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# Syllabus of XII Science Pre-Boards/Final Exam Subject- Physics

Unit I: Electrostatics

## Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulombs law-force between two point

charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous
charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole,
electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.

Electric flux, statement of Gausss theorem and its applications to find field due to
infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged
thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

## Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole
and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of
two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of
capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and
without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

## Chapter-3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility
and their relation with electric current; Ohms law, electrical resistance, V-I
characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity
and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel
combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

## Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in

series and in parallel. Kirchhoffs laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge,
metre bridge.

Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for
comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Syllabus of XII Science Pre-Boards/Final Exam Subject- Physics

## Concept of magnetic field, Oersteds experiment.

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Amperes law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal
solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

## Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two

parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a
current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity
and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

## Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole
moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar
magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar
magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic
field lines; Earths magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors
affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

## Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faradays laws, induced emf and current; Lenzs Law, Eddy
currents.

## Chapter-7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and
impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance;
power in AC circuits, wattless current.
Syllabus of XII Science Pre-Boards/Final Exam Subject- Physics

## Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their

transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).

## Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-

rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

## Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light,
total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmakers formula. Magnification, power of a lens,
combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and
dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise
and sunset.

## Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and

refracting) and their magnifying powers.

## Chapter-10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, relection and refraction of plane wave
at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using
Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for
fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical
telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised
light and Polaroids.

## Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Syllabus of XII Science Pre-Boards/Final Exam Subject- Physics

## Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenards observations;

Einsteins photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

## Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer

experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be
explained).

## Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter-12: Atoms

## Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherfords model of atom; Bohr model, energy

levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter-13: Nuclei

## Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

decay law.

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with
mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

## Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a

rectifier;

Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and
their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.

## Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an

amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic
gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

## Chapter-15: Communication Systems

Syllabus of XII Science Pre-Boards/Final Exam Subject- Physics

## Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals

(speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of
electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite
communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation,