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PROCEEDINGS

OF THE 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE


ON INDUSTRIAL POWER ENGINEERING

Editura Alma Mater Bacu


2016
EDITORS-IN CHIEF

George CULEA
Aneta HAZI

TECHNICAL EDITORIAL STAFF: Popa Sorin Eugen, Vernica Sorin Gabriel


VASILE ALECSANDRI UNIVERSITY OF BACAU-ROMANIA

ALMA MATER Publishing House


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Editura Alma Mater Bacu


2016

ISSN 2069 9905


ISSN-L 2069 9905
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

- Jean-Franois BRUDNY (Universit dArtois, Bethune, France)


- Vladimir BERZAN (Institutul de Energetic al Academiei de tiine a Moldovei,
Chiinu, Republica Moldova)
- George CULEA ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Iulian FLORESCU ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Mihai GAVRILA (Universitatea Tehnic Gh.Asachi Iai, Romania)
- Mazen GHANDOUR (Lebanese University , Hadath-Beirut, Liban)
- Roxana GRIGORE (Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania)
- Gheorghe HAZI ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Aneta HAZI ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Petru LIVINI ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Sebastian MIRON (Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, France)
- Florian MISOC (Kennesaw State University, USA)
- Cristian NICHITA (Universit du Havre, France)
- Florentin PALADI (Universitatea de Stat din Moldova, Chiinu, Republica Moldova)
- Valentina NICORICI (Universitatea de Stat din Moldova, Chiinu, Republica
Moldova)
- Radu PENTIUC (Universitatea Stefan cel Mare din Suceava, Romania)
- Mihai PUIU-BERIZINU (Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Remus PUSCA (IUT de Bthune, France)
- Raphal ROMARY (Universit dArtois, Bethune, France)
- Dan ROTAR ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Tudor SAJIN ( Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacau, Romania )
- Joanny STEPHANT(Universitatea din Limoges, ENSIL, Franta)
Proiect
Conferinele internaionale organizate cu prilejul
aniversrii a 55 de ani de nvmnt superior i
40 de ani de nvmnt tehnic superior n
Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri din Bacu
PROCEDINGS
Editura ALMA MATER BACU
30 mai 2016

Proiect realizat cu sprijinul Consiliului Judeean Bacu. Coninutul acestui


material nu reprezint n mod obligatoriu poziia oficial a
Consiliului Judeean Bacu.
P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Content

No. Authors Title Page


1 Amal Guezmil, Remus Pusca, Hanen Online Observer-Based Inter-Turn Short-Circuit 7
Berriri, Anis Sakly, Raphael Romary, Fault Detection And Identification In Induction
Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni Machine
2 Andrioaia Dragos-Alexandru, Culea Automatic System Of Opening Doors By Using A 14
George, Rotar Dan Smartphone With Windows Phone
3 Berzan Vladimir, Ermurachi Iurie, Power Supply Electric Energy Sources With High 16
Postoronc Sveatoslav Frequency Converter
4 Bosneaga Valeriu, Suslov Victor Two-Elements Reactor-Condenser Device For 22
Flexible Link Of Alternating Current Systems

5 Dmitroglo Liliana, Caraman Iuliana, Optical Properties And Morphology Of AIIIBVI 29


Evtodiev Silvia, Untila Dumitru, Own Oxide Semiconductor Structures
Evtodiev Igor
6 Georges El-Jamal, Mazen Ghandour, Innovative Algorithms Of Integration Of Renewable 34
Petru Livini Energy And Energy Efficiency In The Industrial,
Commercial And Residential Sectors
7 Grigore Roxana, Sajin Tudor, Capt Validated Mathematical Model Of Gas Emissions 43
Cornelia, Vernica Sorin-Gabriel From Combustion Installations
8 Hazi Aneta, Hazi Gheorghe, Vernica Effects of pressure variation on two-stage 47
Sorin-Gabriel compression refrigeration with heat recovery
9 Hazi Aneta, Hazi Gheorghe, Vernica Heat recovery opportunities in a refrigeration 51
Sorin-Gabriel system
10 Hazi Gheorghe, Hazi Aneta, Vernica Configuring Method Of The Numerical Protections 56
Sorin-Gabriel In The Power Systems
11 Livinti Petru, Ghandour Mazen An Application With Compact RIO 9074 For The 65
Comparative Study Of Type Controllers P, PI And
PID Used In Electric Drive Systems
12 Mitrea Oana, Tamas Adrian, Livini Data Acquisition Board And The Dspace 71
Petru, Tekobon Jerry, Chabour Programming Environment Designed For Multi-
Ferhat, Nichita Cristian Physical Simulation System
13 Nicorici Valentina, Piotr Gashin, Electrophysical Properties Of Cd1-X MnxTe Crystals 77
Piotr Ketrush, Andrei Nicorici For Solar Energetic
14 Nicorici Valentina, Vitalie Nedelea, Obtaining Of PbTe:Ga Thin Films By Magnetron 81
Piotr Ketrush, Andrei Nicorici Process
15 Paladi Florentin , Primac Vladimir The Application Of Information Technologies In 85
The Renewable Energy Sector
16 Pentiuc Radu-Dumitru, Ungurean Short Term Energy Forecast System For Eligible 87
Ovidiu-Ciprian, Bernea Monica Electrical Consumers
17 Popa Sorin Eugen, Pruteanu Eusebiu, Online Monitoring System Of Conductors Using A 94
Arhire Tiberiu Device Based On Raspberry Pi
18 Primac Vladimir, Paladi Florentin Trends In The Use Of It In The Energy Sector 100

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

19 Sajin Tudor, Grigore Roxana, Validated Diagram To Determine The Efficiency 105
Vernica Sorin-Gabriel And The Excess Air Factor In The Combustion
Installations Of Heating Stations And Rooftops
20 Sajin Tudor, Grigore Roxana, Diagram For Graphical Determination Of Efficiency 111
Vernica Sorin-Gabriel And Of Excess Air Factor Of Combustion
Installation In Function Of Measured Values Of
Oxygen Concentration In The Flue Gases And Their
Temperature
21 Sajin Tudor, Puiu-Berizinu Mihai, Ozone Generator With Fixed Systems Of Electrodes 117
Brsan Ctlin
22 Sajin Tudor, Puiu-Berizinu Mihai, Ozone Generator With Moving Systems Of 123
Brsan Ctlin Electrodes
23 Tamas Adrian, Oana Mitrea, Livini Monitoring A Wind Simulator Using An 129
Petru, Jerry Tekobon, Ferhat Additionnal Wireless Data Acquisition System
Chabour, Jacques Raharijaona,
Cristian Nichita
24 Vernica Sorin-Gabriel, Hazi Aneta, Experimental Determination Of Thermal And 135
Hazi Gheorghe Electrical Efficiencies Of Gas Turbine Plant

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

ONLINE OBSERVER-BASED INTER-TURN SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULT


DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION IN INDUCTION MACHINE

AMAL GUEZMIL1, REMUS PUSCA2*, HANEN BERRIRI1, ANIS SAKLY1,


RAPHAEL ROMARY2, MOHAMED FAOUZI MIMOUNI1
1
Monastir University, Res. Unit on Study of the Industrial System & Renewable Energies
(ESIER), Ibn Eljazzar City, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.
2
Artois University, EA4025, Laboratory of Electrical Systems and Environment (LSEE),
Bethune, F-62400, France.

Abstract: This paper presents an observer-based method for induction machine stator inter-
turn short-circuit fault detection and identification. The mathematical model of induction
machine with inter-turn short-circuit fault is developed. A high order sliding mode observer
is used to estimate rotor flux and three-phase stator current under healthy and faulty
conditions. The proposed strategy is based on calculating the difference between the
measured three-phase stator current and estimated ones. That produces sets of residuals
sensitive to fault. Theorical and experiment results are included to show the proposed
strategy ability for detection and locating phase under fault.

Keywords: Induction machine, Inter-turn short-circuit fault, High order sliding mode
observer, Fault detection and identification.

1. INTRODUCTION

Induction Machines (IM) are one of the most important parts for many industrial process that are widely used as
electromechanical energy conversion devices due to their low cost, ruggedness and low maintenance [1-2].
Despite these superiorities, IM are prone to different internal faults. Stator winding faults is a common as well
critical fault in IM, the main cause of the fault is insulation failures [3]. The Inter-Turn Short-Circuit (ITSC)
fault is an initial stage of most of the stator winding failures. When an ITSC fault occurs, extremely high currents
flowing in the short-circuit coil cause the propagation of destruction and unexpected shutdown of the IM. Hence,
its important to develop a reliable technique to detect the ITSC fault at early stage to prevent sever faults and
damage.

A large number of researchers have focused their efforts on the online early detection of the ITSC fault [4-8].
One of the most promising ones is model-based technique. The difference between measurement outputs and
reconstructed outputs by the observer produces a set of residuals which should be sensitive to faults. In this
context, observer-based methods have been proposed in literature for resolving ITSC Fault Detection and
Identification (FDI) problem [9-11]. In [9], a model-based strategy for stator-ITSC detection on IM is presented.
The proposed strategy is based on the generation of a vector of specific residual using a state observer. In [10],
Duvvuri propose a technique based on the whiteness of innovation sequence developed by the standard extended
Kalman filter. Also, a nonlinear Generalized Likelihood Ratio method is applied to identify the faulty phase
along with its severity. An adaptive observer-based fault detection and diagnosis scheme is developed in [11],
which can not only provide a rapid detection when stator ITSC fault occurs but also give an accurate diagnosis of
the fault position and level. Thus, sliding mode techniques have been widely studied for state estimation problem

*
Corresponding author, email puscaremus@hotmail.com

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

of linear and nonlinear systems due to finite time convergence and robustness against disturbances [12].
Recently, High Order Sliding Mode Observer (HOSMO) has been proposed for system residual generation
and/or state estimation [13]. The HOSMO is investigated here to generate residuals sensitive to ITSC fault in IM.
This paper proposes an ITSC FDI in IM. The measured three-phase stator currents are compared to his estimated
ones by HOSMO that produces sets of residuals. These residues are compared with threshold to distinguish the
faulty case from normal one.

The remaining of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the mathematical model of IM with
ITSC fault. The HOSMO-based FDI is developed in Section 3. In Section 4, the proposed method performance
is verified using simulation and experimental results obtained from the simulated model and an 11kW laboratory
squirrel cage IM. Conclusions are presented in Section 5.

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INDUCTION MACHINE WITH ITSC FAULT

For ITSC FDI technique evaluation in IM, an accurate model including fault model is required [14]. Here the
model proposed in [13] is developed to simulate ITSC fault. The model is a transient model for IM with ITSC
fault on a single phase, derived in stationary reference frame. Fig. 1 shows a schematic of the three-phase
winding with the ITSC fault in the a-phase. as1 is the healthy windings, as2 is the shorted windings, ia is the
stator input current, if represents the circulating current in the shorted turns. An additional insulated winding is
added and is modeled by a resistance Rf. Note that Ns is the number of turns in a healthy phase winding. The
number of short-circuited turns is Nf. The short-circuit level is kcc = Nf /Ns and is remain between 0 and 1.

Fig. 1: Scheme of three phase stator winding with an ITSC fault in a-phase

The stator and rotor currents dynamic can be written as:

dI abcf
s
s dLsrabcf
Lssabcf
1
Vabcf Rabcf I s
Lsrabcf s
d abcf
= dt rs r r (1)
dI abc Labcf Lrrabc Vabc dLabcf I abc
rs

r

Rabc
r

dt d

[ Vsb Vsc 0] , Vabc = [ 033 ] , I abcf = I sa I sb I sc I f and I abc = [ I ra I rb I rc ]


T T
Where Vabcf = Vsa
s T r s T r

s r
are stator and rotor voltage and current, respectively. Rabcf and Rabc are diagonal matrices of stator and rotor

resistances respectively. Lssabcf and Lrrabc are inductance matrices, all of them, for the stator and rotor respectively.
Lsrabcf and Lrsabcf are the mutual inductance matrices between stator and rotor. The resistances and inductances
matrices of (3) are:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Lr Lr
Rs 0 0 kcc Rs Lr + lr 2 2
0 Rr 0 0
s = Rs 0 0 ; Rr 0 Lr Lr
Rabcf Rr 0 ; Labc =
rr
Lr + lr
0 0 Rs 0 abc 2 2
0 0 Rr L
kcc Rs 0 0 ( R f kcc Rs ) L
r r Lr + lr
2 2
Ls Ls 2 4
Ls + ls Lb cos( ) cos( + ) cos( + )
2 2 3 3

Ls 4 2
s kcc
L L
Ls + ls s cos( + ) cos( ) cos( + )
2 2 2 sr 3 3
L =
ss

;=
Labcf L=
rs T
M sr
abcf
2 4
abcf

Ls L
s Ls + ls
L
s kcc cos( + ) cos( + ) cos( )
2 2 2 3 3
Ls Ls 2 4
Lb (1 kcc ) (1 kcc ) ( Lsf + lsf ) kcc cos( ) kcc cos( + ) kcc cos( + )
2 2 3 3

where Rs and Rr are the stator and rotor resistance respectively. Ls and Lr are the stator and rotor inductance
respectively. ls and lr are the leakage stator and rotor inductance, respectively and Msr is the mutual inductance.
Its admitted that: Lb = ( Lsf + lsf + Ls (1 kcc )k= k=
2
cc ); Lsf cc Ls ; lsf kcc2 ls .

3. HIGH ORDER SLIDING MODE OBSERVER-BASED FAULT DETECTION AND


IDENTIFIACTION

3.1. High order sliding mode observer design


In this paper, the considered ITSC fault FDI scheme is based on HOSMO introduced by Levant [15]. This
approach is specifically designed to estimate the speed and the flux r . A robust HOSMO based on twisting
algorithm for fault detection is proposed in this section. The designed observer will be sensitive to ITSC fault. The
estimation error will be used for FDI. To simplify and clarify the development of HOSMO, the healthy IM as the
following set of state variables equations in (-) reference frame is used:


Is =aI 2 I s + a2 A r + cU s
(2)
r bI 2 I s A r
=
1
= mJ 2 r I sT Cr f
J

R M sr
2
M sr
a=
s + ; a2 = ;
0 1 b1 N p Ls Lr LsTr Lr Ls
where I =
1 0
; J2 = 1 ; A = ;
N p b1
2
0 1 0
Lr
I s I s , r = r r and U s = [U s U s ]
1 M sr pM sr T
. Is =
T
= = = ; Tr =
T
c
Ls
;b
Tr Rr
;m
Lr

are the stator currents, the rotor flux and the stator voltages components, respectively, in the (-) reference frame.
The corresponding HOSMO for the system (2) is based on the method as proposed in [16]. It can be written as:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6


Is =aI 2 I s + a2 Ar + cU s
(3)
r = bI 2 Is Ar +
1
= mJ 2r I sT Cr f
J

[ ] [
and r = r r ] are the estimated three-phase stator current and rotor flux components,
T T
Is = Is Is
= [ 1
2 ] is the observer matrix gains. Lets define currents and flux estimation errors in (5).
T
respectively.
Their dynamic are obtained from (2) and (3) as expressed in (5).


e= Is I s

I
(4)
e=
r r


eI = a2 Ae
(5)
e bI 2 eI Ae +
=

Let us select a sliding surface as in (6). Its dynamic is defined in (7).

1
S= A1eI (6)
a2
1 1 1 1
S = A eI + A eI (7)
a2 a2
The derivative of is supposed constant compared to the derivative of Is and r. Consequently, A1 term is
considered null and the dynamic of sliding surface become:

1 de
=
S =
A1 I
e
a2 dt (8)
S
= e= bI 2 eI Ae +

Based on (8), to ensure a finite time convergence, HOSMO gain is based in twisting algorithm [16] and reads as.

m sign ( S ) SS 0
= (9)
M sign ( S ) SS > 0

where m and M are designed positive constants. These constants should ensure the condition (10). So, the
system (2) evolves featuring a HOSM, after a finite time and S= S= 0 .
m > e
max
(10)
> m + 2 e
M max

3.2. Residual Generation


As mentioned, the FDI problem includes residual generation. These residuals allow a reliable decision between
two cases: healthy or faulty IM. Generally, residuals are wanted to be identified such that they are identically (or,
more realistically, close to) zero when the IM behaves in healthy mode, and promptly become nonzero when the
associated ITSC fault occurs. However, using HOSMO-based technique three-phase stator current can be

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

reconstructed with an estimation error exponentially decaying to zero [17]. In this work, residual is chosen such an
absolute value of the difference between measured three-phase stator current and his estimate one by HOSMO.

Fi ( I sa=
) I sa Isa (11)

Fi ( I sb=
) I sb Isb (12)

Fi ( I sc=
) I sc Isc (13)

Suitable residuals are computed and processed by a threshold-based fault detection logic for achieving a quick and
computationally detection of the faulty conditions. A simplest fault detection strategy could be designed.
Generated residuals in the case of fault absence and parametric variations are established in the aim to define
threshold .

4. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

4.1. Simulation results


In order to illustrate IM behavior in both healthy and faulty cases and shows the impact of fault severity on IM
variables, simulations are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. It includes an 11 kW IM, 4-pole, 50 Hz,
380/660 V, 1450 tr/min, 48 stator slots and 32 rotor bars in open loop, whose rating are summarized in the
Appendix.
In the initial stage, until t=2.5s, the short-circuit level kcc is set to zero, with an insulation resistance Rf fixed to
10, representing a healthy IM without any ITSC fault. An ITSC fault is applied at t=2.5s (kcc=0.125 and Rf =2
). Measured and estimated three-phase stator current have been shown in Figs. 2 (a) and (b), respectively. As its
clear, stator currents are balanced in healthy case. According to Fig. 2(a), measured three-phase stator current have
been unbalanced at the incipient level of the fault (t=2.5s). It can be revealed that the affected phase current Isa
variation becomes constables and the amplitude of Isa increase. The estimated three-phase stator current are
similar (close to healthy case) after application of ITSC fault as shown in Fig. 2(b). As a conclusion, unbalanced
measured three-phase stator current and unaffected estimated ones after fault occurring. Fig. 3 shows residuals Fi,
in the case of ITSC fault in current a-phase at t= 2.5s. Any adaptive thresholding technique can be utilized for
unsupervised online FDI ( =1.7A). The analyze of residuals shows that all residuals are affected and exceed their
maximum value. However, only the first residual (11) according to affected current a-phase increases more than
others residuals. That allows the identification of affected phase.
(a)

Fig. 2. Stator current variation (a) measured three-phase stator current (b) estimated three-phase stator current.

Fig. 3. Three-phase residue currents of an IM with ITSC fault in a-phase

4.2. Experimental results


Experimental studies are performed for a on a laboratory three-phase squirrel-cage induction machine with the
same specifications to confirm the simulation results and verify the proposed method. This machine supplied by
the grid, is specially modified enabling to realize inter-turn short circuits. The output connections to the terminal

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

block can short circuit an elementary section housed in a slot, which corresponds to 12.5% of full phase winding.
To create the inter-turn short circuit, two tapping points were taken out per phase from the neutral of the stator
winding. Each tapping is having a resistance of 4 . The ITSC fault are created experimentally by connecting a
suitable resistance between tapping point and ungrounded neural. The tests consist in measuring and analyzing the
three-phase stator current in order to validate the proposed diagnosis method. The measurements are performed
using sensors.

From Figs. 4(a) and (b), it can be observed that the behavior of the faulty and healthy IM are similar to simulated
ones. The measured three-phase stator current of the IM (see Fig 4(a)) indicate that under no fault the stator
currents are balanced in steady state. However with fault occurrence (t=2.5s), the three-phase stator current in the
faulty IM are unbalanced, the affected phase current Isa variation becomes constables and the amplitude of Isa
increase. Besides, the estimated three-phase stator current still not affected as illustrated in Fig. 4 (b). Fig. 5 shows
three residuals Fia, Fib and Fic. Residuals evaluation shows that all experimental residuals are affected and exceed
their maximum value. However, Fia increases more than others residuals. That allows the identification of affected
phase.

Fig. 4 Stator current variation (a) measured three-phase stator current (b) estimated three-phase stator current.

Fig. 5. Three-phase residue currents of an IM with ITSC fault in a-phase

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed for simulating IM under ITSC fault. Then, a HOSMO-
based fault FDI has been investigated. This strategy is based on calculating the difference between measured
three-phase stator current and estimated ones. That provides sets of residuals, allowing for rapid detection of an
ITSC fault occurrence. This method has the capability of detecting the ITSC fault appearance and identifying the
faulty phase. Experimental results confirm the theoretical approach.

6. APPRENDIX
Table 1. Induction machine parameters and its nominal values are given as follow:
Pn Np Rs Rr Ls Lr ls lr Msr J f
11kW 4 1.2 0.8 0.16 H 0.16 H 0.011H 0.0075H 0.157 H 0.1 0.003
Kgm N.m.s

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[2] Jadhav, H. T. and Ranjit, R., A comprehensive review on the grid integration of doubly fed induction
generator, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 49, pp. 8-18, 2013.

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[3] Zhang, P., Du, Y., Habetler, T. G. and Lu, B., A survey of condition monitoring and protection methods for
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AUTOMATIC SYSTEM OF OPENING DOORS BY USING A


SMARTPHONE WITH WINDOWS PHONE
ANDRIOAIA DRAGOS-ALEXANDRU1*, CULEA GEORGE1, ROTAR DAN1
1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: In the last years, smartphones have become some of the most popular gadgets.
They have gained popularity due to the multiple applications in which they can be used [1].
In this paper, the authors present the implementation module of an automated access in the
rooms, using Bluetooth communication between smartphones running a Windows Phone
application made under a module that contains an electric lock. The system can
automatically open and close the door of a room using a smartphone.

Keywords: door automation, Windows Phone, Atmega328P, Bluetooth.

1. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, the automatic systems controlled via smartphones have become extremely used because of their
untapped potential. A report by Ericsson Mobility Company reveals that a percentage of 70% of the world
population will use smartphones by the year 2020. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with various sensors
such as: proximity sensors, acceleration sensors, compass sensors, temperature sensors, etc. Among the most
widely used operating systems for smartphones, one can remember Android, Windows Phone and iOS [2]. The
connection of the smartphones with the exterior can be realized through communication modules such as: Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth, GPS, NFC, USB etc. The automatic system uses a smartphone and a module allowing the opening
and the closing the doors of the rooms based on the information transmitted by smartphones via Bluetooth
connection. The technology for wireless data transmission, the Bluetooth was created by the mobile phones
company Ericsson in 1994. The Bluetooth devices are able to communicate up to seven other Bluetooth devices
at the same time located within a radius of eight meters [1].

2. IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTOMATIC SYSTEM USED FOR CLOSING AND OPENING


ACCOMMODATION

The software developed (Fig. 1) for smartphone was conducted for Windows Phone operating system. The
electric module used for controlling the electrical safety lock is controlled via Bluetooth connection by
smartphone. Windows Phone is an operating system for mobile devices developed by Microsoft and it is the
successor of the Windows Mobile platform. For the development of the application it was used the development
environment Microsoft Visual Studio Express. We can develop applications for either the Windows PC,
Windows Phone or Android platform with the help of Microsoft Visual Studio Express, an integrated
development environment [3]. The electric circuits used in electric module can be seen in Fig. 2. At the
realization of the module used for opening the door, was used: a serial communication circuit Bluetooth HC-06,
a control circuit that contains a microcontroller Atmega328P, an electric lock, a circuit for controlling the
electric safety lock and a power circuit [4], [5], [6].

*
Corresponding author, email dragos.andrioaia@ub.ro

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

The control circuit takes the information transmitted from smart phone to HC-06 module through serial
communication Bluetooth and based on this data, it closes or opens the door of a room through electrical safety
lock. Atmega328P microcontroller has been programmed using the Arduiono Uno development board.
Atmega328P microcontroller programming is done using IDE development environment [2].

Fig.1. Interface with the user developed Fig.2. Electric circuits: 1power circuit; 2 Bluetooth module
for Windows Phone operating system. HC-06; 3controlling circuit; 4electric lock.

The voltage stabilizer L7805 and electric locks are supplied with a voltage of 12V. The voltage stabilizer,
stabilizes the voltage to 5V. The 5V voltage is used to supply the microcontroller Atmega328P and Bluetooth
HC-06 module. The supply voltage is indicated by the LED connected inside the power circuit (Fig. 2. 1). The
opening of the door is indicated by the LED connected to pin 10 of microcontroller Atmega328P.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, it is presented the means of realizing a system of access within a room based on a smartphone. The
created system is able to open the door of an accommodation by using a smartphone at a distance of 8 meters of
the electric module.
In the future, the interface with the user made for the Windows Phone operating system can improve by adding
the function of opening the door through speech recognition voice. An interface with the user similar to the one
realized on the operating system Windows Phone, can be also realized for the operating system Android.

REFERENCES

[1] Aniket R. Y., Sapana M. B., Monali D. W., Mukesh P. M., Smart Phone Controlled Robot Using
ATMEGA328 Microcontroller, International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication
Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, 2015, pp. 352-356.
[2] Arita D., Akash P., Sayantan N., Lusika R., Three way controlled android Smartphone based robotic vehicle
via Bluetooth, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 4,
no 9, 2015, pp. 2012-2016.
[3] https://msdn.microsoft.com, (05.05.2016).
[4] Rotar D., Automation wireless remote control, Proceedings of the Francophone Multidisciplinary Colloquim
on Materials, Environment and Electronics, vol. 5, no 1, 2015, pp. 107-108.
[5] Andrioaia D. A., Rotar D., Anghelut M., The Conception Of A Wireless Network Of Microcontrollers,
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, ISSN 2068-7559, vol. 18, no. 1, 2012, pp 12-15.
[6] Andrioaia D. A., Rotar D., Puiu Gabriel, Creating a Communication between a Pic18F4550 Microcontroller
and a Pc Usb Port Type in order to Achieve Industrial Automation, Journal of Engineering Studies and
Research, Bacau, Romnia, ISSN 2068-7559, vol. 18, no. 2, 2012, pp. 14-17.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

POWER SUPPLY ELECTRIC ENERGY SOURCES WITH HIGH


FREQUENCY CONVERTER
BERZAN VLADIMIR1*, ERMURACHI IURIE1, POSTORONC SVEATOSLAV1
1
Institute of Power Engineering, Academy of Science of Moldova, 5, Academy str.,
Chisinau, MD2028, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: The innovative solutions for realization of power supply electric energy
sources for different consumers, including renewable energy sources have been
proposed in the paper. These solutions are based on energy transfer from one circuit
to another at high frequency, thats allows the reduction of mass and size indicators.
The simplification of topologies of electric circuits, cumulating by passive elements of
more functions assured the increasing yield up to 96-98% and achieving the density
of power at level 11-20 kW/dm3. Technical information concerning samples and
finished realized equipment has been shown.

Keywords: convertor, soft switching, yield, power density

1. INTRODUCTION

The energy performance of electro technical and power equipment is characterised traditionally by the value of
yield, power factor, also by specific mass and size indicators. The development of power electronics open new
horizons to improve the indicators of energy performance, including the increase of share of value added in the
deal of manufacturing of electric devices. It is possible to achieve by elaboration and implementation of
innovative solutions, which can assure the increase of energy efficiency and the reduction of costs for necessary
components in the manufacturing process of electric equipment with the improvement of quality parameters of
electric energy. The decrease of costs for components became today a reality which assures the competitiveness
of such product on the market, leads to the increase of GDP and to the evident economy of energy. Countries
with traditions in this segment of industry have higher indicators of activity in these domains. Thereby, the
manufacturing of electric equipment generates 1,4% of added value of nonfinancial sector of EU, and the band
of deviation of the indicator added value/employer in given segment varies from 10,1% Euros/employer in
Bulgaria to more than 92% Euros/employer in Austria [1]. For Romania this indicator in 2010 constituted nearly
14,1% Euros/employer, having dross added value/employers wage = 2/1 [1]. These data represent a good prove
for promotion of investment in the field of manufacturing of electric equipment, and the implementation of
innovative solutions based on extension use of components of power electronics will assure the increase of
energy efficiency and of economic competitiveness on the market.

Voltage inverters constitutes nowadays a base component of efficient electric equipment both of big and small
power, used widespread in industry, energy, information technologies, home utilities, etc [3-5]. Evident
advantages has the use of such inverters in welding devices, because this ensure a essentially reduction of mass
of devices at the level of yield up to 90% [6], also in the power supply sources of computers, which became
today a widespread consumers of electricity [6]. The increasing of the operation frequency of the inverter,
supplied by a rectifier of alternating current in direct current (AC/DC), contributes to the reduction of mass and
volume of transformer. As a result, sources of current with inverters which operates at high frequency have a
reduced mass and size and the increased value of yield and are easy to carry and assure good opportunities for
constructive realization of different electric equipment. The reduction of mass and volume of electric devices

*
Corresponding author, email berzan@ie.asm.md

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

with high frequency inverter has as a result not only the increase of power dencity in a volume unit, but also the
losses density in this equipment, with the appearance problem of heat releasing.

Another problem of electric devices with traditional inverters is the alternating power supply network pollution
with higher current harmonics. To avoid this are used filters of high harmonics, which also lead to the reduction
of energy performance of equipment and the increase of the costs at the stage of manufacturing. In well known
solutions of voltage inverters with increased frequency the mass of filtering elements and of the transformer
decreases proportionally with the increase of the frequency, they use a vast number of active elements
(transistors and diodes), passive elements (coils of inductance, capacitors) [7,8] and regimes with limited period
of operation in the working cycle on the inverter [7], which leads to the higher cost of the equipment and of the
energy losses in the installation.

To reduce the energy losses the switching of the inverters transistors is performed at the pass of the current
through zero and of the voltage near to zero. Applying of the new method of electronic keys switching proposed
in the work [9] assures the mode of soft switching, so this switching process occurs at the voltage equal to zero
of electronic key (ZVS).

A new solution of manufacturing of the inverter, which allows increasing the yield and reducing the cost of the
converter with increased energy performance, has been proposed in this paper.

2. ESSENCE OF THE SOLUTION

In the voltage converter of alternating current in the voltage of direct current [10] disadvantages concerning the
necessity of the use of a big number of active and passive components, also the relatively decreased value of the
yield are excluded by the decreasing of total energy losses and of the cost of manufacturing of the converter and
by the use of less active semiconductor elements, passive and ferromagnetic ones.

The main functional element in this converter represents the inverter of direct current in direct current (DC/DC)
where the energy transfer from the primary circuit to the secondary is performed at high frequency range. To
divide the primary circuit from the secondary one is used a transformer, which operates in the pulse mode and
assures not only the energy transfer from primary to secondary coils, but also performs the function of
accumulation of the energy in the magnetic field, to be transmitted in the secondary circuit, hence to the load. In
the quality of the elements which can for some period of time to stock the energy are used electric capacitors. In
the case the converter is supplied from a source of alternating current, this device includes a rectifier of
alternating current to direct current. The rectifier can be realized using different schemes. The last version is
presented as the simplest, but has also some difficulties caused by the decreasing of power factor as a result of
imbalance between the instantaneous values in the converters circuits.
.

Fig.1 The equivalent scheme of the converter: 1 alternating current source; 2 high harmonics filter; 3
bridge of rectifying of alternating voltage in direct current voltage; 4 capacitor; 5,6 electronic keys; 7
return diode; 8 the primary coil of the high frequency transformer; 9 high frequency transformer; 10
secondary coil of high frequency transformer; 11 semiconductor element; 12 high harmonics filter; 13 the
load.

The converter of alternating current to direct current voltages (fig.1) includes three arms connected in parallel.
The first arm contains an electronic key 5 and a rectifier bridge 3 connected in series, but from the side of
alternating current terminals of rectifiers bridge are connected in parallel the source of alternating current 1 and
high harmonics filter 2. The second arm consists from one capacitor 4. The third arm contains a diode 7 and an

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

electronic key 6 connected in series. Convertor includes else a transformer of high frequency 9 made with inter
core, which has a primary coil 8 connected between common point of connection of the first arm and common
point of connection of the third arm, also a secondary coil 10 connected in series with an electronic key 11 and
of high harmonics filter 12, in parallel to which is connected the load 13

3. THE OPERATION ALGORITHM OF THE CONVERTER

In Fig.2 is shown the control pulse diagram of electronic keys and the shape of curves of voltage and current in
the elements of converter during one unitary cycle of operation of electronic key, from t0 until the beginning of
the second operation cycle of electronic keys transistors ( t0 ). The voltage and current indicators from the Fig.2
correspond to the notation of elements from the Fig.1

Fig.2 The diagram of control pulses of electronic keys and the shape of the curves at the input and output of
the converter: 21 the shape of the curve of the voltage of alternating current source 1(see fig.1); 22 the shape of
the curve of the current of alternating current source 1; 23 the shape of the control pulse applied to the
electronic key 5; 24 the shape of the curve of control pulse applied to the electronic key 6; 25 the shape of
the curve of voltage in the common node of connection of rectifier bridge 3 and of electronic key 5; 26 the
shape of the curve of voltage for the load 13 (see Fig.1)

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

4. THE VARIANTS OF REALIZATION OF POWER SUPPLY SOURCES

To verify experimentally the performance of the solution of realization of direct current power supply source
which operates at high frequency have been made laboratory samples of the converters which work at high
frequency at different power, which included invertors of direct current to direct current.

4.1. Power supply source of DC/DC type


In Fig.4 is shown an equivalent scheme of power supply source DC/DC with inverter with the high frequency
and power of 0,42 kW. The evolution diagrams of currents and voltages of functional components of the source
are shown in the Fig.5 for the duration of one operation cycle, but the characteristics of the yields evolution for
various loads in the Fig.6 In the quality of element noted as 12 one can use a diode or a transistor. The use of
MOSFET type transistor assures an increased yield of power supply source DC/DC in comparison with the diode
Shottky (Fig.6).

Fig. 4. The view of power supply source with inverter DC/DC of high frequency and the equivalent scheme of the source

Fig. 5. The curves of evolution of currents and Fig. 6. The convertors yield related to the load for
voltages of sources elements during a working cycle two variants od realization of element 12(V12 from
Fig.4)

Fig. 7. View of welding machine with inverter Fig. 8. The equivalent diagram of the rectifier and
DC/DC inverter of welding machine

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

4.2. Welding machine with converter of AC/DC type


In Fig. 7 is shown a view of the functional sample, the model and equivalent electric diagram (Fig. 8) of a
welding machine made in the base of converter of AC/DC type with high frequency inverter.

The novelty of welding machine consists in a new proposed topology for realization a converter DC/DC which
assures the process of convertion in the mode of switching the keys at the voltages equal to zero (ZVS). The
topology is simple, includes a minimised number of industrial electronic components, but the inverter was made
in the base of existent technologies, by assuring not only the reduction of manufacturing cost, bat also the
reduced mass and size indicators. The device has became more compact, the mass decreased approximately 4
times, and the value of yield increased from (90-92)% till (96-98)%. The figure which characterise the density of
power achieved the value of nearly 20kW/dm3.

Fig.9. The curve of voltage u(t) and current i(t) of Fig. 10. The curve of voltage u(t) and current i(t) of
power supply network of welding transformer of the power supply network of the welding machine with
traditional construction high frequency inverter DC/DC

4.2.1. Welding machines parameters

Nominal power (output): P=4kW.


Alternating current supply voltage: U=220V with the frequency f=50Hz. Current from the network:
I=19A.
Output voltage MG of rectified current: U=80V. Nominal current of welding: 160 A (direct current).
Yield: 96% determined after experimental tests.
Mass: msp=0,4 kg/kW.

