our third research question pertained to the influence of goal and


customer/selling orientations onwork satisfaction. The results support our
hypotheses that both customer and performance orientations influence work
satisfaction. While these hypotheses were supported, the

hypothesized influences of learning and selling orientations on work


satisfaction were not supported. Regarding the nonsignificant finding for
learning orientation, it may be that the influence of learning orientation on
work satisfaction varies according to selling context.

Finally, work satisfaction was not influenced by selling orientation. While


the influence of customer orientation on satisfaction corroborates previous
research in services settings (e.g., Donavan et al. 2004), the nonsignificant
effect found for selling orientation was unexpected.

Although additional research is advised, it appears that adoption of a


customer orientation may be inherently satisfying, while selling orientation
does not directly influence satisfaction.

As noted, some of our hypotheses were not supported by the data.


Competitiveness did not significantly influence learning orientation.
Similarly, the need for learning did not significantly influence performance
orientation. It may be that positive relationships are most generally found
when the constructs have the same motivational basis, as we observe in the
linkage from performance orientation (extrinsic focus) to selling orientation
(extrinsic focus).

4. S. The Big Five The objective of this The sample includes Research design: A survey design was TABLE 3: PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
Rothmann, personality research was to employees of a corporate used to achieve the research objectives. The BETWEEN THE NEO-PI-R AND THE PAQ
dimensions and job determine the pharmacy group with 14 specific design was the cross-sectional
E. P. performance relationship between retail and 16 hospital design, by means of Task Performance Creativity Management
Coetzer (SA personality dimensions pharmacies in the North
Journal of and job performance of West Province, Free State, which a sample is drawn from a population Neuroticism -0,11 -0,22 -0,31 *
Industrial at a particular point in time (Shaughnessy &
employees in a Mpumalanga and
Psychology, Zechmeister, 1997). Extraversion 0,17 0,22 0,21
pharmaceutical group, Gauteng (n.a. South
2003, 29 (1),
68-74) and is studied from a Africa), as well as a head Openness 0,13 0,26 0,41 *
trait perspective, and office (N = 159). The Measuring instruments:
more specifically the total population of Agreeableness 0,07 0,10 0,31 *
- The NEO Personality Inventory Revised
five-factor model of pharmacists (n = 59) and
(NEO-PI-R) (Costa & McCrae, 1992) was
personality dimensions non-pharmacists (n = Conscientiousness 0,05 0,11 0,10
used to measure the personality of
as conceptualised by 100) was included in the
individuals, based on the five-factor model of
Costa and McCrae empirical study. All
personality, which includes the dimensions of
(1992). pharmacists had a
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Table 3 shows practically significant correlation coefficients (of medium
B.Pharm. degree or a
Openness to experience and effect) between Management Performance on the one hand and Neuroticism
Diploma in Pharmacy,
Conscientiousness. The five personality (negative correlation), Openness to Experience and Agreeableness (both
while the qualifications of
dimensions are each divided into six facets. positive correlations). No practically significant correlation coefficients were
nonpharmacists varied
from Grade 10 to a found between personality dimensions on the one hand and Task
- The Performance Appraisal Performance and Creativity on the other hand.
masters degree. About Questionnaire (PAQ) (Schepers, 1994) was
57% of the sample had used to measure pharmacists job Personality dimensions predict 28% of the variance in Management (as
some form of post-school performance. The PAQ consists of 30 items measured by the PAQ). The multiple correlation of 0,48 is practically
education. The total which measure three scales, namely significant (large effect) (f2 = 0,38), and Openness to Experience and
population of employees
Agreeableness are the best predictors of performance in Management.
participated in the Performance, Creativity and Management
research. Approximately skills.
83% of the sample
consisted of females. The Variables:
Analysis of the product-moment correlations between personality
ages of the participants
dimensions, task performance and creativity showed that no practically
varied between 18 and 58 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES:
significant relationships existed. However, the results of the canonical
years, with 53% in the
analysis showed that a combination of emotional stability (i.e. low
age group between 21 and
30. A total of 57,2% of Neuroticism Neuroticism), Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness
the participants were explained about 15% of the variance in task performance and creativity.
married. Extraversion
It seems that employees who tend towards Neuroticism (i.e. who are prone
Openness to having irrational ideas, being less able to control impulses, and coping
poorly with stress) perform poorer and are less creative than those who are
Agreeableness emotionally stable. This result confirms the findings of Hrmann and
Maschke (1996), Dunn et al. (1995) and Judge et al. (1999). Furthermore,
Conscientiousness
Extraversion was associated with task performance and creativity, probably
because of the fact that extraverts tend to experience positive affect (Clark &
Watson, 1991).
DEPENDENT VARIABLES:
The results of the canonical analysis confirmed that Openness to
Task Performance Experience is related to task performance and creativity. Employees who are
open to experiences show an active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity,
Creativity attentiveness to inner feelings and a preference for variety, all of which
explain why they are rated higher on their performance and creativity at
Management work. This result confirms the findings of researchers such as Horton (1992)
and Raudsepp (1990). Conscientiousness was also associated with task
performance and creativity, although the loading of Conscientiousness was
relatively lower in the personality set. However, it makes sense that
conscientious employees perform better compared to less conscientious
employees (Barrick & Mount, 1991; Barrick et al., 1993; Borman et al.,
1991; Hough et al, 1990).

Furthermore, personality dimensions were related to management


performance. Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience and
Agreeableness were practically significantly related to management
performance. Managers who are emotionally stable, open to experience and
agreeable tend to perform better than those who measured lower on

these dimensions. The negative relationship between Neuroticism and


managerial performance may be explained by the fact that managers who
score high on Neuroticism are prone to having irrational ideas, are less able
to control their impulses, and cope poorly with stress. The significant
relationship between Openness to Experience and managerial performance
could be explained by the fact that managers in the pharmaceutical company
continuously have to adapt to changes (see Horton, 1992; Raudsepp, 1990)
because the company is relatively young and has grown fast since it was
established. The results show that personality dimensions predict 28% of the
variance in managerial performance.

A possible explanation for the lack of relationships between personality


dimensions and task performance is that the tasks of employees in the
pharmaceutical organisation are well-defined, with relatively low autonomy
allowed. According to Barrick (2001), personality dimensions are mostlikely
to affect job performance in situations where autonomy

is high.

