Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

Proceedings of the 6th JFPS International

1A1-2 Symposium on Fluid Power, TSUKUBA 2005


November 7-10, 2005

APPLICATION OF A PRESSURE INTENSIFIER USING


OIL HAMMER TO A HYDRAULIC CYLINDER OF A
CONSTRUCTION MACHINE
Katsumasa SUZUKI, Kentarou YOKOYAMA ,
Yosuke ENDO and Yasumichi SHIBATA
Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering,
Musashi Institute of Technology
1-28-1 Tamazutsumi Setagaya-ku Tokyo, 158-8577 Japan
E-mail: ksuzuki@sc.musashi-tech.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The active utilization of the pressure rise phenomenon of an oil hammer and a new type of hydraulic pressure
intensifier using an oil hammer were proposed and developed. In this research, an application of this intensifier to
pressure intensification in a hydraulic cylinder of a construction machine is studied through experimentation and
simulation.
High pressure is generated when the fluid flow through the pipeline is shut quickly by the solenoid operated valve
at the downstream end. If the fluid is taken out through the check valve when the pressure is high, much
higher-pressure fluid than the supply is obtained. A vessel is used as a model of a hydraulic cylinder without
displacement. The pressure of the vessel is intensified. The necessary pressure level is thought to be around 30MPa. We
develop a block diagram for the simulation considering the pipeline dynamics.

Key words:
Pipeline, Water Hammer, Oil Hammer, Intensifier, Hydraulic Cylinder

NOMENCLATURE FC : Coulomb friction force of check valve


(0.15N)
a : sonic velocity in fluid1.26103m/s : acceleration due to gravity
A : pipeline area hf : head loss due to fluid friction per unit length
A3 : line cross sectional area6.3410-5m2 H : pressure head
AE : open area of check valve1.5410-4m2 HV : pressure head in vessel
AV : total open area of solenoid-operated valve HE : pressure head at downstream end of pipeline
7.7610-5m2 KE : spring constant = 20.6 kN/m
c0 : discharge coefficient of solenoid-operated valve KV : bulk modulus of fluid=1.36GN/m2
0.6 L : length of pipeline
cf : discharge coefficient of check valve 0.7 L3 : length of connection area=0.145m
CE : viscous damping factor of check valve =11.8 ME : moving mass of check valve= 49.7
Ns/m PE : pressure at downstream end of pipeline
D : inner diameter of pipeline PS : supply pressure
DE : inner diameter at check valve inlet =16mm PV : pressure in vessel
f : flow force qc : volumetric fluid flow rate through check valve orifice

100082 Suzuki 1/6

41 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X


qs : volumetric fluid flow rate through solenoid-operated
valve
t : time
tw : pulse width H2
Uc : volume at connection part 0.22010---43
UV : volume in vessel (=5.010 -33 ) Check Valve
V : average flow velocity at line section
VE : average flow velocity at line section of downstream H1
end
VV : average flow velocity at line section of check valve
inlet
Solenoid-operated valve
: ratio of current open area of solenoid-operated
valve to its total open area Fig.1 Concept of the new hydraulic pressure
x : coordinate in axial direction of pipeline intensifier
Y : check valve displacement
Y0 : check valve initial compression length4.4 considering the pipeline dynamics. The simulation
: valve angle between vertical and poppet face results are easily obtained using MATLAB SIMULINK.
/rad We also obtain the accurate simulation results using
: kinematics viscosity of fluid3.8310-52/ Fortran program made by the authors. We research the
3 characteristics through the experiment and simulation.
: fluid density=853kg/m

: loss factor CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION Figure 1 shows the principle of the new pressure


intensifier. When the solenoid-operated valve at the
Since an oil (water) hammer generates much higher downstream end of the pipeline is open, fluid supplied
pressure than the supply pressure, it occasionally with a constant pressure flows through the pipeline. If
destroys a device. There are many measures that may be the valve is shut quickly, an oil hammer is generated in
taken against the disadvantages of the oil hammer. the pipeline. The check valve is used to release the high
However, the authors propose to actively utilize this pressure generated. Pressure much higher than the supply
pressure rise phenomenon. A new type of hydraulic pressure can be continuously released by opening and
pressure intensifier was already proposed and developed shutting the solenoid-operated valve repeatedly.
[1][2][3]. Many hydraulic machines are large and heavy. The concept is applied to the pressure intensification
There are a large number of examples of waste from high of a hydraulic cylinder as shown in Fig.2. This
pressure and large flow volumes supplied by a pump. equipment is composed of a pipeline, a check valve, a
Our intensifier uses an oil hammer to convert solenoid-operated valve, and a personal computer for
low-pressure fluid from a supply pump to a high pressure on-off operation of the solenoid-operated valve. The
one only when necessary. Therefore, the hydraulic hydraulic cylinder is the controlled object.
pressure source can be small, and energy is saved. When the solenoid-operated valve is kept shut, the
The purpose of this research is to apply this device to pump pressure is directly supplied to the hydraulic
the real construction machine. A vessel is used as a cylinder. If the solenoid-operated valve is turned on, oil
model of a hydraulic cylinder without displacement. The flows at high speed through the pipeline to the tank. By
pressure of the vessel is a control object. The volume in a cutting off the current to the solenoid-operated valve, the
vessel is made with a large capacity of 5 liters. The valve is shut and an oil hammer is generated in the
experiment is done to investigate the condition when a pipeline. If the pressure at position in Fig.2 is higher
construction machine is actually working. The necessary than the pressure at position, the check valve opens
pressure level is thought to be around 30MPa.We and high-pressure fluid is discharged into the hydraulic
develop a block diagram for the simulation of the system cylinder. The pressure in the hydraulic cylinder is made

