0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

26 (de) vizualizări4 paginiA coaxial to microstrip transition is characterised in terms of S-parameters, thus enabling a simple
correction to be applied to measurements made on devices in microstrip. The transition, the model of which
includes a fixed length of the microstrip line, is represented by S-parameters which are simple linear
functions of frequency over the band 2-4 GHz.
A simple computer program may be used to de-embed a device in the microstrip, or to calculate the
expected values of the S-parameters at the inputs to the coaxial transitions when a known device is inserted into the microstrip line.

May 19, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

A coaxial to microstrip transition is characterised in terms of S-parameters, thus enabling a simple
correction to be applied to measurements made on devices in microstrip. The transition, the model of which
includes a fixed length of the microstrip line, is represented by S-parameters which are simple linear
functions of frequency over the band 2-4 GHz.
A simple computer program may be used to de-embed a device in the microstrip, or to calculate the
expected values of the S-parameters at the inputs to the coaxial transitions when a known device is inserted into the microstrip line.

© All Rights Reserved

26 (de) vizualizări

A coaxial to microstrip transition is characterised in terms of S-parameters, thus enabling a simple
correction to be applied to measurements made on devices in microstrip. The transition, the model of which
includes a fixed length of the microstrip line, is represented by S-parameters which are simple linear
functions of frequency over the band 2-4 GHz.
A simple computer program may be used to de-embed a device in the microstrip, or to calculate the
expected values of the S-parameters at the inputs to the coaxial transitions when a known device is inserted into the microstrip line.

© All Rights Reserved

- AP Physics B Exam Topics Since 1970
- Chapter 5: Newton’s laws of motion.
- Tri Origine
- SBGF_3240
- Magnetic Trap 18 (Magnet Hopper)
- MIL-STD-188-125A High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection ...
- Signal Flow Graph
- Using Substrate Suspension
- Tutorial 6 Oscillations
- EE223 Microwave Circuits Fall2014 Lecture7
- c437a0696803d88567f729d2df260f2ee0a6
- Abdo Et Al, Josephson Directional Amplifier
- Design of Small Integrated Antenna for Peer to Peer Wireless Communication
- [MWJ0511] a New Class of Asymmetrical Directional Couplers for Power Antenna Control Applications
- 01240143
- [ Ahire2017]
- 2007_Rectangular Microstirp Patch Antenna_G Singh
- Monitoring of WiAMX Interference Performance
- part test--2
- Midterm Study Questions

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

to microstrip transition

J.R. Souza, M.Sc, and E.C. Talboys, B.Sc.(Eng), C.Eng., M.I.E.E.

Indexing terms: Microwave components, Microwave systems, Microwave measurements

Abstract: A coaxial to microstrip transition is characterised in terms of S-parameters, thus enabling a simple

correction to be applied to measurements made on devices in microstrip. The transition, the model of which

includes a fixed length of the microstrip line, is represented by S-parameters which are simple linear

functions of frequency over the band 2-4 GHz.

A simple computer program may be used to de-embed a device in the microstrip, or to calculate the

expected values of the S-parameters at the inputs to the coaxial transitions when a known device is inserted

into the microstrip line.

The accurate measurement of a device situated in a microstrip Consider the schematic, shown in Fig. 1, where a 50 2 micro-

line requires the correction of the measured values, to account strip line of length L = 2L0 + AL is placed between two

for the mismatch at the transition from the coaxial line to the identical type-A/coaxial-to-microstrip connectors.

microstrip line. Let Sn , S22 , Sl2 a n d S2i be the S-parameters representing

A simplified procedure, based on scattering parameters, the transition. The configuration of Fig. 1 can then be

characterises a well-matched transition, which consists of one described by the signal flow-graph shown in Fig. 2. When port

type-N coaxial-to-microstrip connector and a fixed length of 2 is terminated by a 50 1 load, the reflection coefficient at

microstrip line. Any additional length of line usually means port 1 can be calculated using Mason's nontouching loop

change only in the angle of Sn, ^21 a n d S22. everything else rule [3]

being constant.

