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Historical Philosophical Legal Anthropological Psychological Sociological Moral

EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS SCOPE/CONTENT - Shape what education is today in terms of
Organizational structure -Policies & direction -curriculum INFLUENCE/EFFECT

3. ANTHROPOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS Anthropology is the science of people and culture. It covers

physical anthropology which studies people as biological organisms and cultural anthropology or
social anthropology which is devoted to the behavior of people and the products of that behavior.

4. This aspect of the foundation of education specifically covers, culture, language and writing,
kinship, descent and marriage, arts, religion and the supernatural.

5. IMPLICATION: Our curriculum includes all aspects that are covered by anthropology. Even
teaching strategies should be adopted to the nature of the learner, his beliefs, practices and
even tradition. K to 12 curriculum gives prominence to the use of mother tongue. Poverty is
addressed because of 4Ps.

6. Philosophy is derived from Greek words philo (love) and sophos or Sophia (wise or wisdom).
What is Philosophy?

7. 1. IDEALISM. Proclaims the spiritual nature of mean and the universe; in terms of curriculum, it
must include a body of intellectual matter which is ideational and conceptual or subjects that are
essential for the realization of mental and moral development; good for mathematics, history,
literature because they are more of cognitive and value-laden.

8. 2. REALISM. Asserts the objective existence of the world and beings in it and relations between
these beings independent of human knowledge and desires; good for liberal arts curriculum like
math and science.

9. 3. ESSENTIALISM. Education as individual adaptation to an absolute knowledge which exists

independently of individuals, appropriate for reading, writing arithmetic, grammar, history,
geography, hygiene, elementary science, drawing, language, art, manual training and domestic

10. 4. PERENNIALISM. Contend that truth is universal and unchanging; aims for education of the
rational person; subjects: literature, mathematics, language, history and humanities.

11. 5. PROGRESSIVISM. All learning should center on the childs interest and needs; school
should be pleasant place for learning; teacher served as facilitator.

12. 6. RECONSTRUCTIONISM. Believe that school should originate policies and progress which
would bring about reform of the social order and teachers should use their power to lead the
young in the program of social reform; subjects would be religion, economics, politics and

13. 7. EXISTENTIALISM. Way of viewing and thinking about life in the world so that priority is
given to individualism and subjectivity; knowledge is about the realities of human life and the
choices that each person has to make; good for humanities, history and literature.

14. IMPLICATION The philosophies helped shape the present status of education which include
educational agenda like curriculum planning, teaching strategies that are appropriate for a
specific subjects and type of learners.

15. I - Some Authorities in Education and Their Contributions. scientific study of psychology. 1.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a German physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and
professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.

16. 2. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov - experiment on the conditioned and unconditioned reflexes on dogs
which influence training and learning. - From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual
brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research"

17. 3. Alfred Binet experimental method to measure intelligence and reasoning ability of an
individual. - French psychologist who invented the first practical intelligence test, the Binet-
Simon scale. His principal goal was to identify students who needed special help in coping with
the school curriculum.

18. 4. James McKeen Cattell formulated standardized psychological test for measuring
personality and other behavioral traits. American psychologist, was the first professor of
psychology in the United States at the University of Pennsylvania and long-time editor and
publisher of scientific journals and publications, most notably the journal Science.

19. 5. Edward Lee Thorndike Constructed various intelligence and aptitude tests for children.
Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949) is famous in psychology for his work on learning theory that lead
to the development of operant conditioning within behaviorism.

20. 6. Lewis Madison Terman - devised Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) - was an American
psychologist, noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the
Stanford Graduate School of Education.

21. 7. Jean Piaget systematic study on the acquisition of understanding and development of
intelligence in children. Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher
known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and
epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology".

22. 8. Erik Erikson Erik Homburger Erikson was a Danish-born American developmental
psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his Erikson's stages of psychosocial development of
human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase Identity Crisis.

23. Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor,
and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University
from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. 9. Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner his theory revolved
around the idea of reinforcement and reward.

24. Emphasized that learning is a product of continuous reciprocal interactions between the
environment, behavior and the persons psychological process. 10. Albert Bandura

25. Implications of Their Contributions to Education Help understand the educational capability
of man which became the bases for planning curriculum that best suit the type of learner.
Became the foundation of present educators to plan what is best for learners and understand
him better.

26. II Motivation This refers to forces such as biological, emotional, cognitive or social that
causes an individuals behavior to initiate and carry our activities. Theories of Motivation
Instinct Theory. Instincts are inborn and unlearned inclinations that determine behavior. In
classroom setting, the theory is indentified with students who enthusiastically do their best in
any manner to maintain grades and win recognition.

27. Drive-Reduction Theory. Drive is a powerful impulse that motivates human behavior to
reduce his tension. When a hungry person for an instance, eats food to satisfy his hunger, his
strong impulse to crave for food is reduced and lessened until his feeling returns to normal
condition. Incentive Theory. Incentive theory refers to some environmental factors either
material, e.g. money, gifts, or non-material e.g. applause, recognition that motivates an
individual to perform. People look after incentives when performing any task or duty.

28. Cognitive Theory. This explains the differences between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation refers to any volition of an individual to obtain external rewards like trophies,
house, and lot, etc. Intrinsic motivation refers to any human action in which he believes that such
activities are self-fulfilling without expecting any external rewards.

29. Arousal Theory a. James-Lange Theory This suggests that an individual perception of
emotion depends upon bodily responses a person makes to a specific arousing situation. b.
Cannon-Bard Theory This suggests arousal speculation that when a brain receives information
from the senses, it interprets an event as emotional while preparing the body to deal with the
new situation. When a learner fails in an examination he should learn how to face that challenges
and overcome it.
30. c. Schachter-Singer Theory. This speculates that when an individual experiences anger, due
to any unpleasant emotion, condition, his feelings overpowers him up to the point that he acts

31. Divine revelation is always the foundation and point of reference of Christian ethics while the
philosophical discipline of morality relies upon the authority of reason.

32. I Some Important Past Authorities/Philosophers 1. Pythagoras. - Pythagoras of Samos was

an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called
Pythagoreanism. best of life is devoted to mental discipline; man must be simple in speech,
dress and food any superfluous way of life should be avoided.

33. 2. Kung Fu Tzu or Confucius - Believed that the only remedy toward the present disorder and
lack of moral standards is to convert people once more to the principles and precepts of the
sages (wisemen) of antiquity. Human action are based on five virtues of kindness, uprightness,
decorum, wisdom and faithfulness that constitute the whole of human duty.

34. 3. Gautama Buddha Founder of Buddhism; human actions lead to rebirth, wherein good
deeds are inevitably rewarded and evil deeds punished.

35. 4. Socrates Considered great teacher of ethics who argued that virtue is knowledge; virtue is
good both for the individual and for the society; education can make people moral.

36. 5. Antisthenes According to him, there are two kinds of good: external good which consists of
personal property, sensual pleasure and other luxuries; internal good that comprises truth and
knowledge of the soul; he advised pupils to accept the burden of the physical and mental pains
that accompany the minds search for its inner wealth.

37. 6. Plato The soul of a good person is harmoniously ordered under the governance of reason,
and the good person finds truly satisfying enjoyment in the pursuit of knowledge; argued that
good is an emotional element of reality.

38. 7. Aristotle Happiness is the goal of every human being; all living creatures possess inherent
potentialities and it is their nature to develop that ability to fullest.

39. 8. Meng-Tzu or Mencius Believed that people are by nature good but this goodness manifests
only when they experience peace of mind, which in turn depends on material security; he
affirmed that only when the people had a stable livelihood would they have a steady heart.

40. 9. Jesus Christ Emphasized on moral sincerity rather than strict adherence to religious ritual
and memorization of the law; condemned hypocrisy, social injustices and defilement of Gods

41. God did not deprived people of their free will even when they turned to sin because it was
preferable to bring good out of evil than to prevent the evil from coming into existence. 10. St.
Augustine of Tagaste

42. 11. Muhammad Believed that each person would have be held accountable for his moral
struggle at the end of time.

43. Acts must be considered in the purpose for which they are done and in the circumstances in
which they performed 12. Thomas Aquinas

44. 13. Martin Luther Moral conduct or good works is a Christian requirement, but ones salvation
comes from personal faith alone. Martin Luther OSA was a German monk, Catholic priest,
professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity,
subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation.

45. 14. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzch Traditional values represented a slave morality which is created
by weak and resentful individuals who encourage such behavior as gentleness and kindness
because the behavior served their interest.

46. II Freedom and Responsibility Freedom is the right of an individual to think, act or live as he
chooses without being subjected to any restraints and restrictions by necessity or force.
Example: when a person declines not to join his barkada in watching a movie, nobody can
force or coerce him for he has the right to refuse. Freedom and liberty are synonymous.
Freedom is taken from Latin liber (libertas) which means free.

47. Responsibility comes from Latin word respondere which means give back in return. It is an
act of any individual taking a stance of being accountable to himself, some or something.

48. Three Important Elements (Connected with the exercise of freedom and responsibility)

49. 1. To Oneself Every individual is free to act on anything pertaining to himself but that kind
of liberty is limited for it entails responsibility to himself. Man is responsible for his health in order
to serve others better. Sickness, most often than not, is a result of constant negligence and
maximum exploitation of ones body and strength. Learning is a great personal responsibility of
every student inside and outside the school campus.

50. 2. To Others Being human and Christian, every individual cannot ignore and close his eyes
to the needs of his fellowmen. To accept and embrace others mean to take up his shortcomings,
tantrums, immaturity and human weakness that may times cause conflicts with others.

51. 3.To the Environment Man lives in a place where animals and plants are grouped to form an
ecosystem. The environment has to be taken care of since people continue to dwell in it.

52. IMPLICATION: Teachers are models of good moral to the learners. Their lives are the object of
the prying eyes of the people. They are morally bound for their profession, personal lives and the

53. HISTORICAL FOUNDATION This deals with the historical development of education that
influenced in the shaping of the Philippine education.

54. Primitive Education was directed for security mode of instruction was imitation,
demonstration and trial and error.

55. Egyptian Education was both cultural to preserve and perpetuate culture and utilitarian to
transfer skills from father to son. Education for women was vocational and the boys were trained
by scribes who taught them how to read and write.

56. Greek Education was training for powerful body of soldiers (Spartan) and individual
excellence (Athenian). Content of education was reading, writing, music, poetry and dancing.

57. Roman Education was the development of good citizen, good soldier and good worker.
Content s of education were laws of the Twelve Tables, Roman history, procedures of court and
the senate, conduct of war, business, agriculture, sports and used of weapons. Girls were taught
for domestic life and religious functions. Methodology is memorization and imitation.

58. Medieval Education was more on the teaching of teaching of Jesus Christ which is universal
and democratic. Methods of teaching were conversational method, and gnomic or the used of the
proverbs and parable.

59. Renaissance to Naturalism in Education includes literary and aesthetic, religious, moral and
social education. Methods include reading, studying each pupil individually, inductive teaching
and reasoning.

The TeacherAs the MasterTeacherAttributes : patient Effective Efficient To

assume:Confident a. Responsibility toFirm societyTrue b. Cultivation of Dedicated mind,
the heart and the soul of the youth c. To love the beauty ,goodness and truth

2. The Teacher If you plan is for one year..plant rice; if yourplan is for ten years. Plant a tree;
but if your plan is for eternity.. Then EDUCATE children.

3. Pleasing personal appearance Sense of humor,cheerfulness,

enthusiasmPERSONALQUALITIES Good physical health and personal hygiene Emotional
stability, sound mental health and self control Superior intelligencePERSONALQUALITIES
Flexibility, creativity, resourcefulness Integrity, trustworthiness, honesty, sincerity
Promptness, efficiencyPERSONALQUALITIES Refinement in words, tact and courtesy, civility
Pleasant modulated voicePERSONAL Sympathy, kindness helpfulness, patience, and
diligenceQUALITIES Fairness, impartiality, tolerance, patiencePERSONAL Sociability,
friendliness , cooperativenessQUALITIES Positive outlook,encouraging attitude

4. Professional Qualities 1. MASTERY OF THE SUBJECT MATTER Subject First essential requisite
matter Subject Thorough grasp of the subject matter Keep abreast and keep up with Subject
matter new and updated trends

5. Professional qualities 2. UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNER Knowledge on the nature of

children. understand Know the different levels of understand intellectual and emotional
maturity. Genuine concern and sincere love understand for the children.


Principles and Know what to teach(Subject matter). methods Principles and Know how to
teach( Method). methods Psychology of learning and how to sustain Principles and interest and
individual differences. methods


KNOWLEDGE Know how to relate the General subject to other subjects. understanding Broad
understanding of General all field of interests. understanding

8. Professional qualities 5. TAKING PRIDE OF TEACHING AS A PROFESSION Positive outlook in

life Teaching as a profession and good attitude. Understand your task Teaching as a profession
and responsibility.

9. The LearnerThe learner is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and a rational
soul. His body experiences sensations and feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the principle of
spiritual acts, the source of intellectual abstraction, self reflection, and free rational volition. Body
and soul exist in mutual dependence. Let us feed the body as well as his spirit. Man does not
live by bread alone.

10. The LearnerEquipped with cognitive as well as appetitive faculties.a. cognitive- five senses-
able to see, smell, hear, touch and taste.b. Imagination- able to form representations of material
objects which are not present to their senses.c. Memory- able to retain, recall and recognize past
mental acts.d. Intellect-can form concept or ideas, and makes judgment

11. The Learner Appetitive are his feelings, emotions and rational will. The pain and joy of an
object or an activity . It is indicated through the character of an individual. Five elements:1.
Ability- it determines their capacity to understand and assimilate information for their own use
and application.Categorized into:a. Physical-fast, average and slow achievers.b. Mental- superior,
above average and below average.

12. The Learner2. Aptitude- refers to the students innate talent or gift. A natural capacity to
learn certain skills.3. Interest- refers to attraction or strong appeal for something. Lessons that
give them the chance to express their deep feelings for objects or actions will be more
meaningful and easily absorbed.4. Family and Cultural Background- student s who come from
different socioeconomic background manifest a wide range of behaviour due to differences in
upbringing practices.

13. The Learner5. Attitudes students have a unique way of thinking and reacting.Positive
attitudes are:a. Curiosity- students are all times eager to learn.b. Responsibility- they pursue
assigned task to completion despite personal constraints. Accountable to their actions and
decisions.c. Creativity- being imaginative they can think of new ways of arriving at solutions to
their problems. They can innovate procedures and techniques.

14. The Learnerd. Persistence- students sustain interest in a learning activity not mindful of the
extra time and effort being spent.Basic example to this is: Gardners Multiple Intelligence Theory

15. Intelligence as DispositionDisposition intelligence Sensitive to:Verbal linguistic Sounds,

meanings, structures and styles of languageLogical- Mathematical Patterns, numbers and
numerical data, causes and effects, objective and quantitative reasoningSpatial Intelligence
Colors, shapes, visual, puzzles, symmetry, lines, imagesBodily -Kenisthetic Touch, movement,
physical self, athleticismMusical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody, pitch, sound

16. The Learning Environment It consists of the physical, as well as the psychological
environment, that surrounds the learner and that influences his/her learning. It is the classroom
and all the instructional features and the non-threatening classroom climate needed in planning
and implementing all teaching and learning activities.

17. The Learning Environment 1. Arrangement of Furniture The furniture, like the table for
demonstrations located in front of the room and the chairs facing it are neatly arranged with
sufficient spaces in- between for ease in moving around. Display shelves for safekeeping of
projects, collections, and outstanding outwork are located at the sides. Attached to the wall is a
bulletin board and in front is the white board or blackboard used for discussion and illustrations
related to the lessons. 2. Physical Condition of the Classroom1) it must be clean and orderly2)
one or two frames , create a pleasant and inviting aura.3) Natural light and flowing fresh air add
to their comfort and ease as they tackle the learning tasks.4) Free from noise coming from the
surroundings, students concentration and interest are easily sustained.5) The doors and
windows could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noise with light fixtures that could
easily be found.

18. The Learning Environment 3. Classroom proceedingsThe clear and enthusiastic voice of the
teacher that elicits equally eager and keen responses from the students help create a conducive
and beneficial ambiance for learning.Supplies and materials must be prepared earlier . A system
of distribution and retrieval must be observed.Positive mood set by both parties, the teacher and
the learner, could keep the activities lively and flawless. 4. Interactions Diverse situation may
exist in the classroom at any given time. Teachers must be sensitive to positive and negative
interactions and must immediately undertake an instant revision or adjustment in the
methodology when necessary.

It is an environment:a. which encourages people to be active.b. which promotes and facilitates
the individuals discovery of the personal meaning of idea.c. which emphasizes the uniquely
personal and subjective nature of learning, in which difference is good and desirable.d. which
consistently recognizes peoples right to make mistakes.e. which tolerates ambiguity.f. in which
evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self- evaluation.g. which encourages
openness of self rather than concealment of self.h. in which people are encouraged to trust
themselves as well as in external sources.i. in which people feel they are respected.j. in which
people feel they are accepted.k. which permits confrontation. a place therefore where people feel
they are respected and accepted for who they are and for what they say and do is a conducive
atmosphere of learning.

20. The Learning Environment A placetherefore, where people feel they are respected and
accepted for who they are and for what they say and do is a conducive atmosphere of Learning.

21. EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARDS Dont be afraid to express yourself when it comes to your
bulletin boards. Spice up your room by trying a different approach to look. Take pictures of the
students and school activities and post them. Use wrapping paper, cloth, or lace for the
background. Use it as a message center for your students. Post assignments.

22. EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARDS Use 3-D items such as cornstalks or toy spaceships to accent
a theme. Color,color,color Make your own cut-outs using copies from a book or the computer.
You can trace them onto the bulletin board with the help of an overhead projector. Use twisted
brown butcher paper to make a vine- like border. Be creative and have fun!

23. TEACHING PRINCIPLES They are guides to make teaching and learning effective, wholesome
and meaningful. Webster, says a principle is a comprehensive law or doctrine which an
accepted or professed rule of action or conduct is derived. Latin word princeps- which means
the beginning or the end of all facts, circumstances or state of affairs.
24. TEACHING PRINCIPLES It has Five Areas to consider:1. Respect for individual2. Democracy, as
a way of life3. Providing suitable condition for the development and maintenance of a sound
personality4. Improving group living in the classroom5. Improving the classroom environment

25. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Respect for the individual It explains the respect for self confidence
and intellectual, and emotional integrity of the individual. Expressions such as:a. Learning by
doingb. Understanding before memorizing.Have become a principle as well as theory of today.

26. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Democracy as a way of life. One of the major goals of education in the
Philippines is to foster, promote and develop democracy as a way of life. It implies:a. Respect for
potentialities of individualb. Obligation of each individual to contribute to the welfare of the
group of which he is a member.c. Participation in experience which will foster social, economic,
intellectual, and physical growthd. Right of every individual to make a choice commensurate with
his intellectual capacity and maturity.

27. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Providing suitable conditionsIt means that school life is of great
importance in determining the present and the future mental health and strength of personality
of the learner. It includes therefore, the objectives of education and the learning materials and
various methods being utilized.

28. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Improving group livingIt means that, a teacher should understand
what group dynamics is all about and what techniques must be used intelligently for group
leadership. Lastly , in Improving the Classroom Environment. Teacher should see to it that the
physical environment of his classroom will provide a maximum degree of best condition
conducive to learning.

29. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGLearning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is
activated by the learner. The process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by
the teacher.

30. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGIt is a discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas.
Students more readily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their
needs and problems.

31. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGLearning (Behavioral Change) is a consequence of experience. If

experience is the best teacher, then teacher should make use of experiential learning

32. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGLearning is a cooperative and collaborative process. Two heads are
better than one and cooperation fosters learning.

33. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is an evolutionary process. Behavioral change requires

time andpatience. Things that are worthwhile in life take time.

34. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGOne of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself. As a
teacher, you must draw these learners ideas, feelings and experiences, you midwife the birth of

35. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGThe process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. People

are feeling beings as well as thinking beings and when their feelings and thoughts are in
harmony learning is maximized.

36. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGThe process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and
individual. As people become more aware of how they learn and solve problems and become
exposed to alternative models used by other people.

37. Instructional planningCommonly known as Lesson planning- A guarantee of 100% learning

and a guide for teachers in presenting the lessons systematically.- A written instructional plan is
an antidote to aimlessness.

38. - Typesa. Yearly instructional plan for Basic Education1. Philippine Elementary Learning
Competencies (PELCs)2. Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLCs)3. For tertiary
level, it is called as course syllabus other term for this is the course plan or course of study.
39. -- Lesson plan could be done weekly or daily. Elements of lesson plan a. Objective b. Topic or
subject matter c. Materials d. Procedure or lesson development e. Evaluation f. Assignment

40. - ObjectivesIt maybe a statement or question in nature. Like ,To explain the causes of the
thinning down of the ozone layer.Maybe converted into, What are the causes of the thinning
down of the ozone layer?

41. 1. COGNITIVE -mind2. AFFECTIVE feeling and appreciation3. PSYCHOMOTOR- action or to do


42. objectives can be coined in the acronym SMARTS- specificM- measurableA- attainableR- result
oriented or reliableT- time bound and terminal

43. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive domain Affective domain Psychomotor Start
with infinitivesTo define, to distinguish, to acquire To separate, to positively respond To
distinguish by touchingTo identify, to recall, to recognize To commend, to follow To endure, to
improveTo interpret, to differentiate To approve, to practice To play the pianoTo read, to make, to
determine To appreciate, to feel To dance skillfully, to exploreTo conclude, to extend To avoid, to
resolve To write , to balanceTo draw, to explain To balance, to help To strengthen, to reach

44. Levels of cognitive domain1. Knowledge2. Comprehension3. Application4. Analysis5.

Synthesis6. Evaluation

45. Levels of affective domain by: Kratwohl Taxonomy1. Receiving2. Responding3. Valuing4.
Organization5. Characterization

46. Levels of Psychomotor Domain1. Observing2. Imitating3. Practicing4. Adapting but Simpson
(1972)added another three from Blooms Domain and these are :5. Precision6. Speed7. Distance
and Technique

47. basic parts of lesson plana. Objectivesb. Subject matterc. Materialsd. Procedure or lesson
developmente. Evaluationf. assignment

48. b.topic or subject matter Main course of the lesson The center of the discussionc. Materials
instructional materials and media and to make the abstract concrete.

49. c. procedure-It starts with motivatione.g. prayer-Then checking of attendance and I.D. plus
the uniform-Review the past lesson-Apply a method

50. in a procedure,Five major elementsa.motivationb. Teaching procedure( use of pivotal

questionsc. Formative check( evaluation or assessmentd. Student participatione. closure

51. Homework or AssignmentThey are the synapse strengthenersThey enforce the retention of
concepts.It will serve as the preparation for the next lesson.

52. Role of the Teacher In Doing Activities as Part of the Lesson.1. Develop a list of study
questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson.2. Develop the anticipated answers to the
question, it is important that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect
answers.3. Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of
urgency, so dont give them more time than you think they will need.4. Supervise during this
information, but do not find it for them6. Keep students on task and eliminate distractions.7. Plan
for reporting of answers.


means that we have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to
learn what we intend to teach. As the saying goes: What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember.
What I do, I understand

LEARNING, THE MORE AND THE BETTER THE LEARNING.Humans are intensely visual animals.
Senses of Learning 750% 5.5 4 3 3 sight hearing touch taste smell
ENHANCES LEARNINGIt deals with physical and psychological climate of the classroomPhysical
the board, ventilation, proper lighting condition, order and tidiness and painting of the
room.Psychological- is an offshoot of our personality as a teacher.

RETENTION AND LEARNINGWe tend to remember and learn more those that strike our hearts! Let
us add an emotional touch to learning.5. LEARNING IS MEANINGFUL WHEN IT IS CONNECTED TO

OF INFORMATION. It is to develop creative and critical thinking. It should reach the levels of
application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation to hone our students thinking skills.

Discussion, debates, journal writing, conferences, essays, stories, poems, storytellin g, listening
activities, reading Logical- Mathematical Calculations, experiments, comparisons, number
games, using evidence, formulating and testing hypothesis deductive and inductive reasoning
Spatial Concept maps, graphs, charts, art projects, metaphorical thinking, visualization , videos,
slides, visual presentations Bodily- Kenisthetic Role- playing, dance, athletic activities,
manipulative, hands-on demonstrations concept miming Musical Playing, music, singing, rapping,
whistling, clapping, analysing sounds and music Interpersonal Community- involvement projects,
discussions, cooperative learning, team games, peer tutoring, conferences, social activities,
sharing Intrapersonal Student choice, journal writing, self evaluation, personal instruction,
independent study, discussing feelings, reflecting Naturalist Ecological fieldtrips , environmental
study, caring for plants and animals, outdoor work, pattern recognition

Research- based

60. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES1. Authentic Problem Solving Example-

comparing the mini polls at school result to national elections result. In tabulating the result,
discuss the reasons for the differences.2. Project- based multi-mediaexample class will work on
the memories of World War II and produce a song from that era and display a collage of
photographs and other memorabilia.3. Role plays as Meaning Makers-Example- A sari-sari store
to give elementary pupils experience in making a budget, stay within the budget and counting
change for bills.4. Visuals are powerful aids in retention as well as understanding. To help
students organize their thinking, teachers use graphics.

61. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Examples of Graphics 1. Graphic Organizers for


63. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES3. Time Sequence Pattern Organizer Date/time
event Venue Date/time event Venue Date/ time event Venue

64. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 4. Episode Pattern Organizer duration place time
cause episode effectpersons person person person

65. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Concept Pattern Organizer example

characteristic concept characteristiccharacteristic Example Example Example Example Example

66. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT1. Assertive Discipline (Canter 1976) teaches students to accept
the consequences of their actions - More on positive and praises than punishments.- Be
responsible of the actions you are acted upon.

67. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT2. Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor 1967). Theory X is

Newtonian and Y is post- Newtonian - X suggests that people will do the minimum possible
amount of work necessary to accomplish a task. - Y- suggests that all people want to succeed,
but there are obstacles in their path which inhibit their progress.. If these obstacles are removed,
then they can succeed as well as anyone else.

68. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT3. Control Theory (William Glasser,1984)- called as Reality

Therapy-is a series of steps to help children understand their choices they are making. - he
suggests that there are four basic needsa. Loveb. Controlc. Freedomd. FunThese are necessary
for healthy psychological balance

69. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT4. Behaviorism ( Skinner)- molding all children to conform by use
of standard punishments and rewards. - The initial condition are individuals and the equations
are those behavioristic techniques set out to modify the individuals.

70. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT5. Transactional Analysis( Harris,1967) studies the interactions of

behavior between teachers and students. He even suggests three stages of development called
ego-states, Child, Parent, and Adult.In order for teachers to be successful in this theory, they
need to remain in the Adult ego and be able to recognize the ego- state of students around
them.Teachers can recognize the games that students may play in a child ego- stateAnd teach
students to behave in an Adult ego- state.

71. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT6. Ginott Model- concentrates on the communication between

teacher and student. It concentrates on avoiding criticism and trying to understand the students
feelings.7. Kay Model- students are intrinsically motivated to behave properly if they are taught
how to do it. Role of the teacher is to teach students how to monitor themselves.

72. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT8. Jones Model- assumption of this model is a child needs to be
controlled and that teachers can achieve this control through body language, administration, and
parental support.According to Edwards,1993, Stopping Instruction, Staring, Sitting close to the
student are all powerful intimidation techniques which should stop students from misbehaving.

73. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Steps to follow:a. Provide the rationale.b.
Demonstrate the skill.c. Provide guided practice.d. Check for understanding and provide
feedback.e. Provide extended practice and transfer.

74. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS How to do it?1. Explain the rationale and objectives
of the lesson. Inform them of how long the lesson will take.2. Provide motivation and draw
commitments from them.3. Conduct the demonstration4. Assign practice for short periods of
time. Continue practice to the point of over learning for complete mastery.5. Provide feedback,
videotaping of performance, tests or written comments.6. Focus on performance evaluation
rather than on pencil-and- paper test. The student should exhibit the skill mastered.

75. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Example:a. Deductive method- is a teacher-

dominated. It begins with the abstract rule, generalization, principle and ends with specific
examples and concrete details.

76. Advantages and disadvantages:A. Coverage of a wider scope by stating at once the rule or
the principle at the beginning of the class, we cover more subject matter over a period of time.-
No bother on the part of a teacher to lead the learners to the formulation of the generalization or
rule.D. It in not supportive of the principle that learning is an active process. Less involvement on
the part of the learner.- Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Due to abstract presentation at
start then it will look irrelevant and uninteresting.

77. b. Inductive methodIs less teacher directed than the deductive method. It begins with
specificdetails, concrete data and examples and ends with an abstract generalization , rule or

78. Reflect on .. 1. Socratic,on which the image is a wise, somewhat crusty teacher who
purposely gets into arguments with students over the subject matter through artful questioning.

79. Reflect on .. 2. )Town Meetingon which the teachers whom adapt this style use a great
deal of discussion and play a moderate role that enables students to work out answers to
problem by themselves.
80. Reflect on .. 3.Compulsive typeon which the teacher is fussy(choosy), teaches things
over and over, and is concerned with functional order and structure.

81. Reflect on .. 4. Boomeron which the teacher shouts in a strong voice, Youre going to
learn, there is no nonsense in the classroom.

82. Reflect on .. 5. ) Maverickon which everybody loves the teacher, except perhaps the
principal. She raises difficult questions and presents ideas that disturb.

83. Reflect on .. 6. ) Quiet one on which the teacher is calm, sincere butdefinite. The
teacher commands both respect and attention.

84. Reflect on .. 7. ) Entertaineron which the teacher is free enough to joke and laugh with
the students.

85. Reflect on .. 8. Explanatory on which the teacher is in command of thesubject matter

and explains particular subjects of the lesson.

86. Reflect on .. 9. Interactiveon which through dialogue and questioning, the teacher
facilitates the development of student ideas.

87. Reflect on .. 10. Pragmaticon which the teacher guides the studentsactivities and
facilitates self- instruction and independent learning.

88. Kinds of Test and Evaluation1.Matching type- matching column A to the other column.2. Fill in
the Blanks- formulating questions by writing a statement with a blank portion on it.3. Multiple
choice- it is with a complete statement and giving three or more choices below the statement.

89. Kinds of Test and Evaluation4. Completion form- completing the sentence by adding phrase
or words quite related to fill in the blanks.5. enumeration- it is to ask for multiple answers by
putting the numbers depending on the item being asked.

90. Kinds of Test and Evaluation6. True or False- it is by giving a statement and then analyze it if
it is true or not based on the lesson previously discussed.7.Objective essay- it is to answer the
question verbatim. It means that the answers will be based on the words and phrases coming
from the lesson and not your own ideas and opinions.

91. Kinds of Test and Evaluation8. Subjective essay- it could be answered either by your own
opinion or based on the statement and explanation from the book.9. Puzzle type- the most
artistic and unique kind of test on which you will consider the horizontal and vertical items.

92. Evaluation could be written or in verbal way depending on the strategy applied by the
teacher. Alternative assessment can be one of the evaluations.Ex: Field trips, Thesis defense,
exhibits, field demonstration and inside competitions.


Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of

development and behavior modification.


Theory of "Discovery Learning" Constructivist. Children solve problems using prior examples,
reflection activities.

Believed that the education and instruction of children should include four separate features.

1)Children should be encouraged to explore and learn about their world, and teachers should
seek out how to foster that curiosity.
2)Information should be easily accessible and comprehensible, so teachers should research the
most effective way to present new information.

3)The order or sequence should be logical and orderly, so that children can follow along with the
development of an idea or way of thinking.

4)A method of reward should be installed, so that children can be encouraged and feel that their
participation and responses are good. Verbal praise is an extrinsic reward, while the child's pride
in figuring out the concept is an intrinsic reward.


"Learning Through Experience", Project based, free activity, cooperative learning, teach students
how to think for themselves, social success, hands-on activities, United States pragmatic
philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)


Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980),
sensorimotor- 0-2 years coordinating visual sensations with motorskills

preoperational- 2-7 years able to internally represent images in own mind. EGOCENTRISM,
concrete operational- 7-12 years understand conservation volume, length, colour etc in objects,
formal operational- 12+ abstract thinking and logical thinking. forming own beliefs and morality.


Socialcultural Theory - views cognitive development as a socially mediated process where adult
support (called scaffolding) helps children master skills they can't do on their own.


Studied into moral development stages: Pre-Conventional (punishment/obedience), Conventional

(peer influence primary), and Post Conventional (moral conduct/ human rights), hierarchical scale
for measuring moral maturity.Moral maturity is evidenced by belief that there are universal rights
and duties.

Bloom's Taxonomy

Higher order thinking, engaging students in critical thinking, There are six categories of cognitive
objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis,


"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to
accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

Transfer learning theory

Transfer of learning-- connection or application of learned material to future skill or knowledge

acquisition. transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to

If teachers structure their lessons in ways that allow the transfer of information, it pushes
students to think it more broadly by synthesizing: using old ideas to create new ones, creating
generalizations, making predictions and drawing conclusions.


Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected
outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with
low levels. (Bandura)


The process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important

Zone of Proximal Development

in Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential
knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction.

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that
signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and
prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.

Operant Conditioning

Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases

or decreases in occurrence.

Cognitive Development

Development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem


Social Development
Development, with age, of increasingly sophisticated understandings of other people and of
society as a whole, as well as increasingly effective interpersonal skills and more internalized
standards for behavior.

Moral Development

Growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically.

Learning Style

A mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process

information, and demonstrate learning.

Americans With Disabilities Act

Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment
and mandated easy access to all public and commericial buildings.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act

(IDEA) ensures rights of nondiscriminatory treatment in all aspect of disabled individuals lives;
fair and appropriate education, appropriate evaluation, individualized education program, least
restrictive environment, parent and student participation in decision making, procedural

Section 504 Rehabilitation Act

A federal law that protects the civil rights of individuals with disabilities. This law is closely
intertwined with IDEA. Children with disabilities who are not eligible for special education may
qualify for accommodations under Section 504.

Intellectually Gifted

The 2 to 4 percent of the population who have IQ scores greater than 130.

English Language Learners

Students whose first language is not English and who need help in learning to speak, read, and
write in English.


Law of Effect - behavior is strengthened with reinforcements.


Called the father of behaviorism, he claimed that a psychologist's only interest should be in
observable behavior.

Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs., Needs
organized in hierarchal form. Lower needs satisfied before we can attend to higher level needs.
Physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem, self actualization.

B F Skinner

Behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement

history; worked with pigeons.


Proposed that individuals go through 8 distinct, universal stages of development. Each stage
consists of a developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis.-- trust v mistrust -
autonomy v shame - initiative v guilt - industry v inferiority - identity v role confusion - intimacy v
isolation - generativity v stagnation - integrity v despair.


The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will.


The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others.

Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.

Cognitive Dissonance

The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are
inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can
reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

Positive Reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any
stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

Negative Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative
reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note:
negative reinforcement is not punishment.)

Motivation Theory

Individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:

1. There is a positive link between effort and performance

2. Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward

3. The reward will satisfy an important need

4. The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the work effort worthwhile.

Standards of Conduct

Practice behaviors that are defined by members of a profession.

Positive Learning Environment

The teacher provides a well-managed, safe, and orderly environment that is conducive to
learning and encourages respect for all. , an environment that promotes emotional and
intellectual fairness and security, can enhance self-esteem in all learners

-could provide activities that promote success in reading and writing, amply practice and careful
corrections, focus on relevant background information, actively involve learners, provide-native
language support, focus on content that and activities that are relevant to the students, create
roles for family and community members, hold high expectations and being responsible to
cultural and personal diversity-

Standards-Based Education

The use of explicit outcomes of what students should know and be able to do, which are outlined
in standards, to develop instruction and assessments.

Standards and Frameworks

A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that

defines the content to be learned in terms of clear, definable standards of what the student
should know and be able to do. Academic standards are the benchmarks of quality and
excellence in education such as the rigor of curricula and the difficulty of examinations.


A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by
making models, maps and frameworks in their mind. ~ is the opposite of behaviorism.

Information Processing
The methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material.


Diagramming main ideas and connections between them.

Reciprocal Determinism

Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior
can interact to determine future behavior.

Vicarious Learning

Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for
performing the action.


View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own
understanding of reality. (Learning by doing.)

Learning as Experience

A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

Problem-Based Learning

Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a
complex problem similar to those in the outside world.

Inquiry Learning

Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by
gathering data and testing their conclusions.

Discovery Learning

Approach to instruction in which students develop an understanding of a topic through firsthand

interaction with the environment.


Can be either positive or negative, intended to reduce the occurrence of a behavior.

Scope and Sequence

Scope is what you are covering and sequence is when you are covering it.
Affective Domain

Known as the "feeling" domain and is divided into categories that specify the degree of a
person's depth of emotional response to tasks; it includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes,
and appreciations.

Psychomotor Domain

The domain involved in the learning of a new procedure or skill; often called the doing domain.

Cognitive Domain

The "thinking" domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with
knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Observable Behavior

Behaviors for objectives must be able to be seen or heard so teachers can measure and assess
how well an objective and/or a task has been accomplished.


A process that provides an individual with instruction and practice to develop or strengthen skills
which are nonexistent or weak.


Educational approach that provides a child with extra learning experiences that the standard
curriculum would not normally include.

Thematic Unit

An integrated learning experience that is structured around a theme.

Interdisciplinary Unit

Many subject areas are included under one topic or theme (also called thematic units or an
integrated approach).


Joint communication and decision making among educational professionals to create an optimal
learning environment for students and especially for students with disabilities. A philosophy
about how to relate to othershow to learn and work.

Integrative Assessment
Ask open ended questions. An approach to evaluation that assimilates input from relevant

Critical Thinking

The ability and willingness to assess claims critically and to make judgments on the basis of
objective and supported reasons.

Creative Thinking

The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.

Inductive Reasoning

Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has
four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

Deductive Reasoning

Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that
principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday

Direct Instruction

A teacher-led instructional procedure that provides students with specific instructions on a task,
teacher-led practice, independent practice, and immediate corrective feedback. Also referred to
as explicit instruction.

Indirect Instruction

-involving the students in inquiry, problem solving and discovery

-allows them to explore the environment, work with manipulative and learn by doing and playing.

-takes advantage of students interests and encourages them to find their own solutions.

Independent Instruction

Perhaps the most student-directed model of instruction.

Teachers may (or may not) initiate a project but the learner generally takes responsibility for
setting learning contracts, research projects, computer mediated-instruction, and distance

Strength is that it encourages student self-reliance, self-regulation, and self-evaluation. Effective

teachers can help students set goals, manage their time, monitor their own progress, and reflect
on their achievements.

