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Curs 1 Semestrul II

Terminal
Definiie general
Loc special amenajat i echipat
corespunztor n care mrfurile sau
cltorii ncep sau termin un proces de
transport ori schimb mijlocul de
transport.
Observaie: poate fi deservit de unul
sau mai multe moduri de transport

n transporturi intermodale/combinate
Loc echipat pentru transbordarea i
depozitarea unitilor de transport
intermodal
Comisia Economic pentru Europa a ONU Terminologie n transporturi
combinate
Observaie: este deservit de cel puin
dou moduri de transport
Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3
O T T D
Terminal Bimodal
TERMINALE MULTIMODALE / INTERMODALE
Nr. Moduri de transport Terminal Trimodal

Terminal Cvadrimodal, etc.

Terminal de Containere

Terminal de transport combinat

Uniti transbordate Terminal Ro-La

Terminal Ro-Ro

Terminal pt sisteme / tehnici bimodale

Terminal Maritim

Amplasament Terminal Fluvial

Terminal Terestru Port uscat

Terminal Mic 70 80 UTI / zi

Mrime / Volum trafic Terminal Mediu 140 150 UTI / zi

Terminal Mare peste 250 UTI / zi


Funciile terminalelor (intermodale)
1. Funcii de baz (obligatorii pentru un terminal)
Fonctions "administratives:
- contrle lentre du site/Rception conducteurs routiers ;
- gestion et attribution des capacits sur le train/Rservation ;
- contrle contradictoire la remise de la caisse au/par le transporteur routier ;
- contrle contradictoire la remise de la caisse au/par le transporteur
ferroviaire;
- suivi client (relais des informations relatives une perturbation du service,
un problme constat sur la ou les caisse(s) remises par le client ou sa
destination, etc.) ;
- gestion du personnel du site ;
- gestion administrative du dpt de conteneurs ;
- gestion administrative du parc conteneurs8 ;
- gestion et suivi du parc wagon en local ;
- gestion et suivi de la desserte ferroviaire du site.
Fonctions "exploitation"
- transbordement rail-route ;
- manoeuvres et tri dans le parc conteneurs ;
- manoeuvres et tri dans le dpt conteneurs ;
- desserte ferroviaire du site.
Funciile terminalelor (intermodale)

2. Funcii suplimentare (se realizeaz facultativ)


Depozit de UTI-uri
Ghieu n relaia cu clienii pentru operatorii de
transport sau operatorii de transport combinat
Camionare
Formaliti administrative (vamale, etc.)
Reparaii de UTI-uri
Prelucrri pentru mrfuri periculoase sau perisabile
Altele
Terminal versus punct nodal / poart

1. Un terminal poate funciona ca punct nodal (hub, mainhub) sau poart


ntr-o reea de servicii de transport intermodal.
2. Terminal versus punct nodal / poart :
n terminal:
Acumulare: numai UTI-uri provenind din zona deservit
Transbordri posibile numai ntre vehicule aparinnd unor
moduri de transport diferite
n punctul nodal sau poart:
Acumulare de UTI-uri provenind din zona deservit +
Acumulare de UTI-uri provenind de la alte terminale i destinate
zonelor deservite de alte terminale (acumulare n reea).
Transbordri posibile ntre vehicule diferite aparinnd aceluiai
mod de transport sau unor moduri de transport diferite.
3. Concluzie: nu orice terminal joac rol de punct nodal sau poart n
sistemul organizat de un operator de transport intermodal.
Definiii
1. Punct nodal (hub)
Comisia Economic pentru Europa a ONU Terminologie n transporturi combinate
punct central n care se realizeaz colectarea (acumularea), sortarea,
transbordarea i redistribuia mrfurilor ntr-o anumit zon.
2. Platform logistic (centru logistic) freight village, interporto
Comisia Economic pentru Europa a ONU Terminologie n transporturi combinate
concentrarea (grupare) geografic de organisme i ntreprinderi independente
care se ocup de transportul mrfurilor (de exemplu, comisionari de transport,
expeditori, operatori de transport, organe vamale) i/sau realizeaz servicii
auxiliare acestor transporturi (de exemplu, depozitare, ntreinere i reparaii),
incluznd cel puin un terminal.
European Association of Freight Villages - Zon n care:
toate activitile de transport, logistice i de distribuie a mrfurilor, att n tranzit
naional, ct i n tranzit internaional sunt realizate de operatori diferii. Aceti
operatori pot fi proprietari sau concesionari ai cldirilor i facilitilor care au fost
construite n zona respectiv.
este permis accesul tuturor companiilor care realizeaz activitile indicate
exist toate facilitile necesare pentru realizarea activitilor indicate
exist servicii publice pentru personal i echipamentele utilizatorilor
accesul este asigurat prin intermediul mai multor moduri de transport
gestiunea este asigurat de un singur organism, public sau privat.
Terminal terestru, bimodal
pentru containere
Drum de acces