4.3 Micro-inverter for photovoltaic panels [11]

Micro-inverter contains a direct current source, at the output of which is connected in parallel one filtering
capacitor, two frequency capacitors connected in series, two electronic keys connected in series. Between the
common node of connection the frequency capacitors connected in series and the node of common connection of
electronic keys is connected the primary coil of the high frequency transformer, whose ferromagnetic core is
made with minimum inter iron. At the output of the secondary coil of the transformer is connected an inductance
for stocking the energy and one filtering capacitor, connected through two electronic keys. In parallel with the
filtering capacitor, through filtering inductance is connected the alternating power network. In Fig.11 is shown a
view of functional sample and equivalent diagram of the micro-inverter.

Fig. 11. View of functional sample of the micro-inverter DC/AC and equivalent electric diagram

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

5. CONCLUSIONS

The micro-inverter assures to join the renewable energy sources


to the centralised alternating power network, for example of
photovoltaic modules. The new topology of realization of the
micro-inverter assures the process of convertion from DC to AC
with sine shape (Fig.12) in a single stage (step).

The nominal power (output): P=2 kW, f=50 Hz, voltage


U=/U=24/220 V, yield: 98% (determined after experimental
Fig. 12. The output voltage (on the load)
tests), specific mass msp= 0,5 kg/kW, power density11
3 of the micro-inverter DC/AC
kW/dm . The efficiency increasing of manufacturing process is
guided by the extension of operation band of micro-inverter up to the value of 0,3Unom of the generation
source composed by PV modules, also decreasing energy losses in the converter.

The solution for realization of converters for manufacturing different power supply sources with a simple
topology, which assures a single stage transformer process have been developed. In the base of mathematic
model developed in MULTISIM medium have been optimised the parameters of circuits of functional parts,
including converters of DC/DC and DC/AC types. Experimental functional laboratory samples of many
convertors: power supply source of DC/DC type with output power 0,42 kW; welding machine with power of
4,0 kW; micro-inverter with power of 2,0 kW for junction of photovoltaic modules with the alternating power
network. Experimental tests have been proved that in the base of proposed solutions one can achieve the yield of
these sources at the level of 96-98%, but the density of power reaches value of 11-20 kW/dm3.

REFERENCES

[1] Fabricarea calculatoarelor i a produselor electronice i optice. Fabricarea echipamentelor electrice.


http://www.minind.ro/presa_2013/august/Sinteza_consultari_industria_electronica_si_electrotehnica_08082013.
pdf) (02.05.2016).
[3] Deaconu, S. I., Popa, G. N., Rodean, I., Motorga C. Utilizarea industrial a convertoarelor statice de mare
putere (I). A XI-ea Conferin Naional multidisciplinar-cu participare internaional Profesorul Dorin
PAVEL +fondatorul hidroenergeticii romneti, SEBE, 2011,p.377-382. http://stiintasiinginerie.ro/wp-
content/uploads/2014/01/54-UTILIZAREA-INDUSTRIAL%C4%82-A-CONVERTOARELOR.pdf
(02.05.2016).
[4] Invertor de Tensiune PSW1000W cu Sinusoida Pura. http://invertoare.ascora.ro/psw1000w.htm (01.05.2016).
[5] Linia de invertoare fotovoltaice 2013. http://www.advanced-energy.com/images/ REFUsol/ProductLine_
RO.pdf (02.05.2016).
[6] Sudarea MIG/MAG. Notiuni de baza. http://www.cmmetal.ro/media/upload/files/files/Sudarea%
20MIG%20MAG.pdf (02.05.2016).
[7] http://www.irf.com/technical-info/refdesigns/irplled5.pdf (Figure 1.
[8] https://www.fairchildsemi.com/application-notes/AN/AN-6920MR.pdf Figure 1.
Huber, L., Irving, B. T. and Jovanovic, M. M. Effect of valley switching and switching-frequency limitation on
line-current distortions of DCM/CCM boundary boost PFC converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24,
no. 2, pp. 339347, Feb. 2009.
[9] Hotrre de eleiberare a brevetulyui de invenie nt. 8374 din 2016.03.28. Nt. Deposit s 2016 0020 din
2016.02.16. Convertor de tensiune de current alternativ n tensiune de curent continuu. Ermurachi Iurie, Berzan
Vladimir, Ermurachi Iurie.
[10] Brevet de invenie MD 841 Z 2015.06.30. Ermurachi Iurie, Berzan Vladimir, Moraru Larisa, Ermurachi
Iurie.
[11] Brevet de invenie MD 842 Z 2015.06.30. Ermurachi Iurie, Berzan Vladimir, Moraru Larisa.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Two-ELEMENTS REACTOR-CONDENSER DEVICE FOR


FLEXIBLE LINK OF ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS
BOSNEAGA VALERIU1*, SUSLOV VICTOR1
1
Power Engineering Institute of Moldova Academy of sciences, Academiei str. 5, 2028,
Chisinau, Moldova Republic.

Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of proposed device for flexible
interconnection of asynchrony alternating current power systems with the same values of
nominal frequencies. A new reactor-capacitor device was suggested, which provides
reactive power balance in the unit and consistency of the output voltage. The basic
characteristics of reactor-capacitor device for controlled power transmission were
investigated. Analytical expressions for device elements parameters were derived, which
provide constant power flow in the link between power systems with different voltages for
a given load conductance.

Keywords: flexible connection between AC power systems, combined reactor-capacitor


device.

1. INTRODUCTION

At present, as controlled interconnections between different power systems with set value of transmitted active
power, irrespective on the load of other branches of electric networks, as a rule, so-called DC links are used [1-
3]. They allow linking asynchronously operated grids as with the different, so and with the same nominal values
of frequencies. However, the DC link is relatively complex and, accordingly, expensive installation, which
includes power transformers, rectifiers and inverters and, if necessary, higher harmonics filter and reactive power
compensation devices. Double conversion of current type - from AC to DC at transmitting end and the reverse
conversion - on the receiving end - leads to significant harmonic distortion in current and voltage curves.

Due to the rapid development of FACTs (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission) technology in recent
decades, a large number of different controlled devices with semiconductor switching elements appeared. They
provide adjustment of electrical networks modes, including magnitude and phase of the voltage, active and
reactive power flow in the network [4-7], and others. The mostly close to the solution of flexible connection
problem, apparently, are UPFC type devices (Unified power Flow Controller, [7]), which have a universal
characteristics. They allow simultaneously real-time managing of active and reactive power flow in the
transmission line, comparable only with those, provided by DC link. However, in the available literature it is not
considered their use for providing of flexible connection of asynchronously operating power systems.

Due to successful development of switching art on the basis of various semiconductor devices (such as
conventional thyristors and GTO or IGBT-type elements) another potentially possible realization of such
connection appeared. This idea was expressed for a long time ago, and is based on phase-shifting transformer
with a circular rotation of output voltage angle relative to input voltage, which could be implemented with the
help of high-speed semiconductor switching elements (see. e.g., [8-9]).

Another class of described devices for flexible coupling is devices with controlled ferromagnetic reactors [10-
11]. Fig. 1 shows one of possible circuit modifications of this class of devices, considered, for example, in [10],

*
Corresponding author, e-mail valeriu.bosneaga@gmail.com

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

and called by the authors controlled ferromagnetic alternating current link. This device served as an impetus
for search and investigation of more advanced circuit designs, complemented by capacitors, which can provide
improvement in the balance of reactive power and maintaining the constancy of the output voltage of the device.
One of possible variant of such circuit, which is the subject of this work, is shown in Fig.2.

Fig.1. Schematic diagram of implementation of flexible power systems connection, based on


controlled by magnetization ferromagnetic reactors.

2. CALCULATION OF ADMITTANCES FOR TWO-ELEMENT REACTOR-CAPACITOR DEVICE


AT COMPLEX LOAD.

The scheme of Fig. 2 shows the implementation of power transfer from two phases A and B of supplying power
system to phase A' of receiving power system, serving as the load. Let us write the current balance equation for
the phase A' of receiving power system in accordance with the scheme of Fig. 2. We have:

. .
U A U n jb A + U B U n jbB = ( g n + jbn ) U n
. . .
(1)

Fig.2. Two-element connection diagram of flexible link, based on reactor


and condenser. Only one phase of output voltage A is shown in order
not to complicate the drawing.


Here is assumed that load voltage vector Un is directed along the real axis and the vector U = U exp(j).
Let us consider the more general case of inequality of voltage modules at transmitting and receiving power
systems. Let the module of voltage in supplying grid is k times greater, than the voltage module in receiving
power system, i.e., UA=kUn. Dividing both sides of equation (1) by the value of kUn we obtain:

(exp( j ) 1k ) jb + (exp( j (2 3 )) 1k ) jb
A B =
g n + jbn
k
(2)

We convert this equation into the system of 2 equations, separately for the real and imaginary parts. We get:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

2 ( gn
sin b A + sin 3 bB = k )

(3)

( ) ( (
cos 1 b + cos 2 1 b = bn
k A 3 k B k
) )
Solving the last system for the unknown b and b , We obtain for b :

1 ( ( ) )
cos 2 1 g n + sin 2 bn
3 k 3
( )
bA =
( )( ) ( ( ) )
(4)
k sin 2
3
cos k + cos 3 1 k sin
1 2

And for b:

1 ( )
cos 1 g n + sin bn
k
bB =
( )( ) ( ( ) )
(5)
k sin 2
3
cos k + cos 2 3 1 k sin
1

Thus, the analytical expressions are obtained for the values of admittances of reactor and capacitor, providing
specified active and reactive power load at given output voltage of the device, which are k times less, than
applied voltages throughout the entire range of the phase shift angle changing.

In subsequent Fig. 3-11, the graphs of dependencies of admittances of reactor and condenser from the phase shift
angle for different values of load admittances, including reactive one and for different coefficients k of voltage
conversion, are presented. In Fig. 3, 4 for comparison are presented the graphs of mentioned dependencies with
purely resistive load (gn = 1, bn = 0) and different coefficients of voltage conversion k = 1 and k = 1.1 (at this the
output voltage is less by 10% comparatively with supply voltage). The scales along the axes are selected
approximately identical to facilitate the comparison of results. Markers of triangular and rhombic shape are
stamped on the curves with step of 5.

Fig. 3. Dependence of the admittance of the reactor Fig. 4. Dependence of the admittance of the reactor
and capacitor on the value of the phase shift angle and capacitor on the value of the phase shift angle
between systems at purely resistive load with a between systems at purely resistive load with a
coefficient k = 1. coefficient k = 1.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

The graph in Fig. 3, at k = 1 is the basic, wherein as it is seen from the graph, admittance bA , connected to Phase
A of feeding system is negative, has inductive character and it module gradually decreases with increasing of
angle, and at the angles, close to 120, it approaches to zero. Admittance, connected to phase B of supply system
is positive capacitive and increases with increasing of angle, reaching at angles, close to 120, the same
quantities in absolute value, which had admittance b at small angles, i.e, there is a symmetry of admittances
graphs relatively to center, located on the axis of abscissa at = 60. It should be noted, that at the intermediate
angle value of 60 mentioned admittances have the same modules and different signs. From a comparison of
fig.3, 4 it is obviously, that at the level of voltage in the receiving system, reduced by 10%, the maximum
required range of admittances changing is increased by 33%. In addition, the curve for the admittance bA having
inductive character, at the angle of about 100 passes through the x-axis and changes its sign to positive, and the
curve of the admittance bB with capacitive character on the contrary - becomes negative at the angle less than
20, i.e, at the angles between 20 and 100 admittances have the same sign. Values of admittances bA and bB in
midpoint at = 60 are also equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, moreover, as in the previous case, there is a
symmetry around the point = 60.

Let consider for completeness also the case, when the voltage of receiving system is less by 20%, i.e. let take the
conversion factor k = 1.2. On Fig. 5 are shown the graphs of reactor and the capacitor admittances dependence
from the phase shift angle for this case. Comparing to the previous figure, we see that the range of the
admittances change is significantly bigger, approximately twice; the points of changing admittances signs shifted
even more toward the center of the figure in comparison with the previous case. However, overall nature of the
admittances changing is the same. It should be noted, that compared to the variant with k = 1, at value of k> 1
the new trend appeared of admittances curves transition through zero line and changing of admittances signs, so
that ranges of angle appeared, where admittances have the same signs. Thus, by appropriate selection of the
admittances values, active power transfer mode could be also provided at the lower (compared with the supply
system) voltage value of the receiving system.

Fig. 5. Dependences of the admittances of reactor and capacitor on the value of the
phase shift angle at resistive load with a conversion coefficient k = 1.2.

Given that the value of voltage in electrical network could varied in both directions from the nominal value, let
consider the variant with increased voltage of receiving system at k = 0.9. In Fig. 6 the obtained graphs of
admittances in dependence of angle between systems voltages are presented. Comparing the results of Fig.6
and Fig.3, it can be noted, that the necessary range of admittances change with increasing of receiving system
voltage by 11% (at k = 0.9) has decreased nearly by 20%. As it follows from Fig. 7, which shows the curves for
the conversion coefficient k = 0.8 (which corresponds to the increased level of receiving system voltage in 1.25
times) increase in voltage is accompanied by further reduction of required range of reactive elements admittance
changing. However, signs of admittances in the considered range of the delta angle changing are always
opposite, at this the symmetry with respect to the point = 60 is maintained.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Fig. 6. Dependence of the admittances of reactor Fig. 7. Dependence of the reactor and capacitor
and capacitor from the value of the phase shift admittances from the value of the phase shift angle
angle bet-ween systems at purely resistive load between systems at resistive load with a coefficient k =
with a coefficient k = 1. 0.8.

Thus, it was considered the influence of the provided output voltage level compared with supply voltage on
necessary parameters of reactive elements. It is shown, that at increasing of output voltage above the nominal
value the necessary range of reactive elements admittances is reduced, and vice versa, with the decreasing of the
output voltage level the range increases. In addition, at decreasing the output voltage appears the areas of angle
variation, in which both admittances have the same sign.

Let us consider further the impact of the reactive load on the required values of admittances, which provide
controllable link.

Fig. 8. Dependence of the reactor and capacitor Fig. 9. Dependence of the reactor and capacitor
admittances from the value of the phase shift angle at admittances from the value of the phase shift
complex load with capacitive character at conversion angle at complex load of inductive character at
coefficient k = 1.1. conversion coefficient k = 1.1.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

On Fig. 8 dependences of reactor and capacitor admittances are presented for the case of capacitive load and
conversion coefficient k = 1.1. From a comparison with fig. 4 it follows, that the connection of capacitive load
leads to the shift of the admittances changing range to negative values, and also to shift of the graphs center of
symmetry. At this the admittances at = 60 there are different. In addition, the points of curves transition
through zero line are shifted to the right. Fig. 9 shows the dependences of admittances for the case of the same
value of conversion coefficient k = 1.1, but for inductive character load. Comparison with the curves of the same
fig. 4 shows, that in this case the opposite changes occur. Connection of inductive character load leads to a shift
of the admittances regulation range to positive values and to the reverse displacement of the symmetry center. At
this the admittances at point = 60 again became different, but as if it were reversed. Figure 10 shows the
dependences of the admittances for the case of the conversion coefficient k = 0.9, again for the case of capacitive
character load. From a comparison with Fig. 6 it follows, that the capacitive character load connection leads to a
shift of the admittances regulation range to negative values. At this the admittances at = 60 again turned out to
be different. Figure 11 shows the dependences of admittances for the same value of conversion coefficient k =
0.9, but for inductive character load.

Fig.10. Dependences of reactor and capacitor Fig.11. Dependences of reactor and capacitor
admittances from the value of the phase shift angle at admittances from the value of the phase shift angle
capacitive character load and conversion coefficient at inductive character load and conversion
k = 0.9. coefficient k = 0.9.

Comparison with the curves of the fig. 6 shows, that in this case the opposite changes occur. Thus, the
connection of additional reactive load leads to displacement of admittances curves, depending on the nature of
the connected additional reactive load.

3. CONCLUSIONS

1. The mathematical model was elaborated and the analytic solution was obtained for the determination of
admittances of two-element reactor- condenser device for controllable connection of asynchrony alternating
current power systems with equal nominal values of frequencies, including at various levels of nominal voltages
of linked energy systems and for different character of complex load.

2. On the basis of obtained models were investigated the main characteristics of the proposed device for flexible
connection of power systems, identified necessary regulated reactive admittances in dependencies from the
phase angle between systems, that would allow the transfer of set active and reactive power at various
conversion coefficients for system voltages. It was demonstrated, that this device actually is peculiar equivalent
of phase-shifting transformer with circular phase angle rotation. The research results could be the basis for
further development of flexible connection devices for asynchronous link of alternating current power systems.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

REFERENCES

[1]J. Pan, R. Nuqui, K. Srivastava, T. Jonsson, P. Holmberg, Ying-Jiang Hafner. AC Grid with Embedded VSC-
HVDC for Secure and Efficient Power Delivery. IEEE Energy2030, Atlanta, GA USA, 17-18 November, 2008.
[2] Power Link, 2, 1996 . ABB Power Systems. Lenart Carlson. ABB Power Technologies. Liudvika,
Sweden. BB review, No.3, 2005. pp. 42-46.
[3] J.Arrilaga, B.Smith. AC-DC Power System Analysis. IEE, London, 1998, 395 pp.
[4] Narain G. Hingorani, Laszlo Gyugyi. Understanding FACTS. Concepts and Technology of
Flexible AC Transmission Systems. IEEE Press, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331,
2000, 432 pp.
[5].R. Mohan Mathur, Rajiv K. Varma. Thyristor-based facts controllers for electrical transmission systems.
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. PUBLICATION, 2002. 518 pages.
[6]. Ketan G. Damor, Dipesh M. Patel, Vinesh Agrawal, Hirenkumar G. Patel. Comparison of Different Fact
Devices. IJSTEInternational Journal of Science Technology & Engineering. Vol. 1, Issue 1, July 2014.
[7]. L.Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S.L. Williams, etc. The Unified Power Flow controller: a new approach to power
transmission control. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.10, No.2, April 1995. p.1085-1097.
[8]. Voitovski .V, Calinin L.P. [Investigation of phase-shifting transformer with circular phase-angle rotation
operation.] Issledovanie rejima raboti fazoreguliuschego transformatora s krugovim preobrazovaniem fazi
napreajenia. Collection of articles Controlable electric transmission, Chisinau, Stiinta, 1987. (In Russian)
[9]. Bosneaga V., Postolaty V., Voitovski V. [Transformer device for power system connection]
Transformatornoie ustroistvo dlea sveazi energosistem. Autors certificate of USSR, no. 1288764, issued 8th
oct., 1986. (In Russian).
[10]. Alexandrov G. (Saint-Peterburg technical Univercity), Zairsev S., Blagodirev V. (OJSC Lenenergo,
Saint-Peterburg) [Controlable reactors as power elements of alternating current ferromagnetic link]
Upravleaemie reaktori v kachestve silovih elementov vstavki pereemennogo toka. Elektroenergetika: Segodnea I
zavtra. - 2014. - no. 3. - pp.51-59. (In Russian).
[11]. Makarov., Talamanov O. [Device for three-phase power systems connection based on controlable reactors.]
Ustroistvo dlea obiedinenia trehfaznih energosistem na osnove upravleaemih reaktorov. Patent for useful model
no. 50726. 23.11.2006. (In Russian).

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF AIIIBVI


OWN OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES
DMITROGLO LILIANA1*, CARAMAN IULIANA2, EVTODIEV SILVIA1,3,
UNTILA DUMITRU1,4, EVTODIEV IGOR1,4
1
Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici Str., Chisinau, MD-2009, Republic of
Moldova
2
University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO-600115 Bacau, Romania
3
University of European Political and Economical Studies Constantin Stere , Stefan
cel Mare si Snt bd 200, MD-2004 Chisinau, Moldova
4
Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies D. Ghitu, Academy of
Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova

Abstract: The metal oxides of the transition group elements such as In2O3, Ga2O3, ZnO,
SnO2 are semiconductors with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared
region of spectrum and as well are good electrical conductors [1-5]. In2O3 and Ga2O3
are materials with high structural defects concentration having a band gap of 3.754.1
eV [1,6-8] and 4.8 eV [9-11], respectively. These properties determine the increased
interest of researchers for applications in optoelectronic devices, such as photosensitive
sensors in the UV region of the spectrum [10,12,13], selective gas sensors [14-16],
active elements in photovoltaic cells [17,18]. Some electrical properties of the Ga2O3
oxide formed on the (001) surface of GaSe single crystalline plates, as well as optical
properties of Ga2O3-GaSe interface layer and the photoelectric properties of Ga2O3-
GaSe heterojunctions are studied in this paper.

Keywords: oxides, Ga2O3, GaSe, optical properties, adsorption, electrical conductivity,


sensitivity.

1. INTRODUCTION

Among the specific features of AIIIBVI semiconductors group, and particularly the GaSe and InSe compounds, is
the crystalline structure formed by the atomic planar packings of B-A-A-B type. Between the elements within
the packing the ionic-covalent binding forces act. The packings are linked between them by weak polarization
forces. Packings are arranged one to another so that the planar cracks are formed in which atoms and molecules
can be easily intercalated [19]. Under the influence of oxygen from the atmosphere, the surface of GaSe plates is
covered by island like layer of Ga and Se oxides. The oxidation process of GaSe and InSe plates is as more
intense, as higher the temperature is [20]. Some electrical properties of the Ga2O3 oxide formed on the (001)
surface of GaSe single crystalline plates, as well as optical properties of Ga2O3-GaSe interface layer and the
photoelectric properties of Ga2O3-GaSe heterojunctions are studied in this paper.

*
Corresponding author, email: dmitrogloliliana@yahoo.com

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

2. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

GaSe single crystals were grown by Bridgman method using for synthesis elementary Ga (5N) and Se (4N)
chemical elements. The plane parallel plates with thicknesses from units of micrometers up to several
millimeters were cleaved from massive single crystals. The plates thicknesses were selected for the optical
measurement of the absorption coefficient with the error less than 5%. GaSe single crystalline plates with a
thickness of 0.30.5 mm were heat-treated at the temperatures in the range of 9001100 K. The treatment
duration was from 10 minutes up to 100 minutes in normal atmosphere. As a result of the heat treatment, the
lateral surfaces of GaSe plates are covered with an oxide layer composed of micro-formations, which diffuse the
incident light.

The electrical conductivity of the GaSe plate surface, as well as of the layer formed on the plates surface as a
result of the treatment was measured using four planar electrodes. The absorbance of the oxide layer formed on
the surface of GaSe plates was determined from Kubelka-Munk function by using the measurements of diffuse
reflectance spectra.

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The optical transmission coefficient of 350 m thick primary GaSe plates at an incident radiation of 700 nm
wavelength is equal to 0.62, whereas after heat treatment at the temperature of 980 K for 20 min in normal
atmosphere it decreases to 0.08. After heat treatment of 40 minutes these plates are not transparent to this
wavelength. The absorption coefficient of GaSe samples subjected to heat treatment at temperatures in the range
of 9001100 K was determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance. As a standard sample having the
diffuse reflection coefficient equal to Rdif =1, were used the SiO2 powder having a diameter of 10 nm for
ultraviolet region of the spectrum and BaF2 for the visible region, respectively. The absorbance of the oxide layer
(Ga2O3) on the GaSe surface and those of the GaSe layer at the Ga2O3-GaSe interface was estimated using the
Kubelka-Munk relation [21]:

(1)

(2)

where S is the light scattering coefficient, which depends on the radiation wavelength, is the absorption
coefficient.

The absorbance spectra in the region of GaSe absorption band edge is shown in Figure 1:

0.75 b1
A, rel.units

b2
0.50

b2

0.25

b1
0.00
2.0 2.5 3.0
h, eV
Fig. 1. Optical absorbance of Ga2O3-GaSe structure obtained by heat treatment at 980 K (b1)
and 1050 K (b2) for 30 min in normal atmosphere.

The absorption band edge of 2.0 eV corresponds to the band gap width of GaSe semiconductor. GaSe compound
absorption band edge consists of direct excitons, for which in a narrow range of energies 0.05 eV the
absorption coefficient increases from units of cm-1 up to 104 cm-1 [22]. A slow growth of the absorbance in the

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

range of energies from 2.0 eV to 1.8 eV indicates a high density of structural defects at the Ga2O3-GaSe
interface. If we assume that the value of the absorbance variation in the absorption band edge region is related to
the density of defects at the interface structure, then from the comparison of curves b1 and b2 we can conclude
about the degree of defects formation at the Ga2O3-GaSe interface, at the treatment temperature increase. An
additional confirmation about granulation rate of GaSe plate surface in the region of the own oxide layer forming
is the energetic width of the absorbance increase range. The diffuse reflection coefficient depends on the particle
density and size formed on the surface, for which at the given wavelength it decreases along with their
dimensions decrease [23]. From the comparison of the absorption band in the energy range of 1.8 2.0 eV
results that along to the treatment temperature increasing from 980 K up to 1050 K the size of the defects on
Ga2O3-GaSe structure surface are increasing. The defects on the surface of the GaSe serve as centres of
heterogeneous clusters forming. These defects density does not exceed 1010 cm-2 [24-26]. Thus, we can admit
that Ga2O3 oxide clusters have as a nucleation centers the Se atoms vacancies from the surface of Se-Ga-Ga-Se
packings. These nanoclusters are developed mainly in the (001) plane of the GaSe plate surface, which after a
period of time cover the entire surface with a layer of its oxide.
The electrical conductivity and free charge carriers mobility of free charge carriers from the GaSe plate
surface treated at 980 K in normal atmosphere are shown in Figure 2. The electrical conductivity of GaSe layer
is equal to 2.310-4 -1cm-1.

10
55
1 50
, -1cm-1

45

, cm2/ Vs
0.1
40
0.01 2 35
1 30
1E-3
25
1E-4 20
0 20 40 60 80 100
t, min

Fig. 2. Dependence of electrical conductivity (curve 1) and charge carriers mobility (curve 2)
in the surface layer of GaSe plate heat treated at 980 K in a normal atmosphere as a function
of treatment duration.

The heat treatment for 10 min leads to electrical conductivity increase with more than 1.5 orders of magnitude
(4.310-3 -1cm-1). A high electrical conductivity increase rate remains up to 30 min. We consider that in this
interval the Ga2O3 clusters increase on the GaSe plate surface area occurs. The reduction of the electrical
conductivity growth rate in the time interval from 30 minutes to 60 minutes is probably caused by the liquidation
of unoxidised areas on the GaSe surface and also by the decrease of the oxygen vacancies concentration in
Ga2O3 layer. Electrical conductivity through the free electrons in the Ga2O3 layer is determined by the oxygen
vacancies in Ga2O3 layer. Thus, the liquidation of O2- vacancies in the Ga2O3 layer - contributes to the reduction
in the electrical conductivity growth rate in the time range from 30 minutes up to 60 minutes. The continuation
of the heat treatment from 60 minutes up to 100 minutes as one can see from Figure 2 (curve 1) can be explained
especially by O2- vacancies liquidation in the well-formed Ga2O3 oxide layer on the GaSe surface. The holes
mobility at room temperature in primary GaSe single crystal is 60 cm2/Vs. As it is shown in the Figure 2
(curve 2) the mobility of free charge carriers (electrons) in the island-like Ga2O3 layer obtained by heat treatment
of GaSe plates at 980 K in normal atmosphere for 10 minutes is 37 cm2/Vs and has the same order of magnitude
as in -Ga2O3 single crystals. The slow decrease of the electrons mobility in the Ga2O3 layer from 40 cm2/Vs to
23 cm2 /Vs at the heat treatment duration increase from 30 min to 100 min, is determined by both the reduction
of the oxygen vacancies concentration in Ga2O3 layer and the presence of electron-depleted region in the contact
region of GaSe-Ga2O3, as well as by the increase in macroscopic defects amount in Ga2O3 layer which thickness
increases with the duration of heat treatment.

The relative sensitivity (R and R0 - surface resistance of Ga2O3-GaSe structure in the presence of carbon
oxide and in vacuum, respectively) of Ga2O3 layer obtained on surface of GaSe lamella by heat treatment in
atmosphere at 980 K during 30 min is presented in Figure 3.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

10
1

8 2

R/R0
6 3 2

4 1

0 20 40 60 80 100
t, s
Fig. 3. The sensitivity of Ga2O3-GaSe structure to carbon oxide present in atmosphere at 293 K
during one cycle (curve 1) and after 10 cycles (curve 2); and at 400 K during one cycle.

As can be seen from Figure 3, curves 1 and 3, the sensitivity of Ga2O3-GaSe structure to carbon oxide (CO)
adsorption at temperature of 293 K and 400 K tend to saturation at treatment in atmosphere enriched with 2500
ppm of CO for 2530 s. At the same time it can be observed that the structures sensitivity to carbon oxide
grows with temperature at which the adsorption occurs. Relative sensitivity variation at 293 K represents 1.9
while the variation range of relative sensitivity of Ga2O3 layer from the GaSe surface to CO molecules presence
at 400 K grows up to 3.

As can be seen from Figure 3, curve 2, at adsorption cycles duration increasing the adsorption sensitivity
decrease. This process is determinate by the presence of deep capture levels. At the same time the adsorption
process of CO molecules in the Ga2O3 layer is an inertial process. This fact is probably due to the presence of n-
p junction at the Ga2O3-GaSe structure interface.

4. CONCLUSIONS

- Ga2O3-GaSe structures sensible to CO molecules adsorption are obtained by heat treatment of GaSe single
crystalline plates in atmosphere at the temperature of 9001100 K;
- The CO molecules adsorption on to Ga2O3-GaSe structure surface is a saturation process determined by the
equilibrium between adsorption and desorption;
- The optimal temperature range and duration of GaSe lamella heat treatment in atmosphere for obtaining the
Ga2O3-GaSe structure with maximum sensitivity to CO molecules presence in atmosphere were determined. The
adsorption sensitivity of the structure increases with temperature at which the adsorption process occurs.

REFERENCES

[1] Novkovski N. and Tanusevski A., Origin of the optical absorption of In2O3 thin films in the visible range,
Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol.23, no.9, 2008, p.1-4.
[2] Granqvist C.G. and Hultaker A., Transparent and conducting ITO films: new developments and applications,
Thin Solid Films, no.411, 2002, p.1-5.
[3] Harwig T. and Schoonman J., Electrical properties of -Ga2O3 single crystals. II. Journal of Solid State
Chemistry, vol.23, no.1-2, 1978, p.205-211.
[4] Evtodiev I., Caraman I., Leontie L., Rusu D. I., Dafinei A., Nedeff V., and Lazar G., Recombination
luminescence and trap levels in undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films on quartz and GaSe (0001) substrates.
Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 47, no. 3, 2012, p. 794-797.
[5] Cuculescu E., Evtodiev I., Caraman I., Leontie L., Nedeff V., and Rusu D. I., Transport and generation
recombination mechanisms of nonequilibrium charge carriers in ZnO/In2O3/InSe:Cd heterojunctions. Thin Solid
Films, vol. 519, no. 21, 2011, p. 7356-7359.
[6] An Y., Wang S., Feng D., Wu Z., and Liu J., Correlation between oxygen vacancies and magnetism in Fe-
doped In2O3 films. Applied Surface Science, vol. 276, 2013, p. 535-538.
[7] Anand K., Kumar P., and Thangaraj R., Effect of surfactant type on the micro structure and optical properties
of In2O3 nanoparticles. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 5, 2011, p. 702-705.

32
P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

[8] Ghosh S. S., Neogi S., and Biswas P. K., Solgel based Cd (II)-doped In2O3 transparent conducting thin film
on glass. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 78, 2016, p. 195-206.
[9] Suzuki N., Ohira S., Tanaka M., Sugawara T., Nakajima K., and Shishido T., Fabrication and
characterization of transparent conductive Sn-doped -Ga2O3 single crystal, vol.4, no.7, 2007, p.2310-2313.
[10] Aida H., Nishiguchi K., Takeda H., Aota N., Sunakawa K., and Yaguchi Y., Growth of -Ga2O3 single
crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 11R,
2008, p. 8506-8509.
[11] Yamaga M., Villora E. G., Shimamura K., Ichinose N., and Honda M., Donor structure and electric
transport mechanism in -Ga2O3. Physical Review B, vol. 68, no. 15, 2003, p. 155207.
[12] Oshima T., Okuno T., Arai N., Suzuki N., Hino H and Fujita S., Flame detection by a -Ga2O3-based
sensor, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.48, no.1R, 2009, p.011605
[13] Cao H., Qiu X., Liang Y., Zhu Q., and Zhao M., Room-temperature ultraviolet-emitting In2O3 nanowires,
Journal of Applied Physics Letters, vol.83, no.4, 2003, p.761-763.
[14] Xu J. Q., Chen Y. P., Pan Q. Y., Xiang Q., Cheng Z. X. and Dong X. W., A new route for preparing
corundum-type In2O3 nanorods used as gas-sensing materials, Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no.11, 2007,
p.115615.
[15] Baban C., Toyoda Y., and Ogita M., Oxygen sensor based on Ga2O3 films operating at high temperature.
Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol. 7, no. 2, 2005, p. 891-896.
[16] Ogita M., Saika N., Nakanishi Y., and Hatanaka Y., Ga2O3 thin films for high-temperature gas sensors.
Applied Surface Science, vol. 142, no. 1, 1999, p. 188-191.
[17] Ogita M., Kobayashi K., Yamada Y., and Nakanishi Y., Properties of gallium oxide thin film sputtered from
powder target for high temperature oxygen sensor, The 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE, Denver, USA,
2001, p.137-140.
[18] Kalygina V. M., Zarubin A. N., Novikov V. A., Petrova Y. S., Tolbanov O. P., Tyazhev A. V., Tsupiy S.
Y., and Yaskevich T. M., Gallium-oxide films obtained by thermal evaporation. Semiconductors, vol. 47, no. 5,
2013, p. 612-618.
[19] Jouanne M., Julien C. and Balkanski M., Polarization Studies of Polar Phonons of InSe, Physica status
solidi (b) vol. 144, no. 2, 1987, p. K147K150.
[20] Filippo E., Siciliano M., Genga A., Micocci G., Tepore A., and Siciliano T., Single crystalline -Ga2O3
nanowires synthesized by thermal oxidation of GaSe layer, Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 5, 2013, p.
17411744.
[21] Kubelka P. and Munk F., Ein beitrag zur optik der farbanstriche, Z. Tech. Physics, vol. 12, 1931, p. 593
601.
[22] Evtodiev I., Anisotropy of the exciton processes in GaSe crystals with low S and Te concentrations. Journal
of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, vol. 4, 2009, p. 76-88.
[23] Bohren C. F. and Huffman D. R., Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. John Wiley & Sons,
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[24] Williams R. H. and McEvoy A. J., Electron emission studies from GaSe surfaces. Journal of Vacuum
Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, 1972, p. 867-870.
[25] Untila D., Kantser V., Caraman M., Evtodiev I., Leontie L., and Dmitroglo L., Photoluminescence
properties of lamellar nano-composites obtained by Cd intercalation of GaSe and GaSe:Eu single crystals. Phys.
Status Solidi C, vol. 12, no. 12, 2015, p. 65-69.
[26] Khandozhko V. A., Kudrynskyi Z. R., Kovalyuk Z. D. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the quality of
InSe layered single crystals and the characteristics of n-InSe/p-InSe heterojunctions. Semiconductors, vol. 48,
no. 4, 2014, p. 545-550.