Experiential Instruction
Also called "anchor instruction." students use concrete applications of concept being taught
(anchor) to connect to a concrete experience. Hands-on or simulated through computer software,
field trips.

Interactive Instruction

-involves lots of student interaction

-methods include: cooperative learning, reciprocal teaching, think/pair/share

Explicit Teaching

Barak Rosenshine--10 basic principles for the development of an explicit teaching session

1.Create a short statement of lesson purpose

2. Provide a short review of previous, prerequisite learning.

3. Present new material in small steps, withe student practice

4. Provide clear, detail explanations and instructions

5. Provide active practice for all students.

6.Ask effective questions, check for understanding and encourage all pupil response

7. Guide students during practice

8. Offer students during practice.

9. Provide Practice for independent work and monitor students.

10. Continue Practice until students are ready to use new info independently and confidently.

Drill and Practice

Offer students practice in the form of a variety of exercises. The students receive immediate
feedback on their answers. Typically, Individualized practice and thus not appropriate for group
or collaborative work.


A visual presentation showing how something works.

Cloze Procedures

Fill in the blank production. an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with
certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words.
Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the
correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. This exercise is
commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and

The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory.

Concept Mapping
Provides a visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a
word or concept. The framework contains the category, properties, and examples of the word or

Reading for Meaning

-An approach to reading instruction that emphasizes inferential skills and treating texts as
sources of meaning

--Reading familiar texts, developing knowledge of sight words (look-say approach)

--Unfamiliar words are comprehended through context clues

--Students are expected to use top-down processing only

--Also known as the whole language approach

Case Studies

Involves a detailed study of a single individual or a small group of individuals.


A process of learning that starts with asking questions and proceeds by seeking the answers to
the questions.

Learning Contracts

A negotiated agreement between the teacher and student that gives the student some freedom
in acquiring skills and understanding based on student choice and curriculum.

Learning Centers

Multi-level stations where activities designed for specific instructional purposes to provide
reinforcement, independent practice, and Discovery.

Distance Learning

Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or



Coming up with as many solutions to a problem as possible in a short period of time with no
censoring of ideas.

Cooperative Learning Groups

Cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional techniques in which students work together
in small groups to complete an assignment or project. Students are assigned individual roles
such as that of a facilitator, recorder, or time-keeper and are given the opportunity to share their
knowledge of the topic.


Make your connections, pull it all together and create something new from it all.


The process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observations and prior



Term coined by Bandura on how we learn by imitating others. His research - children will
spontaneously imitate the behavior of a model without any obvious reinforcement.

Developing Self-Regulation Skills

Through relationships with adults begin to acquire strategies that enable them to control their
behaviors and emotions.

There is a genetic component/predisposition - but self-regulation is malleable; can be taught or

improved upon by parents, caretakers or others in their environment.


Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the
next level.

Differentiating Instruction

Adjusting instruction to meet the needs and learning styles of individuals or groups of learners.

Guided Practice

The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy,
practice done with frequent and immediate teacher assistance.


Giving advice, direction or information to improve performance.

Whole-Class Instruction

Working on instructional material with the whole class at the same time. Appropriate when most
to all students need to learn specific content or skills at the same time.
Small-Group Instruction

Students are in small groups, more attention from

teacher. This can be done in a number of ways but the most common are a) one small group at a
time while the rest of the class does work independently b) all students are in a small group and
teacher moves between groups.


A cooperative grouping strategy. It involves placing two students together to discuss ideas about
a topic. Then, after some time has passed, the teacher asks the students to share with the whole
class what they discussed in their groups.

Independent Learning

Learners require knowledge soley on through their own efforts. Uses inquiry and critical thinking.

Cooperative Learning

Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common
goal and help one another learn. (More instructor structured with a specific answer or solution.)

Collaborative Learning

Students learning together, drawing on one another's knowledge and skills. (Open ended
questions without specific answers.)

Heterogeneous Grouping

An educational practice in which students of diverse abilities are placed within the same
instructional groups.

Homogeneous Grouping

An educational practice in which students of similar abilities are placed within the same
instructional groups. This practice usually serves as a barrier to the integration of children with

Multi-Age Grouping

The mixing or integration of student of different ages in one classroom or learning setting.

Short Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number
while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

Long Term Memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge,
skills, and experiences.

Teachable Moments

The spontaneous, indirect teaching that occurs when teachers respond to students' questions or
when students otherwise demonstrate the need to know something., Unplanned opportunities for
learning., points in time, perhaps associated with critical periods, when a child is highly
motivated and better able to acquire a particular skill.

Think/Wait Time

Length of time a teacher pauses, after either asking a question or hearing a student's comment,
before saying something.

Active Listening

Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers'
client-centered therapy.

Reflective Listening Statements

Reflective listening statements function like mirrors, enabling clients to see themselves in new
ways and muster the motivation for change.

1. Repeating or Rephrasing - Listener repeats or substitutes synonyms or phrases; stays close to

what the speaker has said

2. Paraphrasing - Listener makes a major restatement in which the speaker's meaning is inferred

3. Reflection of Feeling - Listener emphasizes emotional aspects of

communication through feeling statements - deepest form of listening.

Risk Taking

Being willing to try out new ideas.

Examples of Good Body Language

-facial expression-smile

-eye contact

-open posture


-tone of voice


C-control distractions, L-lean in, O-open posture, S-squarely face the patient, E-good eye contact,

--eye contact, relatable hand gestures, good posture, smiling, asking relatable questions
Examples of Body Language

No eye contact, multitasking, bad posture, frowning, asking random questions, opening eyes
wide, snarling, winking, opening mouth wide


A movement or action of the hands or face, expressive of some idea or emotion.

Cultural Cognitive Constraints

The frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is
compared to or inserted into.

Cultural Behavior Constraints

Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal
communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye-or not; whether one says what
one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they
are talking--all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to

Cultural Emotional Constraints

Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional
when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration,
and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing
only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation.

Effective Listening Strategies

1. Attending to the Speaker

2. Restating Key Points

3. Asking Questions

4. Interpreting Information

5. Providing Supportive Feedback

6. Being Respectful

Formal Assessment

Standardized written or performance test of knowledge, aptitude, values, etc. Pre-planned,

systematic attempt to ascertain what students have learned.

Informal Assessment
Occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating
scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation,
and discussion.

Formative Assessment

Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding
and inform and guide teaching.

Summative Assessment

The process of assessing after instruction and using the results for making grading decisions.

Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit or units of instruction or an activity or plan to determine or

judge student skills and knowledge or effectiveness of a a plan or activity.

Diagnostic Assessment

Highly specialized, comprehensive and detailed procedures used to uncover persistent or

recurring learning difficulties that require specially prepared diagnostic tests as well as various
observational techniques.

A form of assessment designed to provide teachers with information about students' prior
knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity.

Analytical Checklist

A student's writing is assessed according to a pre-determined set of criteria.

Scoring Guides

A scoring guide is the same as a rubric. It is a tool with a descriptive scale used for measuring
and documenting observations that clearly spells out particular characteristics of a behavior.


A scoring guide used in assessments.

Anecdotal Notes

Short, concise written observations made by the teacher while students work. The purpose is to
observe & record information.


A graphic organizer can be used to help students learn key vocabulary or concepts. Provides an
opportunity for students to activate and develop prior knowledge of the feeling words that will be

An evaluation of your strengths and weaknesses.

Can be used in a group work to assist students in raising their awareness about the quality of
their contributions to the group; part of any writing assignment to summarize strengths and
weaknesses they see in their writing.


Assessment by students of their classmates' products or performances; usually done informally

and during a class session.

Achievement Tests

A test designed to assess what a person has learned.

Aptitude Tests

A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

Ability Tests

Tests used to assess the skills an individual already possesses; Also called performance tests.

Norm-Referenced Scoring

Norm-referenced tests (or NRTs) compare an examinee's performance to that of other examinees.
Standardized examinations such as the SAT are norm-referenced tests. The goal is to rank the set
of examinees so that decisions about their opportunity for success (e.g. college entrance) can be

Criteria-Referenced Scoring

Criterion-referenced tests (or CRTs) differ in that each examinee's performance is compared to a
pre-defined set of criteria or a standard. The goal with these tests is to determine whether or not
the candidate has the demonstrated mastery of a certain skill or set of skills.


The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.


The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on
two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.

Raw Score

Assessment score based solely on the number or point value of correctly answered items.
Scaled Score

A conversion of the student's raw score on a common scale to a numerical scale to compare to
other students. (Weighted Score)

Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

Holistic Scoring

Score is given on the paper as a whole. Assessors balance strengths and weaknesses among the
various criteria to arrive at an overall assessment of success or effectiveness of a paper.

Reflective Practice

The process of teachers' thinking about and analyzing their work to assess its effectiveness.

Incident Analysis

By conducting incident analysis, suggested by Fred Korthagen, the teacher deeply thinks about
one particular teaching or learning event that concerns her, she looks back to her thoughts,
feeling, and the events from multiple perspectives, trying to reveal what is the central issue in
the situation.

Critical Friend

Someone who provides you with nonjudgmental, constructive feedback, which is not part of a
formal evaluation, but apart of your ongoing reflection and professional development.

Action Plan

A multi-step strategy to identify and achieve your goals.

Stake holders

Anyone- parents, tax payers, politicians and corporate and community leaders who have an
interest in education.

First Amendment

The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of
speech, of religion, and of assembly.

Intellectual Freedom
The right of every individual to seek and receive information from all points of view. Provides free
access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or
movement may be explored.

Due Process

Due process in education means that fairness should be rendered in all areas, and that the
teacher's or student's rights as individuals should under no circumstances be violated.

Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse

Everyone has a duty to report in cases where there is suspected:

Child abuse and/or neglect by a parent, guardian, custodian or caretaker. Reports should be
made to the Director of the County Department of Social Services in the county in which the child
or disabled adult resides or is found. Reports may be made orally or in writing.

When is a teacher liable?

Tort law is based on the legal premise that individuals are liable for the consequences of their
own conduct (or lack

of conduct) when such actions result in injury to others. In a school/classroom setting, tort law is
the most common

area of the law that subjects teachers to personal liability.

In most education-related civil lawsuits there are two

main categories of tort liability relevant to the professional educatorIntentional and negligent

Inappropriate touching, physical discipline, sharing private information (test scores), slander,
threatening, isolating, accidents due to negligence, tying down or taping are all situations in
which a teacher would be held liable.


Asserts that only the copyright's owner has the right to sell his or her work or to allow someone
else to sell it. Protection giving the owner the exclusive tight to reproduce or distribute copies of
his or her own work.

Principles of teaching 1


2. WHAT IS TEACHING a process of interacting Stands for pedagogy, training and nurturing
The process of engaging students in activities that will enable them to acquire the knowledge,
skills, as well as wothwhile values and attitudes.

3. An aggregate of organized strategies and activities aimed at inducing learning Overall

cluster of activities associated with a teacher, and including explaining, questioning,
demonstrating and motivating. A system of activities whereby all teachers' instructional tasks
enable the students to learn.
4. Is both science and art; SCIENCE as it is based on psychological research that identifies
cause and effect relationship between teaching and learning; ART, as it shows how those
relationships are implemented in successful and artistic teaching. Is the greatest of the arts
because the medium is the human mind and spirit.

5. Involves values, experiences, insights, imagination and appreciation- - - the staff that can
not be easily observed and measured (Greene) Involves the interplay among such factors as
the teacher, the learner, the teaching content and strategies as this diagram shows:

6. THE TEACHER A key factor in any teaching learning process. Constructs well designed
plan to achieve to objectives of the lesson. Prepares learning environment. Selects
appropriate content/ strategies and learning activities. Adjusts content/activities strategies/
learning environment to the learners.

7. THE LEARNER He is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and a rational

soul. Most important element of teaching. The natural characteristics of learners are: age,
maturity, grade level, health, abilities, family background, experiences and motivation and his
/her culture including values, attitudes and traditions which influence the teaching learning
process to a very large extent.

8. THE CONTENT/ TEACHING STRATEGIES The choice of content/ subject matter to be taught
to achieve desired objectives of the lesson. The selection of appropriate instructional
materials/technology to facilitate learning. The use of appropriate/effective methods and
strategies of teaching to arrive at the desired outcomes.


10. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING 1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and
is activated by the learner. - the process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not
by the teacher. *People learn what they want to learn, they see what they want to see, and hear
what they want to hear. *Very little learning takes place without personal involvement and
meaning on the part of the learner. *It is wise to engage learners in an activity that is connected
to their life experiences.

11. 2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas. - students more
readily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their needs and
problems. * It is necessary that the teacher relates lesson to the needs and problems of the

12. 3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience. - People become responsible

when they have readily assumed responsibility, they become independent when they have
experienced independent behavior, they become able when they experience success, they begin
to feel important when they are important to somebody, they feel liked when somebody likes
them. *If EXPERIENCE is the best teacher, the teacher should make use of EXPERIENTIAL
LEARNING strategy. Experiential learning makes use of direct as well as vicarious experiences.