5. Lennart Personality and The purpose of the There were 45 Test and criterion dimensions Relationships between EI and its broader implications.
Sjberg, emotional study was to investigate participants, 36 men and
Patrick intelligence as the potential usefulness 9 women, all working for The test session was organized according to As hypothesized, EI correlated with work /life balance, r = 0.32, p<0.05, and
Littorin, factors in sales of emotional a large tele- the following scheme: materialistic values and money obsession, r = -0.52, p<0.01. There was also a
Elisabeth performance intelligence for communications strong correlation between EI and positive affect, r = 0.50, p<0.05. It is
Engelberg understanding sales company. Their median - Tests of creativity important to check on gender differences in order to carry out further
(Organisation performance, to assess age was 36 years, range construct validation. As expected, the female group excelled over the male in
al Theory and - Personality dimensions 1 terms of EI, and the difference wa quite large, 0.71 standard deviation units
the construct validity of 25-56. The average level
Practice - No the concept, to assess its of education was rather (p<0.05).
2/2005) - Ten problem episodes to be assessed for
power in relation to high; 13 had a college emotions of the actors
certain other personality degree. All except 2 had Performance
factors implicated in more than 2 years of sales - Personality dimensions 2, facets of - EI was related most clearly to citizenship behavior, as expected.
sales performance. experience, 33 had more emotional intelligence (self-report) and
than four years. They had impression - Willingness to work and work interest were clearly related to both
been working for the performance dimensions, but job satisfaction was less so, also confirming
company on the average management expectations.
(median) 3 years, in the
branch for 6 years. Hence, - Work motivation, balance work/life - Risk of disengagement was another variable related to performance.
the group was dominated
by people with extensive - Management of failures - Personality variables were all related to citizenship behavior as expected,
sales experience. The test but only two were related to core job performance, viz. conscientiousness
- Risk
was commissioned by (strongly) and positive affect.
their employer and the - Attitude to money
results were used to take There may be some doubt that Machiavellianism is an appropriate
personnel decisions; a - Work performance component of EI in the present context. It was therefore excluded from the EI
very large variation in index.
sales performance being
the ultimate concern of - Background questions There was a gender difference, women performing better than men. The
the employer. difference was quite large with regard to core job tasks, 0.57 in standardized
- The assessment of emotions expressed in units (p <0.06), but marginal and not significant in citizenship behavior
photographs (0.19, n.s.), yet favoring women even in that dimension.

The creativity tests were of two kinds: Personality and EI


divergent thinking (4 items) and self-report
(two dimensions). The divergent thinking It is seen that extraversion was quite strongly related to EI, the other three
tasks were short (3 min each) and asked for personality dimensions weaker so, especially after control for impression
the production of ways of using. They were management. Hence, EI was not fully accounted for by the dimensions of the
scored for number of proposed solutions five-factor model.
without regard to quality2. The self-report
scales measures intellectual openness How do you promote sales performance? EI may be a factor, but the
(George & Zhou, 2001; McCrae & Costa, present results do not document that it is primary. It is even possible that
1997) and creative attitudes, i. e. Stressing some aspects of EI may be counterproductive in sales work (Shultz, 1993).
creativity as important and expressing a Personality factors such as conscientiousness and positive affect
positive attitude to creative work, negative
to routine work (Sjberg & Lind, 1994). seem to be of prime importance, both for core tasks and citizenship behavior.
People who are strongly driven by a sense of duty, at the same time as they
The personality dimensions were assessed have a positive and cheerful outlook on life appear to be the best
with self-report items, and they were salespersons. They may also be best at most other jobs, of course.

- conscientiousness Work interest and willingness to work are other important factors, in
agreement with previous work. Another interesting possibility is to measure
- extraversion attributions for failure and success, since the type of attribution used by a
salesperson seems to be related to performance
- affective tone
As mentioned above, considerable research, supported here, has shown that
There is a need to explain the variable extraversion and conscientiousness are useful predictors of sales
of affective tone. It was derived under the performance. Several other dimensions are needed to understand more fully
inspiration of Hogan=s Adark side of the traits of a good salesperson. It is possible that some sales
personality@ concept (Hogan & Hogan,
1997). This is a new idea which seemed situations favor a manipulative attitude in a salesperson, but we believe these
interesting since it is oriented towards to be exceptional. The popular literature on the topic stresses responsible and
finding people with potential problems in a competent behavior, as well as people skills, much in line with the present
number of dimensions. The present item set study, among successful salespersons3 . The way
was developed with this notion in mind.
However, data show clearly the items scale salespeoples personality is perceived by is of course another matter. A
as a one-dimensional concept. People who perception of someone as untrustworthy and manipulative would be
express Aproblems@ seem to be destructive for sales, and would be expected to occur in particular for those
complaining about most aspects of life and who are poor performers. The perception of salespeople should be crucial,
society, to be cantankerous. We have all particularly in view of the increasing demand for a customer focus in order to
met such people. The extensive work on compete for business. Satisfied customers tend contribute to company
mood and bodily symptoms (Watson & profitability by several mechanisms such as patronage and words of mouth
(Oliver, 1997) and, to this end, there should be a need for adaptability in
Pennebaker, 1989) shows how seemingly emotional aspects of the relation between customers and salespeople
disparate Asymptoms@ all seem to express
the same underlying negativity. This is what The three broader consequences of EI were related as expected. People
we mean by affective tone high in EI have in our research also previously been found to be high in
work/life balance and less characterized by materialistic values and money
The facets of emotional intelligence were obsession. The latter result is in line with our finding that high EI relates to
the perception of self as an able money manager with firm financial control
- self-actualization (Engelberg & Sjberg, in press). We note the interesting and very strong
relationship to affective tone. The cantankerous (n.a. in traducere artagos)
- alexithymia person is likely to be low in EI and a social failure.

- impulse control The very large gender difference in EI, favoring the female group, was
expected and further validated our procedures. The EI concept was validated
- empathy
also by being more strongly related to citizenship behavior than core job
- Machiavellianism topics.

- ability to withstand failure

The broader implications of EI were


tested against measures of

- work/life balance

- materialistic values, money obsession

- affective tone

Finally, measures of work motivation and


interest were

- willingness to work

- work interest

- risk of disengagement

EI performance was measured by data on


the assessment of problem episodes and
facial expressions. The 10 episodes were
described in short vignettes, and assessed
on 10 emotion scales. The task was to rate
to what extent each of the two actors had
experienced emotional reactions, on 10
scales, giving a total of 20 ratings for each
episodes, 200 for the whole subtest.

The participants were tested in two


subgroups. The whole session took about 3
hours.