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INNOVATIVE ALGORITHMS OF INTEGRATION OF


RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE
INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL SECTORS

GEORGES EL-JAMAL1, MAZEN GHANDOUR2, PETRU LIVINTI3*


1
Saint joseph and Lebanese university, Beirut, Lebanon
2
Lebanese university,Hadath,Beirut, Lebanon
3
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacu, Romania

Abstract: Energy is a major dilemma that harasses the world. The day using fossil energy,
which run life on earth, is very close, so replacing this type of energy with another cheaper,
clean and lasting become a strategic question. Is renewable energy (RNE) the solution? At
this moment RNE is unable to completely replace the fossil types, but the contribution of
energy efficiency(EE) and (RNE) can be the main axis in solving the dilemma
The aim of this paper is to highlight the energy profile of a facility and the steps to reduce it
by exposing an innovativealgorithm contributing between EE and RNE to achieve a low
energy profile in residential and industrial sectors

Keywords: Renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy profile, Multicriteria decision


methods.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the past, renewable energy and energy efficiency plans were advanced in different pathways. Now the latter
keeps demand growth in check so the former can begin to reduce fossil energy and emissions
This is what multi studies were conducted and concluded that investments in both energy efficiency and
renewable energy are essential to creating synergies between them and use the strengths of one to fill the gaps of
the other, thereby advancing both.

The first major advantage of combining EE and RNE technologies is to minimize the cost of the system of RNE
desired. Using a whole systems approach, a property owner should lower energy loads and then increase
equipmentefficiencies. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable
energy policy, in this context, many tools have been developed to prepare the necessary studies to illustrate the
application of EE and adoption of RNE and take advantage of the resources available.

2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY

There are many motivations to ameliorate energy efficiency, which are, minimize energy use, lower energy loads
and reduce financial cost to consumers. If the energy savings compensate any extra costs of implementing energy
efficient equipment, minimizing energy use is also looked as a solution to the issue of decreased carbon dioxide
emissions. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), a reduction of 30% approximately of total energy

*
Corresponding author, email: livinti_petru@yahoo.com

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

consumed in 2050 can be reached if an advanced strategy in the application of EE in residential, industrial process
and transportation sectors will be applied.

Betterments in energy efficiency are generally reached by selecting more efficient equipment or processes of
production to reduce energy losses without affecting the quality.

2.1 Technologies & concepts applied in residence and commerce sectors


Many acts can be applied in buildings (residential and commercial) sector in order to applied energy efficiency for
example:
Acting in buildings location, orientation and surroundings [1], where these three factors playa marginal
role in the rate of energy consumption which can reach 20% and the interaction with the environment [2].
Benefiting from passive solar heating and cooling, passive solar design takes advantage of a buildings
site, climate, and materials to minimize energy use. A well- designed passive solar home reduces heating
and cooling loads through energy-efficiency strategies
Insulating walls, roofs, well-sealing doors, using additional thermal insulation, proper placement of
windows and skylights as well as the use of architectural features that reflect light and thermal break
frame to profit from natural day light and reduce heatingload will reduce U-value of building envelope
which leads to energy savings of 40% [3].
Applying smart heating and cooling systems with high coefficient of performance COP and energy
efficiency ratio EER. will reduce the profile of energy consumption by 25% approx.[4].
Utilizing led light-emitting diode will use 90% less energy than incandescent lighting and reduces annual
operating costs also by 90% and life span longer than incandescent lighting about 30 times. Led light
reduces cooling load by 5 to 7%[5].
Using BMS building management system to control systems installed in buildings that control and
monitor the building's mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems,
fire systems, and security systems, especially used in commercial buildings A properly functioning BMS
should deliver energy efficiency savings in the order of 15-20%[6].
Adopting home and office energy efficiency rated equipment, which use 30 to 70% less energy than non
rated apparatus [7].

2.2 Technologies & concepts applied in industrial sector


Methods of application of energy efficiency in industry sectors are wide and are summarized below under the title
of Best Available Technique (BAT) [8].
Maintaining equipment is the first key in energy saving. As maintenance keeps systems work properly at
full efficiency Maintenance operations are fundamental in granting machineries and processes energy
saving[9].
Benefits from co-generation [10]. , the cogeneration plants deliver more than 75% energy efficiency,
compared with 25-50 % for other power plants. Also steam boiler exhaust is a waste energy source,
where 5 and 13% of energy can be recovered[11].
Insulating steam and condensing return pipes [12] to reduce heat losses which are around 10 % of total
heat carried by the pipes [13]. Leakage and steam losses from damaged valves and orifices can reach 400
tons of steam for each point of leak [14].
Using Voltage Optimization VO system to minimize the consumption of electric energy and ameliorate
power quality by balancing phase voltages and screening harmonics and transients from the supply, VO
technique reduce energy consumption by 17%[15].
Employing Variable Frequency Drive, VFD, technologies in pumps, motors, fans, compressors etc. [17]
the use of VFD technology permit to users to save energy. [16].18% of the energy used in the motors
could be saved by VFDs applications,[18].
Applying process integration which enriches the unification of the processes and acts in the interactions
between the different operating phases from the start, to the end rather than optimizing them separately,
process integration should envelop five main scopes, the optimization use of raw materials, process
operations, energy efficiency, emissions minimization and mass and energy integration. [20].
Process Integration concepts can be applied in various fields such as:
Heat integration heat exchangenetwork
Cogenerationapplications
Green houses emissionreduction
Network of Massexchange

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Hydrogen management inrefineries


Water and waste watermanagement
Pollutionprevention.

The intervention of different technologies of Process integration achieved a 40% of energy savings and many
other advantages are reachable.

Application of pinch method, [21] which is one the most applicable technology of the process
integration, the method is applied to improve the efficient use of energy, hydrogen and water in industrial
processes,.[22]., by using this technology It makes available tools that permit to explore the energy flows
within a process, and to indicate the most economical paths of maximizing heat recovery and of
minimizing the demand for external utilities. The different savings in energy consumption are between
10% to 35 % and in water consumption up to 40%

Calculation of The Minimum Energy Required MER which is defined as the minimum energy
theoretically necessary and sufficient for processing the product and is used to determine the ideal
consumption process or unit operation. Also the MER represents the minimum energy to be absorbed by
the product to be transformed from raw material to final product it depends on the product quality and
productivity of the system, and specific processing method once it is selected.

Fig1 represents the distribution of the total energy consumption of industry process into Fatal losses are divided
into two types, the first loss is related to the transformation of the product where the elimination or minimization
of energy losses requires a change in product processing method, the second are the losses which decrease or
elimination will induce change in the process but not at the level of the processing method

Nonfatal energy losses are the losses whose disposal does not require a change in the manufacturing process or
unit operations of processing of the product. Eliminating energy nonfatal losses require a radical improvements
to the process, often with non-negligible investment

Fig.1 Partition of energy consumption.

3. RENEWABLE ENERGY

3.1 Wind power


Air motion is used to run wind turbines. The range from rated output of 1.53 MW has become the most common
for commercial use; the preferred locations for wind farms are offshore and high altitude sites
In another record year 2015 for wind power, at least 44 countries added a combined 63 GW of capacity increasing
the global total to 432 GW[23].

3.2 Hydropower
Energy in water is used thousands years ago as water is about 800 times denser than air, a slow stream of water,
can generate considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric powerinstallations that typically produce up to 100 kW ofpower.
Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derivekinetic energy from rivers and oceans without the
creation of a largereservoir.
An estimated 95 GW of new hydropower capacity came on line in during 2012 till 2014, increasing
global installed capacity to an estimated 1050 GW. Hydropower generated an estimated 4000 TWh of
electricity during 2014 [23].

3.3 Solar energy


Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of technologies such as solar heating,
solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power. By the end of 2014, global solar thermal capacity reached an
estimated 406 GWth for all collector types, Total global CSP capacity increased to about 4.4 GW. Total global
operating capacity of solar PV reached the 177 GW [23].

3.4 Biomass
Biomass is a biological material derived from living. It refers to plants which are specifically called
lignocellulosicbiomass as an energy source; biomass can be generated by two manners, first via combustion to
create heat, and second to transform it to biofuel. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like
methane gas, ethanol and biodiesel. By the end of 2014, global bio power capacity reached an estimated 93 GW
[23].

3.5 Geothermal energy


Geothermal energy is a thermal energy produced and stored in the layers of Earth. This energy is produced from
the original formation of the planet and radioactive decay of minerals. The geothermal gradient, which is the
difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal
energy produce magma, which convects upward because it is lighter than the solid, so rock and water in the crust
are heated up to 700 F (371 C).

Geothermal delivered approximately 220 TWh of RNE in 2014; the heat pumps technology usage increase rapidly
and reached 65 GWth in 2014. Geothermal electric energy provided a capacity of 350 MW during 2014,[23]

4. METHODOLOGY AND BASED DESIGN

4.1 Review of existing tools


In this context, many tools have been developed to prepare the necessary studies to illustrate the application of
energy efficiency and adoption of renewable energies and take advantage of the resourcesavailable.
The followings information shed light on some software that deal with studies in order to implement renewable
energy and energy efficiency.

4.1.1 HOMER
Is a computer model [24] that simplifies the target of designing hybrid renewable microgrids, HOMERs
optimization and sensitivity analysis algorithms allow to assess the economic and technical feasibility of a large
number of technology options and to account for variations in technology costs and energy resource availability.

4.1.2 RETScreen
Software [25] based on excel sheet was created and developed by Canadas Minster of the Environment.
RETScreen is a Windows-based energy management software tool that allows project owners to verify the
ongoing energy performance of their facilities, that helps decision makers to determine the technical and financial
viability of energy efficiency and cogeneration (combined heat and power) projects. Traditional energy projects
can also be modeled and examined to cleaner ones. Users manage a five phases of analysis, including energy
analysis, cost analysis, carbon foot print, fiscal, study, and risk assessment .

4.1.3 Hybrid2
Software [26] package uses time series data for loads, solar insolation, wind speed and temperature. The power
system is designed by the user, to predict the performance of the hybrid power system. Hybrid2 was produced to
design a large variety of hybrid power systems. The software contains many types of electrical demands like,
photovoltaic, wind turbines of different types, multiple diesel generators, battery storage,etc An economic

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

analysis tool is also included that calculates the economic worth of the project using many economic and
performance parameters.

4.1.4 Multicriteria Decision Analysis


Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, (MCDA), is a worthy tool applicable in solving problems that are characterized
as a choice among alternatives. It is a useful decision tool The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) [28],[29]
(Saaty, 1982, 1988, 1995) is probably the best known and most widely used in MCDA approach. It is based on
three principles, Construction of ahierarchy;Priority setting;Logicalconsistency. Another tool that is Preference
Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (ROMETHEE) is used to analysis the evaluation
problem. The tool is divided into tree sub tools [30], The PROMETHEE I partial ranking ofalternatives;The
PROMETHEE II complete ranking of thealternatives; The GAIA plane visualizegraphically.

4.2 Development of new algorithm


In order to display the existing energy and present the energy efficiency and renewable energy profile by using
two types of multi criteria decision methods to select the best renewable energy type suitable for the region, two
Algorithms were developed, one for residence and commerce sectors, the other one for industrial sector.

Fig 2. Algorithm of different energy profiles for residence and commerce sector (RCA)

4.2.1 Residence and Commerce Algorithm (RCA)


The algorithm is composed of five main parts as show fig.2:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

The first part is the actual energy consumption profile which is calculated after data collection of energy of
different equipment as HVAC, Lighting, hot water, domestic and office equipments, etc.

The second part is the energy efficiency part where the previous energy profile will be reduced and a new energy
efficiency profile will display by acting and adopting a chain of actions describe in section 2.1.

The third part in the algorithm is the application of multicriteria decision methods to select the suitable type of
renewable energy. The use of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques provides a reliable methodology
to rank alternative renewable energy resources. Two methods are used in the algorithm, (AHP) and
(PROMETHEE) which are two widely used methods to take the appropriate decision to select the best solution
among others can be applied. The above two methods are used in the algorithm in order to determine the priority
of one type of renewable energy (wind, hydraulic, solar, geothermal, etc.) over the others and rank the different
possible types by using many criteria like cost, environment, operational, site selection, efficiency,etc The
purposeof using of two methods is only for the confirmation of the results achieved. In the first step the AHP
method is used to precise the magnitude of the criteria and in the second step PROMOTHEE is utilized to ratify
the selection of the renewable energy technology [27].

The fourth part has a target of calculation of energy efficiency and renewable energy profile after the
implementation of the suitable type of RNE, was selected in the previous part of the algorithm.

The fifth part is preview financial & the useful economic indicators. Net present value NPV , Constant annuity
ANCO, Internal rate of return IRR or TRI, Revenue per unit of expenses (R.U.E), Payback period PBP, Different
charts , Saving values of different kind of energy consumption.

4.2.2 Comparison between different algorithms


The table 1 shows comparison between the four models (above described) according to four criteria, Application
of .Energy efficiency; Multi criteria decision methods MCDA; Implantation of Renewable energy; Feasibility
study& economic indicators.
Table 1. Comparison between the different models
Comparison tables between different algorithms
RETscreen HYBRID2 HOMER RCA
Energy Efficiency A N.A N.A A
Multi Criteria Decision analysis N.A N.A N.A A
Renewable Energy A A A A
Feasibility Study A N.A N.A A

4.2.3 Industry energy consumption profiles Algorithm (RCA)


The algorithm illustrated in annex 1 consists of four main sections
First section is the display of actual energy consumption profile which is calculated after extraction data of energy
industry process. The data collected are divided into three types:
Electrical which run different equipment like motor, lighting, cooling system, pumpsetc,
Thermal which come from burning of petroleum products and produce steam used as heat transfer fluid
for many process
Other types ofenergy

The second section is the energy efficiency section, by using the best available technology the previous energy
profile will be reduced and a new energy efficiency one will display by acting and adopting a chain of actions
describe in section 2.2

The third, fourth and fifth sections are the multi criteria decision methods and the implementation of RNE, all are
similar to the Algorithm of different energy profiles of residence and commerce sector

The three energy profiles are tested with the fourth profile, the minimum energy required MER at the end of each
part in order to show the percentage of reduction of quantities of energy

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

The four energy profiles that are presented in Fig.3 where the scale relations are displayed between them. The
intervention of EE. and RNE. will reduce the size of profiles

Fig.3. Different profiles of energy consumption in industry process

5. CONCLUSIONS

The display of energy profiles is the significance of application of the two algorithms

The two discussed algorithms have the followings five commonsteps:


Display its actual energy consumptionprofile, Elaborate the new energy profile by application of
energyefficiency, Select the best renewable energy types can be applied by using two types of multicriteria
decisionmethods, Calculate the final energy profile using integration of EE andRNE, Preview financial & the
useful economicindicators
The contribution of the twin pillars, energy efficiency and renewable energy to solve the problem of
reduction the consumption of fossils energy has many paths, the two above explained algorithms represent a road
map in issue.The importance of introducing the multicriteria decision analysis MCDA in the two algorithmsis to
select the appropriate type of RNE without conducting a feasibility study for all types mentioned energies

REFERENCES

[1] The importanceof building orientation http://www.ecowho.com


[2] Structural Design Loads for the Home Inspector, www.nachi.org/building-orientation-optimum
[3] System-energy-efficiency-with-proper-insulation, www.reliableplant.com
[4] Anette Michel, Eric Bush, Jrg Nipkow, Energy efficient room air conditioners best available technology
(BAT)
[5] "The life and times of the LED a 100-year history" (PDF). The Optoelectronics Research Centre,
University of Southampton. April 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
[6] Kurt W. Roth, Detlef Westphalen, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building
HVAC Systems Volume III: Energy Savings Potential, July 2012
[7] Office equipment, www.energystar.gov
[8] Reference Document on Best Availabletechnologyfor Energy Efficiency February2009
[9] Behnoush Darabnia,MicaelaDemichelaMaintenance an Opportunity for EnergySaving
[10] Combined Heat and Power Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future(PDF). Oak Ridge
National Laboratory. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011.,

40
P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

[11] Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files 2014
[12] Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate ReturnLines,www1.eere.energy.gov
[13] Saturated Steamhttp://www.copper.org.
[14] Steam Tableshttp://www.powerplantserviceinc.com
[15] Voltage optimisation Reducing energy,Saving money, www.marshall-tufflex.com
[16] Rockwell automationhttp://literature.rockwellautomation.com
[17] "Adjustable Speed Drives, Drive Up Energy. Efficiency".Chemical Processing.com Retrieved, 2012.
[18] Bose, B. K.. "Power Electronics and Motor Drives Recent Progress and Perspective". IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics 56 (2): 581588.(Feb 2009)
[19] Nick HALLALE, Brining bright trends in Processintegration, 2010
[20] Process integration,www.nptel.ac.
[21] Pinch Analysis: For the Efficient Use, of energy, water and hydrogen, Natural resources Canada,
2003
[22] B. Linnhoff, D.W. Townsend, D. Boland, G.F. Hewitt,B.E.A. Thomas, A.R. Guy and R.H. Marsland A
User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient Use of Energy Second edition 2007
[23] Global Wind Statistics 2015,
[24] Homer software, www.homerenergy.com/software.html
[25] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/software-tools
[26] Hybrid2/software http://www.umass.edu/windenergy/research /topics/too ls/software/hybrid2
[27] Georges El-Jamal, Mazen Ghandour, Hussein Ibrahim, Application of multi-criteria decision-
Methods for the selection of renewable energy sources, Lebanese case study, 2016
[28] T. L. Saaty, The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York:McGraw-Hill, 1980.
[29] Rimal Abu Taha and Tugrul Daim, Multi-Criteria Applications in Renewable Energy Analysis, a Literature
Review
[30] Nijkamp et al.,1990; Eckenrode, 1965 PROMETHEE and AHP: The design of operational synergies
in multicriteria analysis. Strengthening PROMETHEE with ideas of AHP

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Annex 1
Algorithm of different energy profiles of industry sector

Minimum Energy Energy Data Extraction,


Requirement/unit of (Processes, utilities)
production Electrical Petroleum Other types of
MER consumption Products energy
Motor, pump etc consumption (fuel, consumption
gasetc)

Data Collection
Theory Energy
Consumption Profile
(TECP)

NO TECP< AECP Actual Energy


Consumption Profile
(AECP)
YES

Best Available Technique


Management of Energy Consumption
Process Integration
Enthalpy and Technological Pinch
Exergy Analysis breakthrough Methodology

NO
TECP< EECP
EE Consumption Profile (EECP)

YES

Decision
MCDMProm Multi Criteria
ethee &AHP
Wind

Hydro

Biomass

Solar

INPLEMATION RNE
SELECTEDE
Renewable Energy

NO TECP< EE&RENCP NEW ENEGRY PROFILE


(EE&RENCP)
YES

Energy, Economics&
Financial Report

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

VALIDATED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GAS EMISSIONS FROM


COMBUSTION INSTALLATIONS
GRIGORE ROXANA1, SAJIN TUDOR1, CAPT CORNELIA,
VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1 *
1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: In this paper is proposed, simulated and experimentally validated a


mathematical model of CO2, CO and O2 emissions. Finally, it was drawn a diagram of
dependence of their concentration in the exhausted gases according to the excess air
factor. The diagram is valid for the rich and poor fuel-air mixtures and establishes
clearly the deviation from the stoichiometric (theoretical) combustion.

Keywords: combustion, burner, gas - fired, rooftop, gas boiler, excess air factor, exhaust gas
analyses, flue gas composition, diagram

1. INTRODUCTION

Usually, boilers and warm air furnaces, as Rooftops, are used for commercial spaces for heating and domestic
hot water preparation.

A boiler produces a hot water for heating and domestic use by fuel combustion [1]. In many cases, the energy
source is combined: solar radiation energy and organic fuel; organic fuel and energy of the environment, where
the boiler is part of a hybrid system of heat production with solar collectors or heat pump. The most common
types of the analized hot water boilers are Ariston, Bosch, Ferroli, Lamborghini, Sime and Viessmann, covering
a power range from 23 unit to 400 kW. The boilers can be conventional (without condensation of water vapor
from the exhaust gases), or condensing (recovering the latent heat of vaporisation), with highest efficiency.

The "plug and play" installation type makes Rooftop unit the ideal solution for an efficient heating and cooling
process. Rooftop climatization system has a single integrated unit which is mounted on the roof of the building
or on the ground near the building. Installation does not require additional pipeline, since both the inside and the
outside are preconnected. For the system to operate more economically, Rooftop air conditioning units can use
the outside air for free cooling when outside temperature is lower than indoor. Also, the ventilation option allows
to maintain a high quality for the indoor environment. There are used CO2 sensors to monitor air quality and to
establish the amount of fresh air introduced. Heating and cooling analized Rooftop units provide from companies
as Ferroli and Trane covering a power range from 93.4 to 170 kW.

The most used fuel is natural gas [2]. An alternative for insulated locations is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) [3]
or the coke oven gas [4].

The flue gas analysis is a frequently used method for assessing the effectiveness of the combustion installation.
This method allows to establish the quality of the combustion process by analyzing concentrations of O2, CO2,
CO, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel components and the air ratio. For this purpose, are used the
diagrams (triangles of combustion) made by Ostwald [5] ; on this way can be determined the third component of
the gases O2, CO2 and CO, if are known concentrations of any two components of the flue gas; also, can be
determined the value of excess air factor. However, Ostwald's diagrams do not establish a clear deviation of the
realized combustion process reported to the theoretical one.

*
Corresponding author, e-mail sajin_tudor@yahoo.com

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Based on the experimentally determinations, below is proposed an validated a mathematical model for O2, CO2
and CO emissions, including an operational diagram that removes the disadvantage of using the Ostwald's
diagrams.

2. THE GAS ANALYSER EQUATIONS

Will be considered as known variables the concentrations of exhaust gases which are measured directly by the
gases analyzer [6], as following: the volumetric concentration of O2 in the flue gas, [% vol.]; the volumetric
concentration of CO in the flue gas, [ppm]; the volumetric concentration of NO in the flue gas, [ppm]; the
maximum volumetric concentration of oxygen for the clean atmosphere, O2max = 20,95 % vol.

Also, will be considered as known fuel parameters (Table 1): maximum volumetric concentration CO2max in flue
gas, [% vol.], which can be reached at the stoichiometric combustion of the chosen fuel; features coefficients A1
and B; loss coefficient given by the incomplete combustion; the volumetric concentration of the reference
oxygen, O2ref , [% vol.]; low heat value of combustion, Qi , [MJ/m3].
Table 1: Gaseous fuels characteristics [6]
A1, B,
Nr. CO2max, % % vol . % , O2ref, Qi ,
Natura combustibilului
c.r.t. [% vol.] 0 0C [%] [% vol.] [MJ/m3]
C

1. Natural gas 11.7 0.3700 0.009 32 3 37.35
2. Town gas 13.1 0.3500 0.011 32 3 16.34
3. Cooke-oven gas 10.2 0.2900 0.011 32 3 17.40
4. Liquid gas 14.0 0.4200 0.008 32 3 93.20
5. Natural gas with fan 12.1 0.4600 0 32 3 37.35
6. Town gas with fan 10.0 0.3800 0 32 3 16.34
7. Propane with fan 13.7 0.5000 0 32 3 93.60
8. Propane 13.7 0.4750 0 32 3 93.60
9. Butane with fan 14.1 0.5000 0 32 3 128.00
10. Butane 14.1 0.4750 0 32 3 128.00
11. Biogas with fan 11.7 0.7800 0 32 3 24.00
12. Biogas 11.7 0.7100 0 32 3 24.00

The volumetric concentration of the carbon dioxide in the flue gas, CO2, can be determinated as following: [6]:

O2
CO2 = CO2 max 1 , [% vol.]. (1)
O2 max

Absolute mass concentrations of the flue gas components for outside normal conditions (1000 hPa and 0C) can
be calculated and can be estimated as functions of the volumetric concentration of oxygen in the flue gas using
the methodology presented in [6].

The value of excess air factor value can be estimated using the following equation [6]:

CO2 max O2 max


= . (2)
CO2 O2 max O2

The correlation between the values of the excess air factor , the volume of air in excess E , [%], and the
coefficient of equivalence of air in excess is [7]:

E 1
= 1+
= . (3)
100
Depend on the values of (or ) the combustion process can be included into one of the following three
situations [7]:

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

- fuel-lean mixtures ( >1, <1), under which combustion can be substantially complete, in the flue gases
being found oxygen and the fuel components are almost absent;
- stoichiometric combustion of mixtures ( = =1), also named theoretical combustion, when the flue gas
contain no oxygen and no unburned fuel components;
- fuel-rich mixtures ( <1, >1), that is incomplete combustion in conditions of low oxygen for combustion.
Increasing the oxygen deficiency conducts to intensifying the phenomenon of carburization of the flame (a non-
reactive form of carbon particle) which could lead to damage of the combustion system.

3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR O2, CO AND CO2 EMISSIONS

Mathematical model for the main emissions of the flue gas proposes to describe the relations between air ratio
and the concentration of the components and also the energetic efficiency of the combustion installation.

By converting of Eqs. (1) and (2) for the three combustion situations, results the system of equations:

1
O , if 1;
O2 ( ) = 2 max

0, if < 1;
1
CO( ) = 2 O2 ( ) O2 max ; (4)

1
CO2 max , if 1;
CO2 ( ) =

CO2 max (1 ), if < 1.

The system of equations (4) allows the simulation of the mathematical model by variation of the excess air factor
for each value range. The characteristics of the fuel are taken into consideration by using the parameters from the
Table 1.

4. SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR MEASURED OF


FLUE GAS COMPOSITION FROM THE TESTED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

For simulation of the mathematical model (4) has been realized a computer application, using Mathcad 14. The
value of excess air factor has been chosen from the range of 0.6 to 10, according to the value registered for
the tested combustion systems. For experimental test was used a gas analyzer type GA-12 Plus (Madur, Austria)
[6]. One example of the graphs O2 ( ) , CO( ) and CO2 ( ) and of the comparison between the experimental
data and simulation data, is shown in Fig.1. For fuel-rich mixtures, when excess air factor increases, the
concentration of CO2 also increases and reach the CO2max value, when =1. For this point, concentration of CO
becomes 0. For fuel-lean mixtures, when air ratio increases , the concentration of O2 also increases and tend to
reach O2max , when . In same time, the concentration of CO2 decreases. By analyzing of analogical
diagrams with that of Fig. 1, we can conclude that the tested combustion systems of the boilers and warm air
furnaces, operate into domain of fuel-lean mixtures, which allows to use efficiently the chosen fuel.

In the diagrams of Fig. 1 a good agreement between theoretical simulation and experimental data is observed,
which validates the mathematical model of the combustion process (4).

5. CONCLUSIONS

Based on the theory and equations of combustion of the gas analyzer has been established a mathematical model
of the emission of O2, CO, and CO2 in the flue gases as functions of excess air factor. Using the software
Mathcad 14, was established a mathematical model simulation for combustion of poor fuel-air mixtures ( > 1),
stoichiometric combustion ( = 1) and combustion of rich fuel-air mixtures ( <1).

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

As a result of the mathematical model simulation were drawn diagrams for dependencies O2( ) , CO( ) and
CO2( ) for the tested boilers and warm air furnaces, operating on natural gas, coke oven gas and LPG. For the
fuel rich mixtures it was established that
when air ratio increases, the volumetric
concentration of O2 in the flue gas is
zero, CO2 concentration increases and
has tendency to reach the value CO2max
for = 1 and the concentration of CO
is reduced to zero value for = 1. For
poor fuel mixtures, when air ratio
increases, the O2 concentration has an
increasing asymptotic trend to value
O2max for , the CO2
concentration decreases and the
concentration of CO is zero.

The drawn diagrams indicate a very


good correlation between values for
theoretical simulation data and the
values of experimental data obtained
from analysis of flue gas provide from
various models of boilers and warm air
furnaces, which validates the proposed
mathematical model of the combustion
process.

By analyzing the drawn graphs , can be


concluded that the tested combustion
systems operate on the "poor fuel
mixtures" domain , which is a positive
factor, since under these conditions the
existing burning energy can be
recovered into a complete combustion
for the used fuel . Fig. 1. Graphs O2 ( ) , CO ( ) i CO2 ( )
for flue gas from boilers operating on natural gas:
On the other hand, the diagrams
The graphs for simulated model (4) are shown by lines and the graphs for experimental
indicate high values of the excess air data are shown by dots
factor (up to 9.5), caused by the
intermittent operation mode of these installations. For continue operation mode, the air ratio should not exceed
the amount = 1.1. So, by adjusting air ratio at the lower values there is a certan way to reduce the losses by the
flue gas.

REFERENCES

[1] Ungureanu, C., Pnoiu, N., Zubcu, V., Ionel, I., Fuels, Combustion Installations, Steam Boilers, Ed.
"POLITEHNICA" Publish House, Timisoara, Romania, 2006, ISBN 973-9389-21-0 (in romanian).
[2] https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaz_natural
[3] https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaz_petrolier_lichefiat
[4] http://ro.shengli-generators.com/app-producer
[5] Sajin, T., Combustion Installations and Steam Generators, Ed. "Alma Mater" Publish House, Vasile
Alecsandri University of Bacau, Romania, 2002, ISBN 973-8392-55-1, 279 p. (in romanian).
[6] http://www.cleanboiler.org/Eff_Improve/Efficiency/FlueGasAnalysis_Madur_SCHULUN.pdf
[7] Borghi, R., Destriau, M., Combustion and flames (Chemical and Physical Principles), ditions Technip,
Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-7108-0740-8, 377 p.

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EFFECTS OF PRESSURE VARIATION ON TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION


REFRIGERATION WITH HEAT RECOVERY

HAZI ANETA1*, HAZI GHEORGHE1, VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: The refrigeration system is an important consumer of energy in the industry.


Therefore finding solutions to increase efficiency can provide benefit. In this paper it is
analyzed a two-stage compression refrigeration system and a compression heat pump
integrated in the system in terms of the effect of varying the intermediate pressure and
condensing pressure on parameters. Numerical results are presented by simulating the
operation of installation. The conclusions of the paper are that the annual total benefit of
installation is higher if the intermediate pressure is higher and the condensing pressure of
the refrigeration system is lower.

Keywords: refrigeration system, pressure variation, benefit

1. INTRODUCTION

The compression refrigeration system has the greatest use in the industry and in the domestic sector. Therefore
there are a lot of studies to improving of their efficiency. Thus, author of paper [2] proposes a thermodynamic
method for increasing the effectiveness of the polytropic and adiabatic compression processes. The method
application is illustrated by schemes running with single, two-stage and multi-stage compression, for the air
conditioning, normal and industrial refrigeration.

The utility was investigated for the simulation techniques available to analyze the absorption refrigeration cycles,
[3]. In these studies show that the cycle performance improves with increasing generator and evaporator
temperatures, but reduces with increasing the absorber and condenser temperatures

Different analyses were applied for refrigeration cycle. In the study from [4], a exergy-pinch analysis was used
for the optimal design and retrofit of energy recovery systems.

Much progress has been made to save energy and increase efficiency of refrigeration system using mechanical
sub-cooling systems. In the paper [5], some suggestions are made to provide direction into future research in this
area to help put it into practice.

A modified genetic algorithm together with a solution strategy is proposed in [6] to optimize a vapor
compression refrigeration cycle.

For the refrigeration system, heat recovery from the condenser is a good method to save energy. The purpose of
this paper is to study the influence of different intermediate temperature and condensing temperature on the
energy and economic efficiency of two-stage compression refrigeration system and a compression heat pump
integrated in the system. The calculation methodology is established and is simulated operation of a refrigeration
system with heat recovery.

* Corresponding author, email ahazi@ub.ro

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2. THE NUMERICAL RESULTS

A study of the two-stage compression refrigeration system and a compression heat pump integrated in the system
was made. The characteristic points of refrigeration system and of the heat pump are presented in Fig.1. The
refrigerant is ammonia and the heat pump agent is R134a.

Fig.1. Refrigeration system with heat recovery: R refrigeration: 1 evaporator stage I, 2 compressor
stage I, 3 intermediate tank, 4 compressor stage II, 5 condenser-evaporator, 6 tank, 7 - expansion
valve, 8 intermediate evaporator; HP heat pump: 9 compressor, 10 condenser

Using refences [1] and [7], the operation of the system was simulated for different values of the intermediate
pressure and then, for different condensing pressure in the condenser of refrigeration installation. In this analysis
is considered a constant cold load of 190 kW and hot water temperature of 60 oC.

The operational data for the different intermediate pressure are presented in the Table 1 and in the figures 24.

Table 1. Influence of intermediate pressure


Parameter Symbol Unit Value
Intermediate pressure pint bar 2.342 2.758 3.173
Power of refrigeration compressors Pc1 + Pc2 kW 81.8 79.6 78.3
Power of heat pump compressor Pc3 kW 57.6 57.1 56.8
Thermal load of heat pump condenser c kW 161.6 160.4 159.4

Fig.2. Influence of intermediate pressure: EFHP Fig.3. Influence of intermediate pressure: QHP
heat pump efficiency, EFR refrigeration annual useful thermal energy of heat pump,
system efficiency, EFT total efficiency WR annual electricity consumed by the
refrigeration system, WHP annual electricity
consumed by the heat pump

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From this table can be seen that an increase of


intermediate pressure lead to the decrease of power
consumed for the compression in the refrigeration
system and in the heat pump. In the same time, the
thermal load of heat pump condenser that can be used in
the hot water decrease.

Figure 2 shows that heat pump efficiency is constant of


2.8 but refrigeration system efficiency increase from 2.32
to 2.42 and total efficiency increase slowly from 2.52 to
2.58. The heat pump efficiency is constant because Fig.4. Influence of intermediate pressure: BHP
evaporating and condensing pressure of heat pump are annual benefit obtained from heat pump, BT
constant. annual total benefit
In Figure 3 it is observed that an increase in intermediate temperature causes a decrease in annual values of the
useful thermal energy of heat pump from 698 to 689 MWh/year, annual electricity consumed by the refrigeration
system from 353 to 338 MWh/year and by the heat pump from 249 to 245 MWh/year.

The annual benefit obtained from heat pump, fig.4, decrease from 1.77 to 1.75 thousant EUR/year when
intermediate pressure increase from 2.342 to 3.173 bar. For the overall system, cost of electricity consumed for
compression is bigger than value of heat obtained from the heat pump. Therefore the total benefit is negative.

The influence of condensing pressure of refrigeration system on the parameters of the installation is shown in the
Table 2 and in the figures 57.
Table 2. Influence of condensing pressure
Parameter Symbol Unit Value
Condensing pressure pc bar 22 28 34
Power of refrigeration compressors Pc1 + Pc2 kW 81.8 94.4 107.8
Power of heat pump compressor Pc3 kW 57.6 49.3 41.5
Thermal load of heat pump condenser c kW 161.6 167.5 174.3

For increase of condensing pressure of refrigeration system a bigger power for compression is necessary. The
evaporating pressure of heat pump increase but condensing pressure is the same. Therefore, the power of heat
pump compressor decreases. The thermal load of heat pump condenser increases by 7.8% when the condensing
pressure of refrigeration system increases by 54.5%.

Fig.5. Influence of condensing pressure: EFHP


heat pump efficiency, EFR refrigeration Fig.6. Influence of condensing pressure: QHP
efficiency, EFT total efficiency. annual useful thermal energy of heat pump, WR
annual electricity consumed by the
refrigeration system, WHP annual electricity
consumed by the heat pump.

In Figure 5 we see that an increase of condensing pressure of refrigeration system leads to the decrease of
refrigeration system efficiency by 24.1%, to the increase of heat pump efficiency by 49.6% and to the slowly
decrease of the total efficiency by 3.3%.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

In Figure 6 it is observed that an increase in condensing pressure of refrigeration system determines an increase
of the annual value of the electricity consumed by the refrigeration system by 31.8%, a decrease of annual
electricity consumed by the heat pump by 29.5% and a smaller increase of annual useful thermal energy of heat
pump by 7.8%.