100082 Suzuki 2/6

42 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X


Accumulator Pressure
transducer Hydraulic
cylinder
Check
valve

Pipeline

Relief Solenoid-
valve operated
M
valve
Pump
Personal
computer

Fig2. Schematic diagram of the test ring

length and it is obtained using the method shown in


much higher than the one supplied by the pump. The reference [4]. When the pressure is lowed below the
hydraulic cylinder produces much bigger force than the atmosphere pressure, vapor-liquid model is used [5][6].
force which is produced by the pressure supplied directly Relation between pressure drop and flow velocity at
from the pump. When the pressure at position the check valve
becomes lower than the pressure at position, the check
valve shuts and prevents the fluid from flowing 1 qc L dV 3
( ) 2 + 3 V = H E HV
backwards. A vessel is used as the model of a cylinder 2 g c f DEY sin g dt
without displacement.
+regular flow reverse flow
BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SIMULATION dY
A3VV = qc + AE 4
dt
Basic equations related to the pipeline, the check valve
and the vessel are analyzed and shown by simulation. Motion of the poppet in the check valve
The interaction of an oil hammer and the check valve is
considered.
d 2Y dY
Relation between pressure and flow velocity in the ME + CE + K EY
dt 2 dt
pipeline
In this research, the improved version [4] of Zielkes dY 5
= f M E g K E Y0 FC sgn( )
characteristics method is used to obtain the relation dt
between the pressure and the flow velocity in the
Y
pipeline. The relations between the pressure and the flow f = (1 4c f sin 2 ) gAE
DE
velocities of the adjoining two points R and S, and the
point N on the x-t plane [4] are given by the following
L3 dVV 6
equations. N is the middle and x away from points R ( H E HV )
g dt
and S. The time at N is t later than the time at R and
S. where Y 0 is assumed.

Equation for fluid compression at the connection


g
V N VR + ( H N H R ) + gh fR t = 0 1 between the solenoid-operated valve and the pipeline
a
g gU C dH E 7
V N VS ( H N H S ) + gh fS t = 0 2 AVE A3VV qS =
a KV dt
hf indicates the transient pressure head loss per unit

100082 Suzuki 3/6

43 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X


HU HR
0 HM +
VR +
HR
hfR VM
HS + HN
+ a/g + 1/2 1/z
VS hfM VR -
+ HM
hfS
1 SW - at
hf R +

+
- g/a VN
+
HS + 1 /2 1/z
+
VM
+
+

HR HM VS
- gt
VR -
hfR hf S
VM
HS
VS hfM 2
hfS u
+
+ y1 4
B1 + + gR 2
- +
1/z + hf
+
A1 1/z +

y2
B2 +
+

HR HM
A2 1/z
VR
hfR y3
VM B3 +
+
HS
VS hfM
A3 1/z
hfS
Details in the circle

Total 21 blocks

1 q 1 qs 2
HM HE = ( )2 + ( ) (8)
HR 2 g c 0 Av w 2 g Av
VR
hfR VM
HS w represents the opening of the valve and is assumed to
hfM
VS change in trapezoidal form. represents loss factor at the
hfS
downstream of the solenoid operated valve.

Compression of fluid in the vessel


HR HM gU V dH V 9
HD A3VV =
VR KV dt
hfR V
M
HS
0 VS
hfS
hfM SIMULATION USING MATLAB SIMULINK
SW


0 The dynamics of the system including pipeline is
expressed by a block diagram as shown in Fig.3. The



simulation results are easily obtained using MATLAB
0
1/z SIMULINK with the block diagram. In this block
diagram the characteristics of the check valve is
idealized.
Fig.3 Block diagram of the system

100082 Suzuki 4/6

44 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X


COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SIMULATION
AND THE EXPERIMENT 20
Pe
16 Pv

Pe,PV,Pu [MPa]
The solenoid-operated valve is opened and closed by Pu

the frequency 8Hz and the pulse width tw 50ms in this 12


experiment. The frequency of 8 Hz means that the period 8
is 125ms. The current is ON-state for 50ms during
125ms. The supply pressure Ps = 6.86 MPa. The pipeline 4
length L = 4.15 m and the inner diameter D = 6 mm. The 0
experimental results and the simulation results of the 0 0.1 0.2 t [s] 0.3 0.4 0.5
pressures at the downstream end and in the vessel for 0.5
second from the beginning are shown in Figs 4, 5 and 6. Fig.6 Experimental results of pressures in the vessel(PV)
The results for 10 seconds are shown in Figs. 7 and 8. and at the downstream end(Pe) and upstream end(PU) of
Fig.4 shows the simulation results of MATLAB the pipeline.
SIMULINK. Figs.5 and 7 show the simulation results of
FORTRAN program made by the authors.
50
20 Pe
Pv 40 Pv
Pe, Pv [MPa]