Poart de intrare ieire

Linii c.f. pt. transbordare /


manipulare
Spaiu de depozitare
temporar
Benzi de circulaie pentru
camioane
Linii de garare

Acces feroviar
Stivuire n blocuri

Stivuire liniar
Infrastructures

caractristiques des accs ferroviaires (existence et


caractristiques dun faisceau local de desserte (nombre de voies,
longueurs utiles, distance et accessibilit aux voies de transbordement,
etc.), capacit, niveau de congestion des voies principales au droit de
lembranchement vers le terminal ou son faisceau, etc.).
caractristiques des voies de transbordement (linaires utiles,
nombre de voies) ;
caractristiques des quais (permettent-ils lvolution de plusieurs
engins de manutention, etc.) ;
caractristiques de la ou des zone(s) de stockage (surface(s),
localisation(s) par rapport aux voies ferres et aux zones de
chargement/dchargement des vhicules routiers, etc.) ;
caractristiques des zones d'accueil, de stockage et dvolution
sur sites des poids lourds (surface(s), etc.) ;
caractristiques des accs routiers (capacit, niveau de congestion,
etc.) ;
Exploitation des infrastructures
longueurs des trains accepts (selon les contextes locaux, des
restrictions sur les longueurs des trains, souvent lies aux longueurs des
voies des faisceaux dapproche peuvent apparatre, afin de rendre plus
robuste lexploitation ou damliorer la capacit du systme au global :
problmatique de lventuelle coupe du train et du positionnement de
cette opration dans le maillon ferroviaire) ? Il sagit bien dune dcision
dexploitation, mme si induite par linfrastructure.
dure du positionnement du train sur le terminal (refouler la rame,
raliser les coupes, mobilisation des moyens de desserte (locotracteur
affect au site ou mutualis avec une gare proximit du site) ;
le travail du train la manutention (nombre dengins et productivits
respectives) ;
gestion de la zone de stockage (si elle nest pas sous portique ou sur
le quai attenant la voie, productivits et nombre dengins affects
son alimentation ou son vacuation et sa gestion (organisation, etc.))
dure de la formation du train et sa mise disposition (ralisation
de lopration et mobilisation des moyens de desserte).

Programul de lucru din terminal


Landshut
Leipzig
Bucurestii Noi
Munchen Riem
Terminal Anvers Mainhub (Belgia) Inter Ferry Boats (Filial SNCB)
Terminal MainHUB
Poarta pt.camioane

Banda de oprire
pentru camioane
Containere
Macara portal pe
roi cu cauciucuri
Multi trailer system
Vagoane
Linii c.f.
Macara

Multi trailer system


Terminale Ro-La
Terestre
Bimodale
Transport Ro-La cu vagoane Saadkmss Intrare
Ieire
Linii de cale ferat (nfundate)

Ramp mobil pentru ncrcarea /


descrcarea camioanelor

Parcare pt. camioane

Band de circulaie pt. camioane

Ramp mobil pentru ncrcarea / descrcarea camioanelor


Terminale Ro-La pentru vagoane cu roti mici si platforma
scufundata
Configuraie
cu linii
nfundate
(Trento)

Configuraie
cu platforma
de
ncarcare
descrcare
amplasat
ntre linii i
inele
acestora
BILK KOMBITERMINAL BUDAPESTA

Liniile de cale ferat din terminalul Ro-La nu sunt nfundate


Terminale Ro-La -- Soluia Modalohr

Tipul Capacitate Frecvena trenurilor Lungimea Limea Numr de reprize


terminalului terminalului terminalului pentru un tren cu
lungimea de 750 m
Tip 1 Mare 1 2 trenuri/or 800 m 57 m 1
Tip 2 Medie 1 tren la 6 ore 200 400 m 31 m 12
1 tren la 2 ore
Tip 3 Mic 1 3 trenuri/zi 120 200 m 20 m 36
Terminal Ro-La Bourgneuf / Aiton (Frana)
Sistem Modalohr
Soluia Modalohr
Soluia Modalohr
Echipamente fixe care asigur rotirea
platformelor vagoanelor Modalohr:
1 dulap cu echipamente de control pentru
celelalte componente;
2 dispozitiv de centrare;
3 uniti hidraulice;
4 dispozitive de rotire;
5 ramp antiderapant pentru urcarea
vehicului rutier pe platforma vagonului;
6 dispozitive de sprijin la capt;
7 pupitru de comand de la distan;
8 post care conine cheia hidraulic a
dispozitivului de blocare a pivotului de cuplare
i un dispozitiv de aezare a capacului
pivotului de cuplare;
9 dispozitive de ridicare;
10 - capacul pivotului de cuplare;
11 linie de ghidare pentru vehiculul rutier;
12 ramp antiderapant pentru coborrea
vehiculului rutier de pe platforma vagonului
Terminale Ro-La - Soluia Eurotunnel
Soluia Eurotunnel
Curs 2 Semestrul II
Terminale Ro-Ro
Maritime, fluviale sau lacustre
Pentru
feriboturi pentru trenuri
Feriboturi pentru vehicule rutiere
Vehicule noi
Camioane cu marf
Configuraii de linii pentru acces la feriboturi pentru trenuri
Portul Constanta - Terminal Ferry Boat
Terminal feribot pt. trenuri Ilicevsk
Terminale n portul Turku
Terminalul Ro-Ro Pendik (Turcia)
Vrasene Terminal Port Anvers
Terminal Ro-Ro fluvial - Passau
Terminale maritime
de containere