Figure 7 shows the annual benefit obtained from heat


pump increases from 1.8 thousand EUR/year at 22 oC
condensing pressure of refrigeration system to 13.9
thousand EUR/year at 34 oC. The annual total benefit
decrease from -4.4 to -7.3 thousand EUR/year.

3. CONCLUSIONS
Fig.7. Influence of condensing pressure: BHP
The analysis made in this paper for a two-stage annual benefit obtained from heat pump, BT
compression refrigeration system and a compression heat annual total benefit.
pump integrated in the system shows that more thermal
energy can be achieved if:
the intermediate pressure is lower
the condensing pressure of the refrigeration system is higher

The same, the annual total benefit of installation is better if:


the intermediate pressure is higher
the condensing pressure of the refrigeration system is lower

REFERENCES

[1] Stoecker W., Industrial Refrigeration Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998
[2] Staicovici M.D, A method of improving the effectiveness of a mechanical vapour compression process and
of its applications in refrigeration, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.54, 2011, pp.1752-
1762
[3] Anand S., Gupta A., Tyagi S.K., Simulation studies of refrigeration cycles: A review, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 17, 2013, pp.260277
[4] Ghorbani B, Salehi G.R., Ghaemmaleki H., Amidpour M., Hamedi M.H., Simulation and optimization of
refrigeration cycle in NGL recovery plants with exergy-pinch analysis, Journal of Natural Gas Science and
Engineering, vol.7, 2012, pp.35-43
[5] QureshiB.A., Zubair S., Mechanical sub-cooling vapor compression systems: Current status and future
directions, International Journal of refrigeration, vol.36, 2013, pp.2097-2110
[6] Zhao L., et al., Model-based optimization for vapor compression refrigeration cycle, Energy, vol. 55, 2016,
pp.392-402.
[7] B..Langley, Heat pump technology: systems design, installation, and troubleshooting, Prentice Hall, 1989

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HEAT RECOVERY OPPORTUNITIES IN A REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

HAZI ANETA1*, HAZI GHEORGHE1, VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: The compression refrigeration system consumes electricity to produce cold.


Recovering heat from condenser of this installation can lead to significant savings. In this
paper, heat recovery opportunities with three types of heat pumps are analyzed. The
conclusion is that compression heat pumps are the best from energy efficiency view point
but absorption heat pump are the best from view point of condenser heat, amount hot water
and benefit.

Keywords: refrigeration system, heat pump, recovery

1. INTRODUCTION

For the industrial refrigeration system can result significant heat from the condenser. There are different
solutions to recovery of this heat. Heat pumps could be an excellent energy recovery technology. As an example,
the impact of heat recovery with heat pump on energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions is analyzed in [2]
for French food & drink industry.

Different types of heat pumps are used. Those systems include single-stage vapor compression heat pump, two-
stage heat pump with external heat exchanger, two-stage heat pump with refrigerant injection, two-stage heat
pump with refrigerant injection and internal heat exchanger, two-stage heat pump with flash tank and two-stage
heat pump with flash tank and intercooler, [3].The payback period are key parameters to evaluate
thermodynamic and economic performance of system. From this point of view, two-stage heat pump with flash
tank requires less initial investment and it is finally preferred because its overall performance is maximal.

In the paper [4], the authors carried out recently are still limited to computer modelling, for the real industrial
applications more experimental and large-scale work are needed in order to provide better understanding.

An overview of ammonia-based absorption chillers and heat pumps is shown in paper [5]. Developments and
applications in subfreezing refrigeration, heating/domestic hot water, renewable energy utilization, waste heat
recovery, thermal energy storage and miniaturization of absorption systems are presented. The authors concluded
that ammonia-based fluids are attractive options for the miniaturization of absorption systems due to the absence
of crystallization.

The absorption heat pump was studied with thermodynamics in [6]. A mathematical model of absorption heat
pump was established considering the heat resistance, heat leak and the internal irreversibility and a universal
relationship between the main parameters were deduced.

Considerations about development of high temperature ammoniawater hybrid absorptioncompression heat


pumps are presented in the paper [7]. The authors investigate feasible combinations of these parameters through
the use of a numerical model. 28 bar components allow temperatures up to 111 C, 50 bar up to 129 C, and 140
bar up to 147 C.

*
Corresponding author, email ahazi@ub.ro

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

In this paper is made a study on opportunities recovery oh heat from the refrigeration system using heat pumps.
There are established mathematical models for three types of heat pumps: compression heat pump (CHP),
ejection heat pump (EJHP) and absorption heat pump (ABHP). This model is used to simulate operate of the
system for two temperatures of hot water obtained from the heat pump. The numerical results are presented,
finally.

2. THE NUMERICAL RESULTS

The numerical results were obtained for the two-stage compression refrigeration system and different heat pump
integrated in the system for heat recovery: compression heat pump, Fig.1, ejection heat pump, Fig.2 and
absorption heat pump, fig.3. The compression heat pump refrigerant is R134a. For the ejection heat pump and
absorption heat pump is used steam of 3.5 bar and 150 oC.

Fig.1. Heat recovery with compression heat


pump: 1 refrigeretion system, 2 condenser- Fig.2. Heat recovery with ejection heat pump: 1 -
evaporator, 3 compressor, 4 condenser, 5 - refrigeretion system, 2 condenser-evaporator, 4
expansion valve condenser, 5 - expansion valve, 6 pump, 7 steam

Fig.3. Heat recovery with absorbtion heat pump: 1 -


refrigeretion system, 2 condenser-evaporator, 4
condenser, 5 - expansion valve, 6 pump, 9
absorber, 10 generator.

The reference [1], was used to simulate operate of the system for two temperatures of hot water obtained from
the heat pump: 50 and 60oC. The condenser thermal load was considered constant of 214 kW. The operational
data for the heat pumps are shown in Table 1.

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Table 1. Data of heat pump


Parameter Symbol Unit Value
o
Hot water temperature thw C 50 60
o
Evaporating temperature tvp C 17 17
Evaporating pressure pvp bar 5.18 5.18
o
Condensing temperature tcp C 55 65
Condensing pressure pcp bar 14.91 18.89
Compression heat pump
Condenser thermal load c,c kW 173.3 161.6
Power consumed Pc,c kW 44.5 57.6
Energy efficiency EECHP 3.9 2.8
Hot mass water flow rate dw,c mc/h 4.27 3.13
Ejection heat pump
Condenser thermal load c,e kW 367.6 450.4
Power consumed b+ Pc,cd kW 182.9 278.9
Energy efficiency EEEJHP 2 1.6
Hot mass water flow rate dw,e mc/h 9.07 8.71
Absorption heat pump
Condenser thermal load c,a kW 590.5 636
Power consumed g kW 396.2 443.7
Energy efficiency EEABHP 1.5 1.4
Hot mass water flow rate dw,a mc/h 14.56 12.31

From this data it can be observed that when the hot water temperature increases:
the condenser thermal load decreases for the CHP and increases for the EJHP and ABHP;
the power consumed increases for all heat pumps;
the energy efficiency of the heat pump is best for the lowest hot water temperature;
the hot mass water flow rate decreases.

If we compare the three types of heat pumps can say that:


the highest condenser thermal load and power consumed are obtained for ABHP;
the highest energy efficiency is obtained for CHP, fig.4;
the highest hot mass water flow rate is obtained for ABHP.

Fig. 4. Efficiency of heat pump

The annual values of parameters are presented in the figures 5...7. There were considered annual operating
duration =8640 hours/year and the refrigeration system load factor lf=0.5.

Figure 5 show annual energy of heat pump. For all type of heat pump energy consumed increases when hot
water temperature increase. The highest increase of 52.5% is for EJHP compared to 29.3% for CHP and 12% if
ABHP. The greatest amount of heat is obtained for ABHP. For example, for 50 oC, it is 3.4 times higher than for

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

CHP and 1.6 times higher than for EJHP.


The same, greatest amount of hot water is obtained for ABHP, fig.6. For 60 oC, this is 3.9 times higher than for
CHP and 1.4 times higher than for EJHP.
To perform the economic calculus, the following data is used: prices pre=134.53 EUR/MWh and prq=50.47
EUR/MWh.

In figure 7 it is observed that the highest annual benefit is obtained for ABHP. This is close to the value obtained
for EJHP but bigger than CHP: 3.6 times for 50 oC and 23 times for 60 oC. For all type of heat pump, the annual
benefit decreases when hot water temperature increases.

Fig.5. Annual energy of heat pump: WHP energy consumed, QHP thermal energy obtained

Fig.6. Annual amount of hot water obtained

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Fig.7. Annual benefit obtained

3. CONCLUSIONS

From the results presented in this paper the following concluding remarks can be made:
compression heat pumps are the best from energy efficiency view point;
absorbtion heat pump are the best from view point of:
condenser heat
ammount hot water
benefit

On the second place is taken EJHP but the disadvantage of this solution is the difficulty of maintaining an
advanced vacuum corresponding to the low evaporation temperature in the heat pump.
The same, the disadvantage of EJHP and ABHP is that they require a steam boiler.

REFERENCES

[1] B..Langley, Heat pump technology: systems design, installation, and troubleshooting, Prentice Hall, 1989.
[2] Seck G.S, Guerassimo G., Maizi N., Heat recovery with heat pumps in non-energy intensive industry: A
detailed bottom-up model analysis in the French food & drink industry, Applied Energy, vol. 111, 2013, pp.
489504.
[3] Cao X.C., Yang W.W, Zhou F., He Y.L., Performance analysis of different high-temperature heat pump
systems for low-grade waste heat recovery, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 71, 2014, pp. 291-300.
[4] Rahamathullah M.R, Palani K, Aridass T, Venkatakrishnan P, PalaniS., A Review On Historical And
Present Developments In Ejector Systems, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,
Vol. 3, Issue 2, 2013, pp.010-034.
[5] Wu W., Wang B., Shi W., Li X, An overview of ammonia-based absorption chillers and heat pumps,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 31, 2014, pp. 681707.
[6] Xiling Z., Lin F., Shigang Z., General thermodynamic performance of irreversible absorption heat pump,
Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 494499.
[7] Jensena J., Markussena W., Reinholdtb L., ElmegaardaB, On the development of high temperature
ammoniawater hybrid absorptioncompression heat pumps, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 58,
2015, pp. 7989

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CONFIGURING METHOD OF THE NUMERICAL PROTECTIONS IN THE


POWER SYSTEMS
HAZI GHEORGHE1 *, HAZI ANETA1, VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1
1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: The paper presents some considerations on ways of configuring and setting of
the numerical protections in the power energy installations. The analysis refers to solutions
for general configuring of the relay, configuring and setting of protection functions,
configuring of inputs and outputs binary and configuring of LED indicators. There are
considerations regarding to facilities of software and local configuring that are offered by
various companies, their flexibility and ease of use.

Keywords: protection, configuration and settings, software protection

1. INTRODUCTION

The occurrence numerical relays and their widespread use requires an analysis of configuring solution of them.
There are many options implemented for protections delivered by different companies:
Configuring using the keypad and the display of relay.
Configuring using block diagram of the installations and the interconnection logical diagrams of the
protection functions.
Configuring using logical expressions for each contact input / output and for signaling LEDs.
Configuring using input-output matrix.

Apart from the first option, all other requires the existence of software applications provided by relay
manufacturer.

2. THE LOCAL CONFIGURING

The local configuring assumes a local electronic key and liquid crystal display (LCD). Practically all digital
relays have a local configuring option. Figure 1 shows human machine interface (HMI) control unit of the ABB
REF 542plus relay [1], [2], [3]. It has 2 zones: a zone (left) to display the single line diagram and a zone for plain
text visualization such as measurement and protection events. The number of keys is not great, for configuring
using only the four functional keys that are under the configuring zone. For this reason, numerical values are set
by the increase/decrease, step by step. Also, for local configuring of protections is necessary to introduce a
hardware keys in the left down. The local configuring does not require a detailed study of the manual because
the messages displayed by the relay are sufficient.

Figure 2 show the display for configuring of relay Siemens, 7UT513 [8]. In this case, it has a numeric keyboard
and functional keys. This allowed rapid access to data protection by a 4-digit numerical address.

*
Corresponding author, email gheorghe.hazi@ub.ro

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Fig. 1. Human machine interface control unit of relay ABB REF 542plus

Fig. 2. Display of relay SIEMNS 7UT513

This implies that the user has read and understood well the relay manual. The display features a 2-line display, ie
a small volume of information. In this case the protection of relay is made by the 6-digit passcode that must be
entered before changing the configuration.

In most relays, the configuring shaft is quite complex. Figure 3 shows an example for the relay ABB, REX
521[11], [12]. Here it shows the steps through which passes from the current display to setting of the
instantaneous overcurrent protection.

Figure 4 shows how to get to viewing an event involving instantaneous overcurrent protection. Each time it is
observed that the number of displays through which passes is at least 3-4.

Figure 5 shows display for configuring protections to relay REJ 525 [4], [5].

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Fig. 3. Local menu structure of the relay ABB, REX 521. Setting of protection

Fig. 4. Local menu structure of the relay ABB, REX 521. View event

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Fig. 5. Local menu structure of the relay ABB, REJ 525. Setting of protection

Figure 6 shows how to configure the output contacts to relay REJ 525. This involves assigning values to SGR
switches, one for their closure at start of protections or after definite time. This configuration is difficult for the
most protections, having limitations in terms of flexibility.

3. CONFIGURING USING BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE INSTALLATIONS

This configuring is used in some ABB relays [2], [3]. It involves defining logic blocks with inputs and outputs,
and their interconnection in order to achieve complex functions. In figure 7 is shown an I/O block with 2 inputs
and 2 outputs. The defining of the signals is shown in Figure 8.

In Figure 9 are examples of logic circuits that allow achieving of complex logic structures. It allows the choice
of complex criteria for binary outputs and signal LEDs. For each protection function were defined blocks with
inputs and outputs as shown in Figures 10 and 11. In figure 10 is shown block diagram of non-directional
overcurrent protection.

In Figure 11 is shown a block diagram of sector directional earth fault protection.

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Fig. 6. Configuring of the output contacts to relay ABB, REJ 525

Fig. 7. Switching object: 2 input and 2 output

Fig. 8. Defining pins of block from fig. 7

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a b c d e

Fig. 9. Logic circuits: a) inverter; b) 2 input OR; c) 2 input NAND; d) 2 input exclusive NOR;
e) 4 input AND

Fig. 11. Block diagram of sector


Fig. 10. Block diagram of non-directional directional earth fault protection
overcurrent protection

Fig. 12. Connecting block diagram of AR

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As shown in the figures, these blocks have figured only binary inputs and outputs, inputs of voltage and current
being default. For example, for the protection from Figure 10, the inputs and outputs are the following:
BS block signal (input)
START L1, L2, L3 start of protection on that phase
GEN START general start
TRIP tripping.

Assembling blocks is done via links (nodes) that are labeled. In this way, a signal can be distributed in several
places. Thus Figure 12 shows how the auto reclosure (AR) is connected. There is shown and how to command
binary output power 5. Nodes (signals) are listed with numbers that are in parentheses. Nodes can be defined
manually or automatically generated by the configuring relays application.

This mode configuring ensures high flexibility in achieving a very reliable protection scheme. The operation of
protections is easy to follow on the logical diagram. When testing is done, active nodes are bold allowing you to
check the online mode configuration and operation. Using of application does not require thorough study of user
manuals, the choice of blocks used being made from a list. However the user must know the types of protection
devices and setting them.

4. CONFIGURING USING LOGICAL EXPRESSIONS

Version requires that manufacturer of relay attaches a variable logic to each event. It will be used in expressions
which allow different operators (AND, OR, NOT, etc.). In this way, for activation output LEDs and contacts can
be written complex expressions to satisfy user requirements.

An example, for relay SEL 321 deployed SEL 5010 application [9], [10]. It allows configuring of protections,
according to the above, and configuring binary outputs and LED signalings. Configuring of outputs and
signaling is based on symbol of events (eg tripping by means of distance protection, stage I - M1P) and logical
expressions that allow their activation for complex conditions. Logical expressions use operators * (AND), +
(OR), and! (negation of expression that follows). To ensure tripping and signaling of logical variables of type
event must be entered following groups:
MTU (Unconditional Trip) unconditional tripping
MER (Event Report)- generation of an osciloperturbograme and signaling by LEDs
MCTS (Communications aided Trip) tripping and blocking it based on a signal received from another
point of network. The signal is given as an input contact.
MTO (Switch on TO fault) tripping at connecting on fault.

Example for setting up distance protection, fault polyphase:
MTU =M1P + M2PT + M3PT + M4PT
MER =M1P + M2PT + M3PT + M4PT
it means tripping at all 4 degrees of protection, steps 2-4 are timed.

Setting the binary outputs is made in the same way. For example, setting of closing for binary output 13 at
functioning of phase-phase distance protections is

OUT13 =M1P + M2PT + M3PT + M4PT

or setting of binary output 7 to operation of overcurrent definite time earth fault protection or to operation of
sector directional earth fault protection (32QF) is

OUT7 = 51NT + 50N1*32QF

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5. CONFIGURING USING INPUT-OUTPUT MATRIX

The method allows defining in table, very clear dependence between protection functions and binary inputs,
binary outputs and LED lighting. As was seen in paragraph 2, such a matrix is used only in the configuring
manual and if configuring is local. Also this matrix is required by network operators designers to have
information clear and structured on setting digital terminals. Table 1 shows an example of configuration matrix
(manually edited) for protection of cell measuring, using a B21 SEPAM relay.

Table 1. Configuration matrix for protection of cell measuring

Function Symbol Oscilo Outputs set Indicator lights


O1 O2 O3 O4 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9
Relay WD * *
fault
Minimum 27R * * *
voltage
20 kV
Maximum 59 * * *
voltage
20 kV
Earth fault 59N * * *
20 kV

However, there are applications that allow the automatic generation of the configuration matrix, as in the
example shown in Figure 13, [6], [7].

Fig. 13. The configuration matrix generated by SFT 2841 application for relay SEPAM M20

As shown in Figure 13, in matrix are written protection functions and their connection with the binary outputs,
indicator lights and recording of events.

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5. CONCLUSIONS

From the above data, the following conclusions result:


The occurrence of numerical relays made by various manufacturers has led to a variety of their
configuration possibilities.
Local configuring using an LCD display, is heavy, takes long time, it requires a detailed study of
the documentation and has limitations on facilities.
Configuring using block diagram of the installations is relatively simple, easy to understand and
follow. Where the symbols used are available in lists, setup time of relay complex can be reduced
to a few tens of minutes. It provides high flexibility in the choice of operation options.
Configuring of outputs, contacts and LEDs, by using logical expressions offer flexibility but
requires knowledge of the internal symbols for events (operation of protections, position of inputs).
Using of configuration matrix is necessary and useful for engineers who configure the relay to
avoid the multiple use of output contacts or LEDs. Its automatic generation by configuration
programs leads to significantly reducing of work to prepare documentation.

REFERENCES

[1] ABB, REF 542plus. Technical Reference Manual, http://www.abb.com


[2] ABB, REF 542plus. Protection Functions: Configuration and Settings. Protection manual,
http://www.abb.com
[3] ABB, REF 542plus. Configuration Tool Manual, http://www.abb.com
[4] ABB, Overcurrent and Earth-Fault Relay REJ 525. Operator.s Manual, http://www.abb.com
[5] ABB, Overcurrent and Earth-Fault Relay REJ 525. Technical Reference Manual, http://www.abb.com
[6] Schneider Electric, Sepam series 40, Users manual, 03/2011, http://www.schneider-electric.com
[7] Schneider Electric, SFT 2841 SEPAM Setting Software, V13.1, 18 MAR 2013, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9.
[8] SIEMENS, Numerical Differential Protection Relay for transformers, generators, motors and branch point
7UT51V3.0. Instruction manual, www.siemens.com
[9] SEL - Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, SEL-321-2. Phase And Ground Distance Relay. Directional
Overcurrent Relay. Fault Locator. Instruction Manual, 2350 NE HOPKINS COURT, PULLMAN, WA USA
99163-5603, USA
[10]SEL - Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, SEL-321-2. Phase And Ground Distance Relay. Directional
Overcurrent Relay. Fault Locator. Data Sheet, 2350 NE HOPKINS COURT, PULLMAN, WA USA 99163-
5603, USA
[11]ABB, REX 521 Protection Relay. Technical Reference Manual. Standard Configurations, www.abb.com
[12]ABB, REX 521 Protection Relay. Operator.s Manual, www.abb.com

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AN APPLICATION WITH COMPACTRIO 9074 FOR THE


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TYPE CONTROLLERS P,
PI AND PID USED IN ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS

LIVINTI PETRU1*, GHANDOUR MAZEN2


1
Universit Vasile Alecsandridu Bacu, Calea Mreti 156,Bacu, 600115, Roumanie
2
Universite Libanaise de Beyrouth, Liban

Abstract: In this paper was presented an application in programming environment


LabVIEW 2014 for comparative study of type controllers P, PI and PID used in electric
drive systems. It was implemented in real-time on a existing stand experimental in the
laboratory "Electrical Machines" of the "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacau. For each
type of controller were represented real time variations in rotation speed of the three-phase
motor for two different values of the amplification factor of the controller. It has examined
how the variation of the amplification factor of controller influencing real-time response of
the speed control system.

Key words: controller, electric drive systems, application with CompactRIO 9074

1. INTRODUCTION

Un systme d'entranement lectrique est un ensemble d'objets interconnects et interdpendants pour la


conversion d'nergie lectromcanique pour un processus technologique donn. Les composants du systme
d'entranement lectrique sont: ME - moteur d'entranement lectrique, ML - machine de travail, T- la
transmission, EE- lment d'excution. En principe, dans un systme d'entranement lectrique (SAE) est
ncessaire pour parvenir une gestion de procs de travail, au sein d'un flux technologique particulier. Les
systmes modernes d'entranement incluent dans leur structure les systmes d'automatisation et des transducteurs
de mesure. Par la fonction de rglage d'un systme automatique de commande nous allons comprendre la forant
de la value de sortie suivre la variation de la value d'entre, malgr la prsence de perturbations extrieures.
Dans les systmes automatiques de contrle peuvent tre utiliss contrleurs classiques P, PI et PID. Dans cet
article nous prsentons une application faite dans l'environnement de programmation LabVIEW 2014 pour
l'tude des rgulateurs P, PI et PID utilis dans les systmes d'entranement lectriques.

2. LES LOIS DE REGLAGE POUR LES REGULATEURS CLASSIQUES

Les lois de rglage pour les rgulateurs avec une structure fixe de type proportionnelle P, proportionnelle
intgrale PI, proportionnelle intgrale drive PID et leurs fonctions de transfert sont prsentes dans le tableau
2.1. La rponse indicielle de la rgulateur pour la signal de l'tape applique lentre est reprsent sur la figure.
2. Dans la pratique, est utilis un seul paramtre pour ajuster l'amplification globale pour tous les 3
composantes. La fonction de transfert de ce type de rgulation est donn par, [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]:

(1)

*
Corresponding author, courriel plivinti@ub.ro

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Tableau 2.1 Lois de rglage

Type de Lois de rglage Fonction de transfert


rgulateur:
P
PI

PID

P k R (t )

+
u (t ) + (t ) + y (t )
I kR
(t )dt Proces
Ti
- +

D
d (t )
k RTd
dt

Fig. 1 : Structure du rgulateur PID

o: est la constante de temps d'intgration; - est la constante de temps de drivation

xc

KR
= arctg
KR TI

0 t 0 t

Fig.2 : Rponse au signal d'entre de type tape d'un rgulateur PID

3. L'APPLICATION DANS L'ENVIRONNEMENT DE PROGRAMMATION LABVIEW POUR


L'TUDE COMPARATIVE DES CONTROLEURS DE TYPE P, PI ET PID

Le bloc diagramme du stand exprimental utilis pour tudier les rgulateurs de type P, PI et PID est reprsent
dans la figure 3. Les principales composantes du stand exprimental sont M.A.S. - Moteur asynchrone triphas,
CSF - convertisseur statique de frquence, G- gnrateur de courant continu avec l'excitation spare, Tg -
tachymtrie, Rs-rsistance de charge, Ordinateur portable Fujitsu, la plaque dacquisition de donnes et de
commande Compact RIO 9074. Les caractristiques de ces composants du stand exprimentale ont t prsents
dans [6]. Le programme d'application en temps rel a t dvelopp dans un environnement de programmation
LabVIEW, [7]. Ce programme a deux composants: - le panneau avant reprsente sur la figure. 4; - le schma de
principe reprsent sur la figure 5. Sur le panneau avant ont t utiliss les appareils pour l'enregistrement en
temps rel des paramtres du systme de contrle automatique, le bloc PID qui peut modifier les paramtres du
contrleur, bloc pour la modification de signal de rfrence, le bouton d'arrt et le bouton d'accueil. Dans le
schma de principe, nous avons utilis les blocs suivants: Channel AI0 de module dentre analogiques

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

numriques pour l'acquisition de signaux de raction fournis de tachymtrie, Channel AO0 de module de sortie
numriques analogiques pour le signal de commande de convertisseur statique de frquence, bloc de contrle
PID, bloc Gain PID pour dfinir les paramtres de rgulateur, le bloc pour fournir le signal de rfrence, les
blocs Bundl pour l'affichage simultan sur le mme graphique 2 signaux et un appareil pour l'affichage en temps
rel des paramtres du systme de contrle automatique.

K Tg Rs

380 V.c.a.
CSF M.A.S. G n V

Laptop + CompactRIO 9074

Viteza de
Regulator P, PI, PID
referinta
CNA u(t) (t)
() + u(k)
R
- ()
Divizor +
()
CAN Filtru

Fig. 3 Schma bloc du stand exprimental

Fig. 4 Le panneau avant

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4. FONCTIONNEMENT DU SYSTME POUR REGLAGE DE LA VITESSE DU MOTEUR


ASYNCHRONE TRIPHASE

Moteur triphas cage d'cureuil (MAS) est aliment dun rseau de courant alternatif par le convertisseur
statique de frquence (CSF). On introduit par le potentiomtre que se trouve sur le panneau avant du programme
ralise en LabVIEW le signal de rfrence dans l'intervalle (0-5) V.c.c. Le signal de raction contenu en domaine
(0-5) V.c.c. pour la boucle ferme de contrle de la vitesse du moteur triphas est obtenu partir de
tachomtrie courant continu par l'intermdiaire d'un diviseur rsistif, et un filtre passe-bas RC. Pour le
contrle de la vitesse du moteur triphas sont utiliss les rgulateurs P, PI et PID successivement mis en uvre
par le programme ralise dans l'environnement de programmation LabVIEW 2014.

Fig 5. Bloc diagramme

5. DETERMINATIONS EXPERIMENTALES

Est mise en exploitation l'application en LabVIEW pour chaque type de rgulateur pour deux valeurs diffrentes
de facteur d'amplification du rgulateur. a) Pour le type de contrleur P nous avons reprsent les variations des
grandeurs de rfrence et de raction en Figure 6 pour le facteur damplification du rgulateur gal 1,1 et en
Figure 7 pour le facteur de damplification du rgulateur gal 2.1. Apres l'analyse des graphiques obtenus nous
avons constat que la croissance du facteur damplification du rgulateur de la valeur 1.1 a la valeur 2.1 lerreur
stationnaire devient plus petite, la duration du rgime transitoire augmente, override est suprieure et l'amplitude
des oscillations augmente.

Fig. 6: Kr =1.1 Fig. 7: Kr = 2.1

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b) Pour le type de rgulateur PI nous avons reprsent les variations des grandeurs de rfrence et de raction
en Figure 8 pour le facteur damplification du rgulateur gal 1,1 et la constante dintgration gal a 0,07
min, et en Figure 9 pour le facteur damplification du rgulateur gal a 2,1 et la constante d'intgration gal a
0,07 min. Apres l'analyse des graphiques obtenus nous avons constat que la croissance du facteur
damplification du rgulateur de la valeur rgulateur 1,1a la valeur 2,1 la duration du rgime transitoire
augmente, override est suprieure et l'amplitude des oscillations augmente.

c) Pour le type de rgulateur PID nous avons reprsent les variations des grandeurs de rfrence et de a
raction en Figure 10 pour le facteur damplification du rgulateur gal 1,1, la constante d'intgration gal
0,07 min et la constante de drivation gal 0.001 min, et en figure 11 pour le facteur damplification du
rgulateur gal 2,1, la constante dintgration gal 0,07.min et la constant de drivation gal 0,001 min.

Fig. 8: Kr =1.1 Ti = 0.007 Fig. 9: Kr = 2.1 , Ti = 0.007

Fig. 10: Kr =1.1 Ti = 0.007 Td=0.001 Fig.11: Kr = 2.1 , Ti = 0.007, Td=0.001

Apres l'analyse des graphiques obtenus nous avons constate que la croissance du facteur damplification du
regulateur de la valeur 1,1a la valeur 2,1 la duration du rgime transitoire augmente, override est suprieure,
l'amplitude des oscillations augmente et augmente la vitesse de rponse du systeme due l influence de la
composante drive du rgulateur.

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6. CONCLUSION

Dans cet article a t prsent une application dans lenvironnement de programmation LabVIEW 2014 pour
l'tude comparative des contrleurs de type P, PI et PID utiliss dans les systmes d'entranement lectriques. Il a
t mis en uvre en temps rel sur un stand exprimental existant dans le laboratoire de Machines lectriques
de lUniversit Vasile Alecsandri de Bacau. Le stand experimentale a permettre le controle de la vitesse du
moteur asynchrone triphase avec diffrents types de contrleurs via un convertisseur statique de frquence
contrle par une plaque d'acquisition des donnes et commande CompactRIO 9074. Pour chaque type de
rgulateur sont reprsent les variations temps relles de la vitesse de rotation du moteur asynchrone triphas
pour deux valeurs diffrentes du facteur d'amplification du rgulateur. Nous avons examin comment la
variation du facteur d'amplification du rgulateur influant sur la rponse en temps rel du systme de contrle de
vitesse. De mme, nous avons pouvons analyser et l'influence d'autres paramtres de rgulateur pour le rponse
en temps rel du systme de contrle automatique de Cette application peut tre utilise des fins
d'enseignement pour l'tude comparative des rgulateurs de la structure des systmes d'entranement lectriques.

RFRENCES

[1] K Smriti Rao, Ravi Mishra: Comparative study of P, PI and PID controller for speed control of VSI-fed
induction motor, 2014 IJEDR, Volume 2, Issue 2, ISSN: 2321-9939, page 2740-2744
[2] Aziz Ahmed , Yogesh Mohan , Aasha Chauhan, Pradeep Sharma: Comparative Study of Speed Control of
D.C. Motor Using PI, IP, and Fuzzy Controller, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and
Communication Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2013, ISSN (Print) : 2319-5940 ISSN (Online) : 2278-1021
[3] Deep Shikha, Ramesh Kumar: Comparative Study of Conventional Controllers, International Journal of
Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084 Volume-2, Issue-10, Oct.-2014, pp. 17-20
[4] Anmol Aggarwal, J. N. Rai, Maulik Kandpal: Comparative Study of Speed Control of Induction Motor Using
PI and Fuzzy Logic Controller, Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE), ISSN: 2320-
3331, Volume 10, Issue 2 Ver. I (Mar Apr. 2015), PP 43-52
[5] Manoj Kumar Behera, Pabitra Kumar Behera, Amit Kumar Sahoo : Comparative Analysis of Indirect Vector
Control of Induction Motor Drive using PI and PID Controllers, International Journal of Research in Advent
Technology, Vol.2, No.4, April 2014 E-ISSN: 2321-9637, pp. 172-177
[6] Petru Livinti, Florin Costache: Sistem fuzzy logic pentru controlul vitezei unui motor asincron trifazat
realizat in LABVIEW, Simpozionul de masini electrice SME15 23 Octombrie, 2015
[7] Sreeraj P V: Design and Implementation of PID Controller with Lead Compensator for Thermal Process,
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 67 No.1, April 2013, pp. 26-31

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DATA ACQUISITION BOARD AND THE DSPACE PROGRAMMING


ENVIRONMENT DESIGNED FOR MULTI-PHYSICAL SIMULATION SYSTEM
MITREA OANA , TAMAS ADRIAN , LIVINTI PETRU *,
TEKOBON JERRY , CHABOUR FERHAT , NICHITA CRISTIAN

Universit Vasile Alecsandri de Bacau, Roumanie

Universit du Havre, Laboratoire de GREAH (Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique


et Automatique du Havre), France

Abstract: In this paper is presented a wind turbine simulator with a specific data
acquisition units and a dSPACE system designed for monitoring in real time a multi-
physical simulation system. We present the signal transmission devices and the Simulink
models which built for the speed command simulator. This configuration is based on the
measurement of the real time simulation parameters

Keywords: Signal transmission, speed command, wind turbine simulator, data acquisition.

1. INTRODUCTION

Dans les dernires annes le potentiel nergtique du vent a t beaucoup valoris par lutilisation des oliennes
qui permettent la conversion de lnergie cintique produit par le dplacement des masses dair en nergie
mcanique et lectrique. tant donn que la technologie actuelle qui utilise comme source principale une nergie
renouvelable l`nergie du vent - permet une production considrable dlectricit, nous avons considr quun
systme multi-physique de simulation devrait prsenter un intrt fort en tant quoutil avanc de recherche et
validation exprimentale. Le principe de fonctionnement et de commande de ce systme multi-physique de
simulation est prsent dans nos travaux ci-dessous. Il est utilis galement pour les systmes oliens que pour
les systmes hydroliens, car les complmentarits notamment dans la gestion de la chaine de conversion, sont
significatives et permettent un traitement global.

2. LE SIMULATEUR EOLIEN

La production lectrique de type olien dpasse aujourdhui les 100 000 TWh/an sur le plan mondial, nergie
qui est obtenue de lnergie du vent [1]. En considrant le rle de ce type d`nergie, notre travail va porter sur la
prsentation dun systme olien et ainsi que sur la modlisation de ses diffrentes composantes. Nous allons
commencer par la prsentation du simulateur olien qui a t ralis dans le laboratoire GREAH (figure 2) qui
comporte plusieurs sous-systmes [2].

Le moteur lectrique utilis pour muler laxe olien est un moteur de type HS 920 DEV de courant alternatif qui
est aliment la tension de 380 volts et consomme maximum 8 ampres. Pour amliorer la fiabilit du systme
olien par l`limination de multiplicateur de vitesse, on a utilis une gnratrice synchrone aimants permanents
[3] sans balais de type Alxion170 FC H1 six paires de ples et un frein dynamomtrique poudre magntique.
On a utilis une unit de commande spcifique qui permet lalimentation, le contrle et la connaissance des
diffrentes valeurs du frein dynamomtrique ; cette unit est galement un systme de mesure de diffrentes
grandeurs de lmulateur. Nous avons connect un filtre de tension afin dobtenir une tension dune valeur

*
Corresponding author, email plivinti@ub.ro

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efficace constante de 440V et dliminer les perturbations dans le systme dalimentation. De plus, on a
constitu un schma de commande dans lequel une unit de traitement du signal dun capteur de couple a t
utilise. Cette unit complexe, peut mesurer les valeurs de force, dplacement, couple, etc. Dans la simulation de
notre systme olien, on utilise cet instrument principalement pour la mesure du couple.

Fig.1. Le schma dalimentation lectrique du systme

Pour pouvoir alimenter et contrler la vitesse de rotation du moteur, nous avons utilis un convertisseur statique
de frquence. Le convertisseur statique de frquence est compos dun redresseur en pont triphas ralis avec
des diodes semi-conductrices de puissance et un inverseur triphas de tension ralis avec des transistors
bipolaires grille isole (IGBT) avec des diodes de courant inverse. Sur le circuit intermdiaire de courant
continu sinstalle un filtre capacitif (le condensateur de filtrage) et un fusible ultrarapide ou un interrupteur
automate de courant continu. Le systme est puis connect au rseau dalimentation de basse tension de
380/220 V, 50 Hz, laide dun interrupteur automate triphas.