13. COLLABORATIVE. - cooperation fosters learning. - two heads are better than one. - interactive
process appears to scratch and kick peoples curiosity, potential and creativity. - teachers
should make use of cooperative and collaborative approaches because these will teach students
to live and learn interdependently.

14. 5. LEARNING IS AN EVOLUTIONARY. - behavioral changes require time and patience. - change
takes time. - Rome was not built in one day. - things in life that are worthwhile take time.

15. PROCESS. - behavioral change often calls for giving up the old and comfortable ways of
believing, thinking and valuing. - it is necessary for the teachers to make students realize that
learning is a difficult task which is accompanied by ample of sacrifices, inconveniences and

student is a reservoir of experiences, ideas, feelings and attitudes which comprise a rich vein of
material for problem solving and learning. - as a teacher, you must midwife the birth of ideas
among learners.


maximized when the feelings and thoughts of the learners are working harmoniously. This is due
to fact that man is the union of body and soul. Man is a feeling being and a thinking being.

18. LEARNING ARE HIGHLY UNIQUE AND INDIVIDUAL. - each of the learner has his own unique
styles of learning and solving problems. - some personal styles of learning and problem solving
are highly effective, others are not as effective and still others are ineffective. - give
considerations to multiple intelligences and learning styles of the learners to properly address
their needs for/of learning


20. 1. PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT - learning depends largely on the setting particularly including the
use of materials in which the process goes on with this scales of application: a. text book only b.
textbook with supplementary materials c. non academic and current materials (newspaper,
clippings, articles, magazines) d. multisensory aids e. demonstration and demonstration by
experts e. field experiences, personal, social and community understanding

21. 2. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS - instruction must be organized about a focus or direction, following
these scales of application, and where focus is established by: a. page assignment in textbook b.
announced topic together with page or chapter references. c. broad concept or problem to be
solved or a skill to be acquired to carry on understanding.

22. 3. PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATION - instruction depends upon the social setting in which it is
done, with this scales of application and where social patterns are characterized by: a.
submission b. contribution c. cooperation

23. 4. PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALIZATION - instruction must progress in terms of the learners own
purposes, aptitudes, abilities and experimental procedures, following these scales of application
and where individualization may be done through: a. differential performance in uniform task b.
homogeneous grouping c. control plan d. individual instruction e. large units with optional related
activities f. individual undertakings, stemming from and contributing to the joint undertaking of
the group of learners.

24. 5. PRINCIPLE OF SEQUENCE - instruction depends on effective ordering of a series of learning

task who moves from: a. from meaningless emergence of meaning b. from immediate remote
c. from concrete symbolic d. from crude discriminating and where sequence comes through:
a. logical succession of blocks of blocks of contents (lesson/courses) b. kniting learning/ lessons/
course together by introduction, previews, pretests, reviews c. organized in terms of readiness d.
organized in terms of lines of emerging meanings

25. 6. PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION - learning is heightened by a valid and discriminating appraisal

of all its aspects, following these scales of application: a. evaluation or direct results only b.
evaluation related to objectives and processes c. evaluation on total learning process and results


27. Instruction may be well-managed using any of these classifications of students: a.

HOMOGENEOUS - learners are classified/grouped in terms of similar elements such as age,
abilities, interests, physical characteristics etc. b. HETEROGENEOUS no definite bases for
clustering or putting learners together, could be on random sampling, alphabetized family
names, time of enrollment etc. c. NON GRADED no fixed grade/level assignment of children.
They come to center of learning by small groups or individually depending on their pacing in the
accomplishment of tasks. TEACHING MODEL - a term used by Bruce, Joyce to describe an over
all approach or plan for instruction Attributes of a teaching model: a. a coherent theoretical
framework b. an orientation toward what student should learn. c. specific teaching procedures
and classroom structures.

29. TECHNIQUE the personal art and style of the teacher in carrying out the procedures of
teaching. - the teachers unique way, style or act of executing the stages of a method. METHOD
synonymous to procedure - the procedure employed to accomplish lesson objectives. - a series of
related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and pupils to achieve the desired objectives
of the lesson. - the established way or procedure of guiding the mental processes in mastering
the subject matter. - refers to a procedure employed to accomplish the lesson objective. - a well
planned step by step procedure that is directed towards a desired learning outcomes.

30. STRATEGY an over all or general design on how the lesson will be executed or delivered. -
a set of decisions on what learning activities to achieve an objective - can be a substitute to
methodology APPROACH a set of correlative assumptions or viewpoints dealing with the nature
of teaching and learning. - ones viewpoint toward teaching. - procedure that employs a variety
of strategies to assess better understanding and effective learning. PRINCIPLE means a general
or fundamental law, doctrine or assumption. - a primary source or origin. - rule or code of

31. PURPOSES OF METHODS 1. make learning more efficient 2. enable learner to think logically 3.
facilitates smooth transition from one activity to another 4. serve as guide in preparing all the
needed materials, tasks and equipments. 5. approximate time to be allotted for each activity to
avoid waste of time and lapses. 6. make planning clear and precise, to prevent confusion,
unnecessary delays and time wastage. 7. help in planning for assessment and evaluation of the
lesson. 8. add to a feeling of confidence and security for the teacher and students.

32. PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING METHODS 1. Must be based on sound principles, laws and
theories of learning. 2. Must assist the learners to define their purposes and motive. 3. Must
originate from the learners past experiences. 4. Must suit individual differences, needs, interests
and developmental maturity. 5. Must bring the learners to the world of diverse learning
experiences. 6. Must stimulate the learners to think critically, analytically and creatively. 7. Must
be challenging 8. Must be flexible. 9. Must be consistent with the requirements of objectives. 10.
Must be appropriate with the content.

33. 11. Must give to way to varied students participation. 12. Must consider to be undertaken to
ensure gainful learning. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING A METHOD 1. Learners ability
first and foremost consideration based on the nature/characteristics, age, maturity, abilities, etc.
2. Teachers ability must be personally and professionally qualified to teach 3. Objective
expected outcome of the lesson in terms of knowledge/skills and attitudes. 4. Subject Matter
content to be taken so that the desired outcome will be achieved. 5. Pre requisite learning
students experiences that can help facilitate acquisition of new knowledge, skills

34. and attitudes. 6. classroom set up must be inviting to students and conducive to learning.
7. School facilities/equipments/technologies the availability of the needed equipments,
technologies, tools for learning found in the right places. 8. Time allotment specified target
frame for chosen activities properly distributed to the entire period. 9. Safety precautions
students should feel that they are safe and out of danger in the school. 10. School climate
learner should feel the warmth of the teachers and classmate.


Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content 1. Observe the following qualities
in the selection and organization of content: a. Validity teaching the content that we ought to
teach according to the national standards in the Basic Education Curriculum - teaching the
content in order to realize the goals and objectives of the course as laid down in the basic
education . b. Significance the content we teach should respond to the needs and interest of
the learners. c. Balance content includes not only facts but also concepts and values (The three
level approach in teaching facts cognitive, concepts psychomotor, values affective
37. d. Self sufficiency Content should cover the essentials of the lesson and not a mile wide
and an inch deep e. Interest the teacher considers the interest of the learners, their
developmental stages, and cultural and ethnic background. f. Utility refers to the
usefulness/application of the content to the life of the learner after it has been learned by the
learner. g. Feasibility the content can be covered I the amount of time available for instruction.
2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts. 3. Subject matter
content is an integration of cognitive, skill and affective elements.


active process actively engage learner in learning activities to achieve optimum learning of the
learners. What I see, I remember, What I hear, I forget What I do, I understand 75% retention
rate is achieved through learning by doing 90 % retention rate learning by teaching others 2.
The more senses that are involve in learning, the more and better the learning Humans are
intensively visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70% of the bodys receptors and send
millions of signals along the optic nerves to the visual processing centers of the brain.

40. sight 75% hearing 13% touch 6% taste 3% smell 3% 3. A non threatening
atmosphere enhances learning. 4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. 5.
Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students everyday life. 6. Good teaching goes
beyond recall of information teaching should reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis
and evaluation to hone our students thinking skills. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far
more effective than teaching isolated bits of information. 8. There is no such thing as best
teaching method. The best method is the one that works, the one that yields results.

41. Factors to consider in the choice of teaching method: a. Instructional objective b. Nature of
the subject matter c. The learners d. Teacher e. School policies


APPROACH 1. Makes use of expository strategies 2. aimed at mastery of knowledge and skills 3.
Teacher oriented 4. Direct transmission of information from teacher 5. Teacher controlled 6.
Highly structured 7. Content oriented 8. Learner is passive, receives ready information 1. Makes
use of exploratory strategies 2. Aimed at generating knowledge for experience 3. Learner
centered 4. Students search for information with teachers supervision 5. Learner controlled 6.
Flexibly organized 7. Experienced oriented 8. Learner is active in search of information


starts with generalization, principle or rule that is then applied to specific cases. Features: 1.
allows for clear understanding of generalizations, rules, formulas etc. 2. allows further
development of generalizations, rules, formulas etc. When to Use: 1. to test a rule 2. answer
questions or problems with reference to certain rules or principles 3. to further develop

45. Steps: 1. Statement of the Problem teacher tells what the problem which must be
stimulating, realistic, relevant and within the learners ability. 2. Statement of the Generalization
recalling/stating generalizations or rules which may help solve the problem 3. Inference
looking for the principle/rule/generalization that fits the problem. 4. Verification trying out the
best generalization, rule or principle that establish validity of the probem using
references/materials. 2. Concept Teaching is based on the assumption (Bruner 1984) that
concept formation begins at an early stage (9-12 months) where initial activities of object
sorting and preference serve as bases for concept learning.

46. BRUNERS IDENTIFIED 3 DISTINCT MODES OF LEARNING: a. Learning by doing called enactive
learning b. Learning by doing mental images called ICONIC MODE c. Learning through series of
abstract symbols called SYMBOLIC MODE MAY EITHER BE: a. Concept Attainment focuses on
teaching pupils the concepts that the teacher has selected for study and follows these steps: 1.
introduce the concept by name 2. present examples 3. introduce non examples 4. present a
mixture of examples and non examples and ask questions which are the correct examples 5.
ask pupils to define the concept 6. ask pupils to find another examples of the concept

47. b. Concept Formation Method focuses on the process of concept development/thinking skills
development which follows the following steps: 1. teachers provide stimulus in the form of a
question or a problem 2. pupils provide a number of answers and categorize them 3. pupils label
the categorized responses Steps in Concept Teaching Method 1. Define the objectives of the
lesson to get students ready to learn. 2. Giving of examples and non examples which help
strengthen understanding. 3. Testing for the attainment of understanding 4. Analysis of students
thinking and integration of learning through further questioning and focused discussion. 5.
Diagnostic testing reveals errors on misconception which calls for a re teaching.

48. 3. Direct Instruction / Showing Method a teacher centered strategy that uses teacher
explanation and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach concept and
skills. It is designed to teach skills, concepts, principles and rules, with emphasis on active
teaching and high levels of student involvement. Features: 1. Widely applicable in different
content areas 2. Establishes pattern of interaction between teacher and students 3. Assists
students to learn procedural knowledge. 4. Promotes learning of declarative knowledge. 5.
Focuses students attention on specific content/skill 6. Ensures mastery skills.

49. WHEN TO USE - for teaching of concepts and skills. Steps: 1. Introduction reviewing prior
learning with students, sharing learning goals providing rationale for new content. 2.
Presentation explaining new concept or modeling the skill. 3. Guided practice with necessary
feedback providing students necessary opportunities to practice new skill or categorize
examples of new concept. 4. Independent Practice students practicing the skill or concept
learned for retention and transfer.

50. 4. LECTURE DISCUSSION METHOD - designed to help learner link new with prior learning
and relate the different parts of new learning to each other. - designed to overcome the most
important weaknesses of the lecture method by strongly emphasizing learner involvement in the
learning process. A. Lecture designed to help students learn organized bodies of knowledge. - is
a teacher directed method designed to help learners understand relationship in organized
bodies of knowledge. - as opposed to content specific models that focus on individual concepts,
this model attempts to help students understand not only concepts but how they are related. -
grounded in schema theory and David Ausubels concept of meaningful verbal learning

51. FEATURES: a. Applicable in different subject areas b. Ensures clear understanding of

information c. Allows students participation WHEN TO USE: a. For conveying/disseminating
important information which may not be available to students or which may be needed to be
presented in a particular way. b. For stimulating interest. c. For guiding student reading d. For
explaining a difficult text e. For aiding student to summarize and synthesize discussions

52. STEPS 1. Planning a. identifying goals b. diagnosing student background c. structuring

content d. preparing advance organizers 2. Implementing a. Introduction describing the
purpose of the lesson, sharing of objectives and overview to help students see the organization
of the lesson. b. Presentation defining and explaining major ideas. c. Comprehension Monitoring
determining whether or not students understand concepts and ideas. d. Integration exploring
interconnections between important ideas.