Transbordare ntre
nave maritime i
vehicule terestre
(vagoane, camioane)
Bi- sau trimodal
A container terminal consists of
at least three operational areas:

1. operational area between


quay wall and container yard
(apron or the area just behind the
berth front)

2. container yard (terminal


storage = stacking area)

3. terminal area of landside


operations (including the gate,
parking, office buildings, customs
facilities, container freight station
with an area for stuffing and
stripping, empty container
storage, container maintenance
and repair area etc.)
The layout and choice of equipment depend on, amongst
others, the
number of containers to be handled,
available area and
mode of hinterland transport.

The combination of terminal equipment used


at the vessel,
for transport tasks between quay and stacking yard (or
vice versa),
for container stacking,
for transport from stacking yard to and from the landside
operation area and
for landside operation itself
is called operations system.
The decision for an operations system depends on the following factors:
size of vessels
traffic forecast (annual container volume)
container volume in peak hours
available land area
required stacking density of the containers per ha (configuration of
stacking yard)
cost structure (wages, financial facilities, dues)
aimed STS productivity (i.e. TEU / crane / hour)
geographic restrictions of the terminal area
contingent restrictions due to soil conditions
environmental impacts like wind, ice, noise, light and snow
mean dwell time of containers in the stacking yard
TEU factor (e.g. 1,6 implies 60% of all containers are 40 ft long)
percentage of reefer containers
percentage of empty containers (short: MTs)
percentage of LCL (Less than Container Load)
the connections to the hinterland transport modes road, railway and
inland waterways
Reachstacker
System with
Tractor-Trailer Units

System advantages
low investment and capital costs as reachstackers and TTUs cause relatively low
purchase expenses per equipment unit
low operating costs of equipment in comparison to other operations system alternatives
(prerequisite: low-wage country)

System disadvantages
container transports between STS crane and yard area require two handover procedures
due to the use of different terminal equipment for transport and stacking tasks
comparatively high manning requirements due to the large number of vehicles and low level
of automation, and therefore the impact of labor or operating cost respectively is
considerable in high-wage countries
the TTUs can not pick up or set down the containers self-acting disturbance of operation
by trucks being loaded/unloaded in the stacking area
Straddle Carrier System
System advantages
SC are able to cover all kinds of horizontal and vertical transports being necessary
to perform container moves from the landside terminal interfaces (including truck handling and rail
operation) via the container yard to handover positions below the STS cranes at quayside (and vice versa).
Thus, pure SC operations systems (not considering the STS cranes) are viable and combinations with
other (compatible) equipment types are facultative only or are induced by particular logistics or economical
requirements, respectively
the containers can be dropped on the ground so that no (or only short) waiting times for handling
equipment occur. This kind of container handover enables STS cranes to operate with a high productivity
while using a comparatively low number of SCs per crane.
high number of concurrent container movements
the breakdown of one SC has a comparatively low impact on the total handling process
compared to the systems with TTUs the labor costs are lower due to the smaller number of vehicles
no disturbance of the operation by trucks because these are loaded/unloaded outside the stacking yard
the system is flexible to changes based on operational requirements and terminal layouts can be simply
altered as SCs can be easily moved within the terminal since no pre-set routes or tracks are needed
Straddle Carrier System

System disadvantages
high investment and capital costs for the SCs
high maintenance and energy costs
high labor costs compared to (semi-)automated transport and stacking systems
high area requirement in comparison to yard cranes as a result of a lower
stacking height and a large proportion of traffic (within the yard area)
when traveling distances are far, SCs are not the first choice as they are
considerably slower compared to TTUs and more costly
Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes and TTUs in the stacking yard, rail yard
operation by RMGs
System advantages
low space requirement in the stacking area because of the high storage capacity
in a small area (high stacking density). The containers can be stacked up to 8-high
(i.e. 1-over-7-high)1 without spacing for traveling lanes between the rows. To avoid
reshuffling of the containers, an efficient administration of the yard is required.
relatively high flexibility as the RTGs can be transported to other storage blocks
medium investment capital costs per piece of equipment

System disadvantages
container transports between STS crane and yard area require two handover
procedures due to the use of different terminal equipment for transport and stacking
tasks
disturbance of TTU operations by trucks being also loaded/unloaded in the
stacking area (mixed traffic)
Rail-Mounted Gantry Crane System with Tractor-Trailer Units (blocks parallel to quay)

System advantages (compared to RTGs)


RMGs generally stack higher and span wider, with up to 1-over-7-high and 12 containers
wide
based on practical experience stacking density of the yard is higher with RMG cranes and
can exceed 1,000 TEU per hectare (stacking 4-high)
more durable and reliable than RTGs
higher availability with moderate maintenance and repair costs
Medium operating costs because of relatively low maintenance costs
Easier to automate than RTGs

System disadvantages (compared to RTGs)


more expensive to install because of required tracks
high disturbance of terminal operation in case of crane failure
high investment and capital costs due to equipment and construction costs (rail tracks) in
comparison to other types of block stacking systems
rigid system in operation because of rail mountings and more difficult to change the layout
in the yard
Rail-Mounted Gantry Crane System with Automated Guided Vehicles
or Shuttle Carriers (blocks perpendicular to quay)

System advantages
very low labor costs because of automation
high system availability
very high productivity of horizontal transport

System disadvantages
very high investment and capital costs
very well trained labor required
rigid system
Port Kaohsiung (Taiwan)
Port Kaohsiung (Taiwan)
Terminale APM
APM

Delta
ECT
A se vedea notele
Fig. 2.3 a se vedea notele
A se vedea notele
A se vedea notele
Constanta South Container Terminal (CSCT)
Terminale fluviale de containere
Terminal
containere
Utrecht
Terminalul trimodal DeCeTe Duisburg (ECT Europe Container Terminal)
Terminalul trimodal DeCeTe Duisburg
(ECT Europe Container Terminal)
TRANSPORTURI MULTIMODALE

Semestrul II Curs 4

Transbordarea i manipularea UTI-urilor


Definiii
Prin transbordare se nelege operaiunea de
transfer direct al UTI-urilor ntre dou mijloace
de transport;
Prin manipulare se nelege:
operaiunea de transfer direct al UTI-ului de
pe mijlocul de transport pe platforma de
depozitare temporar sau invers;
operaiunea de transfer al UTI-ului de locul
depunerii sale dup descrcare de pe
mijlocul de transport pe platforma de
depozitare temporar sau de pe aceast
platform la locul unde trebuie depus
nainte de ncrcare pe mijlocul de transport
Cale ferat Transport rutier

Cale ferat Transport naval


Moduri de transport deservite Transport naval Transport rutier
Mijloace de manipulare i transbordare

Transport rutier Transport aerian

Transp naval-Cale ferat-transp. rutier

Vertical
Tipul transferului
Orizontal
Orizontal i vertical Automatizate

Grad de automatizare Semi-automatizate

Manual

Mobile
Grade de libertate
Ghidate

Volum de trafic sczut

Volum trafic / Productivitate Volum de trafic mediu

Volum de trafic mare

ncrcare-descrcare vehicule
Rol Transfer
Stivuire
Mijloace de manipulare / transbordare

Stivuitoare
Cu furci
Pentru containere goale
Pentru containere ncrcate
ncrctoare frontale
Transportoare stivuitoare
Portal
laterale
Transportoare
Autotractoare i semiremorci de
terminal
Macarale
Pe pneuri, pe enile sau pe ine
Turn, portal
Stivuitoare
Soluie flexibil pentru:
Terminale mici
Porturi de dimensiuni medii
Realizeaz:
Transport intern n terminal
Stivuire
STIVUITOR
Terminal Umekoij (Kyoto - Japonia)
Containere 10, 12 rar 20
Maxim 5 tb
Model Kalmar Kalmar DCD, DCE, DCF, DRF

Lifting capacity 7,000 10,000 kg

Stacking capacity 3 8+1

90 aisle stacking width 13800 14000 mm (40'


container)
Service weight 22,990 41,900 kg

Engine Diesel

Cab options Spirit Delta


STIVUITOR PENTRU CONTAINERE
Brake type Wet disc
GOALE
STIVUITOR PENTRU
CONTAINERE
NCRCATE

Model Kalmar Lifting capacity Stacking Width Weight


(tonnes) capacity (mm) (tonnes)
(LC=1750 LC=1955) 9'6" 8'6"
DCF360CSG 36 36 44 4450 66
DCF410CSG 41 41 55 4450 70
DCF450CSG 45 45 55 4450 75
ncrctoare frontale
Soluie flexibil pentru:
Terminale mici
Porturi de dimensiuni
medii
Realizeaz:
Transport intern
Stivuire - posibil
peste 4 rnduri de
containere
Spaiile dintre containere
reduse n comparaie cu
cazul stivuitoarelor
NCRCTOR FRONTAL

Model Kalmar DRF

Lifting capacity 10,000 kg, 42,000 kg, 45,000 kg


Stacking 8 (Empty), 6 (Loaded)
capacity
Wheelbase 5200 8000 mm
Service weight 37,400 105,800 kg
Engine Diesel, 6 cylinders
Cab Options Spirit Delta
Brake type Wet Disc
Liebherr LRS 645
Sarcina Maxim 45 tone
nline: 6 containere
Transportoare stivuitoare portal