Le capteur qui mesure le couple sur laxe de transmission entre moteur et gnratrice est utilis pour mesurer et
contrler le couple ainsi que la vitesse de rotation du systme. Pour la transmission de signaux on a rajout une
plaque dacquisition de donnes, un oscilloscope et pour la commande du systme on a utilis pour le systme
dexploitation un ordinateur. Etant donn qu'on veut commander le simulateur et on veut recevoir des signaux,
une partie principale dans notre travail est la plaque dacquisition de donnes.

Fig. 2. Le simulateur olien

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3. LA PLAQUE DACQUISITION DE DONNEES

La plaque dacquisition est compose de condensateurs pour filtrage, de rsistances et de LED pour la
signalisation de la tension. Sur la plaque on a galement 6 convertisseurs d`isolation DCP 010515 DBP, 6
circuits intgrs ISO 124P (les caractristiques de non linarit sont de de maximum 0.01 % ; le signal de 50 Hz
la largeur de la bande ; la drive 200 mV/C, lalimentation en nergie est de 45V 18V, les courants sont de
5.5 mA et 5.0 mA), 6 amplificateurs oprationnels monolithiques AD711CN. La performance suprieure de
lamplificateur oprationnel de courant continu ou de courant alternatif le fait appropri pour les applications de
filtrage active. Avec le temps de rglage partir de 1 s jusqu 0.01%, il est idal comme tampon pour les
convertisseurs A/D et D/A de 12 bits et aussi comme intgrateur de grande vitesse.

Fig. 3. La transmission du signal vers ordinateur

Une fois que le signal est reu de l'amplificateur isol ISO 124, entre qui est sur le terminal 15, le signal est
modul dans le premier tage. Le premier tage est un tage modulateur, ayant la rfrence transfre au
deuxime tage, le transfert tant fait par lenvironnement galvanique d'isolation et la sortie de signal est
effectue par le terminal 7 de lamplificateur ISO124.
tant un amplificateur disolationet de prcision qui intgre uncycle de modulation-dmodulation technique [4],
le signal est transmis numriquement sur unebarrire 2PF diffrentiellecapacitive.

Le deuxime tage est un dmodulateur, o lamplificateur de signal dtecte les passages des signaux le long de
la barrire capacitive [5].

Lentre en modulateur est un courant (dfini par la rsistance d'entre intgrative de 200k), ce qui permet
d'avoir une tension d'entre suprieure aux entres, tant que lalimentation de sortie est d'au moins 15V.
la sortie du deuxime tage squilibre le courant modul contre le courant de rfrence laide des
rsistances de raction ayant une valeur moyenne au terminal de sortie gale la valeur dentre.
Pour minimiser le bruit de fond (frquence - coups) du convertisseur interne DC / DC, nous utilisons un filtre. La
sortie ISO124 a une onde de 500 kHz et de 20 mV, que nous allons supprimer avec un filtre passe-bas de
100kHz.

Le signal trait et isol est transfr vers lamplificateur oprationnel AD711, sur la borne d'entre 2 ; avant
lentre, le signal est travers par un condensateur de filtrage.

Le signal de sortie est connect au terminal de sortie vers lordinateur et sur cet tage nous avons la connexion
sur le Pin 1 du port. Le trajet du signal analogique jusqu` la sortie vers le systme d`exploitation a t present
sur la figure 3.

Pour la transmission de donnes partir de la plaque de donnes dSPACE vers la plaque dacquisition, le
principe de fonctionnement est pareil, la diffrence tant donn par le moyen dentre du signal, o, dans ce cas,

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

le signal est transmis sur le convertisseur monolithique ISO 124 et la sortie de la plaque est faite par
lamplificateur monolithique AD 711.

Les donnes sont transmises dordinateur de plaque dSPACE entrent sur la plaque dacquisition par le Pin 2 ;
aprs le signal de donnes est sur la plaque de donnes, celui-ci entre dans le sparateur galvanique par le Pin 15
et est transmis vers la sortie par le Pin 7.

Le signal est transmis chez lamplificateur monolithique AD 711 sur la Pin 2 et la sortie de lamplificateur est
sur la Pin 6, sortie envoye la connexion Portail A.

Fig. 4. La transmission du signal vers le simulateur

La plaque de donnes que lon a utilise, possde 4 entres numriques et 4 entres analogiques.

Ainsi, on peut connecter sur la plaque de donnes le signal de vitesse dentre par le Portail B entre du
convertisseur statique de frquence qui nous indique la vitesse de rotation du moteur du simulateur, et sur le
Portail A les donnes dentre vitesse vers le convertisseur statique de frquence des donnes de commande de
la vitesse par lordinateur, o on peut gnrer une vitesse souhaite o contrler la vitesse du simulateur.

De mme, on peut connecter le signal de couple qui est transmis de lunit de contrle du frein partir du port
P5, connexion do nous pouvons collecter des informations concernant la vitesse le couple et on peut avoir un
point de rfrence pour le couple pour la commande manuelle.

Afin quon puisse transmettre les signaux vers la plaque d`acquisition on doit faire la connexion avec la plaque
dSPACE. Elles intgrent les priphriques comme un processeur de control (interface de communication srie -
SPI, SCI, PWM, ADC etc.) et elles ont la puissance de calcul semblable un processeur. Lorsque la connexion
entre la plaque dSPACE et la plaque d`acquisition a t effectue, on peut utiliser le modle tablit dans le
programme Matlab/Simulink et dans le programme dSPACE ControlDesk [6] afin de transmettre les signaux
partir du systme d`exploitation en temps rel. Le model Simulink cr pour la commande en vitesse de notre
simulateur est prsent dans la figure 5.

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

Fig. 5. Le model Simulink pour la commande de vitesse et de couple du simulateur olien

Pour recevoir les informations du simulateur on a utilis un bloc DS1102 ADC. Chaque sortie - ADC#1,
ADC#2, ADC#3, ADC#4 - est connecte au bloc Subsystem et chaque sortie du mme bloc va montrer
une valeur mesure spcifique : la vitesse mesure du systme, la vitesse du frein, le couple du capteur et le
couple du frein.

On a prsent le bloc DS1102DAC et les blocs supplmentaires qui permettent le transfert du signal digital vers
les deux entres dans la plaque dacquisition.

4. PARTIE EXPERIMENTALE

Apres la mise en marche du simulateur olien selon les mthodologies prsents partiellement dans [7], de la
plaque dacquisition des donnes, on utilise le systme dSPACE, le modle Simulink et le programme dSPACE
ControlDesk pour la simulation en temps rel. On a mesur le couple en fonction de la vitesse et la tension en
fonction de la vitesse. Pour les valeurs de la vitesse de rotation nous avons trac les caractristiques de tension
et de couple prsents dans les figures suivantes :

Fig. 6. La caractristique de tension en fonction de la Fig. 7. La caractristique de couple en fonction de la vitesse


vitesse

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Table 1. Tension et couple en fonction de la vitesse.


Vitesse [tours/min] Tension [V] Couple [Nm]
50 7.5 4.2
100 27 5.6
150 55 5.7
200 82 4.3
250 107 3.8
300 132 3.4
350 157 3.2
400 182 3
450 207 2.8
500 231 2.7
550 256 2.6
600 280 2.5
650 305 2.4
700 329 2.3

5. CONCLUSION

Dans ce travail nous avons prsent un systme multi-physique de simulation ddi ltude dun systme
olien, les mthodes de transmission des signaux partir du systme d'exploitation vers le simulateur et
galement les mthodes de mesure des diffrents paramtres. On a prsent galement une plaque d'acquisition
de donnes, cette plaque est ralise au sein du laboratoire pour le simulateur olien, la connexion avec le
systme de simulation et la commande en vitesse du systme. Le but de notre travail a t de contribuer au
dveloppement du systme de simulation, Nous avons montr que les techniques mises en place assurent une
plus grande flexibilit de supervision et de commande, ce qui nous fait penser quelles pourraient tre utilises
pour dautres systmes de simulation (mulateurs hydroliens), do le caractre multi physique de cette
approche.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE

[1] BESLIN GUY et MULTON Bernard, Production d'lectricit olienne : de la caractrisation du gisement
olien aux technologies d'arognrateurs, Janvier 2016.
[2] C. NICHITA, M. EL MOKADEM, B. DAKYO, Wind turbine simulation procedures, Wind Engineering
Journal, Vol. 30 issue 3, p. 187-200, 2006.
[3] Petru Livinti, Transformatoare i maini electrice , Editura PIM Iai, 2013, 246 pages, ISBN 978-606-13-
1428-7
[4] http://ressources.univ-lemans.fr/AccesLibre/UM/Pedago/physique/02/cours2.html.
[5] JY. FOURNIOLS, Circuits lectroniques, Montages Electroniques base dAmplificateurs Oprationnels,
Dpartement de Gnie Electrique et Informatique, INSA.
[6] https://www.dspace.com/fr
[7] Pierre S., Nichita C., Camara M.B., Dakyo B. Control strategy of a wind turbine simulation system
designed for a hybrid wind-tidal real time emulator. 3rd Renewable Power Generation Conference (RPGTM),
Naples, Italy, 24-25 September 2014.

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ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Cd1-X MnXTe CRYSTALS


FOR SOLAR ENERGETIC

NICORICI VALENTINA1*, PIOTR GASHIN1, PIOTR KETRUSH1,


ANDREI NICORICI2
1
State University of Moldova, Mateevici str. 60, Chisinau, MD-2009, Republic of Moldova
2
Electronics Engineering and nanotechnologies Institute D. Ghiu,
Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Abstract: In this article the dependence of the micro-hardness on the magnitude of the
applied load was studied. The investigated Cd1-xMnxTe crystals (x = 0,13 and x = 0,5) have
a monophasic structure with no bulk defects. The micro-hardness increases with an
increase in Mn concentration. The annealing of Cd1-xMnxTe crystals in a tellurium
atmosphere allowed to reduce their resistivity by five orders of magnitude, the hole
concentration increased up to 1013 ... 1015 cm-3.

Keywords: solar energetic, micro-hardness, annealing, conductivity, concentration

1. INTRODUCTION

Protection of the environment and depletion of natural resources is one of the most urgent problems of modern
society. Therefore, in recent years more and more attention is paid to the problems of the conversion of low-cost
solar energy into electricity. This object was successfully solved by the use of energy converters based on silicon
and AIIBV compounds solar cells [1] and also promising in this respect are AIIBVI compounds. In particular, the
theoretical calculations and experimental studies have shown that from a series of AIIBVI compounds the ideal
material is cadmium telluride, which is having a band gap of 1.5 eV, which can provide an efficiency of ~ 27.5%
[2]. Among the promising materials related to cadmium telluride one should mention the MnTe-CdTe ternary
compound. This type of alloy forms a series of solid solutions Cd1-xMnxTe (0 <x <1) having the structure of zinc
blende, which is part of a class of materials called "semimagnetic semiconductors."

The reliability and service life of semiconductor devices are directly connected with the microstructure
perfection of the used crystals and is determined by the basic mechanical parameters, such as hardness, friability,
bending stress, etc. One of the most suitable methods for the evaluation of mechanical properties of crystalline
materials is the micro-hardness method. The possibilities of semi-magnetic semiconductor materials, such as
Cd1-xMnxTe, using in electronics are determined primarily by the values of their electric parameters such as
conductivity, concentration and mobility of charge carriers. All the investigated Cd1-xMnxTe crystals regardless
of their composition have p-type conductivity, which is associated with the presence of intrinsic point-like
defects cadmium vacancies. Initial samples had a high dark resistivity of 108 cm, which at the illumination
decreases no more than by an order of magnitude. This fact makes it difficult to use these crystals for the
manufacturing of photosensitive structures on their basis. One possible way of defects "healing" and bringing
the crystal lattice close to the equilibrium state with optimal parameters is the heat treatment in the vapor of
components and various doping impurities.

*
Corresponding author, email vnicorici@yahoo.com

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2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The micro-hardness measuring by Vickers method was used in the given work, where quadrangular pyramid
diamond is used as an indenter. We studied the dependence of the micro-hardness on the magnitude of the
applied load. In the case of deformation by Vickers indenter the micro-hardness H is determined by the well
known formula:

H=1854 P /d 2 (1)

where P is the magnitude of the load applied to the indenter, and d - residual indentation diagonal.

For thermal annealing crystals with flat-parallel planes of thickness ~ 1,5 mm were selected. Annealing was
performed in closed ampoules in tellurium vapors with the addition of argon to reduce sublimation of
components from the sample surface. The amount of tellurium was chosen by coming from the idea to have a
vapor pressure in the ampoule p ~ 10 Pa. The measurements of Cd1-xMnxTe crystals electromagnetic properties
after thermal annealing were carried out in the temperature range of 80-400 K at the facility, which allows to
record the signal in the automatic mode. To study the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and
carrier concentration the samples were made in the form of a parallelepiped with two current and four-contacts
for potential difference registration. Measurements were carried out in the current stabilization mode
(0100mA) in a constant magnetic field of 0,96 T.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. A study of microhardness


The paper presents the results of a micro-hardness study of Cd1-xMnxTe (x = 0.13 and x = 0.5) crystals. It is
known that in the compositions region of 0 <x <0.75 the Cd1-xMnxTe solid solutions are forming a sphalerite-
type crystalline structure [2]. The crystals of Cd1-xMnxTe solid solution the values x = 0.13 and x = 0.5 were
studied. The single crystals grown by the Bridgman method were easily cracked, forming a smooth mirror like
surface. By taking into account that in Cd1-xMnxTe crystal the
growth facet is the (111) plane, we believe, that for the given the
crystal structure of these compounds that the cleaved facet is (110)
plane. In some cases, the cleaved surface was stratified by forming
areas resembling twins (Fig. 1). The picture of cleavage surface
microstructural studies indicates that the steps on the surfaces and
similarly oriented Cd1-xMnxTe crystals, regardless of composition,
have a monophasic structure with no bulk defects. The
dependence of the micro-hardness on the load applied to the
studied crystals is shown in Fig.2. For samples 1 (x = 0.13) and 2
Fig. 1. The plane of Cd0,5Mn0,5Te (x = 0.5) the surfaces of which represent the cleavage plane a
crystals cleavage with steps. monotonic decrease in hardness with increasing load was
observed (Fig.2, curves 1, 2). At the same time the sample 3 (x =
0.5), the surface of which does not represent the cleavage plane,
and was obtained by grinding followed by chemical etching, the
dependence of the micro-hardness on the load was more complex.
At low loads (P = 0,1 N) the micro-hardness value is close and
even slightly higher than the corresponding value H for the same
load on the cleaved facets: 826 MPa and 733 MPa for a sample 3
and 2, respectively. With the growth of the load applied on the
sample 3 the micro-hardness decreases sharply, becoming much
smaller than those on sample 2. One should note that the micro-
hardness value also depends on the chemical composition of the
compounds. The micro-hardness increases with an increase in Mn
Fig. 2. Cd1-xMnxTe crystals micro- concentration. So, at a load of 0,15 N the microhardness for
hardness dependence on the value of Cd0,87Mn0,13Te is of 646 MPa, and for Cd0,5Mn0,5Te, is of 734 MPa
the load applied to the indenter: respectively.
1 (x = 0.13); 2, 3 - (x = 0.5).

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The difference in micro-hardness on the cleavage plane ((110) facet) and on a cross section of the crystal (facet
of other indices possibly {001}) can be characterized as the anisotropy of hardness of type II. The difference
between the micro-hardness of different crystal facets usually is associated with the peculiarities of its internal
structure. For example, in [3] it is indicated that the anisotropy of hardness of type II is associated with the
reticular facets density and with the value of binding forces in them. Reticular density is determined by the
number of sites (atoms, molecules) per area unit of the crystal plane. Planes with a larger reticular density and
the covalent bond between the atoms have a higher hardness. This situation, in our opinion, is true for
Cd1-xMnxTe crystals. In fact, the (110) facet, being the facet of annealing of Cd1-xMnxTe crystals in a tellurium
atmosphere crystal cleavage, is both a face with the greatest reticular density and higher proportion of covalent
bonds between the atoms. This effect is clearly seen under higher loads on the indenter.

It should be noted that the estimated value of micro-hardness indicates that as one as well as another compound
have a relatively low hardness. As a consequence of the low hardness, the samples exhibit reasonably good
ductility indentation tests. This is manifested in the form of prints and the microstructure of the surface around
them (Fig. 3). As follows from the Fig.3, the prints for all used loads are plastic, without cracking or damage.
Lines of plastic sliding material are formed around them, the number and size of which increases with load
increasing. The manganese content variation in the crystals a leads to some changes in the pattern of plastic
deformation. If for Cd0,87Mn0,13Te compound the prints are almost square, for Cd0,5Mn0,5Te compound they
acquire an elongated shape, indicating the manifestation of anisotropic properties of crystals of the composition.

a b c d
Fig.3. The form of prints and the microstructure of the surface around them for Cd0,87Mn0,13Te crystals at
different loads P, N: and - 0.1; b - 0,15; c - 0,2; d - 0,5

3.2. Annealing Cd1-xMnxTe crystals in tellurium vapors


From the comparison with the original crystals the resistivity of the annealed materials decreased by more than 5
orders of magnitude which allowed to measure the temperature dependency of the conductivity and charge
carrier concentration in these samples. Annealing conditions and parameters of the samples are presented in
Table 1. The increasing of the annealing temperature from 770C to 570oC leads to an increase in the hole
concentration by almost 3 orders of magnitude, but the character of the temperature dependence of the
concentration for all samples practically the same (Fig.4).

Table 1. Parameters of Cd1-xMnxTe crystals annealed in Te vapors


N annealing, T = 80 T = 300
of the 0
, m -3
, (cm) -1
, m /Vs
2
, m -3
, (cm)-1 , m2/Vs
sample
1 570 7,21011 8,110-6 70 9,11012 1,110-5 8
12 -5 13 -5
2 670 1,610 1,210 48 1,210 2,010 10
3 720 2,71013 1,310-4 31 4,01014 2,110-4 3
14 -4 15 -3
4 770 2,910 8,910 19 2,410 1,510 3,5

At temperatures below 200 K, the holes concentration remains practically unchanged, then a marked increase t is
observed. The acceptors activation energy has been calculated from the slope of the graph at higher
temperatures, which is EA = 0.18 eV relative to the valence band. The obtained results suggest the existence of
acceptor levels near the valence band, which may be due to intrinsic defects - cadmium vacancies. The
increasing of Te atoms concentration in the crystal lattice (samples 3 and 4) leads to a marked increase in the
hole concentration with temperature increase. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the

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samples is shown in Fig. 5. The feature of this relationship is similar to the charge carriers concentration
temperature dependence and reflects an electrical conductivity increase by almost an order of magnitude in high
temperature region.

Fig. 4. The temperature dependence of the holes Fig.5. The temperature dependence of the electrical
concentration in samples after annealing at T, 0C: conductivity of the samples after annealing at T, 0C :
1 - 5700C; 2 - 6700C; 3 - 7200C; 4 - 7700C. 1 - 5700C; 2 - 6700C; 3 - 7200C; 4 - 7700C

The charge carrier mobility temperature dependence is shown in Fig.


6. As one can see the temperature increase to about 130 K, almost
does not change the charge carrier mobility, and hence in this
temperature range it is influenced by a few scattering mechanisms.
On the one hand this is the scattering on thermal vibrations of the
crystal lattice, and on the other - the scattering on impurity ions. At
the further temperature increase by more than 130 K, the charge
carrier mobility decreases, and for all samples the slope of lg = f
(lg T) is practically the same. One should note that if the holes
concentration in the annealed samples at 80 K differs by more than 2
orders of magnitude, the mobility values differ not so significant and
it makes about 20 cm2/Vs for sample number 4 (annealing at 7700C)
Fig.6. The temperature dependence of and ~ 70 cm2/Vs for the sample number 1 (annealing at 5700C).
hole mobility of the samples after Indeed, the annealing in the tellurium vapors on the one hand
annealing at T, 0C: 1 - 5700C; 2 - increases the concentration of charge carriers and thus increasing the
6700C; 3 - 7200C; 4 - 7700C. conductivity, on the other hand it increases the concentration of
intrinsic defects - cadmium vacancies.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The investigated Cd1-xMnxTe crystals (x = 0,13 and h0,5), regardless of their composition, have a monophasic
structure with no bulk defects. The increase in the manganese content in the solid solution increases the micro-
hardness, which increases from 190 MPa for CdTe to 730 MPa - for Cd0,5Mn0,5Te at the indenter load of ~ 0,1N.
The dependence of the micro-hardness on crystallographic plane is related to the presence of type II hardness
anisotropy in Cd1-xMnxTe crystals and to the reticular facets density.
The annealing of Cd1-xMnxTe crystals in a tellurium atmosphere allowed to reduce their resistivity by five orders
of magnitude, the hole concentration increased up to 1013 ... 1015 cm-3, however, the holes mobility has low
values ~ 20 ... 70 cm2 /Vs.

REFERENCES

[1] lfiorov, J. I., ndreev, V. M., Rumeantsev, V. D. ndentsii i perspektivy razvitia solnechnoi
fotoenerghetiki. Fizika i technika poluprovodnikov, vol. 38, no. 8, 2004, p. 937 948.
[2] Loferski, J. J. Theoretical consideration governing the choice of the optimum semiconductor for photovoltaic
solar energy conversion. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27, no. 7, 1956, p. 777 784.
[3] Lebedeva, S.I. Opredelenie mikrotverdosti materialov. sv, 1963, 123 p.
[4] Savitskii, . V. Vlianie otjiga monokristallov Cd1-xMnxTe na stabilnost ihelektrofizicheskih parametrov.
Neorganicheskie materialy, vol 32, no. 8, 1995, p. 957 959.

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OBTAINING OF PbTe:Ga THIN FILMS BY MAGNETRON PROCESS

NICORICI VALENTINA **, VITALIE NEDELEA1, PIOTR KETRUSH1,


ANDREI NICORICI2
1
State University of Moldova, Mateevici str. 60, Chisinau, MD-2009, Republic of Moldova
2
Electronics Engineering and nanotechnologies Institute D. Ghiu,
Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Abstract: The cathode sputtering method in a magnetron system was used for epitaxial thin
film deposition of PbTe:Ga. The layers were obtained under the following technological
conditions: current intensity of 10 ... 15 mA; substrate temperature of 30 ... 2500C, the
sputtering duration of 20 ... 30 min. The obtained layers had n-type conductivity, electron
concentration vary between 1018 ... 1019 cm-3 (T = 77 K ). It is observed a fairly wide
temperature range (from 80 K up to ~ 220 K), in which the electron concentration remains
practically constant. The position of the Fermi level at different temperatures was
calculated.

Keywords: thin films, magnetron process, the infrared region of spectrum, PbTe:Ga

1. INTRODUCTION

IVBVI semiconductor compounds and solid solutions based on them are among the materials that are widely
used in optoelectronics (in the infrared region of spectrum), thermoelectricity and other fields of science and
technology [1,2]. The difficulty of PbTe single-crystal growing is associated with features of the phase diagram
of this binary compound. When growing single crystals by the Bridgeman method the obtained lead telluride has
a significant deviation from stoichiometry. Thus, the PbTe stability region shifts toward tellurium and at the
solidification primarily the solid phase with Te excess is crystallized. In an especially undoped PbTe crystals the
electrical properties are determined primarily by the concentration of Pb and Te excess atoms. The vacancies in
the lead sub-lattice are forming acceptor levels, and in the tellurium sub-lattice donor ones. PbTe crystals, tend
to have p-type conductivity and concentration of holes occurs due to the deviation from stoichiometry, reaches
1018 ... 1019 cm-3.

The problem of impurity states in A IVBVI semiconductors has the peculiarities related to the fact that these
compounds are characterized by high values of statistical permittivity, a high concentration of charge carriers
and the small effective mass. This leads to the fact that the Coulomb potential of the impurities and native
defects is strongly shielded and does not create impurity ionization states with experimentally appreciable
energy. The most studied in the binary PbTe compounds is indium impurity, when gallium impurity state is
much less studied, which is related to a very narrow interval of gallium concentrations, which allows to obtain
high photosensitivity material. Besides the main focus of these studies is placed on single crystals, while much
less attention is paid to the doped epitaxial layers.

* Corresponding author, email vnicorici@yahoo.com

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2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Tellurium lead doping by gallium impurity leads to the formation bands in the PbTe: Ga energy spectrum which
are ensuring stabilization of Fermi level at 7 0 meV below the conduction band [3]. In the region of low
temperatures T <80 K, the concentration of electrons in PbTe: Ga becomes of the same order of magnitude as in
the pure material, so the photosensitivity and residual photo-conductance is observed. PbTe: Ga binary
compound has enormous potential for use in the infrared range of the energy spectrum as photo detectors, lasers
and other devices sensitive within wavelength region of 3-5 m [4].

The cathode sputtering method in a magnetron system was used for epitaxial thin film deposition. This method
allows to obtain homogeneous 0.3-3 m thick layers on the large surface. The commonly used methods for
binary material layers fabrication (vacuum thermal evaporation, evaporation in quasi-closed space) have a
drawback: the deposited layer essentially differs by its composition from the source composition. This drawback
can be avoided by using the cathode sputtering method in a magnetron system. The schematic layout for
PbTe:Ga layers deposition is shown in Fig. 1. BaF2 crystals having the coefficient of thermal expansion similar
to tellurium lead (~ 1.810-5 K-1) were used as the substrate.

Fig. 1. Scheme of installation for magneton sputtering

PbTe: Ga wafers with a surface area of ~ 3 cm2 were used as a target (cathode). The argon in the deposition
chamber was flowing through a drain valve designed to control the gas pressure inside the enclosure. The argon
pressure was ~ 3.10 mm Hg. A potential difference was applied between anode and cathode.

The free electrons in the residual gas are accelerated in an electric field and bombard atoms of argon. As a result
the argon ions appear which in turn accelerates toward the target. By bombing the target material is sputtered
which subsequently is deposited on the substrate. The magnetic field using allows to increase the argon atoms
ionization efficiency, as the magnetic field increases the electron effective way and as a result increases the ion
flux density and layer deposition rates.

Before the deposition process the substrate is heated for the purpose of degassing and cleaning of the surface.
PbTe:Ga layers has been obtained in various sputtering conditions by varying the process parameters in order to
obtain a layer with a better crystal structure: 10 ... 15 mA current intensity; 30 ... 2500C substrate temperature,
the sputtering duration of 20 ... 30 min. Thus the obtained layers thickness varied from 0.27 to 3 m.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The electrical properties of PbTe:Ga thin films over were studied in the temperature range of. 77 ... 300 K. The
obtained layers had n-type conductivity, electron concentration vary between 1018 ... 1019 cm-3 (T = 77 K ).
When heating the substrate up to 250 0C the layers increases performance and the electron concentration
decreases (Fig. 2, the layer 2). It is observed a fairly wide temperature range (from 80 K up to ~ 220 K), in which
the electron concentration remains practically constant.

To determine the reason of this n (103/T) dependence behavior, the position of the Fermi level at different
temperatures was calculated. One of the main expressions of electrons statistics in semiconductors was used for
calculations. Thus, the dependence of the electron density on the temperature is determined by the expression [5]

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

3
2(2mn kT ) 2
F
n= exp (1)
3 kT
where mn = 0.05 m0 is effective electron mass, k - Boltzmann constant and - Planck constant. Calculations had
shown that at the electron concentration of more than ~ 51018cm-3, the value of the Fermi energy has positive
values, which witnesses about the electron gas degeneration in PbTe compounds.

Fig. 2. The electron concentration temperature


dependence.

It follows that the concentration of electrons in the layer of more than 51018 cm3 the constant concentration is
related to the electronic degeneration, which is characterized by the independence of electronic gas concentration
on temperature. In the layers with the electron concentration less than 51018 cm3 the region with a constant
concentration corresponds to so called "depletion field" which is observed in the semiconductor at the absence
of impurity levels in the band-gap. At the temperatures above 220 K the electron concentration increases this
increase is as significant as lower the electron concentration is.

The conductivity temperature dependence (Fig. 3) is similar to the same for concentration, but taking into
account that

= en , (2)

Fig. 3. The conducivity temperature Fig.4. The electron mobility temperature


dependence dependence
the influence of electron mobility temperature dependence is observed. In the layers 1 and 2 conductivity
increases almost an order of magnitude at the temperature increase from 125 K to 300 K. From the ln (T-3/4)
graphs slope of the sample 1 the activation energy of the impurity is 0.14 eV was calculated, which corresponds
to the gallium impurity. The electron mobility was determined from the expression

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P R O C E E D I N G S O F CIEI 2 0 1 6

= RH , (3)

where RH is Hall coefficient. The charge carrier mobility temperature dependence (Fig. 4) for layers with
different electron density has a different character. Thus, for the sample 2 as the temperature increases, the
mobility increases, indicating the presence of carrier scattering by ionized impurities, but for the sample 3
corresponding to the electron gas degenerate state the (T) dependence has a metallic character and decreases
with temperature increase.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The sputtering method in a cathode magnetron system was developed for PbTe: Ga layers fabrication, which
allows to obtain homogeneous large area layers with thickness of 0.27 - 3 m. The layers were obtained under
the following technological conditions: current intensity of 10 ... 15 mA; substrate temperature of 30 ... 2500C,
the sputtering duration of 20 ... 30 min.

REFERENCES

[1] Akimov, B.A., Dmitriev, A.V., Khokhlov, D.R., Ryabova, L.I. Carrier Transport and Non-Equilibrium
Phenomena in Doped PbTe and Related Materials. Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), vol. 137, no. 9, 1993, p. 9-55.
[2] Ugai, Ya., Samoilov, A., Buchenev, S., Sunorov, Yu., Sharov, M. Ga doping of thin PbTe films on si
substrate during growing. Inorganic Materials, vol. 38, no. 5, 2002, p. 450-456.
[3] Akimov, B.A., Bogaavlenskky, V., Rybova, L., Vasilkov, V. . Osobennosti fhotoprovodimosti tonkih
epitaksialnyh sloiev. Fizika I technika poluprovodnikov, vol. 35,. no.5, 2001, . 524-527.
[4] Akimov, B., Bogaavlenskky, V., Rybova, L., Vasilkov, V. Experimental study of negative
photoconductivity in n-PbTe(Ga) epitaxial films. Physical Review B, vol. 61, no. 23, 2000, p. 16 045-16 051.
[5] Gain P., Gauga P. Foca A. Fizica dispozitivelor semiconductoare. Chiinu, 1998, 370 p.

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THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE


RENEWABLE ENERGY SECTOR
PALADI FLORENTIN **, PRIMAC VLADIMIR 1
1
Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Str. Alexei Mateevici, 60,
Chisinau, MD-2009, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: The use of IT in the renewable energy sector is described. Applying and using of
the different approaches are not the scope of our work, but we want to focus on the using of
the IT in this rapidly developing sector. First of all, IT is widely used to calculate the costs
and analyze the efficiency of the future energy projects. Modeling is a mandatory part of
each project and investigation. It helps to prevent unexpected wastes and increase
efficiency. Experts can estimate and improve the used materials and design of the wind
turbines, dams, solar power stations and other. Also, ICT is widely used to manage the
internal processes of the power stations and to control different operation, as well as it helps
to prevent damages and blackouts or to reallocate the load.

Keywords: ICT technologies, renewable energy

1. INTRODUCTION

One of the problems of the modern energy systems is growing involvement in using of renewable energy that
can be an obstacle in their design, implementation and maintenance. System structures assessments and crucial
decisions made during the stages of the system lifecycle are usually based on complex data, decision procedures
and different models and thus implicate new applications of information and communication technologies (ICT).
Mainstream renewable energy technologies available today are wind power, solar energy, hydropower, biomass,
biofuel, and geothermal energy. Renewable energy systems are environmentally friendly compared to
conventional energy systems, but their disadvantage is that the power from renewable sources is intermittent, and
it would be difficult to provide a stable energy supply using only one renewable energy source. By combining
two or more renewable energy sources into a hybrid micro-grid helps to overcome this limitation and reduces
reliance on conventional energy resources, so an analysis on ICT usage in green and renewable energy sector is
proper [1].

2. RENEWABLE ENERGY USAGE IN THE MOLDOVA REGION

Alternative energy is currently becoming increasingly popular, reliable, efficient and accessible. From the
economic point of view, solar energy has become profitable. The lifecycle of high quality monocrystalline panels
is at least 40 years. And during all these years the solar panels produce free energy without consuming fuel and
without producing harmful emissions. Our region has significant potential for solar energy, especially in central
and southern parts, where the rate of solar radiation reaches 3000 hours per year. There are lots of sunny days in
Moldova, i.e. the average annual solar energy production is about 1100 kWh/m2 per year. Using renewable
energy can solve the issue of providing the population with cheaper electricity tariffs and prevents from drastic
tariff changing. In addition, alternative sources of energy helps to maintain clean environment, as well as
reducing the rate of climate change [2]. In 2013, for example, 4,071.9 GWh were consumed in the whole
country. At the same time electrical energy in the network supplied from renewable sources was 1.9 GWh, or

*
Corresponding author, email fpaladi@yahoo.com

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just 0.047% of the total energy consumption in the country. There are several biogas plants. Drochia has first
biogas plant on an industrial scale. Its construction was carried out by the company "Sdzucker Moldova". In
addition, there are 72 enterprises producing briquettes from straw and wood waste [3]. The cost of conversion of
renewable energy is high, so the decision making for the suitable locations to install these technologies should be
accurately done. Suitable mapping implicates usage of the different data sources in which attention is paid to
geographical criteria. Data are often imported into a Geographic Information System (GIS). In this system
unrelated data are transformed in a meaningful way. The importance of one criterion can be determined by the
following participants: managers, research specialists, stakeholders, or groups of interest in order to improve the
decision-making process.

3. CONCLUSION

ICTs can be now applied in the renewable energy applications mainly in several possible ways: supporting of the
current production process of renewable energy, i.e. use of prognostics and health management (PHM)
technology for wind turbines, efficient use of large photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro-grid control, and mapping of
renewable energy sources. Thus the ICT tools can make a breakthrough in the current green energy production
industry, but the renewable energy resources integration into the electricity grid still remains a challenging
endeavor.

REFERENCES

1. C.Stallo, M. De Sanctis, M.Ruggieri, I.Bisio, M.Marchese, ICT applications in green and renewable energy
sector. Conference Paper in Proceedings of the Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for
Collaborative Enterprises, WET ICE, 2010, p.175-179.
2. http://agora.md/stiri/4594/
3. http://ecology.md/md/page/energie-alternativa-in-moldova-viitorul-a-devenit-prezent

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SHORT TERM ENERGY FORECAST SYSTEM


FOR ELIGIBLE ELECTRICAL CONSUMERS
PENTIUC RADU-DUMITRU1*, UNGUREAN OVIDIU-CIPRIAN1,
BERNEA MONICA2
1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Str. Universitatii, Nr 9, Suceava, Romania
2
HeidelbergCement Romania SA, Sos Bucuresti-Ploiesti, Nr 1A, Bucuresti, Romania

Abstract: If an eligible electrical consumer which has some branches spread over a
geographical area, it has the responsibility to supply an aggregate forecast and energy
consumption reports to the energy provider. An official of the eligible company is in charge
of managing a team of engineers from each of the branches. Each local responsible has to
deliver a daily hourly energy forecast based on the schedules of the machineries installed on
that location. In the industry, the most common and used method is based on the email
exchange. This method is simple to use but it has some disadvantages. In this paper we
described the specialized software application implemented by our team as an alternative to
the email sending method.