6. Peter Personality and This paper addresses In order to obtain Personality. Aspects of personality Conscientiousness was in all samples positively associated with sales, with
Warr, Dave Sales Performance: two issues differences information for future were examined through version 7.2 of the an average correlation of .23. Consistent with expectations about the
Bartram, Situational between situations in the selection and Customer Contact Styles Questionnaire individualistic and forceful nature of the sales jobs investigated,
Tamsin Variation and associations between development procedures, (CCSQ) (SHL, 1997). This ipsative Agreeableness was always negatively associated with the outcome (mean r5 .
Martin Interactions personality and sales sales-peoples self- instrument covers a range of behaviour 22), contrary to the average zero relationship reported earlier. Between-study
(International between Traits performance, and descriptions on a styles that are likely to be important in variability was high in respect of Openness to Experience. This relationship
Journal Of possible statistical personality inventory many sales and service occupations. was positive for the door-to-door sales position (Sample 3), but negative for
Selection And interactions between were compared with their the other two samples, both of which involved showroom-based sales.
Assessment Based on previous applications of the
different personality objective sales
Volume 13
predictors. We will achievements. Three inventory and the content of the items in The overall positive association of sales achieved with Conscientiousness
Number 1
examine objective separate samples were each scale, assessments of the Big Five can be seen to derive from its sub-component of Achievement Orientation
March 2005)
indicators of examined. In all cases, components were made as follows (with rather than from Dependability (average rs of .27 and .05, respectively).
performance in three employees worked internal reliability values from the Similarly, Extraversion was important in its Potency aspects rather than
samples of sales-people. individually, and the standardization sample in brackets): through Affiliation (mean correlations of .20 and .05, respectively).
majority of their income Emotional Stability (sometimes identified
We will examine three was commission based on as low Neuroticism): CCSQ Resilience Possible statistical interactions between Conscientiousness and other
samples that are very the quantity of personal (.81). Extraversion: mean of CCSQ aspects of personality were also examined in terms of the overall construct
different from those, for sales achieved. Sociable and CCSQ Persuasive (.84). and its two sub-components. In all cases, hierarchical multiple regressions
whom sales success Openness to Experience: mean of CCSQ were carried out, inserting in the first step Conscientiousness and one other
depends to a high degree Sample 1. One hundred Innovative, CCSQ Flexible, and CCSQ personality attribute and in the second step the multiplicative function of
on proactive, and nineteen sales Analytical (.88). Agreeableness: Mean of these two variables. Four separate combinations were examined for the
individualized, and executives of a car retailer CCSQ Empathic, CCSQ Modest, and overall Conscientiousness measure (with Emotional Stability, Extraversion,
forceful activities. These in the United Kingdom CCSQ Participative (.89). Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness). For the sub-component
are door-to-door and were studied. Their mean Conscientiousness: Mean of CCSQ Achievement Orientation (Conscientiousness 1), five hierarchical regressions
retail car salespeople, age was 33.79 years, Competitive, CCSQ Results Orientated, were computed (with Emotional Stability, Extraversion 1 (Affiliation),
and retail store ranging from 19 to 66. CCSQ Energetic, CCSQ Structured, CCSQ Extraversion 2 (Potency), Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness).
employees in a The average length of Detail Conscious, and CCSQ Conscientious
competitive, target- experience as a car sales (.92). Conscientiousness has been shown to be significantly associated with sales
focused role. In terms of executive was achieved, but separate analyses of sub-components revealed that this was
the situational features approximately 3 years. In addition, following Hough (1992) and because of the importance of Achievement Orientation rather than
illustrated above, our Staff worked Vinchur et al. (1998), separate sub- Dependability. Similarly, although Extraversion was overall unrelated to
expectation is that independently with retail components of Extraversion and sales, its sub-component of Potency was linked to that criterion. Particular
Agreeableness in these customers, selling new or Conscientiousness were examined as attention to those subcomponents is now desirable in the sales domain.
samples will be second-hand cars, follows: Affiliation (Extraversion 1): CCSQ
Sociable (.79). Potency (Extraversion 2): Recognizing that personalityperformance associations can vary according
negatively associated arranging part-exchanges,
CCSQ Persuasive (.79). Achievement to situational features (e.g., Tett & Burnett, 2003), one particular kind of
with sales performance. and negotiating financial
Orientation Conscientiousness 1): mean of situation was examined here. Although Agreeableness is on average
Also, in this study, it is arrangements.
CCSQ Competitive, CCSQ Results unrelated to sales achieved (Vinchur et al., 1998), positive associations
analysed sales achieved
as a function of Sample 2. Seventy-eight Orientated, and CCSQ Energetic (.89). appear more likely in socially interdependent settings, and negative
interactions between retail sales employees of a Dependability (Conscientiousness 2): mean correlations are expected in more individualistic and potentially manipulative
Conscientiousness and British company selling of CCSQ Structured, CCSQ Detail roles. It was thus predicted that high Agreeableness would be associated with
other Big Five electrical goods took part Conscious, and CCSQ Conscientious (.93). lower sales achievement in individualistic settings of the kind investigated
characteristics in a in the project. The here. This negative correlation was found in all samples,with a sample-
specific (individualistic, company encouraged Sales performance. In Sample 1, the sizeweighted average of .22. Successful sales-people in these proactive,
competition between sales outcome measure for each person was the individualistic roles were not greatly concerned with their clients feelings.
non-team) role. staff, and sought to number of cars sold in the last year adjusted
motivate them through by the size of a persons dealership. In The papers second focus was on possible statistical interactions between
difficult personal targets. Sample 2, performance was indexed in pairs of personality attributes. Witt et al. (2002) suggested that
Their average age was terms of sales relative to personal target in Conscientiousness may interact with attributes such as Agreeableness only in
34.85 years (range 18 the last six months. In Sample 3, each settings that involve considerable between-colleague interaction. Consistent
59), and 61% were persons performance was recorded as with this possibility, not one of 27 between-trait interactions was statistically
women. The average job books sold in the last year as a proportion significant in the individualistic settings examined here.
tenure was 6 years. of average sales in the region.
The influences that either yield or fail to yield interactions between
Sample 3. Ninety personality attributes remain unclear. Interactions with personality have more
members of a German frequently been examined in conjunction with employees ability, and
company were studied. findings about abilitypersonality interactions are widely non-significant
They were employed (Sackett, Gruys,&Ellingson, 1998). It may therefore be the case that
selling books on a person- personality attributes generally combine with other possible predictors in a
to person basis by calling non-interactive fashion. Alternatively, an interactive pattern may exist but
on potential buyers at remain hidden in most research to date.
home or elsewhere.
Unfortunately, no data
were available for
analysis about age,
gender, or tenure.

7. Timothy Relationship of The purpose of this Literature Search Data Classification The results linking the traits to goal-setting motivation are; Neuroticism was
A. Judge, Personality to article is to advance the strongest correlate of goal-setting motivation, followed by Agreeableness
Remus Ilies Performance understanding of the We searched the Criterion measures were classified into and Conscientiousness.
(Journal of Motivation: A possible dispositional PsycINFO database for three categories corresponding to the three
Applied Meta-Analytic basis of work studies (articles, book theories of motivation examined. Goal- The results linking the Big Five traits to expectancy motivation are;
Psychology, Review. motivation by providing chapters, dissertations) setting studies (34% of the correlations) Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were again the strongest correlates of
2002, Vol. 87, published between 1887 generally measured goal level (e.g., expectancy motivation. These correlations as well as that of Extraversion
a quantitative review of
No. 4, 797
the literature. We and 2000 that referenced salespersons indicated the number of units were consistent with the goal-setting motivation analysis. However, both
807)
conducted this personality and key words they targeted as their sales goal; typists set Openness to Experience and Agreeableness exhibited weaker correlations
quantitative review relevant to the three performance goals in terms of lines per with expectancy motivation relative to goal-setting motivation, and the signs
using meta-analysis theories of motivation week) or goal difficulty (in terms of of both correlations were reversed.
techniques to cumulate (e.g., goal setting, goals, respondents choices of tasks varying in
results across studies. expectancy, self-efficacy). difficulty levels). Studies included in the Finally, meta-analysis results linking the Big Five traits to self-efficacy
Sixty-four terms relevant expectancy category (25% of the motivation are; Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were consistent with the
to personality traits (e.g., correlations) measured expectancy by other results. However, Extraversion also was a moderately strong correlate
The purpose of this locus of control, asking respondents to indicate their of self-efficacy motivation. Across the three criteria, the number of
meta-analysis is to dominance) and 45 terms perceptions of whether working on an correlations for Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Agreeableness
explore the relationship associated with activity would result in attaining a specific was quite small, perhaps widening the credibility and confidence
between the five-factor personality measures outcome. For example, respondents were
model of personality (e.g., NEO-PI, asked to rate the extent to which they felt intervals.
and the three theories of HamburgPersonality they would be successful on various job
performance motivation Inventory) were used in activities if they tried hard, or to estimate Accordingly, we sought to determine the multivariate relationship between
goal-setting theory, each search. These efforts the number of items that they could answer the set of Big Five traits and motivation. Using Hunters (1992) regression
expectancy theory, and resulted in the correctly in a specific time period if they program, we regressed motivation on the Big Five traits. And Neuroticism
selfefficacy theoryall identification of a total of worked on only that type of item. Three and Conscientiousness were significant predictors of performance
have as their ultimate 2,118 abstracts. studies combined expectancy with motivation across the criteria, independent of the effect of the other traits
criterion the prediction instrumentality and valence by multiplying included in the regression. Extraversion and Openness to Experience were
of job performance or summating the three components. significant predictors of goal-setting and self efficacy motivation, and
Finally, self-efficacy studies (41% of the Agreeableness was a significant negative predictor of goal-setting
Rules for Inclusion in correlations) mainly asked respondents to motivation.
the Meta-Analysis indicate their self-efficacy to perform a task
Results from the quantitative review presented herein suggest a fairly
or job (e.g., salespersons estimated their
In reviewing the selected consistent pattern of results. Neuroticism was negatively related to each of
ability to sell). Personality measures were
abstracts, we eliminated the theoretical perspectives on performance motivation. Similarly,
classified according to the coding
studies that did not Conscientiousness was positively related to all three motivational criteria.
procedure developed and used by Barrick
appear to include any The other Big Five traitsExtraversion, Openness to Experience, and
and Mount (1991).
discernible measure of Agreeablenessgenerally displayed weaker correlations with the
personality and those that motivational criteria, and the direction of the correlations was somewhat
assessed a trait that was inconsistent across criteria. Because the numbers of correlations in the meta-
not classifiable in terms analyses for Openness to Experience and Agreeableness were the smallest
Meta-Analysis Procedures
of the five-factor model. among the Big Five traits, the inconsistencies may result from second-order
Studies that did not Using the meta-analytic methods of Hunter sampling error.
appear to have measured and Schmidt (1990), correlations from
were also excluded. These results, as well as the strong multiple correlations between the traits
individual samples were first corrected for
and performance motivation, suggest important support for the trait
measurement error in both the predictor and
For the remaining 327 perspective in motivation research. The results for Neuroticism and
the criterion. We performed no correction
journal articles and 217 Conscientiousness were especially consistent across the three motivational
for range restriction or dichotomization. A
doctoral dissertations. criteria. The validity of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness should not be
relatively large proportion of studies
Several exclusionary rules surprising in that these two Big Five traits are the most important correlates
reported reliability estimates (internal
were established. First, of job performance (Hurtz & Donovan, 2000; Salgado, 1997). If personality
consistencies) for the measures of
many studies failed to affects performance mostly through motivation, and Neuroticism and
personality traits and motivation on the
report the data necessary Conscientiousness are the best predictors of performance, then it would
basis of original samples. When reliabilities
to obtain a correlation almost have to be the case that these two traits best predict performance
for personality or motivation measures
Second, we excluded motivation. One might wonder why Neuroticism tended to be a stronger
were not reported, we used the mean of the
studies that included traits correlate of performance motivation given that Conscientiousness is a
reliabilities reported for the relevant
that didnot fall within stronger correlate of job performance (Hurtz & Donovan, 2000). A plausible
personality trait or motivation category.
Barrick and Mounts explanation is that whereas Neuroticism primarily influences performance
(1991) classification of In addition to reporting estimates of the through motivation, Conscientiousness influences performance in other
existing measures into the true score correlations, it is also important ways. For example, conscientious individuals are likely to be orderly and
Big Five traits. to describe variability in the correlations. decisive (Saucier & Ostendorf, 1999), which may give these individuals an
Accordingly, we report 80% credibility edge in many jobs.
For the criteria, we intervals and 90% confidence intervals
excluded studies that did around the estimated population Extraversion also emerged as a consistently nonzero correlate of
not include direct correlations. Although some meta-analyses performance motivation; the correlation of Extraversion with selfefficacy
measures of self-set goal reported only confidence intervals (e.g., motivation was particularly noteworthy. Given that positive emotionality is a
level or difficulty, Ernst Kossek & Ozeki, 1998) whereas hallmark of extraverts (Watson & Clark, 1997), it makes sense that extraverts
expectancy, or others reported only credibility intervals would have greater confidence in their abilities to perform. Openness to
performance selfefficacy. (e.g., Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, & Experience and Agreeableness displayed inconsistent correlations with the
Studies that measured Roth, 1998), it is important to report both motivational criteria. Specifically, Openness to Experience displayed
expectancy or self because each provides unique information. positive, nonzero correlations with goal-setting and self-efficacy motivation,
efficacy motivation with Confidence intervals provide an estimate of but negative correlations with expectancy motivation. Conversely,
regard to an immediate the variability around the estimated mean Agreeableness displayed a negative, nonzero correlation with goal-setting
task were included. Thus, correlation; a 90% confidence interval motivation but relatively weak, positive correlations with the other criteria. It
we included studies excluding zero indicates 95% confidence is difficult to explain this pattern of results, though some of it may be due to
focused on task that the average true correlation is nonzero. the relatively small number of correlations involved. With respect to the
motivation in training Credibility intervals provide an estimate of negative correlation between Agreeableness and goal-setting motivation, it
programs and those the variability of individual correlations seems possible that agreeable individuals set less ambitious performance
concerning academic across studies; an 80% credibility interval goals because they are motivated more by communion than by agency.
performance, but excluding zero indicates that at least 90%
excluded studies of of the individual correlations in the meta- It should be noted, though, that our moderator analyses were only possible
criteria other than task- analysis were greater than zero (for positive with respect to two traitsNeuroticism and Conscientiousness. Fortunately,
oriented motivation (e.g., correlations, less than 10% are zero or less, these were the traits for which overall validities were the highest, and thus
smoking cessation) or and a maximum of 10% lie at or beyond the the moderating effects most meaningful.
motivation in influencing upper bound of the interval). Finally, as we
others performance (e.g., discuss shortly, we examined several
teacher self-efficacy moderators (study setting, study design,
beliefs with regard to publicationstatus) of personalityjob
students performance). performance relations.
Sixty-five journal articles
and doctoral dissertations
met these criteria. We also
obtained 18 estimates of
personality motivation
correlations from
unpublished raw data.
Several studies reported
data collected from
multiple independent
samples. Thus, in all, 150
correlations from 78
independent samples
reported in 65 studies and
4 raw data sets were
included in the analyses.