53. 5. Review and Closure summarizing the lecture B. DISCUSSION is an orderly process of
face to face group interaction in which students/pupils exchange ideas about an issue for the
purpose of answering a question, enhancing their knowledge or understanding or making
decision. - It can be viewed as a bridge between direct instruction and student centered
instruction. 5 Logical Conditions to Ensure that Exchange is called DISCUSSION (Bridges, 1960) 1.
People must talk to one another 2. People must listen to one another 3. People must respond to
one another 4. People must be collectively share to put forward more than one point of view. 5.
People must the intention of developing their knowledge, understanding or judgment of the issue
under discussion.
being willing to listen to reason - being willing to abide by rules that facilitate exchange of ideas
2. Intellectual Disposition concern for clarity in the expression of ideas. - concern that an
appropriate variety of perspective is considered by the group. When to Use as a Teaching
Strategy: 1. It can be used in any subject at any level from kinder to post graduate study. 2. It
can involve the whole class or it can be used with small groups. 3. When the teacher needs to
facilitate any or all of the 4 types of learning outcomes:

55. a. General subject mastery b. Problem solving ability c. Moral development d.

Communication skills 4. When students need to be motivated to talk about the subject inside and
outside the classroom. 5. When teacher wants students to work together and share their ideas by
talking about them publicly (Cockburn and Ross, 1980).

56. ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS 1. Because it is an active learning process, it is more likely to

maintain students interests. 1. Without control over the discussion, talkative students could
easily dominate and influence the group to accept their ideas. 2. Active involvement in learning
motivates students especially when they see that others value their contributions and respect
their point of views. 2. If not guided well, there will be opportunities for students to stay from the
topic and waste time. 3. More opportunities for practice and use of the language as well as
expression of ideas and opinions among students 3. Some students may be reluctant to
participate in the discussion for fear of being ridiculed for their ideas or opinions.

57. Using Discussion in Conjunction with other Teaching Strategies: a. Direct Instruction as part
of a direct instruction lesson, a discussion could be used to explore an issue for a short time (15
mins). b. Group Work interactions between students are an integral part of small group
learning, and this process can often be enhanced by asking the students to follow a set of
discussion rules. c. Cooperative Learning some forms off co-operative learning (such as jigsaw)
can be enhanced by structured discussion within the learning groups. d. Problem Solving when
you are using problem solving as a teaching strategy, discussions can be used to help students
understand the nature of the problem, to help them generate possible solutions and as a forum
for comparing the relative merits of various solutions to the problem.

58. Demonstration a tell and show method Steps: I. Preparation a. motivation b. identify
objectives/ problems/procedure II. Explanation of Concepts/Principles/Process/Theory etc. III.
Demonstration of Concept Process by the Teacher - students observe and take down notes IV.
Discussion of Student Observation - answering problems V. Verification - justification - conclusion

59. II. Indirect/Guided/Exploratory or Experimental Strategies - the indirect approach is a student

centered approach or less explicit teaching method. It involves the building of independent
learning and developing self-concept. It develops students to become self directed learners,
crtical thinkers and problem solvers. Features: a. Learner centered, learners exercise initiative
in the process. b. Process of learning is perceived to be as important as the outcome. c. Learning
is applied as it is acquired, not stored for future use. d. The development of specific intellectual
skills is better than merely covering specified elements of subject matter. When to Use: a. When
the teacher feels the need for students to develop self reliance and intellectual skills related to
critical thinking and problem solving.

60. 1. INQUIRY TEACHING a. the process of answering questions and solving problems based on
facts and observation b. strategy designed to teach students how to investigate problems and
questions with facts. Features: 1. helps students find answers to their own questions in scientific
manner. 2. helps develop higher order and critical thinking skills 3. promotes independent
learning When to Use: 1. when there are real life problems or questions that must be answered
through facts and observation 2. for topics requiring higher order thinking

61. Steps: 1. Presenting/Identifying the question or problem Presenting or identifying a problem

either by the teacher or by the students, explaining or clarifying the problems by the students to
ensure clear understanding. 2. Forming hypothesis Formulating intelligent guesses or tentative
solutions and generalizations. 3. Data Gathering Gathering necessary facts, information or
evidences related to the problem 4. Data Analysis/Assessing Hypothesis Closely
studying/analyzing of the data gathered to prove or disprove the hypotheses. 5. Generalizing
making generalization based on the careful analysis of the data gathered.
62. Strategies for Inquiry Teaching A. Interviews may be used in all subjects - interviews are
used in gathering firsthand information from individuals who have expertise on topic under study.
Steps: 1. Introduction presenting a new or additional knowledge or information, identifying
interviews, and making plans including questions to ask, procedure for recording, etc. 2.
Development conducting the interview as planned 3. Conclusion summarizing data and report
findings to solve problems. 4. Evaluation Assessing the success of the interview conducted. B.
Field Trips an out of the classroom activity intended to present concepts in the most
realistic manner. It may be used across levels in any subject area.

63. Steps: 1. Introduction clarifying objectives of the activity, panning and assigning tasks to be
carried out and reviewing standards of behavior. 2. Development field trip proper, checking on
students activities, accomplishments and behaviors. 3. Conclusion summarizing data and
report findings, stating main idea or other conclusions, sending letter of thanks. 4. Evaluation
assessing the finished activity

64. 2. INDUCTIVE METHOD - a procedure through which one arrives at a fact, principle, rule or
generalization from some specific cases or examples. Features: 1. Designed to help students
develop higher order and critical thinking while learning specific content at the same time. 2.
Requires teachers questioning skill 3. Promotes high level of student involvement 4. Increase
student motivation When to Use For formulating generalization, concept, rule, truth, principle,
formula or definition. Steps: 1. Preparation reviewing of old facts, setting of goals, stating of

65. 2. Presentation presentation of cases and examples. 3. Comparison and Abstraction

deducing common elements among the cases or samples presented. 4. Stating of Generalization,
rule, definition, principle, or formula based on the common elements deduced from cases
presented. 5. Application applying the generalization or rule learned to other problems within or
beyond the classroom setting.

66. 3. PROBLEM SOLVING - a purposeful activity aimed at removing difficulty or perplexity

through a process of reasoning. Features: 1. Allows for students active involvement resulting in
meaningful experiences 2. Develops independence and higher level thinking skills. 3. Promotes
open mindedness and wise judgment. When to Use: - for lessons where learners find problems
requiring - for developing higher level thinking skills Steps: 1. Recognition and statement of the
problem with teachers guidance and stimulus, the students define or recognize a problem

67. 2. Statement of Hypothesis students make temporary answer/solution to the question or

problem 3. Critical Evaluation of Suggested solution with the teachers guidance, students test
hypotheses or data used in solving the problem, formulate conclusions and summarize their
findings. 4. Verification of accepted solutions checking, verifying and applying results to other

68. 4. PROJECT METHOD a purposeful, natural, significant constructive activity needing both
intellectual and physical solutions. Project may be: a. Physical or material such as repairing a
radio b. Learning project like composing a poem or short story c. Intellectual or problem project
such as identifying ornamental plants which can be medicinal Features: 1. Develops students
thinking and manipulative skills. 2. Develops creativity and resourcefulness, initiative, industry
and responsibility. 3. Allows students to express in their own way the concepts they have
learned. 4. Can enhance cooperation and sharing of ideas.

69. When to Use 1. For application of concepts 2. For discovering concepts 3. For developing
creativity and thinking skills 4. For real life problems/situations Steps 1. Purposing determining
the nature and goals of the project. 2. Planning designing of strategies to be employed in
carrying out the project. 3. Executing carrying out of activities as planned 4. Evaluating
displaying and judging of finished products.

70. LABORATORY METHOD OR RESEARCH METHOD - deal with first hand experiences regarding
materials or facts obtained from investigation or experimentation. Types: 1. Experimental aims
to train students in problem solving with incidental acquisition of information and motor skills,
emphasis is on discovery, original procedure, and solution of problems. 2. Observational Type
the aim is on the acquisition of facts. Activities would include visits to museums, exhibits or
galleries, watching documentaries, going on filed trips. Features: 1. To promote information
acquisition through observation, experimental solutions to problems guided by reflective thinking
and acquisition of skill in manipulation. 2. Provides students opportunities to conduct or
participate in original research.

71. 3. Develops skill in using laboratory equipment and instruments. 4. Enhances higher order
thinking skills. Steps: 1. Orientation/Motivation motivating and informing students on the work
to be done, why should it be done and giving precise and explicit directions. 2. Work Period
students are allowed to work on their own either individually or in groups with the teacher
supervising. 3. Culminating Activities organizing, presenting and exhibiting of the completed

72. CONCEPT ATTAINMENT - an inductive teaching strategy designed to help students reinforce
their understanding of concepts and practice hypothesis testing hypothesis based on positive
and negative examples presented to them. Features: 1. Encourages students to think freely. 2.
Trains students to develop hypothesis. 3. Trains students to formulate definition or
generalization. 4. Promotes students participation When to Use? 1. For making hypothesis 2. For
formulating hypothesis/definition 3. For development of critical thinking through hypothesis

73. Steps: 1. Presenting of Examples positive and negative examples are presented and
hypotheses are generated. 2. Analysis of hypotheses hypotheses are analyzed in light of the
examples given. 3. Closure examples are continuously analyzed to generate critical
characteristics and form a definition. 4. Application - additional examples are provided and
analyzed in terms of definition formed.


problem based instruction (PBI) consists of presenting students with authentic and meaningful
problem situation that can serve as springboard for investigations and inquiry. - This model is a
highly effective approach for teaching higher level thinking processes, helping students process
information already in their possession and assisting students to construct their own knowledge
about the social and physical world around them. Contemporary approaches to problem based
instruction rest on cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives about learning. Features:
1. Deriving question on problem PBI organizes instruction around questions and problems both
socially and personally meaningful to students.

75. - they address authentic real life problems that evades simple answers and for which
competing solutions exist. 2. Interdisciplinary Focus PBI lessons may be centered on a
particular subject but actual problem under investigation has been chosen because its solution
requires students to deliver into many subjects. 3. Authentic Investigation necessitates that
students pursue authentic investigation that seek real solution to real problems. 4. Production of
Artifacts and exhibits - PBI requires students to construct products in the form of artifacts and
exhibits that explain or represent their solutions. - It could be a report, a video, a physical model
or a computer program.

76. B. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - develop in 1983 by HOWARD GARDNER - proposes 9 different

intelligences to accord for a broader range of human potential in children and adults: a. linguistic
intelligences word smart b. logical mathematical intelligence number/reasoning smart) c.
Spatial Intelligence picture smart d. Bodily Kinesthetic music smart e. Interpersonal
Intelligence People smart f. Intrapersonal Intelligence self smart g. Naturalistic intelligence
nature smart h. Existentialist Intelligence/Spiritualist Intelligence

77. Features 1. Building of different centers in the classroom 2. Equal attention should be given
to individuals who show gifts in other intelligences aside from linguistics and logical
mathematical intelligences. 3. The MI theory proposed a major transformation in the way schools
are run and lessons are presented. 4. Suggests that teachers be trained to present lessons in a
variety of ways using: - music - multimedia - cooperative learning - field trips - art activities -
inner reflection - role playing - and many more MITA Multiple intelligence Teaching Approach
(for PBL) Features: 1. Both starts with question/problem to generate curiosity
78. 2. Teacher functions as facilitator. 3. Learning outcomes are holistic, rather than narrowly
based in one discipline. 4. Assessments are authentic, performance based. When Planning a
Lesson (MI), Ask the Right Question 1. Linguistic: How can I use the spoken/written word? 2.
Mathematical How can I bring in numbers, calculations, logic, classifications, critical thinking?
3. Spatial How can I use visual aids, visualization, colon, art, metaphor, or visual organizers? 4.
Musical How can I bring in music, environmental sounds or set key points in a rhythm or
melody? 5. Bodily Kinesthetic How can I involve the whole body or hands on experiences? 6.
Interpersonal How can I engage in peer or cross age sharing, cooperative learning or large
group simulation?

79. 7. Intrapersonal How can I evoke personal feelings or memories or give students choices? 8.
Naturalistic How can I develop love for nature?

80. C. CONSTRUCTIVISM (PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY) - A perspective of teaching and learning in

which a learner constructs meaning from experiences and interaction with others. - The teachers
role is to provide meaningful relevant experiences for students from which students construct
their own meaning (facilitation). - A view of learning suggesting that learners develop their own
understanding of the topics they study instead of heaving it delivered to them by others (most
commonly teachers) in an already organized form. - Places the learner in the center of the
learning process where they play an active role in the process of constructing their own

81. D. METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY - strategies used for recognizing ones cognitive processes and
ways of thinking about how information is being processed. - Metacognition is the awareness of
and control of ones own mental processes. - Nickerson (1988) characterized the role of
metacogniton in higher order and critical thinking in this way. The fact that an individual has
some knowledge that would be useful in a given situation does not guarantee that it will be
accessed and applied in that situation. To increase the likelihood that learners will apply their
thinking appropriately, they need to be aware of the thinking theyre doing. (For example, when
reading, the students need to learn to evaluate their own decoding and comprehension, plan a
sequence of actions and regulate their reading behavior changing conditions.