Sn -S22ASexp(-2/8)

There are many papers on lumped equivalent circuit models (1)

with values independent of frequency [1, 2], for a very broad l-S 2 2 2 exp(-2/0)

band of frequencies. However, for a more limited frequency where

range, in this case 2 to 4 GHz, the S-parameter characterisation

is simpler. The procedure presented in this paper uses AS SnS22 (2)

transmission and reflection measurements for two different

lengths of microstrip line. The value of the line wavelength is Q = 2-nAL/Xg

required at each operating frequency. and \g is the line wavelength.

With the assumption of a small reflection this expression

2 Characterisation of coaxial to microstrip transition can be simplified to

2.1 Model of transition S22Sl2S2l exp(-2/0) (3)

The transition from coaxial line to microstrip line consisted of

a type-TV connector and a fixed length Lo of microstrip line. The transmission coefficient from port 1 to port 2 can be

The results found in the literature [1, 2] show that it is not calculated as

unreasonable to assume that there is only one discontinuity, at Sl2S2l exp(-/0)

the junction between the coaxial connector and the microstrip T = (4)

line. This was checked on a TDR, and proved to be substantially -Sli exp(-2/0)

correct. It is also assumed that the reflection coefficient, due which, after simplification, leads to

to the discontinuity, is small, and that the connection is

repeatable. T =* S12S21 e x p ( - / 0 ) (5)

Because of the above assumptions, | 5 U | should be equal

Eqn. 5 shows that the product Sl2S2l can be found directly

to \S22\ But, once the losses in the connection and microstrip

from a transmission measurement with a microstrip line of

are not the same on either side of the discontinuity, this is

length 2LQ (0 = 0). Sn and S ^ can then be calculated,

not true.

using eqn. 3, for two different lengths of microstrip line:

,AL,

Sn = I (6)

2 sin 6

S22 = /

r- r (7)

2T0

Paper J734H, first received 24th June and in revised form 19th October

1981

The authors are with the Department of Klectricul & Electronic

Engineering, The City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V

OHB, England Fig. 2 Signal flow graph describing the configuration shown in Fig. 1

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. H, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1982 0143- 7097/82/010037 + 04 $01.50/0 37

where rfn is the reflection coefficeint at port 1, when small, this ratio provides a convenient way to determine

AZ, = 0 (6 = 0) and port 2 is terminated by a 50ft load; the proper phase of (Sl2S2i)2. The ambiguity in the phase of

F,-n is the reflection coefficient at port 1, when AL^0 Si2S2i can be sorted out by comparison with the measured

(0 = 0!) and port 2 is terminated by a 50ft load; To = value.

512iSl2i is the transmission coefficient from port 1 to port 2, The routine used to calculate the S-parameters of the

when AL = 0 (0 = 0). transition, consisting of one coaxial-to-microstrip connector

This procedure presents some advantage over those found and a length Lo of 50 ft microstrip line, was based on:

in References 1 and 2, because it does not require the use of (i) measurement of the transmission coefficient of a

open- or short- circuited microstrip lines. microstrip line of length 2L0. This gives the amplitude of

It was noticed that the product SnS2i > obtained from the ^12 ^2i and a not very accurate phase angle

measured transmission coefficient, was the most important (ii) measurement of the reflection coefficient at one

term in the calculation of S2i end of this microstrip, when the other one is terminated by a

The apparatus used in the measurements consisted of a 50 ft load

network analyser (Hewlett-Packard 8410A), together with (iii) measurement of the reflection coefficient at one end

reflection (HP 8742A) and transmission (HP 8740A) test (Fj n ) when the other one is terminated by a load with a

units. The measurement of the phase angle of the transmission reflection coefficient (F L ), of constant and small amplitude

parameter proved to be very critical, due to the positioning (< 0.1), and variable phase. Measurements should be made for

of the extensible coaxial air line in the transmission test unit. at least four different values for the phase of VL. The results