Vehicule utilizate n terminalele


cu trafic de 100000 4000000
TEU / an:
Transport intern n terminal
Stivuirea pe cel mult 4 nivele
Soluie optim pentru activiti
medii sau ridicate
500 TEU / hectar, pe 2 nivele
(3-high SC) sau 750 TEU /
hectar, pe 3 nivele (4-high SC)
ncrcarea / descrcarea
camioanelor semiautomatizate
sau automatizate
Transportoare stivuitoare portal
Lifting Stacking Model Overall Overall Inside Weight Tyres Power(kW/rpm)
capacity capacity desig- height( width clear (kg) (in) Torque(Nm/rpm)
(tonnes) (no.cont.) nation mm) (mm) width
(mm)

40 3 CSC340 13,045 4,940 3,500 60,000 16.00 270/2200


-25 1,420/1,400

40 3 CSC340 12,245 4,940 3,500 58,000 16.00 270/2200


-25 1,420/1,400

50 3 CSC350 13,045 4,940 3,500 62,000 16.00 270/2200


-25 1,420/1,400

40 4 CSC440 15,980 4,940 3,500 66,000 16.00 270/2200


-25 1,420/1,400

50 4 CSC450 15,980 4,940 3,500 68,000 16.00 270/2200


-25 1,420/1,400
Macarale mobile
Mobile Cranes (MbC) consist of a traveling device with
rubber-tired wheels for traveling freely on harbour areas,
outrigger and the crane unit to load and unload cargo
onto or from a ship.
Rubber-tired wheels are used when the crane travels,
and an outrigger is used to support the crane unit during
cargo handling operations.
Cargo handling operation is performed by the three
different actions of the crane: slewing, luffing and
hoisting.
Mobile harbor crane are very versatile so they can be
used to handle cargo in various ways.
Tarnveni Vest

Drobeta Turnu Severin

Trgoviste Nord
Macara mobil pe pneuri LHM
500 Linotronic
Raza 51 m
Sarcina maxim: 150 t
Super Post Panamax
Terminal Containere Port Galai
Macarale portal
(transtainere)
- pe ine
- pe pneuri
Macarale portal pe ine

Rail-mounted gantry crane (RMG) are specialized yard container


handling machines.
An RMG travels on rails to lift and stack 20 or 40 containers in the
yard area using a spreader (or twin-lift spreader if needed).
Rail mounted cranes come in a variety of models with different
spans and overhangs.
These cranes are specifically designed for the intensive container
stacking requirements of todays port environment.
Compared with the rubber-tyred gantry crane(RTG), the RMG has
the advantages of being driven by electrical power, clean, bigger
lifting capacity, and high gantry traveling speed with cargo.
Rail-Mounted Gantry cranes have proven particularly effective for
rail/road transhipments of large quantities of containers and swap
bodies.
The cranes must be able to move quickly in both a longitudinal and
a transverse direction.
These cranes also offer advantages with respect to automatic
positioning.
Componentele unei
macarale portal pe ine
Lifting capacity: up to 50,8 tons (50LT)
Lifting height: 1 over 3...1 over 5 , 12...18 m (39...59 feet)
Span: 19...50 m (62...164 feet)
Outreaches: up to 12 m on one or both sides
Hoisting speed with load: 30 m/min (100 fpm)
Hoisting with empty spreader: 60 m/min (200 fpm)
Trolley traverse speed: up to 150 m/min (492 fpm)
Gantry travel speed: up to 240 m/min (787 fpm)
Slewing trolley (option): 1...2 rpm
Macara cu o singur consol
Macara fr consol
Macara cu dou console Macara fr consol
Macarale portal pe pneuri
Rubber-tyred gantry cranes (RTG) are:
mobile gantry cranes and
the specialized equipment for yard handling of
standard containers.
They are the most common yard handling system at the
world's largest container terminals and specialized
container storage yards with annual capacity
requirements up to millions of TEUs.
RTGs are an economical solution when straddling
multiple lanes of rail / road and/or container storage, or
when maximum storage density in the container stack is
desired.
Dependena dintre configuraia
terminalului i tipul de macarale utilizate
Dependena dintre
configuraia terminalului i
tipul de macarale utilizate
Dependena dintre configuraia terminalului i tipul de macarale utilizate
Macarale de cheu (portainer)
Macarale de cheu
A ship-to-shore crane is a design of large dockside gantry cranes
found at container terminals for loading and unloading shipping
containers from container ships.
Container cranes consistent of a supporting framework that can
traverse the length of a quay or yard, and a moving platform called a
"spreader". The spreader can be lowered down on top of a container
and locks on to the container's four locking points ("cornercastings"),
using a "twistlock" mechanism.
Cranes normally transport a single container at once, however some
newer cranes have the capability to up pick up up to four 20'
containers at once.
There are two common types of container handling gantry crane:
high profile where the boom is hinged at the waterside of the
crane structure and lifted up in the air to clear the ships for
navigation;
the second type is the low profile type where the boom is
shuttled/pulled towards and over the ship to allow the trolley to
load and discharge containers. Low profile cranes are used
where they may be in the flightpath of aircraft such as where a
container terminal is located close to an airport.
Macarale de cheu
The cranes are powered by two types of
power source:
by diesel engine driven generators which are
located on top of the crane or
by electric power from the dock. The most
common is by electric power from the dock
(also known as shore power) in which case
the electric source is AC which can be from
4,000 up to 12,000 volts
Macarale de cheu
Ship-to-shore cranes are generally classified by their lifting capacity,
and the size of the container ships they can load and unload
containers.
Panamax. A "Panamax" crane can fully load and unload containers
from a container ship capable of passing through the Panama Canal
(ships of 1213 container rows wide).
Post Panamax. Post-Panamax" crane can fully load and unload
containers from a container ship too large (too wide) to pass through the
Panama Canal ( normally about 18 container rows wide).
Super-Post Panamax. The largest modern container cranes are
classified as "Super-Post Panamax" (for vessels of about 22 container
rows wide and/or more). A modern container crane capable of lifting two
20 ft (two 6 m) containers at once will generally have a rated lifting
capacity of 65 tonnes from under the spreader. Some new cranes have
now been built with 120 tonne load capacity enabling them to lift up to
four 20 ft or two 40 ft long containers. Cranes capable of lifting six
twenty foot containers have also been designed. Post-Panamax cranes
weigh approximately 800900 tonnes while the newer generation
Super-PostPanamax cranes can weigh 16002000 tonnes.
Macara de cheu pe ine
(Liebherr)