8. Andrew J. A Meta-Analytic The purpose of the Literature Searches Development of Predictor and Meta-Analysis Results
Vinchur, Review of present study is to Criterion Taxonomies
Jeffery S. Predictors of Job conduct a meta-analysis Both computer-based Meta-analysis results are reported by type of predictor for both rating
Schippmann Performance for of the validity of and manual searches of Predictors were divided into three groups: criteria and objective sales criteria. Unless otherwise noted, we will focus on
, Fred S. Salespeople separate categories of published empirical (a) the Big Five personality dimensions; (b) corrected correlations in the following discussion. Certain dimensions of
Switzer, III, predictors of both studies investigating the Big Five subdimensions Affiliation, personality were useful predictors of both criteria. Two measures from the
and Philip subjective (ratings) and prediction of sales criteria Potency, Achievement, and Dependability Big Five were particularly useful. Extraversion predicted ratings with a
L. Roth objective (sales) were conducted. The from the Hough model; and (c) other validity coefficient of .18 and sales measures with a validity coefficient of .
(Journal of salesperson computer databases predictors: (1) overall cognitive ability (an 22. Conscientiousness predicted ratings and sales with validity coefficients of
Applied performance. PsycUT (1974-1996), omnibus category that included measures of .21 and .31, respectively.
Psychology a general factor of mental ability [ g ] ,
1998, Vol. 83. With this article we PsyclNFO (1967-1990), verbal ability, and quantitative ability); (2) The subdimensions Potency and Achievement were particularly strong
No. 4. 586- Trade and Industry Index predictors of sales success. Potency validity coefficients were .28 and .26 for
hope to add value to the general cognitive ability (tests designed to
597)
prediction of sales (1981- 1990), GPO capture g); (3) verbal ability; (4) ratings and sales, respectively, whereas Achievement coefficients were .25
performance in several Monthly Catalog (1976- quantitative ability; (5) Rugged and .41. These results shed further light on the Big Five results. It appears
ways. First, the sample 1990), Sociological Individualism; (6) sales ability; (7) biodata; that Potency would be classified as a component of Extraversion in the Big
of sales coefficients was Abstracts (1963-1990), (8) age; and (9) interest. Biodata was a Five because it applies to assertiveness and the intensity of interpersonal
larger than in previous and AB1/INFORM heterogeneous category that tapped a interactions. The higher validity coefficients for Potency and lower
analyses (e.g., Hough, (1971-1990) were used to number of varied constructs, including coefficients of .12 and .15 for Affiliation (also a part of Extraversion) suggest
1992), and all identify articles, those assessed in whole or part by other that Potency may be the more important part of Extraversion that is
coefficients were dissertations, and book predictors (e.g., age). Measures in this associated with higher sales performance. Likewise, the higher validities for
independent. Second, chapters. category included personalhistory- type Achievement (.25 and .41) than for Dependability (.18 and .18) suggest it
personality dimensions inventories assessing a variety of may be more predictive of sales performance. Given the degree of autonomy
were analyzed The manual review information such as grades, years of inherent in many sales jobs, it is not surprising that Potency (capturing
separately to avoid included three steps. First, education, previous work history (including influence and energy) and Achievement (competence striving) were useful
averaging out validity an articleby- article search sales experience), and club membership. predictors of sales success.
across dimensions. of the Journal of Applied The more dated measures often included
Third, the links between Psychology and Personnel questions no longer legally advisable (e.g., It is worthwhile to note that Openness to Experience had validity
personality dimensions Psychology was marital status, age, number of dependents) coefficients of .11 and .06, although sample sizes were quite small. On the
and job performance conducted from the year or relevant (e.g., telephone ownership). basis of only five studies, Rugged Individualism showed promise as a
need to be clarified by 1940 through April 1997. Also included in this category were predictor of ratings with an average r of .20.
reporting only measures This effort revealed a carefully constructed and validated
number of studies Cognitive ability measures appeared to predict rating criteria fairly well
of job performance and inventories (e.g., the Aptitude Index
designed to investigate and sales criteria rather poorly. Measures of cognitive ability (g) showed a
dividing the analyses Battery; Brown, 1981). The Strong
other topics that included validity coefficient of .40 for ratings but a range-restriction-corrected validity
into objective and Vocational Interest Test (Strong, 1934) and
predictorcriterion of only .04 for the sales criterion. Validities for verbal and quantitative ability
subjective indicators of its successors were typical of the interest
correlations for sales. were low or negative for both criteria.The finding that cognitive ability
performance. Fourth, inventories used in the meta-analysis. Sales
Second, test manuals for a predicts ratings well and objective sales poorly is somewhat puzzling, as one
the disagreement over ability measures were generally tests
number of psychological would expect objective sales to be a major component of a manager's rating
the validity for designed to measure knowledge of selling
tests were reviewed for of salespersons' performance. It
cognitive ability tests techniques. These tests ranged from broad
was addressed with a validity information. commercially available instruments (e.g.,
Third, authors of previous Tests designed specifically to predict sales performance predicted both
large sample, correcting the Sales Comprehension Test; Bruce,
for research artifacts. reviews (e.g., Churchill, 1971) to tests designed specifically for a types of criteria very well. Ratings were predicted more strongly (.45) than
Fifth, the intriguingly Ford, Hartley et al., 1985) particular type of sales job in a single sales (.37). The broad and varied category of biodata items also performed
high validities for were contacted for their organization. well. The average validity coefficient was .52 for ratings and .28 for sales.
biodata were examined. reference lists. We Interest in sales also appeared to be related to ratings (.50) and the sales
Sixth, the validity of attempted to avoid the criterion (.50). Perhaps the most curious findings involve using age as a
tests specifically "file drawer" problem by predictor. Age predicted the rating criterion (r = .26) but not actual sales (r =
designed to predict sales locating unpublished Criteria for Including Coefficients -.06). Perhaps raters had an implicit personality theory that older salespeople
success was examined studies. did a better overall job, or perhaps the older salespeople engaged in more
Correlations had to meet three criteria for
organizational citizenship behaviors that were captured in ratings.
The literature search inclusion. First, only coefficients that used
yielded 129 independent job performance as the dependent variable The most promising predictors of both objective and subjective sales
samples obtained from 98 were included in the analyses. No success were the personality dimensions Potency and Achievement, sales
articles, books, correlations for training proficiency, ability tests, interest inventories, and biodata inventories. In addition,
dissertations, technical turnover, or salary were included. This cognitive ability was a good predictor of the ratings criterion.
reports, test manuals, and ensured that only the link to job
consultants' file drawers. performance was examined and not other Summary
Of the 98 sources, 82 dependent variables. Second, there was no
were published and 16 evidence of criterion contamination in the There were several classes of predictors of sales success that yielded
were unpublished,' studies included in this analysis. Third, sizable validity coefficients. The Big Five personality dimensions
Studies were conducted correlations had to be independent of each Extraversion and Conscientiousness predicted sales success for both types of
from 1918 through 1996 other. Two measures of the same category criteria. Potency (which includes assertiveness) appeared to be the key part
and covered a wide range of variable (e.g., Extraversion) using the of Extraversion that predicted sales performance. Achievement may be the
of sales jobs, with same participants were a potential problem. key part of Conscientiousness that predicted objective sales success. Overall
insurance sales being the These coefficients were averaged if articles cognitive ability appeared to predict rating criteria quite well. Unfortunately,
most common (32 or test manuals defined the variable in a it did not predict sales volume criteria. This pattern of results may help
samples). A concurrent similar way. If not, one coefficient was explain past divergent findings on the usefulness of cognitive ability. Results
validation strategy was randomly chosen. appeared to depend on the criterion type. In a similar manner, age was a good
used in 85 samples, a predictor of the ratings criterion but a poor predictor of objective sales. Tests
predictive strategy in 20; designed specifically for predicting sales success and general biodata
the remaining 24 samples measures exhibited promising validities. Interest measures and measures of
Meta-Analysis Procedures Rugged Individualism, though based on a small number of studies, appeared
had insufficient
information given to worthy of further investigation.
The data were analyzed using the
determine the validation Schmidt-Hunter approach to meta-analysis
strategy. Sample sizes (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990; Law, Schmidt, &
ranged from 11 to 16,230, Hunter, 1994; Schmidt, Gast-Rosenberg, &
with a mean of 356.15 Hunter, 1980; Schmidt & Hunter, 1977).
(SD = 1787.02) and a The effects of criterion unreliability and
total sample of 45,944 range restriction were assessed using the
separate individuals. To Law et al. (1994) approach, which uses the
ensure independence, no mean correlation instead of the individual
participant appeared more correlations.
than once in any
predictor-criterion The corrections for criterion unreliability
category (although
individual participants were individually applied to each type of
could appear in separate criterion. Analyses involving job
categories without performance ratings were corrected using
violating the the distribution of interrater
independence
assumption). reliability coefficients by Viswesvaran,
Ones, and Schmidt (1996). This distribution
offers the most comprehensive and least
biased data for meta-analytic corrections
(Viswesvaran et al., 1996). The mean level
of interrater reliability was .52. Objective
measures of sales performance were not
corrected for unreliability because there
would be few reasons for random
measurement error.