16
Pe 30
Pe, Pv [MPa]

12
20
8
10
4
0
0 0 2 4 6 8 10
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 t [s]
t [s]
Fig.7 Simulation results of pressures in the vessel
Fig.4 Pressures in the vessel (PV) and at the (PV) and at the downstream end (Pe) of the
downstream end (Pe) of the pipeline obtained by pipeline obtained by the program made by the
MATLAB SIMULINK simulation for 0.5 s from authors for 10 s from the beginning.
the beginning.
50
Pe
Pv
20 40 Pu
Pv
Pe,PV,Pu [MPa]

16 30
Pv, Pe [MPa]

12
Pe 20
8
10
4

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10
t [s]
t [s]

Fig.5 Pressures in the vessel (PV) and at the Fig.8 Experimental results of pressures in the vessel (PV)
downstream end (Pe) of the pipeline obtained by and at the downstream end (Pe) and upstream end(PU) of
the simulation program made by the authors the pipeline during 10 s from the beginning.
during 0.5 s from the beginning.

100082 Suzuki 5/6

45 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X


PRESSURE INCREMENT IN THE VESSEL easily obtained using MATLAB SIMULINK with the
block diagram. Also, the simulation results are obtained
The results in Figs. 7 and 8 show that the pressure by FORTRAN program made by the authors.
increment in the vessel almost saturates in 10 seconds It is clarified that the phenomenon is
and the pressure of the experiment exceeds 30 MPa. expressed with a theoretical formula by
The pressure obtained by the experiment is less than comparing the experimental result and the
the one obtained by the simulation. The difference simulation result. However, in case of a shorter
increases with the supply pressure increment and the pipeline, thicker diameter, or higher supply
inner diameter increment. The pressure at the pressure, the experimental value becomes
downstream end increases when the diameter is smaller than the simulation result.
increased to 8 mm from 6 mm. Because the pressure
drop through the test pipeline is reduced due to the 60
pressure increase at the downstream end, the flow Simulation
50
velocity is not so increased as expected. Therefore the Experiment
40

Pv [M Pa]
pressure in the vessel is not so increased as expected 5mm 6mm
when the diameter is increased exceeding 6 mm. 30 8mm
20
RELATION BETWEEN THE PRESSSURE 10 4mm
INCREMENT AND THE PIPELINE 0
PARAMENTERS 0 1 2 3 4 5
Pipeline Length L [m]
In the previous section, the length of the pipeline is
4.15 m and the inner diameter is 6mm. The pressure Fig. 9 Pressure in the vessel after oil hammer is
obtained in the vessel, are shown in Fig.9 when the generated 80 times. (Results of Simulation and
length and the diameter of the pipeline are changed. experiment)
Fig. 9 shows the pressures obtained after an oil
hammer is generated 80 times. They are obtained after REFERENCES
10 seconds because the frequency of opening and closing [1] Suzuki, K., 1989,Application of a New Pressure
the solenoid operated valve is 8 Hz. Intensifier Using Oil Hammer to Pressure Control of a
The experimental results are smaller than the Hydraulic Cylinder, ASME Journal of Dynamic
simulation results. The leakage at the poppet and the Systems, Measurement and Control, 111-2, pp.322-328
flow resistance at some places may influence the [2] Suzuki, K., 1990,A New Hydraulic Pressure
experimental results. The simulation result has a peak Intensifier Using Oil Hammer, ASME Journal of Fluids
point to the pipeline length. The experimental result Engineering, 112-1, pp.56-60
seems to have a peak point at the pipeline length longer [3] Suzuki, K., Asahara, K., Narita, R.,
than 4m. There is a tendency that smaller pipe diameter 2000 ,Application of a Pressure Intensifier Using an Oil
gets higher pressure when the pipeline length is short, Hammer to a Hydraulic Motor Control, Trans. JSME B,
and bigger pipeline diameter gets higher pressure when 66-644, pp.1105-1111
the pipeline length is long. [4] Suzuki, K., 1991,Improving Zielkes method of
Simulating Frequency-Department Friction in Laminar
CONCLUSION Liquids Flow, ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering,
113-4, pp.569-573
A pressure of more than 30 MPa was obtained by [5] Wylie, E. B., Streeter, V. L., 1978, "Fluid Transients,
our intensifier from the supplied pressure 6.86 MPa. This McGraw-Hill, pp136-139
is our target to apply this equipment to a real working [6] Sanada, K., Kitagawa, A., Takenaka, T., 1990, A
machine as a construction machine. Study on Analytical Methods by Classification of
The dynamics of the system including pipeline is Column Separations in a Water Pipeline, Trans. JSME
expressed by a block diagram. The simulation results are B, 56-523, pp585-593

100082 Suzuki 6/6

46 Copyright 2005 by JFPS, ISBN 4-931070-06-X