82. 4 TYPES OF COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Strategy Definition Example 1. REHEARSAL Committing

materials to memory by repeating them. Repeating a new phone number. 2. ELABORATION
Adding detail to new information and creating associations. Using mnemonic techniques and
adding details such as relating new phone number to ones security number 3. ORGANIZATION
Recognizing or picking out main ideas from large bodies of information. Outlining or highlighting
4. METACOGNITION Thinking about thinking and monitoring cognitive processing Deciding that
the best strategy for comprehending a body of new text is to create an outline of main ideas.

83. E. COLLABORATION - characterized by students working with one another either in pairs or
groups) Steps: 1. Orient students to the problem 2. Organize students for study. 3. Assist
independent and group investigation. 4. Develop and present artifacts and exhibits. 5. Analyze
and evaluate the problem solving process.

84. F. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING - a final theoretical perspective that provides intellectual support
from cooperative learning comes from theorists and researchers who are interested in how
individuals learn from experience. - Experience accounts for much of what people learn. - Is
based upon 3 assumptions: a. that you learn best when you are personally involved in the
learning experience. b. that knowledge has to be discovered by yourself if it makes a difference
in your behavior. c. commitment to learning is highest when you are free to set your own
learning goals and actively pursue

85. G. COOPERATIVE LEARNING - this model presents the sharpest contrast to direct instruction. -
can be used to teach rather complex academic materials and can help teachers accomplish
important social learning and human relation goals. - stems from both social learning theory and
cognitive constructivist perspective of learning. - classroom environment is characterized by a
cooperative task and incentive structures and by small group activity. - cooperative goal
structures exist when students can obtain their goal only when other students with whom they
are linked can obtain their characteristics of cooperative learning lessons: a. students work
cooperatively in teams to master academic materials.
86. b. teams are made up of high, average and low achievers (coping learners). c. whenever
possible, teams include a racial, cultural and sexual mix of students. d. reward system are group
oriented rather than individually oriented. Steps: 1. Go over objectives, present goals and
establish learning set. 2. Present information to students with demo or text. 3. Organize students
into learning teams. 4. Assist team works and study and group effort 5. Test over learning
materials or groups present results of their work. 6. Provide recognition to both individual and
group efforts and achievements.

87. Important Distinctive Features: 1. Students are not just required to do something as a team,
they are required to learn something as a team. 2. Because the teams success depends on each
students learning, it is necessary for students to tutor one another rather than simply share
ideas and information with one another. 3. In some versions of cooperative learning where marks
or grades are allocated to students, there is opportunity for each member of each team to
succeed, because success is based on improvement on past performance rather than on
absolute scores. Variations: 1. Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD - Slavin) - simplest
and most straight forward among the cooperative learning approaches. - referred to as student
team learning

88. Steps: 1. Teacher presents new academic information to students each week using verbal
presentation or text. 2. Students in a class are divided into four or five member heterogeneous
learning teams. 3. Members in the team help each other learn by using a variety of cooperative
study methods, quizzing and scoring procedures. 2. Jigsaw (Aronson, Slavin) - students are
assigned to 5 or 6 members heterogeneous study team. - academic materials are presented to
the students in text form. - each student has the responsibility to learn a portion of the material.
- members from different teams with the same topic (called the expert group) meet to study and
help each other learn their topic. - then students return to home team and teach each other
members what they have learned.

89. 3. Group Investigation (Thelan Sharan) - the most complex of the cooperative learning
approaches and the most difficult to implement. - in contrast to STAD and Jigsaw, students are
involved in planning both the topics for study and how to proceed with their investigation. -
teachers who use the GI divide their classes into 5 or 6 members heterogeneous group. -
students select topics for study, pursue in depth investigation of chosen sub topic then prepare
and present a report to the whole class. Steps of the GI Approach: a. Topic selection b.
Cooperative planning c. Implementation d. Analysis and synthesis

90. e. Presentation of final product f. Evaluation 4. Structural Approach (Kagen 1983) - has much
in common with other approaches, the structural approach emphasizes the use of a particular
structures designed to influence students interaction patterns. - call for students to work
independently in small groups and are characterized by cooperative rather than individual
rewards. - some structures have the goal of increasing student acquisition of academic content
(think pair share numbered heads together). - others are designed to teach social and group
skills (active listening and time tokens). 5. Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) (De Vries and
Slavin) - similar to STAD in that the teacher presents information to students and have them help
one another learn. The difference lies in the quizzes being replaced with tournaments and

91. compete to gain points for their home team.TGT is suited to the same subject matter and
objectives as STAD. 6. Dyadic Cooperative Learning - simplest form of cooperative learning and
in many cases most efficient form of group work. - students interrupt in pairs after reading a
section of the material. They come to agreement to the important points and over all meaning of
each section. Afterwards, students quiz each other. Lastly, teacher gives the whole class a test.


in turn shares something with his or her team mates. Expressing ideas or opinions, creation of
stories. Getting acquainted with team mates. B. CLASS BUILDING 1. Corners Each student moves
to a corner of the room representing a teacher determined alternative. Students discuss within
corners, then listen to and paraphrase ideas from the other corner. Seeing other alternative
hypothesis, values, problem solving approaches. C. COMMUNICATION BUILDING 2. Match Mine
Students attempt to match the arrangement of object on a grid of another student using oral
communication only. Vocabulary development, communication skills, role taking ability

93. D. MASTERY 1. Numbered Heads Together The teacher asks a question, students consult to
make everyone knows the answer, then one student is called upon to answer Review, checking
for knowledge, comprehension, tutoring 2. Color coded Co op - cards Students memorized facts
using a flash card game. The game is structured so that there is a maximum probability of
success at each step moving from short term to long term memory. Scoring is based on
improvement. Memorizing facts, helping, praising 3. Praise Check Students work in pairs of four.
Within pairs students alternate one solves a problem while the other coaches. After every two
problems, the pair checks to see if they have the same answers as the other pair. Practicing
skills, helping, praising E. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 1. THREE - Step Interview Students interview
each other in pairs, first one way, then the other. Students each share with the group information
they learned in the interview. Sharing personal information such as hypotheses, reactions to a
poem, conclusions from a unit.

94. 2. Think Pair Share Students think to themselves on a topic provided by the teacher; they
pair up with another student to discuss it; they then share their thoughts with the class.
Generating and revising hypotheses, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, application.
Participation, involvement. 3. Team Word - Webbing Students write simultaneously on a piece of
chart paper, drawing main concepts, supporting elements, and bridges representing the relation
of ideas in a concept. Analysis of concepts into components, understanding multiple relations
among ideas, differentiating concepts, Role-taking. F. MULTIFUNCTIONAL 1. Roundtable Each
student in turn writes one answer as a paper and a pencil are passed around the group. With
simultaneous Roundtable more than one pencil and paper are used at once. Assessing prior
knowledge, practicing skills, recalling information, creating cooperative art. Team building,
participation of all. 2. Inside Outside Circle Students stand in pairs in two concentric circles. The
inside circle face out, the outside circle faces in. students use flashcard or respond to teacher
questions as they rotate to each new partner. Checking for understanding, review, processing,
helping. Tutoring, sharing, meeting classmates.

95. 3. Partners Students work in pairs to create or master content. They consult with partners
from other teams. They then share their products or understanding with the other partner in their
team. Mastery and presentation of new material, concept, development. Presentation and
communication skills. 4. Jigsaw Each student on the team becomes an expert on one topic by
working with members from the other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Upon
returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group, and the students are all assessed
on all aspects of the topic. Acquisition and presentation of new material, review, informed
debate. Interdependence, status equalization 5. Co op Co op Students work in groups to
produce a particular group product to share with the whole class. Each student makes a
particular contribution to the group. Learning and sharing complex material, often with multiple
sources, evaluation, application, analysis, synthesis

96. H. CONTENT BASED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION - as defined by Brintos, Snow and Wesche,
content based language instruction is the integration of content learning with language
teaching aims. - it refers to the concurrent study of language and subject matter, with the form
and sequence of language presentation dictated by content material. Features: 1. The main
instruction goal in this approach is to prepare the students for the academic task they will
encounter in school. 2. Students are provided with study skills and a familiarity with scholarly
discourse which they can transfer to other academic endeavors. 3. It focuses not only on
learning, but using the language as a medium to learn mathematics, science, social science or
other academic subjects.

97. 4. Subject matter may consist of topics or themes selected for students interest or need. 5.
CBLI uses the content, learning objectives and activities from the school curriculum as the
vehicle for teaching language skills. Teaching Methods and Strategies in CBLI a. Cooperative
Learning b. Task Based or Experiential Learning c. Whole Language Approach

98. I. INTEGRATIVE MODEL (TAB) - grounded in cognitive views of learning. - an inductive strategy
designed to help students 1. develop a deep understanding of organized bodies of knowledge
topics that combine facts, concepts, generalizations and the relationships among them. 2.
develop critical thinking skills at the same time. - closely related to the inductive model. -
planning lessons using integrative model includes identifying clear goals and then preparing
displays of data to help learners reach the goals - the data displays are commonly matrices, but
can include graphs, maps and charts in pictorial forms.

99. Steps: 1. describe, compare and search for patterns teacher directs students attention to
the topics for study. 2. Explains similarities and differences the point where students are
immersed in critical thinking. 3. Hypothesize outcomes for different conditions. 4. Generalize to
form broad relationships lesson is summarized and comes to course as students derive one or
more generalizations that summarize the content.


students to inquire into a social problem and observe themselves as inquirers while the teacher
serves as counselor consultant and friendly critic. K. INDEPENDENT LEARNING providing a high
level of cognitive and affective development, independent learning is a kind of instructional
process where students proposes a study project, investigation, research, or production of
something which she or he will carry out almost independently. The teachers role is to stimulate
student participation, advise and counsel on possible projects, grant approval if appropriate,
supervise students and evaluate completed project.

101. L. SYNACTICS - a teaching model designed to increase students creativity through

formulating analogies or metaphors. It is built on assumptions that creativity, even though an
essentially emotional process can be learned and creativity can be fostered through group


Demonstration - Questioning - Discussion - Guided Practice - Independent Practice - Grouping -
Role Playing - Simulation - Reflective Inquiry/ Thinking


104. LESSON PLAN - is a day to day, step by step approach to learning. It sets forth the proposal
program or the instructional activities for the day. Types: a. BRIEF an outline of teachers
activities and is usually done by master teachers b. SEMI DETAILED all activities and teachers
questions are listed and usually done by neophyte teachers. c. DETAILED all activities,
teachers questions and students expected answers are reflected and usually done by pre
service teachers.

105. PLAN I. OBJECTIVES - Cognitive - Psychomotor - Affective II. SUBJECT MATTER -

Topics/Concepts - Values Integrated - References - Materials III. LEARNING ACTIVITIES A.
Preparatory Activities 1. Drill activity that will enable the students to automatize response to
pre requisite skill of the new lesson.

106. 2. Review activity that will refresh or renew previously taught material. 3. Introduction an
activity that will set the purpose of the days lesson. 4. Motivation all activities that arouse the
interest of the learners. 2 types: a. Intrinsic Motivation sustaining self interest to learn. -
maintains self curiosity and involvement in the work by using surprise, doubt, novel as well as
familiar things. b. Extrinsic Motivation interest that is ignited by an outward force like awards
monetary or material things, scholarships, inspiration from love ones.

107. B. Developmental Activities 1. Presentation of the Lesson real life situation or within the
experience of the learners are incorporated. - teacher uses different activities as a vehicle to
translate the knowledge, values and skills into learning that could be applied in their lives
outside the school. 2. Discussion / Analysis asking a series of affective or cognitive questions
about the lesson presented. 3. Abstraction / Generalization the summary of the lesson. -
organizing significant information about the lesson presented. - completing graphic organizers
like concept map, Venn Diagram, fish bone, table, matrices and etc.

108. C. Closure / Application relates the lesson to other situations in the forms of: -
dramatization, simulation and play - story telling - oral reading - construction and drawing -
written composition - singing or reciting a poem - test - creative works - solving problems IV.
Evaluation determines whether the objectives are met and achieved - questioning -

109. - comparing present and previous learning - assigning work project, research -
administering short quiz - portfolios - rubrics - journals V. Assignment 1. An activity done outside
the classroom/at home to: - reinforce or enrich the days lesson - set the materials that students
have to bring to school to implement the next lesson. 2. The activity should help attain the days
lesson objective. It should be interesting and differentiated (with provision for remedial,
reinforcement and enrichment activities.)

110. DIFFERENCE AMONG AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES AIMS are the most general objectives
of the Philippine Education System. They are broad and value laden statements expressing
philosophical and ethical considerations that: a. answer the needs and demands of the society
especially children and youth. b. are formulated by experts as policy making bodies, panels and
commissions. c. are societal in nature or in a national level concern. Example: Prepare students
for a democratic citizenship. GOALS descriptions of the general objectives of schools
curricula/courses that are expected to: a. accomplish and organize learning experiences stressed
on a system wide basis.

111. b. represent the entire school program prepared by a professional associations or any local
educational agencies. Example: Development of reading skills. Understanding mathematical
concepts. Appreciation of art works. OBJECTIVES are the descriptions of what eventually take
place in the classroom. a. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time
bound) b. These are used as a standard way of judging what has been achieved or not achieved.
c. Their chief functions is to guide the teachers in making decisions on what to cover, what to
emphasize, what content to select, and what learning experience, activity, strategy or method
best suit a certain learning plan.