There was not sufficient information


reported in the studies to directly correct for
range restriction. As a result, we used the
assumed range restriction distribution from
Schmidt and Hunter (1977). Researchers
have found this distribution to be accurate
(Alexander, Carson, Alliger, & Cronshaw,
1989).

The observed correlations were not


adjusted for predictor reliability. Our
primary interest was to determine how well
the various predictors might work in real
world settings. Thus, one might argue that
the reliability of the selection device is an
important characteristic of the device and
that tests should not be corrected. In
addition, no moderator analyses were
performed within criterion type because of
sample size limitations.

9. Joyce Using Theory to The current study Case Selection Measures This study extends previous personality meta-analyses in three ways. First,
Hogan, Evaluate organized criterion it used a theory of personality to organize the variables and to interpret the
Brent Personality and Job- measures into the broad We identified 43 Predictors. All studies used the HPI; this results. From this perspective, personality scalescores capture elements of
Holland Performance themes of (a) getting independent samples (N eliminated the need to classify predictors by individual reputation. Criterion ratings are observers evaluations of an
(Journal of Relations: A along and getting ahead 5,242) from published construct. The HPI is a 206-item truefalse incumbents reputation. Reputation provides the conceptual link between
Applied Socioanalytic and (b) Big Five articles, chapters, inventory designed to predict occupational personality and job performance.
Psychology, technical reports, and performance. The inventory contains seven
Perspective personality content
2003, Vol. 88, categories. The dissertations between primary scales that align with the Big Five Second, we eliminated the problem of classifying predictor scales into the
No. 1, 100 correlations between the 1980 and 2000 that were as seen in Figure 1. Although there is no correct Big Five dimensions by using a single inventory to assess personality.
112) criterion measures and catalogued in Hogan universal consensus on the optimal number
the personality Assessment Systems of personality attributes, the Big Five is a The results of this study also support our claim that the Big Five
predictors were meta- archive. The studies met useful method for organizing the scales on dimensions of Extraversion and IntellectOpenness to Experience are too
analyzed, and the the following criteria: (a) most inventories, including the HPI. Note broad. When developing the HPI, we believed that Extraversion and
results were compared They used job analysis to that the Big Five Extraversion factor splits Ambition were components of the larger construct of Surgency. We knew
with earlier findings. estimate personality- (conceptually and empirically) into lazy extraverts and ambitious introverts, and we consistently found that
based job requirements, Ambition and Sociability (cf. R. Hogan & Ambition and Extraversion correlated only about .30 (R. Hogan & Hogan,
We used (b) they used a concurrent Hogan, 1995, p. 11). The Big Five 1995, p. 18). The current meta-analytic results show that it is the Ambition,
socioanalytic theory to (k 41) or predictive (k IntellectOpenness to Experience factor not the Sociability, component of Surgency that predicts performance. The
define the links between 2) validation strategy with splits into Intellectancewhich reflects distinction between Ambition and Extraversion is conceptually and
personality and job working adults, (c) the creativityand School Successwhich empirically important.
performance and used criteria were content reflects achievement orientation. The
meta-analysis to explicit and not just internal consistency reliability and test Similarly, the Big Five IntellectOpenness to Experience factor combines
evaluate the links. ratings of overall job retest reliability, respectively, for each scale creativity, curiosity, cultural taste, achievement orientation, and desire for
Overall, the analyses performance, and (d) the is as follows: Adjustment (.89/.86), knowledge. In developing the HPI, this factor split into an intellect
investigate the predictor variables were Ambition (.86/.83), Sociability (.83/.79), component and a component defined by interest in learning and achievement.
following four claims: scales of the Hogan Likeability (.71/.80), Prudence (.78/.74), We called the former component Intellectance and the latter School Success.
Personality Inventory Intellectance (.78/.83), and School Success Except for the results presented by Tett et al. (1991), the meta-analytic
1. Experts can classify (HPI; R. Hogan & Hogan, (.75/.86). validities for the IntellectOpenness to Experience are weak. Although some
job criteria reliably in 1995). We excluded researchers consider IntellectOpenness to Experience as the Big Five
terms of the degree to studies using (a) clinical The HPI is based on the Big Five dimension that is the least important for predicting occupational outcomes,
which they reflect patients and therapists, (b) personality model; findings using the HPI we disagree. Again, the results show the predictive utility of separating
efforts to get along or undergraduate or graduate could generalize to other Big Five Intellectance from School Success.
get ahead. students, (c) selfreported inventories, depending on the magnitude of
scale-to-scale correlates. In closing, it is important to note what we are not saying. We are not saying
performance criteria, (d)
2. The most robust that all motivation or personality may be represented by two factors, getting
performance criteria other
Big Five predictors of Criteria. Subject matter experts (SMEs) along and getting ahead, nor are we saying that all performance may be
than ratings and objective
subjective performance reviewed the criterion variables used in represented by these two factors. Factors such as interests, values, mental
productivitypersonnel
criteria (e.g., overall each archived study and made two ability, handeye coordination, health, and opportunity are also obviously
measures, (e) only an
job-performance judgments. First, they classified each important determinants of occupational performance, but measures of
overall performance
ratings) are Emotional performance criterion as getting along or personality, in general, and the Emotional Stability construct, in particular,
criterion, (f) laboratory or
Stability and getting ahead. Getting along was defined as are important predictors of a surprising variety of outcomes.
assessment center studies,
Conscientiousness. behavior that gains the approval of others,
and (g) studies unrelated
Persons who seem enhances cooperation, and serves to build
to work contexts.
calm, self-confident, and maintain relationships. Getting ahead
and resilient (Emotional Most job titles was defined as behavior that produces
Stability) or dependable correspond to the Holland results and advances an individual within
and disciplined Realistic, Social, the group and the group within its
(Conscientiousness) Enterprising, and competition. SMEs were asked not to
will be evaluated more Conventional types; no classify criteria about whose meaning they
positively than those studies involved were uncertain. Second, SMEs were also
who do not seem calm Investigative and Artistic asked to identify the HPI personality
and dependable. occupations. Ideally, construct most closely associated with each
every Holland type would performance criterion. The seven HPI scale
3. When performance be present in the analysis, constructs were defined, and SMEs were
criteria are classified in but our sample asked to nominate only one scale for each
terms of getting along composition reflected the criterion listed.
and getting ahead, we base rate of occupations
hypothesized that a in the U.S. economy. SMEs (N 13) had their doctorate (n 7)
more nuanced pattern of Gottfredson and Holland and master of arts degree (n 6) and were
personality (1989, 1996) reported that industrialorganizational psychologists
performance links the majority of experienced in validation research using the
would emerge. When occupations are Realistic HPI. Criterion classification was based on
(66.7%), Conventional the absolute level of rater agreement.
successful job (13.4%), and Enterprising Classification required 10 of the 13 raters
performance requires (11.1%) and that Social (77%) to agree. Of the 139 criteria, 115
getting along, (4.6%), Investigative (83%) were classified as either getting
Emotional Stability, (3.0%), and Artistic along or getting ahead, and 95 (68%) were
Conscientiousness, and (1.2%) occupations are classified in terms of a single personality
Agreeableness should less common. construct.
predict performance
because persons with
elevations on these
dimensions are Job Analysis Meta-Analytic Procedures, Statistical
rewarding to deal with Corrections, and Within-Study
they are positive (i.e., All studies included one Averaging
Emotional Stability; or more types of job
George, 1990; Mount et analyses during the initial We used the meta-analytic procedures
al. 1998; Staw, Sutton, stages of the research. specified by Hunter and Schmidt (1990) to
& Pelled, 1994), Approximately 30% of cumulate results across studies and to
predictable (i.e., the studies (k 13) used assess effect sizes. All studies used zero-
Conscientiousness; the critical incidents order productmoment correlations, which
Hough, 1992; method (Flanagan, 1954) eliminated the need to convert alternative
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, to define exceptional statistics to values of r. Corrections were
& Berry, 1986), and behavior (for example, made for sampling error, unreliability in the
sensitive to others (i.e., see J. Hogan & Lesser, measures, and range restriction. We did not
Agreeableness; Barrick, 1996). Over half of the correct correlation coefficients to estimate
Stewart, & Piotrowski, studies (k 27) used validity at the construct level. Although
2000; R. Hogan, Hogan, worker-oriented methods some (e.g., Mount & Barrick, 1995a; Ones,
& Busch, 1984). to determine the Schmidt, & Viswesvaran, 1994) have
knowledge, skills, and argued that this is an artifact that can be
When successful job abilities required for corrected, we believe that it is premature to
performance requires successful job estimate the validity of perfect constructs
getting ahead, the performance. These job when there is no agreement regarding what
dimensions of analyses generally they are.
Emotional Stability, followed the Goldstein,
Extraversion Zedeck, and Schneider
(Ambition), and (1993) method for content
IntellectOpenness to validation research (cf. R.
Experience will predict Hogan & Hogan, 1995, p.
performance. This is 75). The

because getting ahead is remaining studies (k 18)


associated with being used the Performance
confident (i.e., Improvement
Emotional Stability; Characteristics job
Gough, 1990; Stogdill, analysis approach (J.
1948), ambitious and Hogan & Rybicki, 1998).
hardworking (i.e., This personality-based
ExtraversionSurgency; job analysis uses a 48-
R. Hogan, Curphy, & item Performance
Hogan, 1994; Improvement
McClelland, Atkinson, Characteristics checklist
Clark, & Lowell, 1953; to profile jobs in terms of
Vinchur et al. 1998), the Big Five factors.
and curious and eager to
learn (i.e., Intellect et al. (1997) described a
Openness to similar method for
Experience; Barrick & evaluating personality-
Mount, 1991; Costa & based job requirements.
Mc- Crae, 1992;
McCrae & Costa,
1997).

4. When predictors
and performance
criteria are aligned by
using their common
personality constructs,
mean validities will
increase compared with
previous meta-analytic
studies (Ashton, 1998;
J. Hogan & Roberts,
1996; Paunonen,
Rothstein, & Jackson,
1999).

10. Michael Personality The primary purpose Eleven studies were Each study used the PCI to assess the Our results show that all of the FFM constructs have non-zero relationships
K. Mount, Predictors of of the present study is included in the meta- FFM constructs. The PCI is a well- with both ratings of overall performance in jobs involving interactions with
Murray R. Performance in Jobs to examine the validity analyses. The criterion for researched measure of normal personality others and specific ratings of the quality of interactions with others. The
Barrick, Involving of the FFM constructs inclusion in the study was that was developed specifically to evaluate findings for conscientiousness provide support for our first hypothesis and
Greg L. Interaction With for predicting that interaction with FFM traits in work settings. It is a 150-item are consistent with previous research that has illustrated its validity for
Stewart Others performance in jobs that others must be a critical self-report inventory which uses a 3-point predicting performance for a variety of jobs and criterion types (Barrick &
(October involve interactions component of the job. Likert-type scale (1 = agree to 3 = Mount, 1991). However, it was interesting to note that the correlations for
1997) with others. Each study examined the disagree). Estimates of internal consistency conscientiousness were somewhat lower in team settings than in non-team
relationship between (coefficient alphas) for each of the factors settings. One possible explanation is that teammates compensate for an
Despite the increased personality constructs were .86 for extraversion, .82 for individuals deficiencies in perseverance, organization, and carefulness.
use of teams in measured at the FFM- agreeableness, .87 for conscientiousness, .
organizations and the level and supervisor 86 for emotional stability, and .83 for Finding relationships for FFM dimensions other than conscientiousness is
increased number of ratings of performance for openness to experience (Mount & Barrick, noteworthy in view of conflicting results in prior studies (e.g. Barrick &
service jobs in the two criteria: supervisors 1995a). Test-retest reliability estimates Mount, 1991; Hough, 1992; Tett, Jackson, & Rothstein, 1991). Our
American economy, ratings of overall hypotheses were confirmed regarding the expected relationships for
little research has performance and over 4 months (N = 194) were .82, .84, . emotional stability and agreeableness; however, the results for extraversion
directly examined the supervisors ratings of 70, .81, and .82, respectively. In previous and openness to experience were somewhat surprising. It should be noted,
personality correlates of interactions with others. studies, responses to the PCI have been nevertheless, that when the results for both criterion measures for
performance in jobs Although all eleven related to other measures of the FFM (e.g., extraversion and openness are considered, the true score correlations are
where interactions with samples involved the NEO Personality Inventory, HPI and consistently smaller than for the other three predictors.
others is a critical interactions with others, Goldbergs checklist). Correlations between
component. Our they differed in terms of similar constructs have ranged from .51 to . Hypothesis 2 was supprted. The true score correlations for the overall
primary purpose in this the nature of these 71 while correlations with dissimilar performance criterion were consistently more than twice as for emotional
study was to address interactions. We grouped constructs have been much lower, ranging stability and agreeableness for teams than for non-team jobs. For the criterion
this gap in the literature. the eleven samples into from .04 to .39. Taken together, these data of interactions with others, the true score correlations were more than 50% as
We were particularly two types of jobs: those provide evidence supporting the construct large for jobs that involved teamwork than for those that did not. These
interested in the involving teamwork and validity of the FFM constructs measured by results are consistent with those reported by Hough (1992), who found that
personality correlates of those involving dyadic the PCI. agreeableness and emotional stability (as well as two components of
jobs involving service. conscientiousness) were related to the criterion of teamwork.
interactions with others, Two types of criteria are examined in
because these jobs There were four each of the 11 studies. The first is based on Agreeable team members are helpful, trusting and friendly; in short, they
differ fundamentally samples where supervisor ratings of overall performance. are cooperative and work well with others. It is plausible that a greater
from other jobs in terms individuals accomplished The second is based on items specifically proportion of disagreeable people on a team would be dysfunctional, and
of their requirements work as a member of a pertaining to interactions with others. would likely lead to inability to work together. In fact, greater agreeableness
for developing positive team, Samples 1-4. These Ratings of overall performance were among team members has been shown to be related to the teams
social relationships. The individuals helped obtained by summing items assessing performance (Barrick et al., in press). Similarly, emotional stability has been