Keywords: eligible electrical consumer, energy forecasts,

1. INTRODUCTION

As it is stipulated by the Romanian legislation for electricity no. 13/2007, the electricity consumer with a
minimum of installed power capacity of 1000kVA is required to provide a daily hour-by-hour energy forecast
and consumption, to the energy provider with which it has the contractual relationship.

When an electrical energy consumer (EEC) has several branches spread over a geographical area it has to supply
the aggregate forecasts and daily energy consumption of the subunits to the energy provider. An official of the
EEC is responsible in coordinating a team of engineers in each of the local branches. Each of the local energy
responsible has to build the daily hour-by-hour energy forecasts based on the run schedule of the machineries
installed on that location.

The common and more used method is based on email exchange. This method is simple and popular but it has
some disadvantages. In this paper we will describe a specialized web-application as an alternative to the email
sending method for the collaborative working scenario between braches and company responsible engineers in
making aggregate energy forecasts and consumption rapports. We will present those methods and highlight the
advantages and disadvantages of the each one.

The proposed software solution is designed to optimize the system of making, managing and sending energy
forecasts reports from the local energy consuming units to the headquarters of the EEC company and later to the
energy provider. Using a specialized software application, we were looking also for the possibility of improving
the forecast report in order to minimize the electricity costs.

*
Corresponding author, email radup@eed.usv.ro

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2. DATA EXCHANGE THROUGHT EMAIL METHOD

For each consuming unit a local responsible engineer (LR) is making a daily hour-by-hour forecast report based
on the working schedule of the machineries installed on that location. The LR has to generate an Excel file
which contains on rows all the available machines with its consuming electrical power and the columns with
values from 1 to 24 for each hour of the day. If one machine was running on a certain hour it will get the 1 value
or 0 otherwise. For each hour of the day, the energy consumed by the running machineries will be summed. That
Excel file has to arrive to the company responsible (CR) with energy consume and forecasts. The CR has the
task to aggregate the daily energy consumed and the forecasts sent by all the LR from all the branches. After the
aggregate rapport is done, the CR has to send it to the energy provider.

Using the email method, the excel file with energy consumption and forecasts has to be sent as attachment by the
LR of each location until a certain hour to the company responsible (CR). The CR will aggregate the energy
forecast curves from all the locations and send it to the energy provider of the EEC. For example, until 8.00 AM
of each day, the CR has to send to the energy provider, the aggregate hourly forecast for tomorrow and the day
after tomorrow. If the consumed energy will not match in a certain interval from the forecast previously sent for
that day, the EEC has to pay penalties. Even if the email using method is very popular and simple to use some
problems have to be noticed:
This is a collaborative working scenario, and sometimes one of the LR wish to visualize the forecasts
rapport of other locations to see if is possible to compensate the consuming power. This means that
emails have to be sent from one consuming location to all of the other branches.
The waiting time for accessing, visualizing the others forecasts rapport is too long.
The RC has to do a lot of redundant work and to deal with multiple versions of the same rapports.
If one of the LR didnt had access to the internet because of some technical problems, the forecast
rapports have to be sent to the CR by using the phone. In this case the other LR will have access only to
the summed hourly forecast and not to detailed forecast rapport. In the detailed rapport is mentioned
which are the running machines for each hour and how much power each one of them is consuming.

The most common problem which arrives is when one of the machineries from a consuming location fails to run
or has to be ON longer that it was mentioned in forecast report. The idea is to stop or start machinery from other
location in order to compensate that difference and avoid paying the penalties.

For each consuming subunit a local responsible engineer (LR) analyzes the working tasks for the next day and
tries to estimate the necessary electric consumption to accomplish the tasks. Based on the working schedule of
the equipments involved in the tasks, and their electrical parameters the LR produces a daily hour-by-hour
forecast report [2]. In the previous procedure, the LR has to generate an MS Excel file which contains a matrix
[n 24], where on each row are represented all the n available equipment with its consuming electrical power. If
one equipment was running on a certain hour it will get the 1 value on the column corresponding to that hour, or
0 otherwise. For each hour of the day, the energy consumed by the running equipments will be summed. That
MS Excel file was sent attached to an email message to the CR with energy consumes and forecasts. The CR has
the task to aggregate the daily energy consumed and the forecasts sent by all the local responsible from all the
branches. After the aggregate report is done, the CR has to send it to the energy provider.

Even if the email using method is very popular and simple to use, some problems have to be noticed:
in fact this procedure is a collaborative working scenario; sometimes one of the LR wishes to visualize
the forecasts report of other locations to see if it is possible to compensate the consuming power. This
means that emails have to be sent from one consuming location to all of the other branches.
the waiting time for accessing, visualizing the others forecasts report was too long;
the CR has to do a lot of redundant work and to deal with multiple versions of the same reports.
if one of the LR didnt have access to the internet because of some technical problems, the forecast
reports have to be sent to the CR by using the phone. In this case the others LRs will have access only
to the summed hourly forecast and not to detailed forecast report. In the detailed report is mentioned
which are the running

Let assume that the company holding is composed by m local production units or branches. Let be the k-th local
production unit having nk equipments with their horary electric powers:

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Pk =
k k k
p1 p2 ... pn k
(1)

where pik are the consuming electrical power and are expressed in kW/h. The calculus of electric power
consumed by the local unit assumes that on an entire hour each of the n equipments may be in function or in off.
We have the matrix:

k k k
t1,1 t1, 2 ... t1, 24
k k k
t2,1 t2, 2 ... t2, 24
Tk =
... ...
k k k
tnk ,1 tnk , 2 ... tnk , 24
(2)

where tijk {0,1} and indicate the state of the equipment i at hour j in the k local unit. It may be 1 if the
equipment i is planned to work in the j hour of the day, and 0 elsewhere.

The total consuming energy for each hour in the k-th local unit in each hour of the day will be expressed by the
matrix product

Wk = Pk Tk (3)

where the result is a row matrix:


k
Wk =
k k
w1 w2 ... w24
(4)

Its elements whk represent the electrical energy consumed by all the equipment in the k production unit at hour h
of the day. This matrix the LRk responsible is required to transmit to the CR.

At the level of the CR all the Wk matrix are summed in order to obtain the consuming energy by the company
holding on each hour of the day.

m
W = Wk
k =1 (4)

3. THE SPECIALIZED SOFTWARE APPLICATION METHOD

The aim of implementing a specialized software solution is to optimize the method of building, managing and
sending forecast reports from the LR to the CR and later to the energy provider in order to: 1) get as low as
possible deviation from the forecast rapport to the consumed energy; 2) reduce the generation time of the
forecast rapports; 3) allow modification of the rapports as fast is possible and make them available for all the
interested personnel; 4) reduce the penalties by following the schedule of the running machines and aggregate
energy forecast rapport.

In the following we will present some details about the proposed application architecture and its work mode of
use from the LR and CR point of view.

The interface design of the application has to be easy to understand and use by any of the users in order to not
overload the cognitive effort and to minimize the learning time. Also the interface is personalized by the user
rights and responsibilities. The application runs on a dedicated web-server from an intranet network and access

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to it is allowed only to those authorized by an admin. The admin of the application has to possibility to add new
users and locations.

The access to the specialized application for forecast and energy consumption is made by using a internet
browser. On the working stations of energy responsible from each branch or headquarter is not necessary to be
installed any other specialized software.
When the energy responsible is accessing the web-address of the proposed specialized application it has to
provide the authentication dates. If the authentication process succeeds, based on his profile and rights the local
energy responsible will access in write mode the rapports for his location and in read-only mode the forecast
reports for the others location. All the details and consuming power of the machineries installed on each location
are saved in a database and based on that the application is generating a control panel with checkboxes as in
Figure 1.

Fig.1. Forecast and consumed energy panel for the RL user type
.

The RL has to mark which machines will run and the hour at which it will run[7][8]. When the user clicks on a
checkbox the energy consumption is computed in real time for each hourly interval and each machine. If the user
wishes to change the status of a machine for the whole day, all it has to do is to click on the machine name and
all the hourly intervals for that machine will be automatically checked or unchecked. A forecasts rapport will not
be generated as long the user will not press the save button.

Some machines are having a default energy consumption different than zero even in OFF mode. The application
supports also this type of machines in order to generate forecasts as close as possible to the real energy
consumption. We have to mention that details and type of the machines can be modified only by the LR
responsible for that location.

In each morning, based on the measuring instruments from each location, the LR has also the task of saving into
the web-application the energy consumption for the yesterday. As can be seen in the Fig. 1. the D-2 tab contains
an X red sign, which represents that the user didnt save the dates for the yesterday consumption into the
database. When those dates are saved, the application will generate a daily forecasts vs consumption energy
report for that location.

Besides the control panel with the status of each machine the forecasts and consume reports contain an Excel file
with summed forecasts energy for each hour and a chart file from which can be seen the differences between
what was forecasted and what was consumed.

All of those files are saved on the servers application and are available for all the users which have the rights to
access it. The LR has the rights to add, delete and modify details about any of the machines from the location for
which is responsible only.

(1) For the reports which have to be generated daily, the terminology recommended by the ANRE is used
in the application;

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(2) The RL which has to build forecast and consume energy reports for multiple branches can change the
working branch;
(3) Because the load for some machines is not of 100% or maybe that branch has also other small
consumers, the RL can specify these values directly;
(4) The date for which the forecast and energy consume records has to be saved in the database can be
changed.
(5) After the date is change the user must confirm the change by pressing the GO button.
(6) Equipment names and their power values are displayed in the left side of the panel. A double click on
any of labels will change their state for all the hours of the day. This can be seen as a shortcut in completing the
panel.
(7) For the equipment which has variable values in the ON state, the application allows a copy/paste
approach. These types of equipment are named rest consum. The users of the application are copying those
data from MS Excel and paste it here. Also, for these type of equipment the user can manually specify the
consume values.
(8) By checking the checkbox of an equipment from a certain hourly interval its state is modified and final
reports values are computed in real-time. By using a drag&drop action, the state of an equipment can be
modified automatically for multiple intervals. This action is similar to that used in MS Excel in order to copy
values or to apply formulas to multiple cells. A small rectangle on the bottom-right area of each checkbox is
available and it allows the drag&drop action in order to modify the state of the equipment for multiple intervals.
The action can be applied only horizontally in order to prevent accidental changes in state of other equipment.
(9) For the same branch, the consecutive days may have a very similar schedule for the running equipment.
In order to simplify the process of providing records in the application this button can be used. Even if the
schedule is not the same, the very small changes can be made after the data from the previous day is copied.
(10) Only after this button is pressed the records are saved in the database. If the checkbox button is elected
the records from the D day are saved for D+1 day too. Using this approach the process of proving forecasts
reports is simplified. After this step, if is necessarily, the records from the D+1 day can be modified too.
(11) This button deletes the records for that day and reinitiates the panel with the default values.

Fig. 2. Daily control panel for the RC.

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One of the main interfaces on which the RC spends parts of their time looks as in the screen capture from above.
(1) The date for which somebody can see a short preview of the records can be changed from this calendar.
(2) Aggregated curves of forecast and consumed energy. For each hour of the day the values are specified.
For reason of confidentiality this screen capture doesnt display those values.
(3) On the same chart the positive deviations from all the locations are summed displayed with red bars.
(4) In the same way the negative deviations from all the locations are displayed as orange bars.
(5) The positive deviations from each location are displayed as stacked columns.
(6) If the energy consume was smaller than the one forecasted each for each location this is represented as
stacked bars too.
(7) For each of the top 3 consumers the deviations are displayed in percentages. The percentage deviations
from the last five days are displayed as stacked bars.
(8) The aggregate deviation and the contribution of each of the branches to that percentage deviation is
represented.
(9) With a click on the name of the branch, the user is redirected to the consume and forecasts panel of
that branch.
(10) For each of the branches the RC can see if the forecast or recorded data was or not saved in the
application. A missing record is displayed in the panel with a red X sign. With a click on that area the user will
be redirected to the forecast panel with missing data.
(11) The daily reports in MS Excel format can be downloaded for any of the locations.
(12) Graphical representation with forecast and consumed energy data are displayed when user clicks the
label. Multiple graphs from different locations can be displayed in the same time.

The CR can see in Fig. 2 if any of the LR didnt save in the application the dates for forecasts or consumed
energy. The notation from the header of the Fig. 2. are also using the notation recommended by the ANRE: for
yesterday(D-2), today(D-1), tomorrow(D), and the day after tomorrow(D+1). If any of those days the
dates were not saved by the LR the application will mark it using a red X sign.

If the prognosis and consumed energy dates were saved in the application a daily rapport for that location will be
generated. An aggregate rapport will be generated even if not all the locations have saved their dates. The exact
time on which were made the last modification are also saved in the reports file.

Some of the main advantages of using a specialized software application as alternative to the email sending
method are:
automatic generation of the forecast rapports as Microsoft Excel or chart format;
minimization of the time needed for modifying the reports;
automatic generation of the aggregate rapports from all the energy consuming locations/branches;
automatic generation of various charts and files in order to be analyzed by the upper decisional levels
from the company;
shared access to the reports;
personalized access based on the users rights and responsibilities.
archiving and securing the database and generated reports;

4. CONCLUSIONS

The partner company already uses the software solution described above. Its worth mentioning that the
application was planned to evolve in three phases: Phase one was that in which the reports are automatically
generated and the actual Excel files are still in use in order to facilitate the testing. This approach allows a better
understanding of the system by the final users. In the second and third phases the legacy Excel reports are
generated only if the user explicitly asks for it. The use of a specialized artificial neural network module is
intended to be added in order to minimize the difference between the energy forecasts and the real consume.
Even if the using of email method for sending rapports in attachment seems to be an easy method, unfortunatly
on long term it has a lot of disadvantages. A specialized application with support for collaborative working
environment which allow the automatic generation and management of the forecast and consumption energy
reports seems to be a good solution.

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REFERENCES

[1] Popa C., Pentiuc R., Pentiuc St., Graur A. Robot communication interaction with colour markers, Conferina
internaional World Energy System Conference - WESC 2008, Ediia a 7-a, Universitatea Tehnic Gh Asachi
Iai, 2008.
[2] Pentiuc R., Popa C., Bobric C. E., Mahalu G., Sisteme de tarifare moderne a energiei electrice active,
Simpozionul National de Informatica, Automatizari si Telecomunicatii in Energetica, 2008, Sinaia, Romania
ISSN/ISBN: 1842-4392, Pagini: 266-273;
[3] Bernea M., Energetic Efficiency Increase in SC CARPATCEMENT Holding S.A. Bicaz Branch,
Conferina internaional World Energy System Conference WESC 2008, Ediia a 7-a, Universitatea Tehnic
Gh Asachi Iai, 2008;
[4] Pentiuc R., Mahalu G., Bejan M. Sisteme de tarifare moderne a energiei electrice active, Al XIX-lea
Simpozion Naional "Siguran n funcionare a sistemului energetic, SIG 2005, Editura SIER, ISBN 973-
87456-0-8, pag. 308-311;
[5] Pentiuc R., Ioachim D., Popa C., Utilizrile energiei electrice. Electrotermie - Editura Universitii Suceava,
2000;
[6] Pentiuc R., Cantemir L. Traciune electric. Acionarea unitilor motoare de curent continuu i ondulat.
ndrumar de proiectare - Editura Universitii Suceava, 1999;
[7] Pentiuc R. Traciune electric - Editura Universitii Suceava, 1998
[8] Pentiuc R., Ioachim D., Utilizrile energiei electrice. Instalaii electrice de joas tensiune - Editura
Universitii Suceava, 1997.Buzdugan, Gh., Izolarea antivibratorie, Ed. Academiei Romane, Bucuresti, 1993.

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ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM OF CONDUCTORS USING A


DEVICE BASED ON RASPBERRY PI

POPA SORIN EUGEN1*, PRUTEANU EUSEBIU1, ARHIRE TIBERIU2


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania
2
Petal SA Hui, Romnia

Abstract: The paper presents the results obtained as a result of research undertaken to
solve one of the problems encountered on electricity consumers. The paper presents a
system developed to monitor current and temperature current paths. The system developed
allows online monitoring of the measured parameters and implementation of statistical
calculations to improve the process of electricity usage and protection of distribution lines
for electricity.

Keywords: current measurement, temperature, web, raspberry pi, python

1. INTRODUCTION

The paper proposes the use of a computer Raspberry Pi mini B, version 2, to build a device that monitors
electrical current and temperature of electric conductor traversed by an alternating current, voltage 220V
powered.

Created device contains the following hardware: Raspberry Pi v2, temperature sensor SEN 118A2B, current
transducer YHDC SCT-013-000, sensor shield for Raspberry Pi plus the following software: Raspibian operating
system, apache, php, mysql, emoncms python.

Measuring and monitoring of current in electrical installations AC operation is a particularly important and
requires great precision and accuracy, as this is necessary for the billing of electricity. The device developed and
presented in this paper allows performing the following tasks: Measure the temperature of the current track,
measure the amount of current through the conductor and stores the measured values in a database. The
measured values or calculated, can be displayed as a numerical value or can be presented as graphs in a web
page..

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

2.1. Hardware
The hardware part of the device consists of: Raspberry Pi minicomputer v2, shield sensor for converting analog
signals into digital signals, analog temperature sensor SEN118A2B, YHDC current analog sensor SCT-013-000,
which is a current transformer.

Figure 1 shows the wiring diagram of the device created.

*
Corresponding author, email sorinpopa@ub.ro

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Fig.1. Monitoring Device of current ways using Raspberry Pi.

2.1.1. Temperature Sensor


The temperature sensor, SEN118A2B is a non-linear resistor being enclosed in a sealed metal casing. Figure 6
shows the wiring diagram picture and its attachment. The sensor has a resistance of 10 k to 25 C and mounted
in series with another resistor of 10k all. One end of the assembly is placed at the other end to 3.3V and GND.
From the combination of two elements that collect blood will be sent to the analog port A0 SensorShield..

a b c

Fig. 2: Temperature sensor: a) general view, b) mounting scheme 1, c) mounting scheme 2.

The calculation formula for determining the temperature was taken from [1], and two variants of connections
are:
Connection Option 1:
(1)

[K] (2)

[C] (3)

Connection Option 2:
(4)

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(5)

[C] (6)

Temperature reading application written in Python, and has taken source code from [1], and is shown and
described below:
- Importing libraries mathematics, time, spidev devices communicating with SPI (Serial Peripheral
Interface);
- It defines an object spidev, which stores the readings on the 8 analog ports of SensorShield.
- The temperature sensor is connected to A0 in variant connected to GND;
- The reading A0 is stored in the variable "value" and then calculated by multiplying voltage A0
supply voltage, 3.3V and division to 1024, which is the ratio of analog to digital conversion;
- Then apply the formulas 4, 5 and 6, to calculate the temperature..

2.1.2. Current sensor


Current sensor, shown in Figure 3, is a current transformer used for measuring AC current, connecting to either
phase conductor or the conductor.

Fig. 3: Overview current sensor

Connecting wiring diagram is shown in Figure 4.

Figura 4: Wiring diagram to connect the current sensor..


Output cureent TC: 50mA rms = 70,7 mA peak = 141,4 mA peak-peak
Generates a voltage 141,4 mA 22 = 3110,8 mV = 3,11 V

2.2. Software

We run on the Raspberry Pi operating system Rspbin on who install and: apache, php, mysql, phpmyadmin
and ftp. To view the chart below Forni measured values will install and configure the application EMONCMS.

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2.1.1. EMONCMS General description


Emoncms is an open source web application for processing, recording and visualization power, temperature and
other environmental data and is part of the project OpenEnergyMonitor. Emoncms can install operating systems
Ubuntu / Debian Linux and Windows. One of the basic characteristics of emoncms is processing the inputs and
therefore separation between inputs and feeds.

The need for processing inputs originally appeared in the need to calculate kWh of power per day of raw data.
Doing a little less need for processing every time an entry is updated means that data kWh / D can be loaded
quickly for viewing rather than waiting for data kWh / d is calculated instantly from your power each time
desired an overview.

Here is a chart to illustrate the main concept:

Fig. 5: Emoncms data entry and processing.

Fig. 6: Flowchart code to connect to the emoncms database and save the measured and calculated values.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In Fig. 1 shows the wiring diagram of experimental installation made. It consists of Raspberry Pi, the current
sensor mounted as in Figure 8, connected to the A1 on SensorShield, temperature sensor, mounted as shown in
Figure 6c, connected to the A0 on SensorSheld.

To realize the project were required to install the following programs / applications:

Installed operating system Raspbian, as indicated in [3],

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Enabled ssh, it configures the network card with static ip address 192.168.1.8
o sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces
address 192.168.1.8
netmask 255.255.255.0
network 192.168.1.0
broadcast 192.168.1.255
gateway 192.168.1.1
They were made necessary updates:
o sudo apt-get update
o sudo apt-get upgrade
was installed apache web server with MySQL and PHP, as described in [4];
It was installed emoncms as indicated [5];
It was created database "emoncms" in MySQL with user "root" and the password "raspberry",
changed applications and current temperature reading above to write the measured values in the
database emoncms.

The results are shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9.

Fig. 7: Graphical representation of temperature variation.

Fig. 8: Graphical representation of the change in current, version Raw Data (RAW).

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Fig. 9: Viewing real-time monitoring parameters.

4. CONCLUSIONS

This work succeeds in meeting the work proposed theme, namely:


To measure the temperature of the current path;
To measure the current that flows through the conductor;
Storing the measured values in a database and allow displaying the results in real time, in numerical and
graphical able to achieve variation of measured parameters presented in a web page

REFERENCES

[1] http://playground.arduino.cc/ComponentLib/Thermistor2
[2] http://www.nxp.com/acrobat_download/literature/9398/39340011.pdf
[3] https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/README.md
[4] https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/web-server/apache.md
[5] http://openenergymonitor.blogspot.ro/2012/05/installing-emoncms-on-raspberry-pi.html
[6] http://codeinthehole.com/writing/how-to-set-up-mysql-for-python-on-ubuntu/
[7] http://lechacal.com/wiki/index.php/Raspberrypi_Current_and_Temperature_Sensor_Adaptor
[8] http://www.raspians.com/Knowledgebase/how-to-remote-desktop-with-xming-and-putty/

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TRENDS IN THE USE OF IT IN THE ENERGY SECTOR


PRIMAC VLADIMIR1, PALADI FLORENTIN1*
1
Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Str. Alexei Mateevici, 60,
Chisinau, MD-2009, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: The modern IT techniques and approaches in the energetic sector are studied.
Information technologies have penetrated all economic sectors. And energetic sector is one
of the biggest markets for the IT industry. One can use information systems not only for
financial calculations, but also for managing the huge companies. On the other hand, IT is
used to work with clients. Social media and other parts of Web 2.0 are used to attract new
clients and to inform about new products. Also it's a powerful and very fast instrument to
inform all clients about changes and service works. Energetic sector generates huge
amounts of data, which should be analyzed and improvements are based on deep analyze of
the existing data (Smart grid and Big data instruments). Wireless counters which are
integrated in the network help to create the common grid. Using such real-time grid, one can
predict growth of the needs and realize some precautionary steps to prevent such issues as
blackout. These and some others applications of the IT in energy sector are analyzed in this
presentation.

Keywords: IT applications, Smart grid, Web 2.0, GPUs and big data instruments

1. INTRODUCTION

According to the IDC forecasts [1], the global costs of energy enterprises in the IT industry reached $ 59.3
billion in 2014. Company experts believe that enterprises in this domain will tend to actively use flexible and
innovative technology in their operations and business models. The role of IT in the energy companies will be
changing as a result of the convergence of IT and operational technologies. Reducing of business income while
improving operating costs will stimulate the development of strategies using analytical tools. In general,
companies will seek new adaptive capacities due to rapidly changing ecosystem. Also the energy sector tends to
the review of data management approaches to ensure that the process of implementing smart grid is even more
active. Another important task will be customer multi-channel relationship management, which require special
platform. Ramification will be taken up by a number of energy companies to establish contacts with clients,
winning their loyalty and trust. According to Ovum [2] at the beginning of 2013, for the next years after 2012,
the growth of the IT budgets of the world's energy sector companies will remain the same. The survey Ovum
attended by the largest enterprises, almost half of the respondents have $ 500 (or more) million of revenues per
year. Of all respondents among them 58% spend on IT more than $ 5 million a year. IDC forecasts [3], released
in August of 2013, at the end of 2013 IT costs of energy companies that are located in Western Europe, must
have reached $ 10.4 billion, the huge part of this amount (62.9%) is in IT services. Based on IDC, the costs of
enterprises in the region for software expenses in the period 2012-2017, will grow at approx. 7.4% per year, and
at the end of 2017 will amount to $ 3.2 billion.

*
Corresponding author, email fpaladi@yahoo.com

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2. OVERVIEW OF THE TRENDS IN THE USE OF IT [4]

Social Media and Web 2.0


Social media are widely used by IT members as an instrument for customers involvement and their further
retention for rival energy retailers and as a new area of crowdsourcing in energy resources coordination. The
importance of social media for outage communications is constantly increasing.

Big Data
Data quantity will be vastly increased by smart grid development, driven by edge devices, new IT and OT
applications like AMI (advance metering infrastructure), smart appliances, synchrophasors, advance distribution
management, micro grids, remote monitoring of assets, self-healing networks and event avoidance. In addition
to that, smart grid enterprises is going to produce a variety of data, such as spatial, temporal, streaming,
transactional , structured and unstructured. Smart grid plays a significant role in further technological, economic
and ecological development of society. In addition to solving problems of reducing the burden on the
environment, reduce the energy deficit at the expense of renewable energy, improve the quality and reliability of
the energy system in the Smart Grid concepts traced another very important aspect: Smart Grid is a catalyst for
economic recovery.

Mobile and Location Awareness Technologies


The main reasons for mobile and wireless technologies deployment is lowering costs and improving the accuracy
and efficiency of the field force. Mobile and location awareness technology cover hardware (such as
hardwearing laptops, smart phones and PDAs), communication products (tracking and routing technologies like
GPS, navigation), services (general packet radio service and cellular digital packet, high-speed data networks,
satellites and Wi-Fi).

Cloud Computing and SaaS


Although the utility industry keeps to other sectors in cloud technologies due to reliability and security concerns,
solutions appear in such domains as analytics of big data, smart meter, GIS and coordination of demand
response. Early implementations of cloud utility and SaaS belong to organizations that are interested in
providing common application and data services to multiple utility entities, like transmission system operators
and cooperative association, small municipal and cooperatives that are low-budget or do not have large
infrastructure, and IoUS (investor-owned utilities) that conduct short-term smart grid projects that are interested
in quick time to market , having minimal impact on production systems.

Sensor Technology
A lot of domains of utilities, such as supply, transmission and distribution, are using sensor technologies. One of
the additions of digital signal processing and software development capabilities is sensor fusion that can
accelerate potential applications. Prevalent utility adoption is contesting by different realization requirements
like wearing qualities, temperature extremes, electromagnetic shielding, remote access and cybersecurity.

In-Memory Computing
In-memory computing is becoming more popular as it speeds up the processing of large amounts of data due to
providing access to data directly from RAM. Companies receive new possibilities to analyze data in real time,
improving the planning and modeling of processes and monitoring mode, as well as the optimization of the
production cycle. In addition, there is a simplification of the IT processes, which reduces operating costs. All
these advantages give IT organizations chances for implementation of innovative scenarios such as real-time
sensor data and addressing processing of the smart grid generated metering.

IT and OT Convergence
New technology products require a combination of information and operational processes as regards investment
and planning, for example, the area of such convergence can be advanced distribution management system
(ADMS).

Advanced Metering Infrastructure


Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) or advanced measurement infrastructure is the cornerstone for the
smart grid, providing a communication medium for data transmission without delays and losses. There are

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different government structures and regulatory drivers can affect the components of the AMI technology stack,
which contribute different technology solutions worldwide.

Communication Technology
The distributed nature of energy assets, coupled with the need for effective management, and workforce
management, will make mobile communications technology and priority investments of energy and utilities IT
investments by companies worldwide. Their role is indispensable in the development of M2M technologies,
monitoring systems, SCADA and other mission-critical business technology industry.

3. PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS
Predicative analytics will be used by energy companies and utilities to predict equipment failure or load increase
at certain times on certain customer groups or regions. There are five main attributes used by analytics:
prediction, understandability, usability, accessibility and business relevance.

IT modeling tools in the energy sector:

Graphs (e.g., for the smart grid and consumer networks, and for modeling the inclusion of new energy
sources: geothermal, wind, solar, tidal, hydro, cogeneration);

Market transactions, auctions and databases (e.g., for planning and running carbon cap-and-trade
markets, and for understanding the effects of tax and economic policies);

Data structures (e.g. trees and martingales) for optimal planning (e.g., for environmental remediation of
nuclear waste sites, for planning and operating fossil fuel extraction operations, planning conversion to
the smart grid, etc.);

Simulations coupled to sensors and effectors to control large scale systems (e.g., the power grid, power
generation facilities, refineries, oil field extraction systems);

Simulations coupled to machine learning systems to provide anticipatory error detection, and what-if
modeling of possible actions to prevent or correct problems.

These new uses will require new discrete algorithms, and scaling to very large computing facilities and datasets.

4. NEW TENDENCIES: HPC AND CUDA

NVIDIA works with software dealers to ensure that multiple GPUs will work with all the functionality, speed
and reliability on users demands [5]:

Application Category Benefits of Multiple GPUs

Paradigm- Interpretation and Faster computations in CUDA


VoxelGeo Modeling

TerraSpark- Interpretation and Faster computations in CUDA


InsideEarth Modeling

ffA- GeoTeric Interpretation and Faster computations in OpenCL


Modeling

Hue- Headwave Interpretation and Faster computations in CUDA


Modeling

According to the 2013 High Performance Data Analysis Report from IDC [6], the main target for investors is the
domain of Bid Data analytics. Report states that around 67% of surveyed sites make Big Data analysis on HPC

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systems that takes 1/3 of computing cycles assigned to the task. The amount of HPDA (high-performance data
analysis) servers will continue to grow through 2017, from $743.8 million in 2012 to approximately $1.4 billion
in 2017, according to IDC researches. There are 2 mostly deployed co-processors nowadays Inter Xeon Phi
and NVIDIA GPUs. The constant increasing volume of the data that should be processed, analyzed and store is
the driving force for advances in computing power. Thereby the advanced algorithms are required to handle big
and high-speed data that increases the requirements for storage infrastructure. And finally developers are
challenging to manage failure on such system. Regarding to the exascale computing, it becomes more difficult to
predict and manage component faults. Also it is not easy to ensure that data and system status are protected from
loss in case of crash. Usually supercomputing requires huge amount of computing power. But in case of exaslace
computing, the situation can be different.

5. IT AND THE SMART GRID FOR ELECTRICITY

The system could be improved greatly through use of Smart Grid technologies [7].The biggest opportunity for
the Smart Grid is smart distribution and consumption, achieved by adding IT: displaying energy prices to
consumers, providing disaggregated energy and water bills, real-time feedback to homeowners, and adding
sensors and intelligent controls to the distribution network. Customers (or their automated agents) will be able to
monitor dynamic energy prices, and control usage, for example:

Smart appliances (e.g., dishwashers that figure out optimal times to run in order to minimize impact.
Electric vehicles that decide whether to charge or draw power from an electric vehicle battery .
Systems to provide feedback to the consumer on all aspects of energy use (what are you really saving
by turning out lights? or by changing your thermostat by one degree?). Disaggregated bill typically
enables a 15-20% reduction in household resource consumption.

Control of the Smart Grid. Utilities could computationally model customer usage of the grid, enabling them to
anticipate usage (integrating fine-grain weather predictions), respond to load imbalances, and automatically
isolate failing portions of the grid to reduce or prevent power outages. Distributed IT-based control systems can
enable self-healing and reconfiguration of the grid in response to failures or attacks. Machine learning techniques
can be applied to identify and prioritize at-risk portions of the distribution system and drive control decisions
such as reconfiguration and dispatching of repair crews.

Engineering the Smart Grid. IT enables engineering of the Smart Grid just as it has enabled the building of far
more sophisticated aircraft and cars. IT simulation will enable confident incorporation into the grid of new
components such as

Switches, sensors, and programmable controllers for offices, homes and businesses;
Energy storage systems (e.g. electric vehicles and superbatteries);
Local generation (wind, solar, hydro, tide, diesel, cogeneration, geothermal etc.);
Disaggregation sensing technologies (i.e. systems capable of inferring appliance-level and fixture-level
consumption in the home).

6. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION

IT simulations can ensure and improve power quality, optimize designs for efficiency, reliability, and robustness,
and minimize capital costs and on-going expenses. Simulations can allow testing under a variety of challenging
near-term and long -term scenarios, including energy cost changes, severe weather, terrorist attack, climate
change, demographic changes, etc.
Basic IT research will be required into methods, algorithms, hardware and software. Such research can have
huge impact. Research areas of special promise for energy applications include:
Modeling, simulation and optimization;
Sensor networks and sensor interpretation;
Adaptive distributed control;
Distributed data storage and access;
Data mining and machine learning;
HCI (Human-Computer Interfaces);
Large scale software engineering of complex systems;
Communications and networking;

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Security mechanisms and systems;


Innovative applications, products, and standards;
Analysis and understanding of the behavior of large-scale systems, e.g. understanding conditions that
lead to phase changes in operation.
IT progress can help to reduce energy consuming and make its delivery more reliable, impacting standard of life
with new applications. However in order to improve and change the future of energetics, the existing IT
knowledge is not enough, more significant innovations are required.

REFERENCES

1. http://www.reuters.com/article/ma-idc-energy-insights-idUSnBw115985a+100+BSW20131211
2. http://www.ovum.com/utilities-to-increase-it-spending-for-customer-satisfaction-and-data-management/
3. http://www.waterbriefing.org/home/company-news/item/7912-annual-it-spending-by-western-european-
utilities-to-reach-$127-billion-by-2017
4. http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2426515
5. http://www.nvidia.com/object/multi-gpu-for-energy-seismic.html#sthash.GaRmhspn.dpuf
6. http://webobjects.cdw.com/webobjects/media/pdf/Solutions/Energy-Utilities/High-Performance-Computing-
in-Oil-Gas.pdf
7. Information Technology and Americas Energy Future, David Waltz Columbia University, John King
University of Michigan, Version 8: July 29, 2009.

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VALIDATED DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY AND


THE EXCESS AIR FACTOR IN THE COMBUSTION
INSTALLATIONS OF HEATING STATIONS AND ROOFTOPS

SAJIN TUDOR1, GRIGORE ROXANA1, VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1*


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 157, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: This paper presents the experimental study results of the efficiency of
combustion installations of heating stations and rooftops for precincts heating and air
conditioning. The research method is based on combustion gas composition analysis,
exhausted at chimney, and on infrared thermography of the external walls of studied
stations and rooftops. With the experimental results obtained were validated the theoretical
diagrams plotted to determine the efficiency and the excess air factor of the combustion
installation operating on that fuel in function of the measured values of the oxygen
concentration in the exhaust gases to the chimney and their and environment air
temperatures. The experimental study results were obtained for the burning fuel-air poor
mixtures domain normal operating regime of the combustion installations.

Keywords: combustion, combustion installation, heating station, rooftop, efficiency,


combustion gas analysis, excess air factor, temperature difference, diagram.

1. INTRODUCTION

The efficiency of a combustion installation is characterized by the combustion efficiency and the combustion
gases composition that determines the degree of air pollution by the installation. Usually, a combustion
installation is the basic constructive part of a thermal plant: heating station, steam or hot water boiler, industrial
furnace, rooftop etc.