112. d. Have 2 essential components namely behavior and content but for assessment purposes,
the objective should be written with the following elements: A audience or the performer B
behavior or the action verb specifying the learning outcome C content of the subject matter C
criterion or the degree of performance considered sufficient to demonstrate mastery Example:
The student (audience) should distinguish (behavior) all (criterion) objectives indicating learning
outcomes (content) from a set of objectives having both learning outcomes and learning
activities (condition). 2 types of Objectives: 1. Terminal an important learning outcome that
should be attained at the end of the instruction.

113. 2. Enroute or enabling the objective leading to the attainment of the terminal objective.
SPECIFICATIONS OF OBJECTIVES - it refers to the process of formulating objectives in a functional
form( i.e. complex to simple). It follows the following steps: 1. State the general unit objectives in
terms of expected learning outcomes (terminal objectives). Dimensions of Learning Outcomes: a.
Knowledge recall and remembering of information essential to a discipline or subject area. b.
Reasoning student ability to use knowledge to reason and solve problems. c. Skills student
ability to demonstrate achievement related skills such as reading aloud, interpersonal
interaction, speaking a second language and performing psychomotor behaviors.

114. d. Products student ability to create achievement related products such as written
report, oral presentations, projects, artworks. e. Affective (attitudes, values and appreciations)
moods and connections or dispositions to act in a given manner toward a person, thing, or event
and the sensitive awareness or perception of worth of an object or event. 2. State terminal
learning outcome in measurable learner performance or product - avoid terms like KNOW,
UNDERSTAND, LEARN, THINK, and APPRECIATE because they are not observable behaviors. 3.
Obtain representative samples of essential and supportive pre- requisites (enroute or enabling

115. Sequencing of Objectives - the process of ordering or arranging the behavior of the
objectives in the same content in hierarchical order from simplest to most complex. The
designers of objectives in many forms were finalized based from: 1. TYLER interprets
philosophical and psychological concerns of instructional objectives. 2. Gronlunds distinguishes
objectives between general and specific outcomes. 3. Mager relies on three major
characteristics as behavioral, conditional and with proficiency level in the formulation of
objectives. 4. Gagne just as precise as Mager defines types of learning objectives as
measurable and observable. 5. Bloom and his associates (1956) developed the taxonomy of
cognitive objectives

116. 6. Krathwohl and Associates (1964) developed the taxonomy of affective objectives. 7.
Simpson developed the taxonomy of psychomotor objectives Domains and Taxonomy of
Instructional Objectives Taxonomy classification systems of learning heirarchy. LEVEL
remembering previously learned material including specific facts, events, persons , dates,
methods, procedures concepts, principles and theories Name, match, list, identify, recall, define,
label, select, state Identify equal fractions. 2. Comprehensi on Understanding and grasping the
meaning of something, including translation from one symbolic form to another interpretation,
explanation, prediction, inferences, restating, estimation and other uses that Explain, convert,
estimate, describe, interpret, illustrate, infer, represent Change fractions to lower/higher term A.
Cognitive refers to the mental or thought complexity


abstract ideas, rules or generalized methods in novel and concrete situations. Demonstrate, use,
apply, solve, prepare, implement, carry out, construct, show Add two to four similar fractions. 4.
Analysis Breaking down a communication into a constituent parts or elements and understanding
the relationship among different elements Differentiate, distinguish, discriminate, relate,
compare, contrast, classify, categorize Analyzed word problems involving addition and
subtraction of similar fractions 5. Synthesis Arranging and combining elements and parts into
novel patterns or structures Combine, assemble, suggest, integrate, create, plan, propose,
Design, conclude, synthesize, summarize Solve non routine problems involving fractions 6.
Evaluation Judging the quality worth, or value of something according to established criteria
Appraise, critique, judge, weigh, evaluate, verify, confirm, defend, decide, justify Judge the
reasonableness of a given solution to a word problem


Develops an awareness , shows willingness to receive, shows controlled or selected attention,
Observe, listen, attend, look, watch, Pay attention to the traits of a well kept house 2.
Responding Shows willingness to respond and finds some initial level of satisfaction in
responding Share, follow, respond, comply, conform, react Keep the house clean and orderly as
told. 3. Valuing Shows the object, person or situation has worth. Something is perceived as
holding appositive value, a commitment is made. Admire, support, praise, assist, cooperate,
participate, conserve, promote Formulate a cleaning schedule in the house indicating tasks that
need cleaning daily, weekly, and occasionally. 4. Organization Brings together a complex set of
values and organizes them in an ordered relationship that is harmonious and internally
consistent. Propose, resolve, balance, integrate, organize Keep the house clean and orderly
everyday B. Affective Domain reflects underlying emotions, feelings or values


Organized system of values becomes a persons like outlook and the basis for a philosophy of life
Advocate, approve, justify, influence, commit, assert, maintain Maintain the cleanliness and
orderliness of ones house and other places at all times c. Psychomotor observable reflexive
behavior, which involves cognitive and affective components 1. Perception Uses the sense organ
to obtain cues that guide motor activity; (awareness), through cue selection to translation
Monitor, observe, listen, watch Observe how to position the fingers in the keyboard 2. Set
Readiness to take a particular action, includes mental, physical, and emotional set. Perception is
an important prerequisite. Show, prepare, set- up, ready Tell the order of the alphabet in the


Concerned with the early stages of learning a complex skill. Includes imitation, trial and error.
Imitate, follow, copy, install, repeat, practice Practice proper position in the keyboard. 4.
Mechanism Concerned with the habitual responses that can be performed with some confidence
and proficiency. Less complex Demonstrate, manipulate, collect, draw, use, sketch, type, write
Type at least 60 words per minute using the correct position of the fingers. 5. Complex/over t
response Skillfully performs acts that require complex movement patterns, like the highly
coordinated motor activities. Proficiency indicated by quick, smooth and accurate performance,
requiring a minimum of effort. Operate, build, construct, drive, troubleshoot Execute the print
formatting operations. 6. Adaptation Concern with skills so well learned that they are modified to
fit special requirement or to meet problem situations. Change, modify, repair, adjust, integrate
Use the desktop publishing applications in creating income


new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or problem Create, originate, produce,
develop, compose Creates ones own web page. KNOWLEDGE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION



ORIGINATION Levels of Psychomotor Domain HIGHEST LOWEST

124. Art of Questioning Questioning key technique in teaching - used for a variety of
purposes. Purposes of Questions: 1. Arouse interest and curiosity 2. Review content already
learned 3. Stimulate learners to ask questions 4. Promote thought and the understanding of
ideas 5. Change the mood/tempo, direction of the discussion 6. Encourage reflection and self
evaluation 7. Allow expression of feelings Types of Questions: 1. According to thinking process
involved: a. low level questions focus on facts - do not test level of understanding or problem
solving skills

125. Ex. Who discovered the cell? b. High level questions go beyond memory and factual
information, more advance, stimulating and more challenging, involves abstraction and point of
view. Ex. How did Robert Hooke discover the cell? 2. According to the type of answer required: a.
Convergent questions tend to have one correct and best answer. - use to drill learners on
vocabulary, spelling and oral skills but not appropriate in eliciting thoughtful responses. - usually
start with what, who, where and when - are referred to as low level questions - are useful when
applying the inductive approach and requires short and specific information from the learners.

126. b. Divergent questions - open ended and usually have many appropriate answer. -
reasoning is supported by evidence and examples. - associated with high level thinking
processes and encourage creative thinking and discovery learning. - usually start with how and
why, what or who followed by why 3. According to the cognitive taxonomy: 1st level Knowledge
memorize, recall, label, specify, define, list, cite etc 2nd level Comprehension Describe, discuss,
explain, summarize, translate, etc 3rd level application Solve, employ, demonstrate, operate,
experiment, etc. 4th level analysis Interpret, differentiate, compare, invent, develop, generalize
5th level synthesis Invent, develop, generalize 6th level evaluation Criticize, judge, interpret

127. 4. According to questions used by teachers during open discussion a. eliciting questions
these are employed to: 1. encourage initial response 2. encourage more students to participate
in the discussion 3. rekindle a discussion that is lagging or dying out b. Probing question seek
to extend ideas, justify ideas, and clarify ideas. c. Closure seeking questions used to help
students form conclusions, solutions or plans for investigating problems. Guidelines in Asking
questions 1. wait time the interval between asking a question and the student response. This is
a 3-4 seconds think time. 2. prompting uses hints and techniques to assist students to come
up with a response successfully.

128. 3. Redirection involves asking of a single question for which there are several answers. 4.
Probing a qualitative technique use d for the promotion of effective thought and critical thinking
- provides the students a chance to support and defend a stand or point of view. 5. Commenting
and prompting used to increase achievement and motivation. Tips on asking questions: 1. Ask
questions that are: - stimulating / thought provoking - within students level of abilities - relevant
to students daily life situations - sequential a stepping stone to the next - clear and easily

129. 2. Vary the length and difficulty of the question. 3. Have sufficient time for deliberation 4.
Follow up incorrect answer 5. Call on volunteers or non volunteers 6. Call on disruptive students
7. Move around the room for rapport / socialization 8. Encourage active participation 9. Phrase
questions clearly. 10. Ask as many learner as possible to answer certain question.


Introductory/Opening/Initiatory activities: - starters and unfreezing activities to make students
feel at ease - used to motivate the students to participate and to set the tone for the day. - liken
to preparing the ground before sowing or planting. - activities given for students not just to
enjoy or for the sake of enjoyment but should have motivational function because they are
related to the days lesson. 1. KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned) 2. Video clips 3. Editorial from
a current newspaper 4. Posing a scientific question that requires students to formulate
hypothesis or predict whats going to happen

131. 5. Cartoon or comic strip 6. Game 7. Simulation 8. Puzzle, brain teaser 9. Mysterious
Scenario 10. Song 11. Picture without a caption 12. Quotable quote 13. Anecdote 14. Compelling
stories from history, literature related to the lesson 15. Current Events 16. Diagnostic Test 17.
Skit, role playing 18. Voting 19. Ranking, ordering

132. 20. Devils advocate 21. Conflict story 22. Brainstorming 23. Buzz session 24. Question and
answer B. Developmental Activities 1. For data gathering a. interview b. library research c.
internet research d. reading e. lecture f. inviting resource speakers g. field trip h. experiment

133. i. panel discussion j. hands on learning k. case study 2. For Organizing and Summarizing:
a. using graphic organizer b. jingles, raps, song c. verses d. acrostic e. power point presentation
3. For Application/Creative Activities a. solving real world problems b. performances and
demonstrations c. authentic projects d. portfolios of students best work or work in progress e.
letters to the editor

134. f. power point presentation g. brochures h. writing and performing a song, rap or a musical i.
news report for local news program j. television talk shows k. mock debates and mock trials l.
mock job interviews m. personal narratives n. cartoons and comic strips o. organizing a
symposium C. Concluding Activities: a. finish and review the KWL b. passport to leave c. journal
writing at the end of the period d. Preview coming attractions

135. e. 3/2/1 countdown 3 facts I learned today, 2 ways I will use the information/skills I
learned today, 1 question I have f. using analogies g. completing unfinished sentences h.
synthesize or summarize the lesson


137. PRINCIPLES 1. All instructional materials are aids of instructions. They do not replace the
teacher. 2. Choose the instructional materials that best suits your instructional objectives. 3. If
possible, use a variety of tools. 4. Check out your instructional material before class starts to be
sure it is working well. 5. For results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media
which includes: a. learn how to use the instructional material. b. prepare introductory remarks,
questions or initial comments you may need. c. provide a conducive environment d. explain the
objectives of the lesson

138. e. stressed what to be watched or listened to carefully f. state what they are expected to do
with the information they will learn g. prepare measure that can assess students experiences on
the use of the material based on the objectives.

139. VARIOUS FORMS OF MEDIA 1. AUDIO RECORDINGS include tapes, recordings, and compact
discs used by teachers in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, musical presentations, and
radio and television broadcasting 2. OVERHEAD TRANSPARANCY OR OVERHEAD PROJECTOR
(OHP) - transparency can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time. 3. BULLETIN BOARD
usually stationary on a wall or it can be movable which contains pictures, newspaper clippings,
real objects or drawings attached on its surface usually made from cork or soft wall boards. 4.
CHALKBOARD a convenient writing area where illustrations can instantly be drawn even during

140. 5. CHARTS - may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and cut outs. - maybe pre-
prepared graphic devices or posters. 6. Mock ups is a replica of an object that may be larger
or smaller in scale which can be used to show the essential parts which are made detachable. 7.
REALIA stands for the real things that are to be studied. 8. VIDEO TAPES OR FILMS motion
pictures clearly show movement and sequence of events which usually motivates learners easily.
9. MODELS scaled replicas of real objects which include globe car models etc. 10. PICTURES
include flat, opaque and still pictures. - Pictures are worth ten thousand words 11. BOOKS
present accurate facts and details that serve as permanent