high need for determine and interpret cooperativeness, or quality of interpersonal shown to be an important predictor of team performance, as well as the long-
cooperation and work procedures and interactions. The number of items ranged term viability of teams (Barrick et al., in press; Heslin, 1964). It is logical
teamwork should result explained and from 8 to 25 across the eleven samples. To that teams with members low on stability are likely be less relaxed, and to
in settings where demonstrated procedures varying degrees the measures assessed the express negative affectivity, which could suppress or even inhibit
personality traits are to others. They worked extent to which the employee supports and cooperation.
relatively strong cooperatively and cooperates with his or her peers, helps them
with job problems, and provides mentoring Our findings have a number of practical and theoretical implications.
predictors of job interdependently with
or training. In the case of the four samples Practically speaking, the results provide guidance for the design of selection
performance. other employees to
in team settings, the criteria also reflect the systems where jobs involve interactions with others. While all of the five
accomplish work. In all
commitment exhibited by the employee to personality factors were related to both criteria in the study, our results show
cases the work had been
organized using long keep the work group or department goal that if the goal is to predict who interacts best with others, it is most likely
standing work teams (on directed and the degree to which he or she those who are conscientious, emotionally stable, and agreeable. When jobs
average the teams had tries to facilitate the functioning of the involve teamwork, the importance of emotional stability and agreeableness
been intact for five to six work group or department. Ratings of increases while the importance of conscientiousness decreases somewhat.
years). interactions with others are derived from a Thus, when work is to be accomplished in situations that involve working in
subset of the overall performance items. a team, it is particularly important that individuals be cooperative,
Seven samples involved Across studies, from 3 to 8 performance considerate, trusting and friendly (agreeable) as well as secure, calm, and
dyadic service statements were summed to measure steady (emotionally stable).
interactions but not teams. interactions with others. The measures
Three samples consisted assessed the extent to which the employee From a theoretical perspective the results suggest that models of job
of employees involved in is cooperative in interactions with others, is performance that seek to explain components of performance relating to
counseling others. Sample a good listener, works well with others, and interaction in team settings, should include personality measures. For
5 consisted of residential so forth. In addition, the team member example, Campbell (1991) proposes that facilitating peer and team
counselors who worked ratings assessed the quality of the members performance is one of the eight performance dimensions that describe the
with physically teamwork. highest structure or taxonomy of performance. Our results suggest that
handicapped children. emotional stability and agreeableness, and to a lesser extent
Samples 6 and 7 consisted The Hunter and Schmidt (1990) conscientiousness, should be incorporated into such models
of residence hall advisors psychometric meta-analytic procedures
in university dormitories. were used to cumulate the results across
These jobs involved studies and to assess the effect sizes of
advising, counseling interest, the predictive validities. In
and/or guiding others. addition to sampling error, corrections were
The four remaining made for unreliability in the measures and
samples included range restriction in the personality
employees who interact construct. Artifact distributions were used
with others in various to correct for unreliability in the criterion
service capacities. Sample and range restriction in the predictor, as the
8 consisted of customer information was not available to correct
service representatives in each study individually. Rothstein (1990)
a grocery store; Sample 9 found a mean reliability estimate of .52 of
consisted of customer ability ratings and .48 for duty ratings for
service representatives in supervisory ratings of job performance in a
a circulation department study. Our calculations used the .50
of a large newspaper reliability coefficient for supervisor ratings
chain; Sample 10 because these ratings assessed performance
involved customer service within 1 year. In one sample (sample 5),
representatives in a large however, performance ratings were
bank; Sample 11 involved provided by 5 raters; consequently, the
telemarketing interrater correlation of .86 was used to
representatives. The estimate reliability. To correct for
nature of the interactions unreliability in one other sample (sample
of these individuals in 6), which used a hire or not hire criterion,
these jobs is attending to we assumed a reliability estimate of .76, as
the needs of customers reported by Viswesvaran (1993). The
where an immediate frequency weighted mean of the job
response is needed. performance reliability distribution was .56.
The mean square root of the performance
reliabilities was .75.

Reliability of the personality constructs


was estimated using the reliabilities
reported in Mount and Barrick (1995a). The
frequency weighted mean of the predictor
reliability distribution was .86 for
extraversion, .82 for agreeableness, .87 for
conscientiousness, .86 for emotional
stability, and .83 for openness to experience
(Mount & Barrick, 1995a). An estimate for
the amount of range restriction was based
upon the results reported by Barrick and
Mount (1991). They estimated an average u
(restricted SD and unrestricted SD) across
multiple studies of .94.

We test the following hypothesis.

H1: Conscientiousness, Agreeableness,


and Emotional Stability will be positively
related to performance in jobs involving
interaction with others.

H2: Agreeableness and Emotional


Stability will be stronger predictors of
performance for jobs that involve teamwork
than for those that involve dyadic service
interactions.

11. Ana Determinani


Maria afectivi ai
Hojbota, persistenei
Ticu motivaionale
Constantin