Macara de cheu pe pneuri


(Kalmar)
Comparaie ntre diferitele
utilaje utilizate pentru
transbordare i manipulare
TRANSPORTURI MULTIMODALE

Semestrul II Curs 5
Macarale de mare productivitate
Sisteme de manipulare a containerelor de ctre macarale de mare
productivitate

Tandem means side by side, rather than end to end, in


this case. End-to-end lifts are called twin lifts. Tandem
lift cranes are designed to lift two 20, 40, or 45
containers as well as a single 40 or 45 container on
one hoist with twin-20 containers on the other hoist, or
four 20 containers (tandem twin-20s).
Conventional Single-Hoist, Twin Lift Cranes

The conventional dockside container crane has


a single hoist and a single spreader with a rated
load of up to 65 LT.
The hoist may be in a fixed machinery house
supported on the trolley girders with the main
hoist ropes running to the trolley (rope trolley
crane), or the hoist may be on the trolley
(machinery on trolley crane or MOT).
The single-hoist crane picks a single 20, 40, or
45 container, or two end-to-end 20 containers
(twin-20s), under a single spreader.
Single hoist tandem cranes
Single hoist tandem cranes use one hoist system to lift the
tandem load.
The hoist system is conventional, except for the hoist
capacity, lift system,and control systems. Also, the
additional load applied to the crane must be considered in
the design.
Some benefits of a single hoist tandem crane are:
One hoist system = less cost/maintenance
Possible to convert an existing crane to tandem
operations
Some problems with a single hoist tandem crane are:
Limited access to unequal height stacks
Reduced hoist capacity
Slow conversion to single lifts, because the special
tandem lift system
must be removed.
Dual hoist tandem cranes

Dual hoist tandem cranes use two separate hoist


systems to lift the tandem load.
Some benefits of dual hoist tandem cranes include:
Easily converts to single lift operation
Handles unequal height stacks
Some problems with dual hoist tandem cranes include :
Additional maintenance due to two hoist systems
Additional weight
Additional initial cost: approximately 20% - 30%
premium over single lift cranes
Innovation
DP World uses the largest
cranes in the world and the
first with Quad-Container lift
capability.

The 365-metre long Daniela


(nominal capacity of 13,800
TEUs) being handled by the
port's largest tandem lift
gantries, the biggest of their
kind in the world.
Ship Side Landside

ZPMC triple 40ft Container Crane


in Ma Wan Container Terminals,
Shenzhen, P.R. China
Under single spreader 60 T
Rated Under twin spreaders 100 T
Load Under triple spreaders 120 T
Under Cargo Beam 75 T
With rated load 75m/min (60t)
Main Hoist With empty spreader 180m/min

Secondary Hoist With rated load 75m/min (60t)


With empty spreader 180m/min

Triple Hoist With rated load 75m/min (120T)


Speeds
With empty spreader 180m/min

Trolley 240m/min
Gantry 45m/min
Boom Hoisting Time time/one way <= 6min

Rail Gauge 30m


Outreach 65m
Above rail 43m
Lifting Height
Under rail 18m
Sisteme de transport intern, n porturi

Sursa : Container Terminals and Cargo Systems


Container carrier 8x4 (YT1852)
Tractor for handling containers for G.V.W. up to 55 ton