For determining the real operating performances of a combustion installation are used, usually, two methods:
1) establishing the energetic or thermal balance of the plant [1,2];
2) combustion gas composition analysis, exhausted at chimney, with thermographing the external walls of
the combustion chamber and measuring the exhaust gas and environment air temperatures [2-4].

Compared with the first, the second method has the advantage of greater accuracy of results diagnostic the
efficiency of the combustion installation and, with the development of metrological technology to analyze the
combustion gas composition and infrared thermography, of realizing in express regime of the measurements and
processing the measured data with the possibility of using of computer software and interfaces.

In a previous paper [5] was presented the methodology of plotting a diagram of graphically determining the
energetic efficiency of the combustion installation and the excess air factor in function of the volumetric
concentration values of oxygen in the combustion gas, O2, and the difference between the gas temperature
exhausted at chimney and the environment air temperature, t . To validate the theoretical diagram proposed,
through the analysis method of combustion gas composition, exhausted at chimney, with thermographing the
external walls of the combustion chamber and measuring the exhaust gas and environment air temperatures,

*
Corresponding author, e-mail sajin_tudor@yahoo.com

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were made a series of experimental measurements on heating stations and rooftops for precincts heating and air
conditioning. The obtained results are presented in continuation.

2. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND METHODOLOGY

For determining the operating performances of a heating plant through the combustion of a gaseous fuel which
does not produce solid residues of combustion, it is sufficient the combustion gas analysis and thermographing
the external walls to calculate the heat loss into the environment through the walls of the plant, q5 .

Combustion gas analyze was made with a portable gas analyzer GA-12 plus model with 4 electrochemical
sensors, produced by Madur, Austria (Fig.1) [3,6].

Fig.1. Portable gas analyzer GA-12 plus Fig.2. Thermal imaging camera FLIR i3

For determining the heat loss q5 into the environment through the walls of the heating station with infrared
camera for thermal imaging FLIR i3 (Fig. 2) [4] those were thermography, concomitant with flue gas analyze,
determining the average temperature of the wall surface i, t pi . Environment temperature, t 0 , was determined
with the help of gas analyzer. Also, was determined the surface area of each wall, S i .

3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMBUSTION INSTALLATIONS EFFICIENCY OF


HEATING STATIONS AND ROOFTOPS

For heating the rooms and preparing the domestic hot water are used heating stations and air conditioning
installations of rooftop type. For heating and preparing domestic hot water most frequently is used the natural
gas primarily containing methane, LPG and less coke-oven gas. Burned fuel parameter values are presented in
[6]: the maximum volumetric concentration in combustion gas of carbon dioxide, CO2max, [% vol.], which can be
achieved at the stoichiometric combustion of the given fuel; the characteristic coefficients A1 and B; the loss
coefficient through the incomplete combustion of the given fuel; the volumetric concentration of the
reference oxygen, O2ref, [% vol.]; low heat value, Qi , [MJ/kg]. Heat loss q3 through the incomplete combustion
from chemical point of view is essential in regime of combustion the rich mixtures fuel-air ( < 1) [7, 8] and can
be determined with a simplified relationship, which take into account only the volumetric concentration of the
carbon monoxide and dioxide in the combustion gas [6]:

CO
q3 = , [%], (1)
CO + CO2

in which the CO concentration substitute in [% vol.], as well as for CO2.

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Next, well see the consequences of fuel combustion quality over the energetic performance of the tested heating
stations.

In Fig. 3 is presented the diagram of the minimum and maximum energetic efficiency values of the combustion
installations from the heating stations and rooftops experimentally studied.

Fig. 3. Diagram of the minimum and maximum energetic efficiency values of the
combustion installations from the heating stations and rooftops experimentally studied

It is observed, that the maximum efficiencies of the Bosch and Ferroli manufacturing thermal stations and
Ferroli rooftops practically reach the limit of 100%, but the minimum efficiency at the Bosch gas stations is
77.5%, at Ferroli gas stations - 86%, at Ferroli gas rooftops 94.9%, at Ferroli LPG stations 91.5%. Slightly
lower are the maximum efficiencies of Ferroli LPG rooftops (99%), Lamborghini stations (98.7%) and Ariston
gas (98.5%), Viessmann LPG stations (98.4%). The lowest are the maximum efficiencies of the Viessmann
stations (92.9%), Sime (92%) and Trane gas rooftops (92.6%). The greatest interval of variation of the
combustion installation efficiency is characteristic for gas stations of Bosch manufacturing (up to 22.2%) and
the lowest at the Viessmann gas stations (up to 1.2%) and to Ferroli LPG rooftops (up to 1.5%). These results
shows, that the efficiency of fuel recovery is dependent not only on the combustion regime and the used fuel
parameters, but also the model manufacturing company.

At mathematical model simulation to influence the excess air factor and the temperature difference
( )
t = t g .a. t0 over the energetic efficiency of the combustion installation has been established the possibility
of drawing a nomogram, which establish the graphical link between the values of efficiency , excess air factor
, temperature difference t and O2 concentration in combustion gas exhausted at chimney [5]. In paper [5]
this nomogram has drawn in two variants:
a) the ordinates axis correspond to the efficiency values and the abscissa axis to the excess air factor
values and, supplementary, of the O2 concentration in combustion gas, parameter being the temperature
difference t (Fig. 4);
b) the ordinates axis correspond to the efficiency values and the abscissa axis to temperature
difference values t , parameters being the excess air factor and, supplementary, the O2 concentration in
combustion gas (Fig. 5).

Thus, determining through experimental measurements the O2 concentration in combustion gas exhausted at
chimney, the exhaust gas temperature t g .a. and the ambient temperature in the combustion installation location,
with formula [6]

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O2
CO2 = CO2 max 1 , [% vol.], (2)
O2 max
( )
is determined the CO2 concentration in combustion gas, then is calculated t = t g .a. t 0 . These data are
sufficient to determine with the help of nomogram the excess air factor value and the energetic efficiency
of the combustion installation of heating station and rooftop.

We mention that these nomograms are drawn for the fuels and can be used, if the combustion occurs in the
domain of poor fuel-air mixtures.

Experimentally measured data and plotted with points in nomograms presented in Figs. 4 and 5 are in
accordance with the values , t and CO2, theoretical results from nomograms, with some deviations caused by
measurement errors.

In diagrams from Figs. 4 and 5 is observed a good accordance between the data values of the theoretical
simulation of mathematical model [5], based on which were drawn with continuous lines the diagrams to
determine the efficiency and the excess air factor of the combustion installation operating with the respective
fuel in function of the measured values of oxygen concentration in exhaust gas at chimney and there
temperatures and ambient temperature, and the experimental data values (points), obtained at combustion gas
analysis exhausted from different model stations, which validates these diagrams.

We will mention, anticipating the results from p. 4, that in the theoretical diagrams is was not taking into
account the heat loss q5 in environment through the station walls and the connected pipe-lines thermal
insulation which, at stations and rooftops operating on gaseous and liquid fuel consists up to 2%, in function of
the thermal power and plant charge. This is the main cause of the experimental results deviation from those
theoretically which have the same order of magnitude as the q5 loss.

4. DETERMINING THE HEAT LOSS THROUGH THE WALLS OF THE HEATING STATION OR
ROOFTOP

With the measured values of the medium temperature of the i wall surface, t pi , the environment temperature,
t 0 , and the surface areas of each wall, S i , for each heating station or rooftop, were determined the heat loss:

[ i (t pi t o ) S i ]
n

i =1
q5 = 100 , [%], (3)
B Qd

in which i is the convection coefficient (natural) of heat from the i wall to environment, [W/(m2.oC)]; B -
fuel flow, [mN3 of gas fuel/s]; Qd - available heat in combustion chamber, [J/mN3 of gas fuel]; n - the number of
external walls of the heating station or rooftop.

Two examples of infrared images of the distribution of temperature field on walls and chimney of a heating
station and a rooftop are presented in fig. 6 and 7. It is observed, that in the case of the mural boiler of Ariston
type the temperature field has a distribution close to a homogeneous thermal field, and in the case of a high
power rooftop the temperature field has a pronounced dishomogeneity. In both cases FLIR i3 camera indicates
the medium value of the registered temperature field.

The heat loss q5 in environment through the tested heating stations and rooftops walls and through the
connected pipe-lines thermal insulation, increase up to 2% with increasing the thermal power and plant load.

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Fig.4. Nomogram for determining the energetic efficiency of the combustion installation of heating station on
natural gas and the excess air factor in function of CO2 and t measured values (variant a): with continues lines
are drawn the diagrams of the theoretical simulation with the model equations [5]; with points are indicated the
experimental data values

Fig.5. Nomogram for determining the energetic efficiency of the combustion installation of heating station on
natural gas and the excess air factor in function of CO2 and t measured values (variant b): with continues lines
are drawn the diagrams of the theoretical simulation with the model equations [5]; with points are indicated the
experimental data values

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Fig.6.The temperature field of the front wall of Ariston Fig.7.The temperature field of the wall with exhaust
boiler with thermal power combustion gas chimney of a Ferroli RFA 110
of 24 kW PCN150 15 Rooftop with thermal power of 155 kW

4. CONCLUSIONS

It was established the measurement methodology of the operating characteristics of the heating stations and of
the air conditioning installations of rooftop type. For determining the heat loss, the pollutant emissions and the
combustion installation efficiencies were used the combustion gas composition analysis method and the
thermographic method of the surfaces with temperature surplus in report with the environment temperature.

Another result of the mathematical model simulation, presented in a previous paper, was drawing in two
variants, for tested heating stations and rooftops operating on gaseous fuels mentioned above, of the graphically
determined diagrams of the combustion installation energetic efficiency and the excess air factor in function of
CO2 values and exhausted gas temperature at chimney, and also the environment air temperature.

Experimentally measured data and presented with points in the plotted theoretical diagrams for burned fuels in
tested combustion installations is in accordance with , t and CO2 values theoretically results from
theoretically drawn diagrams, with deviations by heat loss order in environment through the boiler or rooftop
walls and the connected pipe-lines thermal insulation (up to 2%, in function of tested plant power and thermal
load), fact that validates the previously proposed diagrams.

REFERENCES

[1] Ungureanu, C., Pnoiu, N., Zubcu, V., Ionel, I., Fuels, Combustion Installations, Steam Boilers, Ed.
"POLITEHNICA" Publish House, Timisoara, Romania, 2006, ISBN 973-9389-21-0 (in romanian).
[2] Sajin, T., Combustion Installations and Steam Generators, Ed. "Alma Mater" Publish House, Vasile
Alecsandri University of Bacau, Romania, 2002, ISBN 973-8392-55-1, 279 p. (in romanian).
[3] http://www.multilab.ro/gaze/gaz_monitor-ga12P.html
[4] http://www.termoviziune.ro/ro/Produs/Camere-pentru-scanarea-termica-a-cladirilor_Camera-termoviziune-
FLIR-i3-68
[5] Sajin, T., Grigore R., Vernica, S. Diagram for graphical determination of efficiency and of excess air factor
of combustion installation in function of measured values of oxygen concentration in the flue gases and their
temperature, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Industrial Power Engineering CIEI 2016, 2-4
June 2016, Bacau, Romania.
[6] http://www.cleanboiler.org/Eff_Improve/Efficiency/FlueGasAnalysis_Madur_SCHULUN.pdf
[7] Borghi, R., Destriau, M., Combustion and flames (Chemical and Physical Principles), ditions Technip,
Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-7108-0740-8, 377 p.
[8] McAllister S., Chen J.-Y., Fernandez-Pello A. C. (2011). Fundamentals of Combustion Process, XXIV,
Springer, Hardcover, ISBN 978-1-4419-7942-1, 304 p.

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DIAGRAM FOR GRAPHICAL DETERMINATION OF


EFFICIENCY AND OF EXCESS AIR FACTOR OF COMBUSTION
INSTALLATION IN FUNCTION OF MEASURED VALUES OF
OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IN THE FLUE GASES AND THEIR
TEMPERATURE

SAJIN TUDOR1, GRIGORE ROXANA1, VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1*


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 156, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology for plotting of diagram to determine the
efficiency of the combustion installations on base of analysis of flue gases composition at
the chimney. Concretely the diagram is plotted in the coordinates of efficiency as a function
of excess air factor with the difference beetwen the temperature of the flue gases at the
chimney and the temperature of atmospheric air and with the oxygen concentration in the
flue gases as an arguments. The diagram is valid for the burning domain of poor fuel-air
mixtures - the normal regime of combustion installations operation.

Keywords: combustion, combustion installation, efficiency, excess air factor, difference of


temperatures, flue gases analysis, composition of the flue gases, diagram

1. INTRODUCTION

The efficiency of a combustion installation is characterized by combustion efficiency and by flue gases
composition that determines the degree of air pollution by thermal plant. Typically, a combustion installation is
the basic part of a thermal installations: thermal plant, steam or hot water boiler, industrial furnace, etc. In
general case, the heat balance of the thermal installation may be written as [1]:

B Qa = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5 + Q6 , [W], (1)

where B is the fuel flow rate, [(kg or m N3 )/s]; Qa - available heat per unit of fuel, [J/(kg or m N3 of fuel)]; Q1 -
useful heat produced by the combustion installation, [W]; Q2 - heat loss with the flue gas enthalpy at the
chimney of thermal installation (through the reference surface), [W]; Q3 - heat loss by chemically incomplete
combustion, [W]; Q4 - heat loss by mechanically incomplete combustion, [W] ; Q5 - heat loss through exterior
walls of the thermal installation (reference area), [W]; Q6 - heat loss with the enthalpy of solid combustion
products, discharged from the combustion chamber, [W].

The values of losses Q2 , Q3 , , Q6 depend on thermal plant construction and on nature of the fuel burned in
the combustion installation, some of them becoming practically zero.

If the Eq (1) is divided by B Qa and multiplied by 100, we obtain:

100 + q 2 + q3 + q 4 + q5 + q6 , [%] ,
Q1
100 = (2)
B Qa

*
Corresponding author, e-mail sajin_tudor@yahoo.com

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where q2 , q3 , q4 , q5 , q6 are the heat losses, expressed as a percentage.

The value
6
= (Q1 B Qa ) 100 = 100 qi , [%] , (3)
i =2

is the thermal installation efficency determined indirect way [2]. For plant operating on gaseous fuel, will yield
the value determined from the expression:

= 100 (q 2 + q3 + q5 ) , [%]. (4)

Apart from the thermal installation efficiency, is calculated the combustion chamber efficiency:

c.c = 100 (q3 + q5,c.c. ) , [%], (5)

or the combustion efficiency [2]:

c = 100 q3 , [%]. (6)

A frequently practiced method for assessing the operation effectiveness of the combustion installation is the flue
gas analysis. By this method is determined the quality of the combustion process in the sense of establishing of
O2, CO2, CO, sulfur and nitrogen oxides and unburned fuel components concentrations and of the excess air
factor or of the air in excess. For this purpose, using the triangles of combustion made by Ostwald [3], is
determined the third component O2, CO2 or CO in the exhaust gases, if by analysis of flue gases are known the
concentrations of any two components, including the determination of the excess air factor . Ostwald's
triangles do not allow the assessment of combustion installation performance depending of the difference t
between the exhaust gas and ambient air temperatures but not only of the , CO2 or O2 concentrations.

Further on is proposed a methodology of plotting a new diagram, which eliminates this disadvantage.

2. EQUATIONS UNDERLYING THE DETERMINING OF COMBUSTION INSTALLATION


EFFICIENCY USING THE FLUE GASES ANALYSIS

Will be considered as known variables the concentrations of exhaust gases which are measured directly by the
gases analyzer [4] , as following:

1) the ambient air temperature, t0 , [oC];


2) the exhaust gases temperature, t e.g . , [oC];
3) the volumetric concentration of oxygen in the flue gas, O2, [% vol.];
4) the volumetric concentration of carbon oxide in the flue gas, CO, [ppm];
5) ) the volumetric concentration of nitric oxide in the flue gas, NO, [ppm];
6) the maximum volumetric concentration of oxygen for the clean atmosphere , O2max = 20,95 % vol.

Also, will be considered as known the fuel parameters (Table 1 [4]): maximum volumetric concentration in flue
gas for carbon dioxide, CO2max, [% vol.], which can be reached at the stoichiometric combustion of the chosen
fuel; features coefficients A1 and B; loss coefficient given by the incomplete combustion; the volumetric
concentration of the reference oxygen, O2ref [% vol.]; low value of combustion heat, Qi , [MJ/kg] or [MJ/m3].

The volumetric concentration of the carbon dioxide in the flue gases, CO2, can be determinated as following [4]:

O2
CO2 = CO2 max 1 , [% vol.]. (7)
O2 max

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Table 1 Fuels characteristics [4]


A1, B,
Nr. CO2max, % %vol % , O2ref, Qi ,
Natura combustibilului
c.r.t. [% vol.] 0C 0C [%] [% vol.]

1. Light oil 15.4 0.5000 0.007 52 3 37.80 MJ/kg
2. Natural gas 11.7 0.3700 0.009 32 3 37.35 MJ/m3
3. Town gas 13.1 0.3500 0.011 32 3 16.34 MJ/m3
4. Cooke-oven gas 10.2 0.2900 0.011 32 3 17.40 MJ/m3
5. Liquid gas 14.0 0.4200 0.008 32 3 93.20 MJ/m3
6. Bio-diesel 15.7 0.4567 0.005 52 3 37.40 MJ/m3
7. Extra light oil 15.3 0.5900 0 52 3 42.70 MJ/kg
8. Heavy oil 15.9 0.6100 0 52 3 39.90 MJ/kg
9. Coal-tar oil 18.0 0.6500 0 52 3 38.80 MJ/kg
10. Natural gas with fan 12.1 0.4600 0 32 3 37.35 MJ/m3
11. Town gas with fan 10.0 0.3800 0 32 3 16.34 MJ/m3
12. Propane with fan 13.7 0.5000 0 32 3 93.60 MJ/m3
13. Propane 13.7 0.4750 0 32 3 93.60 MJ/m3
14. Butane with fan 14.1 0.5000 0 32 3 128.00 MJ/m3
15. Butane 14.1 0.4750 0 32 3 128.00 MJ/m3
16. Biogas with fan 11.7 0.7800 0 32 3 24.00 MJ/m3
17. Biogas 11.7 0.7100 0 32 3 24.00 MJ/m3
18. Mineral coal HV 31.5 18.8 0.6830 0 69 11 31.50 MJ/kg
19. Mineral coal HV 30.3 18.5 0.6720 0 69 11 30.30 MJ/kg
20. Lignite HV 8.2 19.1 1.1130 0 69 11 8.20 MJ/kg
21. Lignite HV 9.4 19.1 0.9880 0 69 11 9.40 MJ/kg
22. Dry wood 19.4 0.6500 0 69 11 15.30 MJ/kg

One of the most important loss of fuel gas boiler is the heat loss with the exhaust gas enthalpy to the chimney.
For its determination, from the known relations, we use the Siegert's formula [4]:

A1
( )
q 2 = t e. g . t 0 + B , [%], (8)
CO2

with the above notations.

Heat loss q3 through the incomplete combustion from chemical point of view is determined with a simplified
relationship, which take into account only the volumetric concentration of the carbon monoxide and dioxide in
the combustion gas [4]:

CO
q3 = , [%], (9)
CO + CO2

in which the CO concentration substitute in [% vol.], as well as for CO2.

Using the data of flue gases analysis, the value of excess air factor is estimated with following formula [4]:

CO2 max O2 max


= . (10)
CO2 O2 max O2

The correlation between the values of the excess air factor , the volume of air in excess E , [%], and the
coefficient of equivalence of air in excess is [3, 5]:

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E 1
= 1+ = . (11)
100

Depend on the values of (or ) the combustion process can be included into one of the following three
situations [3, 5]:

- fuel-lean mixtures ( >1, <1), under which combustion can be substantially complete, in the flue gases
being found oxygen and the fuel components are almost absent;
- stoichiometric combustion of mixtures ( = =1), also named theoretical combustion, when the flue gas
contain no oxygen and no unburned fuel components;
- fuel-rich mixtures ( <1, >1), that is incomplete combustion in conditions of low oxygen for combustion.
Increasing the oxygen deficiency conducts to intensifying the phenomenon of carburization of the flame (a non-
reactive form of carbon particle) which could lead to damage of the combustion system.

The efficiency of the combustion process, according to the relation (6), for the combustion of poor air-fuel
mixtures is practically equal to 100%, the loss q3 for gas fuels being negligible, because in this regime
CO<<CO2, see equation (9):

q3 0 a = 100 q3 100% . (12)

The energetical efficiency of combustion installation, which only take into account the loss q 2 from the chimney
and the losses by incomplete combustion q3 and q 4 ,

q3 0, q4 = 0 = 100 (q2 + q3 + q4 ) 100 q2 , [%]. (13)

The proposed mathematical model of the combustion process aims the variation of CO, CO2 and O2 components
in the flue gas and of energy efficiency of combustion plant according to the excess air factor.

By transforming of relations (7), (8)-(10) and (13) with the conditions related to the field of poor mixtures
combustion, we get the following system of equations for - - t - O2 diagram plotting:

1;
1
O2 ( ) = O2 max ;

( )
t = t g .a. t 0 > 0; (14)

A1
( , t ) = 100 t + B .
CO2 max

The system of equations (14) allows simulating the mathematical model by variation of the excess air factor
value in the ranges corresponding to the combustion regimes of poor, stoichiometric and rich air-fuel mixtures,
( )
but also by temperature difference t = t g .a. t 0 variation. By the influence of fuel nature is accounted through
values of fuel characteristics (see Table 1).

3. PLOTTING OF DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY AND THE EXCESS AIR


FACTOR OF THE COMBUSTION INSTALLATION IN FUNCTION OF MEASURED VALUES OF
OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IN THE FLUE GASES AND THEIR TEMPERATURE

At simulation of mathematical model (14) in view of the influence of excess air factor and of temperature
( )
difference t = t g .a. t0 on the energy efficiency of combustion installation was established the possibility
of a diagram plotting for graphically determining of and in function of the oxygen volumetric
concentration in the flue gases, O2, and of t . This diagram can be drawn in two variants:

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a) the ordinate axis corresponds to the efficiency values and the abscissa axis to excess air coefficient
values and, supplementary, of the O2 concentration in flue gases, parameter being the temperature difference
t (Fig. 1);
b) the ordinate axis corresponds to the efficiency values and the abscissa axis to temperature
difference values t , parameters being the excess air factor and, supplementary, the O2 concentration in flue
gases (Fig. 2).

The diagrams from Figs. 1 and 2 are plotted for the gas fuel. Comparing the diagrams plotted for gas, liquid and
solid fuels, is observed that the differences between them increase with the ratio A1 CO2 max and with the fuel
constant B growth (Table 1), insofar the excess air factor coefficient and the temperature difference t
increases. For natural gas A1 CO2 max 0.0316 and B = 0.009, for light oil A1 CO2 max 0.0325 and B = 0.007,
for dry wood A1 CO2 max 0.0335 and B = 0.

Fig. 1. Diagram for determining the energy efficiency of thermal plant with natural gas combustion installation
and the excess air factor coefficient by O2 and t measured values (variant a)

Thus, determining by the experimental measurements the O2 concentration in the flue gases, their temperature
t e.g . and the air temperature t0 in the environment in the location of the combustion installation, with formula
( )
(7) is determined the CO2 concentration in the flue gas, and is calculated t = t g .a. t0 . These data are
sufficient to determine with diagram the values of the excess air factor and the energy efficiency of boiler
or rooftop combustion installation.

We will mention that these diagrams are plotted for the respective fuels and can be used where combustion takes
place for the poor air-fuel mixtures.

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Fig. 2. Diagram for determining the energy efficiency of thermal plant with natural gas combustion installation
and the excess air factor coefficient by O2 and t measured values (variant b)

4. CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of combustion theory established the mathematical model of the combustion process based on the
equations of exhaust gas components formation evacuated to the chimney (O2, CO, CO2) and energy efficiency
of combustion installation. These quantities are included in the model as independent functions of two sizes: the
excess air factor and the difference between exhaust gas temperature at the chimney and air ambient temperature
in the location of boilers or rooftops operation. The Mathcad 14 software was compiled for simulation of
mathematicall model in the regime of combustion of poor air-fuel mixtures ( > 1).

As a result of mathematical model simulation was plotted in two versions the diagram for graphical determining
of energy efficiency of combustion installation and of excess air factor in function of O2 concentration in flue
gases of difference t between the exhaust gas temperature at the chimney and the air temperature in the
environment.

The differences between diagrams plotted for various fuels increase with fuel ratios and with the fuel constant
growth insofar the excess air factor and the difference between exhaust gases temperature and air temperature in
the environment, grow.

REFERENCES

[1] Ungureanu, C., Pnoiu, N., Zubcu, V., Ionel, I., Fuels, Combustion Installations, Steam Boilers, Ed.
"POLITEHNICA" Publish House, Timisoara, Romania, 2006, ISBN 973-9389-21-0 (in romanian).
[2] Sajin, T., Combustion Installations and Steam Generators, Ed. "Alma Mater" Publish House, Vasile
Alecsandri University of Bacau, Romania, 2002, ISBN 973-8392-55-1, 279 p. (in romanian).
[3] Borghi, R., Destriau, M., Combustion and flames (Chemical and Physical Principles), ditions Technip,
Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-7108-0740-8, 377 p.
[4] http://www.cleanboiler.org/Eff_Improve/Efficiency/FlueGasAnalysis_Madur_SCHULUN.pdf
[5] McAllister S., Chen J.-Y., Fernandez-Pello A. C. (2011). Fundamentals of Combustion Process, XXIV,
Springer, Hardcover, ISBN 978-1-4419-7942-1, 304 p.

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OZONE GENERATOR WITH FIXED SYSTEMS OF ELECTRODES

SAJIN TUDOR1*, PUIU-BERIZINU MIHAI1, BRSAN CTLIN 1


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 157, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: This paper presents the design and the experimental results of study of a
new ozone generator with fixed systems of electrodes.

Keywords: ozone generator, system of electrodes, dielectric barrier, discharge.

1. INTRODUCTION

Ozone as pure organic agent with pronounced oxidizing properties has wide use in various spheres of human
activity. Industrial production of ozone in the world is greater than 500 t/day, for satisfaction of continuously
increasing demand. For the first time in 1875, making experiments with electricity, the Dutch physicist Martinus
Van Morum mentioned a smack in the spark discharge of electrostatic drive and ability to discharge air
oxidation. In 1840 German scientist Crisitian Friedrich Schnbein discovered a new flavor that gas called ozone
after the Greek word "" which translates to smell. Formula ozone, O3, was established in 1865 by Jacques-
Louis Soret and confirmed by Schnbein in 1867. On September 22, 1896, the inventor Nicola Tesla patented
the first ozone generator.

For ozone generation are used three groups of methods: electrolytic, photochemical and the method for ozone
electro-synthesis, the last having the widest use. As a result of numerous investigations that have used many
types of electrical discharge in gases, for electro-synthesis of ozone, were established three forms of more
efficient discharge: the barrier-surface and the pulse discharges. But the greater use has met the barrier dielectric
discharge.

S. Mosuda, Japan [1], and independently of him Engelisht V., Kyrgyzstan [2], have proposed a new modifying
the barrier discharge - download the barrier surface, which differs from the first through dynamic capacity C,
conditional coverage dielectric plasma discharge.

Theoretical models describing the physical processes of different types of gas discharges, including the plasmo-
chemycal reactions are presented in [3]. The following are elements of modeling of electrical discharge through
the dielectric barrier.

2. DESIGN OF OZONE GENERATOR

The invention [4] relates to an ozone generator (Fig.1) consisting of a cylindrical body (1), with flanges (2 and 3)
for inlet and outlet of a treated gas and for inlet and outlet of a cooling fluid. Some pairs of cylindrical coaxial
electrodes (4 and 5) are connected to a high voltage step up transformer (6) and separated by some dielectric
barriers (7), with increasing diameters within the range of diameter of body (1) forming annular slots (8). The
electrodes (4) on the inner walls of the barriers (7) are displaced axially related to the electrodes (5) on the outer
walls, on the side of flange (2) of body (1). An additional system of coaxial cylindrical ionizing electrodes (9) is
provided showing sharp edges (12) oriented towards some electrodes (10) for deionizing the treated gas,

*
Corresponding author, e-mail sajin_tudor@yahoo.com

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connected to a source (11) of high voltage direct current. The electrodes (10) form between annular slots (8) the
annular slots (13) for passing the discharged gas towards the electrodes (4 and 5) and for discharging the
dielectric barriers (7). The generator uses as cooling fluid the treated gas, cooled outside the body (1).

Fig.1. Design of the ozone generator with fixed systems of electrodes.

3. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND METHODOLOGY

The experimental model of the ozone generator proposed by [4] shows a basic embodiment thereof, a pair of
electrodes. As a dielectric barrier used was a thermostated glass tube with a mean diameter of 100 mm and a wall
thickness of 3 mm. In making experimental program [5] were used three types of high voltage sources: AC
power frequency of 50 Hz; AC power adjustable frequency; high voltage source signals superimposed.

To measure the applied voltage was used a high voltage transformer with ratio 1:1000 and HV Probe Fluke
Model 80K-40 [5].

Discharge current measurement during ozone generation is done using a current transducer Hall effect - LEM
HX03-P-SP2, which is able to measure DC and AC signals [5]. The signals obtained from the current transducer
are processed through a linear operational amplifier (Burr-Brown INA122) and then converted into digital
signals on the oscilloscope for being acquired digital signals [5].

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The processed air temperature T was recorded with a thermometer infrared radiation type TMD 90 A and a
thermometer HI 93510N, humidity - with a hygrometer type DT-3 and the pressure p with an aneroid
barometer type M67.

The measurement of the ozone concentration was conducted by using the technique of absorption of
electromagnetic radiation in the UV spectrum, measurement which is based on the ozone feature to absorb
radiation in certain wavelengths. In the first phase of the experimental program was used an ozone analyzer
Model 465-H. In the second stage was used a special device building [5].

The concentration of air ions was determined by the method of condenser aspiration [5].

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Volt-ampere characteristic of the electrode system under study is significant in that, on the one hand, simplifies
the calculation of the electric field of the corona discharge, and, on the other hand, illustrates the effectiveness of
different electrode systems to reduce energy consumption. This feature can be used as a parameter by which
regulate different processes is carried out under corona discharge.

In Fig. 2 to 5 volt-ampere characteristics are presented for basic electrode systems, which constitute the ozone
generator studied: for corona discharge (Fig. 2 to 4) and for surface discharge with dielectric barrier (Fig. 5).

Fig. 2. Volt-ampere characteristic corresponding Fig. 3. Volt-ampere characteristic corresponding


needle cylinder electrode system: ring blade cylinder electrode system:
distance between electrodes l [mm]: 1- 5; 2- 10; 3- 15; 4- 20; distance between electrodes l [mm]: 1-5; 2-10; 3-15; 4-20;
= 70% ;T = 200C; coronary electrode - negative = 70% ;T = 200C; coronary electrode - negative

Current intensity of corona discharge depends substantially of polarity corona electrode polarity, being higher for
negative polarity. This is explained by the fact that the mobility of negative ions is greater; great influence of
polarity indicates that the effects of attachment of electrons missing.

The volt-amper characteristics of the needle cylinder electrodes (Fig. 2) and the ring blade cylinder
electrodes (Fig. 3) are similar, the value of the current intensity is greater for the system ring blade cylinder,
which can be explained by the active surface of the electrode coronary higher. However, connecting in the circuit
to both systems of electrodes (needle cylinder and the ring blade cylinder) the intensity of the current is small
(Fig. 4) than when using them separately (Fig. 2 and 3), which is due to the effects of mutual shielding of electric
fields of the neighboring electrodes, thus the mutual shielding of electric charges.

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Fig. 4. Volt-ampere characteristic corresponding Fig. 5. Volt-ampere characteristic corresponding


electrode system ac & ring blade cylinder: electrode system by dielectric barrier discharge:
l =10 [mm]; [%]: 1 - 30; 2 - 70; 3 - 100; d [mm]: 1 - 0; 2 - 2; 3 - 5; f=5 kHz.
o
T = 20 C; coronary electrodes - negative

In Fig. 5 are presented the volt-ampere characteristics of the electrode system with discharge barrier according to
the distance d between the electrodes at constant frequency of the supply voltage. Volt-ampere characteristic in
this case includes three areas: first, within 0 U 500...1200 V, in the circuit a weak capacitive current is
flowing, conditional of small capacity of discharge electrodes; at higher voltage of 500 ... 1200 V current
intensity increases rapidly due to the increase capacity of discharge local space; at higher voltage, 3 ... 4 kV,
slope is increasing as a result of the discharge current through the barrier discharge ignition superficial.

Dynamic characteristic charge voltage is the curve of the electric charge Q generated on the dielectric barrier
by the applied voltage V. Depending on the value of the voltage, on the scope, these characteristics appear in the
form of Lissajous figures: at low voltage rms values, Q(V) curve is in the form of an ellipse which, at higher
voltage than 2.5 kV is converted into a parallelogram.
Aria of these parallelograms Q(V) it is proportional to the
active power injected into the discharge. This power
increases with the power supply frequency (Fig. 6) with the
trend of flattening at frequencies above 7 kHz. As shown in
Fig. 6, luminescence and discharge area width increases
with frequency at constant voltage.

And the corona discharge and at the discharge through the


barrier it can be assumed that the ozone concentrations will
be directly proportional to the intensity of the discharge
current.

In Fig. 7 to 9 presents graphs of the ozone concentration in


function of the voltage applied to the electrode systems
studied. It notes that the ozone concentration increases non-
linear with voltage increases and reducing the distance
Fig. 6. Wattage consumption corresponding
between the electrodes. As with volt-ampere characteristics,
electrode system by dielectric barrier discharge:
under the same conditions, the concentration of ozone is
V = 10 kV; d = 2 mm.
higher for negative polarity of coronal electrode. There is
also in this case a threshold voltage above which is produces ozone. Alike ozone concentration is higher for the
electrode system ring blade cylinder (Fig. 8) than with needle cylinder system (Fig. 7).

The highest concentration of ozone is obtained for the barrier discharge surface. More complicated CO3(V)
curves depend on the amplitude of the applied voltage (Fig. 9), but in this case, the ozone concentration increases
with reducing the offset distance d of the electrodes.

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Fig. 7. Ozone concentration, needle cylinder Fig. 8. Ozone concentration, ring blade cylinder
o
o
electrodes: l [mm]: 1 - 5; 2 - 10; 3 - 20; T = 20 C; electrodes: l [mm]: 1 - 5; 2 - 10; 3 - 20;T = 20 C;
= 70 %; coronary negative electrode (solid line); = 70 %; coronary negative electrode (solid
coronary positive electrode (dashed line). line); coronary positive electrode (dashed line).

As shown in Fig. 10, ozone concentration depends heavily on power supply frequency f, and achieves a
maximum level for f = 10kHz.

Fig. 9. Ozone concentration cylindrical electrode Fig. 10. Ozone concentration cylindrical electrode
system with dielectric barrier: system with dielectric barrier:
d[mm]: 1 - 0; 2 - 2; 3 - 5; T = 20 C; = 70 %; f = 5kHz.
o
U=10 kV; T = 20 C; = 70 %; d = 2 mm.
o

Ozone generation efficiency depends weak voltage in the


range of 5 to 9 kV and decreases substantially in the
range 9 to 10 kV (Fig. 9). With increasing frequency
ozone production efficiency increases, reaching a
maximum at f = 7 kHz, and then decreases.