8x4 driveline
G.V.W. up to 55 ton
Tractor weight 16.840 kg
Robust chassis
Engine output 215Hp (160kW)
Automatic transmission
First two axles steered
Excellent driver view
Fast handling speed and low maintenance costs
Twin-40 Yard Chassis

Tandem bombcarts avoid the problem of


truck timing. Without tandem bombcarts,
two trucks may not be available when the
crane needs them. When this happens,
the operator must wait, which reduces
productivity.
If tandem bombcarts are used, yard
configuration and operation will require
adjustment.
Multi trailer system
Figure shows a design by Ferdinand Porsche
Multi Trailer System (MTS)
The system basically consists of a heavy duty tractor coupled to a train of five trailers
(wagons). The tractor is a customized 415 horsepower FTF design, capable of towing
up to 400 tonnes. The FTF is equipped with an automatic coupler, operated from the
drivers cabin, for coupling and uncoupling complete trains. Each trailer is fitted with
two steerable four wheeled axes connected by means of a computer designed
steering mechanism that results in the trailers exact tracking of the trucks path.
Each trailer may carry one 40 or 45 container or two 20 containers with a total
weight of up to 50 tonnes. The trailers are designed to be used in conjunction with
chassis loaders on the crane. The MTS is in fact a buffer in itself, capable of
accepting the fluctuations in crane cycle time without delay to the crane. This results
in better crane productivity with fewer drivers necessary for transport per crane than a
yard tractor/chassis operation. An average performance of 40 containers per crane
per hour in Delta Terminal is achieved using two tractors per crane.
In the buffers, located in the stack, the MTS-trains are towed in by the tractor and
uncoupled when lined up. The driver then picks another train from the buffer and
proceeds to the crane in much the same way as is done in the tractor/chassis
operation. The total savings in the transportation system costs of the MTS, compared
to the conventional yard tractor/chassis system, is about 20% in ECTs situation. It
requires more capital cost, but results in substantial savings in labour, maintenance,
energy, tyres, less damage, safer handling and higher crane productivity.
Vancouver: The entire system consists of a Rotterdam: MTS uses a combination
tractor capable of pulling 154 tons, and the of one tractor to 5 trailers, for a total
trailers, each with a 2 TEU capacity. transport capability of 10 TEUs per
system.
MTS-train

Some 25 years ago Buiscar developed their Multi Trailer System together with
E.C.T. in the Port of Rotterdam and the Technical University of Delft. This concept
consists of a number of MTS (drawbar) trailers coupled to form a trailer train or Big
Train.
At the time MTS-trains were considered for bigger ports to justify this concept.
This concept consists of a maximum of 7 trailers per train. The train is formed by
dedicated MTS trailers only and needs a special heavy-duty tractor for pulling. It
has proven itself for over 20 years now.
The steering characteristics of the MTS train are very accurate and have a little
deviation while making a 180 degrees turn! The turning radius is 19 meters
outwards.
This unit is the state-of-the-art in MTS-concepts and incorporates all features as
such:
up to 65 tons capacity and all container positions are possible
traditional or Bumbcar frame lay out to handle containers with the SATL's still attached
a very accurate steering mechanism
automatic coupling between tractor and train, incl. brake and electric lines.
Now it is Buiscar's philosophy to also offer our trailer
train concept with a very flexible solution using existing
prime movers to minimise investments, to midsize and
smaller ports. This concept is called "Flexi-train" and
consists of a number of simplified drawbar trailers.
However, the first trailer in the train is a semi-trailer
(Skeletal trailer) which can be picked up with a standard
terminal tractor. The trailers will be equipped with a
special steering mechanism to keep them all exactly in
the same track.
The principle behind the concept is the flexibility of the
train configuration: depending on the volume of the
container flow to be transported operators can put one or
more different kinds of trailers behind the terminal
tractor, for maximum efficiency.
The "Flexi-train" will be very usefull in situations where
ports do have long distance tracks and large
containerisation.
A few special remarks should be made regarding the
implementation of a Multi Trailer System. Users should
realise that by loading and unloading a train in the stack,
containers should be placed in the empty spots as close
together as possible. The train can be temporarily used
as "mobile stock". We would like to give our best advice
and benefit based on our knowledge from 25 years
experience.
Flexi-train

Depending on peaks in traffic, operators can


choose to go for a single tractor/trailer combination
or add more trailers behind the tractor: the "Flexi-
train" principle.
This principle consists of 2-3 trailers per train. The
first trailer in the train is a single-axle Skeletal
trailer with a steerable rear axle. To the rear of this
trailer, 1-2 simplified MTS-BASIC trailers can be
coupled. The advantage of this concept is that the
trailer train can be picked up by the fifth wheel of
an existing terminal tractor. The steering
characteristics of the Flexi-train" are very accurate
and it has a turning radius of approximately 16
meters outwards.

This concept has the following features:


maximum efficiency in crane operation and
horizontal transport

up to 65 tons capacity and all container positions


are possible

traditional or Bumbcar frame lay-out to handle


containers with the SATL's still attached

full automatic coupling between tractor and ta rin,


incl. pneumatic and electric connections
Double stack
In many ports the quantity of empty
containers is increasing rapidly and
thus should be transported as
efficient as possible. To reach a
higher degree in efficiency Buiscar
has developed a double stack
version (MTS/DST) to transport 2x
40ft. or 4x 20ft. empty (8 TEU) per
trailer.
The second layer is kept in position
by a front and rear beam, both
carrying a clamp with a locking
device to keep the container(s) in
place. The clamps will be operated
by the driver from his cabin.
Various electrical safety systems
will prevent driving with the clamps
uncensored.
Loading and unloading by crane,
reach stacker or forklift truck is
possible.
As containerisation is growing, distances in most ports are getting longer.
Handling more containers in an efficient way leads automatically to the need for
Multi Trailer Systems. Terberg tractors can handle Multi Trailer Systems up
to a Gross Combination Weight of 350 tons.

M.T.S. (Multi Trailer System).


Tractor for G.C.W. up to 350 ton
4x4 driveline
G.C.W. up to 350 ton
Tractor weight 23.000 kg
Ballast weight dismountable
Engine output: 420 Hp (309 kW)
Automatic transmission
Speed
unloaded : 32.5 km/h
loaded : 31 km/h
The AGV system consists of the vehicle, an onboard controller, a data link
with a centralized management system, and a navigation system. The vehicles
are typically electrically powered, and constructed from off-the-shelf
components. The onboard controller manages the propulsion, steering,
braking, and other functions of the vehicle. The management system deals with
dispatching, routing and traffic control. The navigation system is used by the
vehicle for guidance to its destination.
Sursa :
Container Terminals
and Cargo Systems
Driverless transport systems were especially developed for transports of
heavy loads in harbors and the related problems: High payload, simple, robust
construction, a maximum operating safety, long lifespan, perfect adjustment to
process flows, etc.
The AGV container transporter is remote-controlled via a central master
computer, thus it is capable of transporting containers automatically. The
navigation computer of the vehicle orients itself by transponders embedded in
the ground serving as reference points.
A laser-controlled allround scanner system fulfills all safety aspects and comes
into action as soon as an obstacle appears.
The Deltaport terminal at Rotterdam uses AGVs in transporting containers from the
stacked storage area (served by rail-mounted gantry cranes) to the apron. The total
fleet size is 105 vehicles. Electronic positioning devices align the wharf gantry crane
with the units for rapid loading and discharging of the vessel. An onboard computer
in each AGV communicates with a control center to enable free ranging navigation
to any point within the terminal.
AGV transporting a
cassette loaded with
two containers
Sistemul elvetian IDIOMA
Horizontal transhipment equipment for small an medium terminals
handling of all kinds of ISO containers and swap bodies class C
transhipment below overhead contact wires possible
handling by truck driver demonstration within a commercial transport
chain Dietikon-Geneva
lower costs per ITU than portal cranes and mobile cranes
for break even about 30 to 40 ITUs per day are needed (up to 120
ITU/day possible)
Sistemul MOBILER
vehicle based horizontal transhipment equipment
developed by Palfinger Bermller GmbH (Germany)
20 / 40-feet ISO-Container until 32 t
swap bodies 7.15 to 9.15m
specific transhipment-channel at the loading units necessary
normal rail wagons with specific metal sheets
in Switzerland used within transport chains of Mac Donalds and chemical goods

The Mobiler consists mainly of two hydraulically


driven shift traverses mounted on a trucks platform.
After the truck has taken position parallel to the
container bearing railway wagon the two traverses
perform a sophisticated way of movement. Thus
within 100 seconds containers or swapbodies
ranging from 18 to 32 tons are moved from rail to
road or viceversa. Note: the load is lifted only 14 cm
during movement so the Mobiler is considered as a
very safe way of handling hazardous goods. The
two traverses act under the control of an electronic
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) .
Fully automatic container yard of
Shanghai Wai Gao Qiao terminal is
designed by Shanghai Zhenhua
Port Machinery (Group) Co.

Special features for Fully-automatic stacking yard


1. Trucks will load/unload in each end of the yard while not entering the stacking yard
2. Truck Loading/unloading and yard stacking are finished by double rail mounted
crane DRMG and cantilever rail mounted gantry crane (CRMG) with co-operation
of platform on the ground.
3. New designed DRMG with double trolley has two separated spreaders can lift two
40/45 ft container or four 20 ft container, so as to enable the working efficiency of
DRMG reach the best (as estimation could be 100 containers per hour). If one of
the trolley break down, another trolley can keep working as usual.
4. Flipper structure of the Fixed platform on the ground can help the container to be
placed quickly and tide several layers. This platform setup order for truck with
container, so as to co-operation with DRMG to affect fully-automatic operation.