In the case of barrier discharge electrodes the ozon


concentration decreases with increasing temperature and
the relative humidity of the air. In regimes in which the
ozone concentration is practically zero, the generator can
be used as the ion generator. In this case the barrier
discharge electrodes are disconnected from the power Fig. 11. The dependence of the operating time
supply. of the ion concentration:
1 at the output of the generator; 2 1m away from
generator; 3 3,4 m away from generator.

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The kinetics of ion generation is shown in Fig. 11. It is noted that in the first 2 5 minutes of operation, the
concentration of ions increases rapidly, then slowly flatten, the maximum concentration of ions is greater, as the
nearest measurement point is it from fitting generator output.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In order to study the ozone generation plants, authors have designed and developed a new type of generator with
fixed systems of electrodes. There has been traced the volt-ampere characteristics, were measured temperature in
discharge areas, ionic wind speed and air ions and ozone concentrations. These quantities were measured at
varying frequency and voltage value, the distance between electrodes and at the different values of temperature
and relative humidity of the air processed.

For all systems of electrodes analyzed, the intensity of the discharge current increases non-linearly with
increasing voltage (with the threshold voltage corona discharge priming) and decreasing of the distance between
the electrodes.

Increasing the temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the intensity of the discharge current increases.
The characteristic of superficial discharge through the barrier Q(V) are Lissajous curves form a parallelogram,
whose area is proportional to the active power injected into the discharge. This power increases with the power
supply frequency with the trend of flattening at frequencies above 7 kHz. The luminescence and the discharge
area width increases with frequency at constant voltage.

The concentration of ozone is directly proportional to the intensity of the discharge current, the power injected
into the discharge default. In the case at the surface discharging, the ozone concentrations increases with the
power supply frequency, reaching a maximum at 7 kHz frequency. Injected into the discharge power increase in
this case with frequency of the voltage, with a trend to flattening at the frequency of 9 to 10kHz. While
functioning as ionizer, ion concentration increases rapidly in the first 2 5 minutes of the appliance, the
maximum concentration of ions is greater, the closer is the measurement point of the concentration of the
generator output.

REFERENCES

[1] Mosuda, S. et. al. A ceramic-based ozoniser using higt frecvency dicharge, IEEE trans. Ind. Appl.. 1988, vol.
24, p. 223-231.
[2] Engelisht V.S. Lecii po spe. cursu Fizica gazovogo rozreada, Plazmennaia Tehnologhia, IGU im. K.
Tnstanova, Karakol, 1999-2000.
[3] Elliason B., Kogelschatz U. Modeling and applications of silent discharge plasmas, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.,
1991, vol. 19, no.2, p.309-323.
[4] Brsan, C., Sajin, T., Mrian, M. Gh.; Nedelcu, D. I., Ostahie, C. N., Vernica, S.-G.; Aniei, F. Ozone
generator, RO Patent no. 125845, 16.01.2009.
[5] Brsan, C. Contributions to design and the study operating regimes of the electrostatic engine-fan to generate
aeroions and ozone, Phd thesis in Mechanical Engineering, Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 2011.

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OZONE GENERATOR WITH MOVING SYSTEMS OF ELECTRODES

SAJIN TUDOR1*, PUIU-BERIZINU MIHAI1, BRSAN CTLIN 1


1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Marasesti 157, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: The paper presents a new type of ozone generator realized with a moving
system of electrodes. They are presented the constructive peculiarities of the ozone
generator designed and carried experimental results by testing it.

Keywords: ozone generator, system of electrodes, dielectric barrier, discharge.

1. INTRODUCTION

Designing new techniques for generating ozone and air ions follows to solving technical problems encountered
so far realized generators such as increasing efficiency and optimal channeling the processed gas. Thus, in the
design of ozone generators is based on the idea of building of a device where complementary gas discharge
functions to be combined with the basic functions of ozone generation by electric discharge in the processed air.

There is now a wide range of plants for generating air ions and ozone. The vast majority of these generators
using technologies of electrical discharges in the gas molecules for generating ozone and negative ions
artificially [1-3].

Another category of generators air ions are hydro-generators that are based Lenard effect, generators using
thermal emission of ions, generators that use radioactive substances, the photoelectric effect, generators air ions
by flame. Industrial ozone generators, depending on the geometry of the electrodes, are classified into generators
with plane parallel electrodes with a central collector or longitudinal movement, and the ozone generators eith
tube electrodes, placed vertically or horizontally [4,5].

Generatoarele de ozon industriale, n funcie de geometria electrozilor, se clasific n generatoare de ozon cu


electrozi plani paraleli cu un colector central sau cu circulaie longitudinal, i n generatoare de ozon cu
electrozi tubulari, amplasai vertical sau orizontal [4,5]. The widest use have met tubular ozone generators with
horizontal placement of the electrodes.

In this paper is proposed and tested a new ozone generator [6], having electrodes discharge barrier in a helix, that
discharges the processed gas and is driven in rotation by a electrogazodinamic jet engine, that fulfills and basic
function of generating air ions and ozone.

2. DESIGN OF OZONE GENERATOR

The invention [6] relates to an ozone generator (Fig.1), consisting of a cylindrical body (1) provided with a
flange (2) for the treated gas inlet and a flange (3) for the outlet of the treated gas. A propeller (8) made of
dielectric material, located in the body (1), which rotates on an axle (9). A pair of electrodes (4 and 5) located
along the opposing faces of the blades of propeller (8) which displace transversely in relation to each other and

*
Corresponding author, e-mail sajin_tudor@yahoo.com

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being separated by a dielectric barrier (6), connected in parallel to a high voltage source (7). On the axle (9) is
mounted a device of electrogasodynamic turboreactive driving achieved by means of dielectric cases (22) with
the grooves (23) wherein there are positioned some pairs of gas ionizing electrodes (24) in the shape of sharp
edged lamellas and gas deionizing electrodes as nozzles, parallel connected to a high voltage source (26). The
ends of grooves (23) on the side of the ionizing electrodes (24) are obturated, and the ends on the side of the
deionizing electrodes are open towards the inner side of body (1). The dielectric cases (22) are mounted on the
radial tubes (27) having the inner channels (28) communicating at the peripheral ends with the channels (23) and
with the inner space of body (1) at the inner ends.

Fig.1. Design of the ozone generator with moving systems of electrodes

3. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND METHODOLOGY

The experimental model of the generator, as opposed to the generator as shown in Fig. 1. were excluded the sub-
assembly of the turbo-reactive driving mechanism (22 25) and the high voltage source (26). In making
experimental program [7] were used two types of high voltage sources: AC power frequency of 50 Hz; AC
power adjustable frequency.

High voltage level used is measured by using a high-voltage resistive divider ratio of 1:1 000 V and HV Probe
Fluke Model 80 K-40 [7]. Discharge current measurement during ozone generation is done using a current
transducer Hall effect LEM HX03-P-SP2, which is able to measure DC and AC signals [7]. The signals
obtained from the current transducer are processed through a linear operational amplifier (Burr-Brown INA122)
and then converted into digital signals on the oscilloscope for being acquired as digital signals [7].

The processed air temperature T was recorded with a thermometer infrared radiation type TMD 90 A and a
thermometer HI 93510N, humidity with a hygrometer type DT-3 and the pressure p with an aneroid
barometer type M67 Propeller revolution (8) was measured with laser UT type turometre 371 2234B and DM-
type. Processed air discharge velocity was measured with an anemometer with propeller type TMA10A [7].

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The measurement of the ozone concentration was conducted by using the technique of absorption of
electromagnetic radiation in the UV spectrum, measurement which is based on the ozone feature to absorb
radiation in certain wavelengths. In the first phase of the experimental program was used an ozone analyzer
Model 465-H. In the second stage was used a special device building [7]. The concentration of air ions was
determined by the method of condenser aspiration [7].

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The experimental model used for the study consists of an electrode in the form of propeller mounted on the same
shaft with an axial fan rotor. Outside the cylindrical casing is placed a ring electrode with the possibility of
longitudinal displacement over a distance l between 20 to 100 mm from the position fo the electrode propeller.
The propeller of the inside electrode has five blades. The system of electrodes was powered with sinusoidal
voltage with a frequency of 50 Hz and amplitude
adjustable between 0 and 50 kV.

Unlike the surface electrical discharge through


dielectric barrier [7], in the propeller ring electrode
system is included as barrier and discharged gas layer.
In Fig. 2 are presented the static volt-ampere charac-
teristics depending on the distance between the
electrodes. Intensity of discharge current increases
nonlinear with voltage increases and decreases by
reducing the distance between the electrodes. And in
this case there is a threshold of ignition voltage
between 3 and 10 kV.

Discharge current intensity increases with increasing


relative humidity of the air as seen from Fig. 3. and
with increasing air temperature (fig. 4).
Fig. 2. Volt ampere characteristic corresponding
electrodes system propeller ring:
= 70 %; T = 20 C; f = 50 Hz.
o

Fig. 3. Volt ampere characteristic corresponding of the electrode


system propeller ring:
[%]= 1 30; 2 70; 3 100; l = 40mm; T = 20 C; f = 50 Hz.
o

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Fig. 4. Volt ampere characteristic corresponding of the electrode


system propeller ring:
T [ C] = 1 5; 2 20; 3 150; l = 40mm; = 70%; f = 50 Hz.
o

Due to the interaction between the electric


field and propeller electrode, electrostatic
charging occurs to the front of the blades,
electric charge density being greater as these
surfaces are closer to the outer ring electrode.
Due to the interaction of the electric field with
the charged blades, it causes rotation of the
propeller electrode. After exceeding the
threshold voltage of 5 8kV, propeller speed
increases non-linear with voltage amplitude
(Fig. 5). In the absence of axial fan rotor,
propeller speed is substantially higher than in
its presence when the propeller takes over the
task of its rotation. With increasing distance
between the electrodes is reduced field Fig. 5. Dependence of propeller speed with applied voltage:
strength and speed decreases down to zero at 1 without axial fan rotor; 2 with axial fan rotor;
T = 20 C; l = 40mm; = 70%; f = 50 Hz.
the values l = 107mm with axial fan rotor and o

l = 119mm without axial fan rotor (fig. 6).


In the situation of coaxial rotor driven by propeller, ozone flow discharged increases with voltage, but decreases
with increasing distance between the electrodes (Fig. 7).

Fig. 6. Speed propeller electrode according to axial


distance between electrodes: Fig. 7. Ozone air debit discharged for the electrode
1 without fan rotor; 2 with axial fan rotor; system propeller ring:
T = 20 C; l = 40mm; = 70%; f = 50 Hz.
o
T = 20 C; l = 40mm; = 70%; f = 50 Hz.
o

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In [7] demonstrated that the rotation of the discharge electrode lead to increased of the ozone productivity. With
the help of an electromotor, electrode propeller speed was varied in the range from 0 to 1200 RPM. Thereby to
speed of 800 RPM, maximum ozone concentrations were obtained, almost twice higher than the fixed electrode.

In Figure 8 is shown the ozone concentration dependence of electrode propeller speed and the amplitude of the
voltage applied. With increasing voltage and thus speed, the ozone concentration increases. Ozone production
efficiency decreases with the amplitude of the voltage, but increases with speed, peaking at 2500 RPM
maximum value (fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Ozone air debit discharged for the electrode Fig. 9. Dependence of speed propeller electrode
system propeller ring without axial fan rotor: ozone concentration without axial fan rotor;
V [kV] = 1 - 10, 2 - 20; 3 - 30; 4 - 40; 5 - 50; [%] = 1 - 30, 2 50, 3 70; T = 20 C;
o

T = 20 C; l = 40mm; = 70%; f = 50 Hz.


o
l = 40mm; V = 50kV; f = 50 Hz.

Increasing the humidity and air temperature in the area of discharge leads to a reduction in the concentration of
ozone (Fig. 9 and Fig. 10).

Fig. 10. Dependence of speed propeller electrode Fig. 11. Ion concentration according to the operating
ozone concentration without axial fan rotor; time of the generator:
o
T [ C] = 1 - 20, 2 50, 3 100, 4 - 150; 1 out of generator, 2 1m distance from generator,
[%] = 70 %; l = 20mm; V = 50kV; f = 50 Hz. 3 4m away from generator.

To using only propeller ring electrode system to voltages supply, where the ozone concentration is negligible,
the device can be used as an ion generator. Basically after 5 minutes of operation, the concentration of ions is
flattened, being higher the output of the generator and lowering the removal with the outlet (Fig. 11).

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4. CONCLUSIONS

To study the technical characteristics of ozone generators has been designed and experimentally studied a new
type of ozone generator with movable electrodes. There were studied the volt-ampere characteristics (static and
dynamic), the temperature in discharge areas, ionic wind speed and air ions and ozone concentrations. These
sizes were measured by the amplitude and frequency of the supply voltage, the distance between the electrodes,
temperature and relative humidity of the air processed. As a result of experimental tests performed were found
the following:

1) The intensity of the discharge current increases non-linearly with increasing voltage (with the threshold
voltage of the corona discharge priming) and the reducing of the distance between the electrodes. Increasing the
temperature and the relative humidity of the air, the intensity of the current increases.

2) At the dielectric barrier discharge in the propeller-ring electrodes system, the dielectric barrier resistance is
serially connected with resistance of the air layer processed. This involves increasing the voltage amplitude for
smaller discharge currents.

3) Propeller speed increases with increasing supply voltage and reducing the distance between the electrodes.
There is a threshold voltage of the propeller begins to rotate. Properly, the air flow discharged increases with
increasing voltage and reducing the distance between the electrodes.

4) The concentration of ozone is directly proportional to the intensity of the discharge current, the power
injected into the discharge default. In the case of the surface barrier discharge, ozone concentrations increases
with the power supply frequency, reaching a maximum at 7 kHz frequency. In this case, the power injected into
the discharge increases with the frequency voltages with a tendency of flattening at the frequencies 9 - 10 kHz.

5) Ozone concentration depends on the speed of the propeller, reaching maximum speeds of 2500RPM.

6) While functioning as ionizer, ion concentration increases rapidly in the first 2 5 minutes of operation of the
device. Ion concentration in the air processed has the maximum value output device and decreases with distance
from the device.

REFERENCES

[1] Bityurin V. A., Deminsky M. A., Potapkin B. V. (2000). Chemical activity of discharges, Electrical
Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fundamentals and Applications, Ed. by van Veldhuizen E. M.,
Nova Science Publ., Huntington, NY, Chapter 4, p. 49117.
[2] Tanaka M., Yagi S., Tabata N. (1985). Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Gas Discharges and Their Applications GD-
85, Oxford, p. 551554.
[3] Mestiri R., Hadaji R., Nasrallah S. (2008). The electrical discharge as a source of a mechanical energy,
Desalination, No 220, p. 468475.
[4] Russian Federation Patent, No 2046753, dated October 27, 1995.
[5] Russian Federation Patent, No 2089488, dated September 10, 1997.
[6] Brsan, C., Sajin, T., Mrian, M. Gh.; Nedelcu, D. Iu, Ostahie, C. N., Vernica, S.-G.; Aniei, F. Ozone
generator, RO Patent no. 125845, 16.01.2009.
[7] Brsan, C. Contributions to design and the study operating regimes of the electrostatic engine-fan to generate
aeroions and ozone, Phd thesis in Mechanical Engineering, Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 2011.

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MONITORING A WIND SIMULATOR USING AN


ADDITIONNAL WIRELESS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

TAMAS ADRIAN1, OANA MITREA1, LIVINI PETRU **, JERRY TEKOBON2,


TEKOBON2, FERHAT CHABOUR2, JACQUES RAHARIJAONA2, CRISTIAN
NICHITA2
1
Universit Vasile Alecsandridu Bacu, Calea Mreti 156,Bacu, 600115, Roumanie
2
Unversit du Havre France

Abstract: In this article we present research aspect concerning additionnal wireless data
acquisition systemfor a wind emulator development platform.Starting from the rotation
speed, torque and electrical parametersof the wind system emulator, we designed a
supplementary monitoring system based on Arduino applications devices. This new
approach facilitate the global control of the emulator system developed as a Hardware
in the Loop Simulator (HILS).

Keywords:Wireless data, Wind simulator, Arduinobased application.

1. INTRODUCTION

Les appareils mobiles de communication daujourdhui, smartphones, tablettes tactiles, comme les ordinateurs
ultra-portables, mettent notre disposition des moyens de transmissions de donnes sans fils (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi,
GSM/GPRS) qui pourraient tre mis profit pour le suivi temps rel, le diagnostic in-situ, lacquisition de
mesures en vue dune exploitation future des donnes sauvegardes.

Nous prsentons dans cet article la ralisation dune instrumentation virtuelle sappuyant sur un
systmedacquisition de donnes sans fils pouraccder auxparamtres de fonctionnement d'un simulateur olien.
Suivant les situations trois types de liaisons sont mis en uvre : uneconnexion Bluetooth pour des manipulations
proximit proche du banc dtude, uneconnexion GSM/GPRS pour les transferts de donnes plus ou moins
longues distances.Ce dispositif dacquisition de mesures vise complter linstrumentation classique du
simulateur olien.

2. LE SIMULATEUR EOLIEN

Le schma synoptique du simulateur olien estdonn sur la figure suivante (Fig.1).

Le fonctionnement de lmulateur olien est bas sur deux sous-systmes :


- un sous-systme lectromcanique asservi constitu d'un moteur courant continu coupl mcaniquement
avec un frein lectromagntique poudre. Le moteur doit se comporter, du point de vue mcanique, sur l'arbre
de son rotor, comme une turbine olienne: il dveloppe le mme couple la mme vitesse de rotation que
l'olienne place dans des conditions de vent v. Le frein doit remplacer, pendant la mise au point du simulateur,
le gnrateur lectrique de l'installation olienne complte. Il doit raliser n'importe quelle courbe de consigne de
charge.
- un sous-systme de commande et de supervision, qui excute plusieurs fonctions en temps rel :
- il simule numriquement

*
Corresponding author, e-mail plivinti@ub.ro

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- les caractristiques de l'olienne,


- le vent,
- il excute les algorithmes numriques pour les structures de commande,
- il calcule les consignes pour la partie lectromcanique,
- il assure la supervision en temps rel des processus de simulation.

Fig. 1 : Schma synoptique du simulateur olien.

Le banc physique dexprimentation (Fig.2) est constitu des lments suivants :


Moteur qui simule la turbine oleinne Gnratrice de courant lectrique Frein dynamomtrique
Vibro-mtre (contrle du frein) Circuit dacquisition de donnes Oscilloscope
Commande marche-arrt du systme Filtre de tension Parvex 440V Disjoncteur
Contacteur trois phases Convertisseur statique de frquence Appareil de mesure MGC
Capteur de couple T10F Logiciel dexploitation.

Fig.2. Schma gnral du simulateur

2.1 Le fonctionnement dusimulateur olien


Lmulateur olien du GREAH est capable de reproduire sur son arbre la vitesse et le couple d'une turbine
olienne de type courant (on nglige les phnomnes de frquences suprieures 2 Hz) :
- turbine rapide axe horizontal, dont la vitesse maximale est de l'ordre de 1500 tour/mn aprs le
multiplicateur, de couple maximal: 12,5 Nm,
- rgulation de vitesse par rglage de l'angle de calage (ventuellement),
- de caractristiques statiques connues (couple-vitesse de rotation, paramtres par la vitesse du vent),
- de moment d'inertie connu,
- place dans un site de potentiel olien connu.

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La gnratrice aimants est couple mcaniquement larbre olien sur lequel est mont un capteur de
couple. Les capteurs de vitesse et de couple fournissent les mesures qui sont transmises une carte dacquisition
isole. Le code dexploitation implment sur lordinateur permet de lire les donnes reues travers une carte
lectronique dacquisition DSpace et den effectuer le traitement.

3. LA PLATEFORME DE COMUNICATION

Le dispositif complmentaire dacquisition de donnes utilise deux normes de communications sans fil : le
Bluetooth et le systme GSM/GPRS.

Le Bluetooth
Bluetoothest un standard de communication entre les tlphones mobiles et les ordinateurs portables. Ce
standard permet l'change bidirectionnel de donnes trs courte distance et utilisant des ondes radio UHF. Son
objectif est de simplifier les connexions entre les appareils lectroniques en supprimant des liaisons filaires.

Les systmes GSM


Le GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) est une norme numrique de seconde gnration pour la
tlphonie mobile. Le groupe de travail charg de la dfinir a t tabli en 1982 par la Confrence europenne
des administrations des postes et tlcommunications (CEPT).Elle a t spcifie et mise au point par l'ETSI
(EuropeanTelecommunications Standard Institut) pour la gamme de frquences des 900MHz. Une variante
appele Digital Communication System (DCS) utilise la gamme des 1800MHz. Cette norme est particulirement
utilise en Europe, en Afrique, au Moyen-Orient et en Asie.
Deux autres variantes, en 850 MHz et en 1 900 MHz PCS (Personal Communications Services) sont galement
utilises. La protection des donnes est assure par les algorithmes de chiffrement A5/1 et A5/2. Sous l'gide de
l'organisation 3GPP la norme GSM a ensuite t tendue pour prendre en charge de plus hauts dbits et le
transport de donnes en mode paquet par les extensions GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) puis EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution). Ces deux modes peuvent cohabiter avec le mode voix commute
du GSM et utilisent les mmes antennes et les mmes bandes de frquence.

3.1. Description de l'acquisition et la transmission de donnes sans fil


Le systme dacquisition de mesures complmentaire est compos de deux plateformes dmission(Fig.3) et de
rception(Fig.4) architectures autour de cartes microcontrleur Arduino.

Lapremire plateforme estinstalle proximit du simulateur olien pour lacquisition des mesures (donnes en
mission). Elle est composedune carte ArduinoMega 2560 laquelle sont associs une carte dinterface
(shield) capteurs,unshieldGSM/GPRS, un module Bluetooth et un afficheur cristaux liquides LCD.

La carte Arduino est utilise pour les mesures de courant (5 capteurs effet Hall relis aux entres analogiques
A0-A4), les mesures de vitesse et de couple (appliques sur les entres analogiques A8-A11via 4diviseurs de
tension), la transmissionde donnes par Bluetooth et laffichage sur cran LCD.

Fig.3. Plateforme Arduino ct Simulateur olien. Fig.4. Plateforme Arduino ct ordinateur

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Les intensits des courants mesurer (courant consomm par le moteur et courant de sortie du gnrateur)
ncessitent lutilisation de capteurs de courant 20 A - 30 A.Ce qui nous a amen au choix du capteur effet Hall
ACS712 (Fig.5).Le schma de cblage du capteur de courant l'Arduino est reprsent Fig.6.

Fig.5 Schma du capteur de courant. Fig.6 Connexion capteur de courant Arduino.

Des diviseurs de tension sont ncessaires pour protger la carte Arduino conue pour les niveaux analogiques de
valeur maximale 5 volts alors que la carte d'acquisition du simulateur de vent dlivre des tensions jusqu 10
volts.

Fig.7 Modle du calcul volt RMS. Fig.8 Relation de diviseur tension.

La figure 9 montre les liaisons entre la carte microcontrleur Arduino et linterface GSM/GPRS.

La carte dinterfaceGSM/GPRS est


architectureautour du module SIMCOM SIM900.
Elle est compatible Arduino. Ce shield permet la
carte Arduinode communiquer par lintermdiaire du
rseau GSM. La carte Arduino peut alors envoyer des
SMS, MMS, GPRS et de laudio (utilisation de
commandes AT) lUART.

Les grandeurs mesures par la carte Arduino (vitesse,


couple et courants) sont affiches en temps rel sur
lcran LCD.

Ces donnes de mesures sont aussi transmises des


terminaux distants (smartphones, tablettes tactiles ou
ordinateurs portables) par la connexion Bluetooth pour
les petites distances, et par connexion GSM/GPRS
pour les longues distances.

Fig.9 Arduino interface GSM interfacecapteurs.


La deuxime plateforme(Fig.4) est la plateforme derception. Elle est compose dune carte microcontrleur
Arduinosupportant deux shields : un module GSM pour la rception des donnes de mesures et un shield
Ethernet pour leur affichage sur un ordinateur.

3.2. Les donnes exprimentales pour mesurer le courant lectrique produit


Afin dvaluer les performances brutes de notre dispositif dinstrumentation virtuelle sans fils nous avons
effectu deux sries de mesures.La premire exprience opre au ralenti sans consommateur, et la seconde avec
consommateur(trois phases connectes).

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La premire figure (Fig.11) nous montre le courant au ralenti en fonction de la vitesse.

Fig.11 Caractristique du courant gnr sans consommateur.

La deuxime figure (Fig.12) nous montre la caractristique gnre avec un consommateur.

Fig.12 Caractristique du courant gnr avec un consommateur.

4. CONCLUSION

Nous avons ralisun dispositif permettant la supervision sans fils du fonctionnement dun mulateur olien.Cet
instrument virtuel se veut tre complmentaire de linstrumentation classique du banc dtude. Les
exprimentations effectues nous ont permisdvaluer les performances de notre dispositif : transmission sans
fils des acquisitions de mesure des paramtres de fonctionnement du simulateur olien (courant produit par le
gnrateur,vitesse et couple du systme). Laconnexion Bluetooth nous a permis devisualisersur un mobile les
donnes de mesures, tout en restant proximit du simulateur.En pratique cette mthode serait intressante
lorsquil sagit deffectuerdes tests ou de la maintenance dans un environnement prochedu
simulateurolien.Laconnexion par GSM/GPRS offre la possibilit de recevoirsur la deuxime plateforme les
donnestransmises par la premire et les visualiser en temps rel ou les sauvegarder pour un traitement ultrieur.

REFERENCES

[1] Bluetooth : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth ,


[2] Gsm:https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_System_for_Mobile_Communications,
[3] Nichita Cristian Thse de doctorat, Les systmes oliens et leur simulation, Universit du Havre, 1995
[4] Arduino, https://www.arduino.cc/
[5] JhonBaichtal, Arduino for Beginners, (2013)
[6] Acs 712 Sensor de current, http://www.allegromicro.com/en/Products/Current- Sensor-ICs/Zero-To-Fifty-
Amp-Integrated-Conductor-Sensor-ICs/ACS712.aspx

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[7] Shield GSM/GPRS, http://www.geeetech.com/wiki/index.php/Arduino_GPRS_Shield


[8] http://www.cariatielettronica.eu/it/moduli/2278-shield-gsm-per-arduino-completo-di-antenna-sim900-gprs-
html?search_query=gsm&results=4

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EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL


EFFICIENCIES OF GAS TURBINE PLANT
VERNICA SORIN-GABRIEL1 *, HAZI ANETA1, HAZI GHEORGHE1
1
Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Calea Mreti 157, Bacau, 600115, Romania

Abstract: The paper analyzes from experimental point of view the thermal and electrical
efficiency of a gas turbine plant (GTP). For the experimental study are represented the
dependencies between the thermodynamic factors of the plant (air temperature, high
combustion temperature, compression ratio, thermal and electrical capacity) in the
characteristic operating regimes. Through the medium of linear regression are determined
the optimal operation values of the air compressor.

Keywords: gas turbine, compression ratio, combustion temperature

1. INTRODUCTION

The use of gas turbines for power generation has been increasing in popularity for more than six decades. Gas
turbine performance is driven by the firing temperature, which is directly related to specific output [1]. The two
parameters, which most affect high turbine efficiencies, are pressure ratios and temperature [2]. In this paper is
performed an experimental study to determine the thermal and electrical efficiencies of GTP. Experimental
research was performed on 130 GTP Titan group of 14.3 MW [3].

2. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY

The thermal scheme of framing the measuring devices in GTP is presented in Figure 1. Measuring procedure
involves centralizing experimental data for a sufficient period of time for selecting different operating regimes of
GTP.
The compression ratio is determined with the following relation:

p2
KA = , (1)
p1

in which p1 is the inlet air pressure of AK, [bar]; p2 outlet air pressure of AK, [bar].
The heat flow introduced into the plant by burning fuel in the combustion chamber of GTP is defined by the
relationship:

Q 2GTP
3 = D fuel LHV CC , [kW], (2)

where Dfuel is the mass flow of fuel introduced in CC, [kg/s]; LHV lower heating value of fuel, [kJ/kg]; CC -
combustion chamber efficiency, CC = 0,98.

*
Corresponding author, email sorin.vernica@ub.ro

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Fig.1. Thermal scheme of GTP: AF air filter; AK air compressor; CC combustion chamber; GT gas
turbine; EG electric generator; GB gear box; t0, t1 resistance temperature detectors; p0, p1, p2 differential
pressure transducers; p4 pressure multiplier; t3, t4 thermocouples.

The mass flow of fuel is determined with the following expression:

D2 ( i2 i0 ) + D fuel LHV CC = D3 ( i3 i0 ) , (3)

in which D2 is the mass flow of air at the outlet of AK, [kg/s]; D3 mass flow of combustion gases at the outlet
of CC, [kg/s]; i0, i2 and i3 enthalpies determined for the characteristic state points of the thermodynamic cycle,
[kJ/kg].
The expansion ratio of the GT is determined with formula:

p3
GT = , (4)
p4

where p3 is the outlet combustion gases pressure from CC, [bar]; p4 combustion gases pressure after expansion
in GT, [bar]. p3 parameter is calculated in function of the pressure loss in CC:

p=
3 p2 p23 , [bar]. (5)

It is considered known the pressure loss in CC: p23 = 0.07 [bar].


The mechanical energy consumed by the air compressor is given by:

WAK= ( D2 + Dloss ) i2 Dair i1 , [kW], (6)

in which Dloss is the mass flow of air lost in compression process, [kg/s]; from the literature is considered
D=
loss 0.001 Dair ; i1 the air enthalpy determined for the characteristic state point 1, [kJ/kg], in function of t1
temperature [C].
The mechanical energy produced by GT is determined with relation:

WGT = D3 ( i3 i4 ) , [kW], (7)

in which i4 is the outlet combustion gases enthalpy from GT, [kJ/kg], determined in function of t4 [C].
D3 parameter is determined with formula:

D=
3 D2 + D fuel , [kg/s]. (8)

The mechanical energy produced by the gas turbine plant is determined like difference between the mechanical
energy produced by GT and the mechanical energy consumed by AK:

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WGTP = (WGT WAK ) M , [kW], (9)

where M is the mechanic efficiency , M = 0.98. The electric power of GTP is calculated with formula:

GTP WGTP G , [kW],


P= (10)

where G is the electric generator efficiency, G = 0.97.


The thermal efficiency of the turbo-generator ensemble is defined as the ratio between the total mechanical
energy and the thermal power consumed by the gas turbine power plant:

WGTP
t = . (11)
Q GTP
2 3

The electrical efficiency of the turbo-generator ensemble is defined as the ratio between the electrical power and
the thermal power of GTP:

PGTP
EL = . (12)
Q GTP
2 3

3. NUMERICAL RESULTS

The thermal efficiency (t [%]) and the electrical efficiency (EL [%]) graphics of the GTP, in function of the
inlet atmospheric air temperature of AF (t0 [C]), at different operating regimes, defined by the electrical power
produced by the GTP (PGTP [kW]) and the superior temperature of the thermodynamic cycle (t3 [C]), are
presented in Figures 2 and 3. In these figures, the points represent the experimental data and the lines represent
the linear regression of these data.

Fig.2. Dependencies t = f (t0 ) , EL = f (t0 ) for I regime: PGTP = 84938658 [kW], t3 = 10221055 [C].

Fig.3. Dependencies t = f (t0 ) , EL = f (t0 ) for II regime: PGTP = 74218315 [kW], t3 = 10071061 [C].

The graphics represented in Figures 2 and 3 as dependencies t = f (t0 ) , EL = f (t0 ) , with electric power (PGTP
[kW]) and temperature (t3 [C]) as parameters, reveals the fact that the two considered efficiencies have a
tendency to increase with decreasing the inlet air temperature of air filter (t0 [C]).

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The thermal efficiency (t [%]) and the electrical efficiency (EL [%]) graphics of the GTP, in function of the
compression ratio of AK (KA), at different operating regimes, defined by the superior temperature of the
thermodynamic cycle (t3 [C]) and the mass flow of air at the inlet of AK (Dair [kg/s]), are given in Figures 4 and
5.

Fig.4. Dependencies t = f ( KA ) , EL = f ( KA ) for I regime: t3 = 10221055 [C], Dair = 37.0241.3 [kg/s].

Fig.5. Dependencies t = f ( KA ) , EL = f ( KA ) for II regime: t3 = 10071061 [C], Dair = 35.2842.03 [kg/s].

The graphics represented in Figures 4 and 5 as dependencies t = f ( KA ) , EL = f ( KA ) , with temperature (t3


[C]) and the mass flow of air at the inlet of AK (Dair [kg/s]) as parameters, reveals the fact that the two
considered efficiencies have maximum values at optimal compression ratios (Table 1).

Table 1.Corresponding values of the characteristics from Figures 4 and 5


Figure KAopt tmax [%] ELmax [%]
4 11.91 31.47 29.32
5 11.58 30.06 28

4. CONCLUSIONS

We establish the thermal scheme of framing the measurement devices, the calculation methodology and the
linear regression of the experimental data.

The thermal efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the gas turbine plant have a tendency to increase with
decreasing the inlet air temperature of air filter and maximum values at optimal compression ratios.

REFERENCES

[1] Matta, R.K., Mercer, G.D., Tuthill, R.S., Power Systems for the 21st Century H Gas Turbine Combined
Cycles, GE Power Systems, GER-3935B, 2000.
[2] Boyce, M.P., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, Third Edition, Editura Gulf Professional, USA, p.936,
2006.
[3] Vernica, S.G., Hazi, A., Hazi, G., Experimental Determination of the Heat Recovery Boiler Effectiveness of
a Gas Turbine Plant, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, Volume 659,
ISSN 1662-7482, 2014, pp. 503-508.

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INDEX OF AUTHORS

A M
Amal Guezmil 7 Mimouni Mohamed Faouzi 7
Anis Sakly 7 Mitrea Oana 71, 129
Andrioaia Dragos-Alexandru 14
Arhire Tiberiu 94 N
Nichita Cristian 71, 129
B Nicorici Valentina 77, 81
Bernea Monica 87 Nicorici Andrei 77, 81
Berzan Vladimir 16
Brsan Ctlin 117, 123 P
Bosneaga Valeriu 22 Paladi Florentin 85, 100
Pentiuc Radu-Dumitru 87
C Piotr Gashin 77
Capt Cornelia 43 Piotr Ketrush 77, 81
Caraman Iuliana 29 Popa Sorin Eugen 94
Chabour Ferhat 71, 192 Postoronc Sveatoslav 16
Culea George 14 Primac Vladimir 85, 100
Pruteanu Eusebiu 94
D Puiu-Berizinu Mihai 117, 123
Dmitroglo Liliana 29 Pusc Remus 7

E R
Ermurachi Iurie 16 Raharijaona Jacques 129
Evtodiev Silvia 29 Raphael Romary 7
Evtodiev Igor 29 Rotar Dan 14

G S
Sajin Tudor 43, 105, 111, 117, 123
Georges El-Jamal 34
Suslov Victor 22
Grigore Roxana 43, 103, 115
Ghandour Mazen 34, 65
T
H Tamas Adrian 74, 129
Hanen Berriri 7 Tekobon Jerry 71, 129
Hazi Aneta 47, 51, 56, 135
Hazi Gheorghe 47, 51, 56, 135 V
Vernica Sorin-Gabriel 43, 47, 51, 56, 105, 111, 135
Vitalie Nedelea 81
L
Livini Petru 34, 65, 71, 129 U
Ungurean Ovidiu-Ciprian 87
Untila Dumitru 29

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