It was observed that it was not impossible to find a variation are then used to plot the ratio Fj n /F L on a polar diagram,

of about 10 degrees in the phase angle, measured at 4.0 GHz, and a best fitting circle is then drawn

when the device under test was repeatedly connected to the (iv) measurement of the reflection coefficient at one end

measurement unit. The amplitude of the transmission of a microstrip line of length 2L0 + AL, when the other end

coefficient was not affected. So, another method is necessary is terminated by a 50ft load.

to determine the proper transmission phase.

When port 2 is terminated by a load other than 50 ft (with The results obtained in steps (ii) and (iv), together with the

AL = 0), the reflection coefficient at port 1 can be calculated value of Sl2S21 obtained from steps (i) and (iii), are then used

as in eqns. 6 and 7 to calculate Sn and S22

The microstrip lines used in the measurements were designed

where Fj, is the load reflection coefficient. [4] to present characteristic impedances of 50ft, and were

As |F L | tends to zero, the ratio r'in/VL tends to etched on Rexolite 2200 (manufactured by Atlantic

Laminates; nominal dielectric constant: 2.62; thickness of the

lim

r- + 022 "12 " 2

(9)

substrate: 1/16 inch, 1 ounce copper layer on both sides of

the substrate). The lengths used were: 2L 0 = 5.43cm and

2L0 + AL = 7.17 cm. Measurements were made from 2.0 to

If |F L | is kept constant and small, and the phase of F L is 4.0 GHz in steps of 0.5 GHz. The line wavelength had been

varied, eqn. 9 will represent a circle with centre at (Sl2S2i)2 measured previously and was found to agree very well with

and radius equal to the amplitude of (Sn + S22S nS 2i)/rL. theoretical formulation found elsewhere [5]. It was also noted

Fig. 3 shows a plot of the ratio F) n /F L , as calculated from that dispersion could be neglected in this frequency range.

eqn. 8, for a hypothetical set of S-parameters and various Fig. 4 illustrates the determination of the proper phase

values for F L . It seems clear that when | F L | is kept sufficiently angle for the product SnS2i > a t 2.0 GHz. Similar results were

obtained for the other frequencies. It was observed that the

calculated S-parameters could easily be expressed as linear

c

-90

IS,, 1= 0.065;aTgSu = 155.2; IS221 = 0.061; arg S 2 = 93.0 -90

IS, 2 S 21 I = 0.90;arg S 1 2 S 2 , = 130.0

Fig. 4 Determination of proper phase angle ofSi2S2l from reflection

a WL\= 0.05 measurements

b | F L | = 0.10

a r g C = 2(argS 12 .S 21 ) = 159.2

a r g C = 260.0 = 2(argS 1 2 S 2 1 ) frequency = 2.0 GHz

38

functions of frequency, without loss of accuracy interface; AS = SnS22 Sl2S2i', and Sn ,S22,S12S2i are the

S-parameters for the transition from coaxial line to microstrip

| 5 n | = 0.01F-0.016 (10a) line, as previously defined.

arg5n = -20.45F+232.51 (\0b) In order to test this procedure, several lengths of open-

circuited microstrip line were used. Table 1 lists the phase

\S22\ = 0.031 F- 0.054 (llfl) angle of the reflection coefficient in the open circuit de-

embedded from 3.5 cm and 4.7cm long microstrip lines. The

argS22 = - 84.1 F+ 394.59 (lib) Table also shows the theoretical phase angle [6]. The open

\S12S2l\ = -0.047 F+ 1.079 (12a) circuit de-embedded from one of the lines was used to predict

the total input reflection coefficient for the other line. The

argS12S21 = -141.1F+362.11 (12b) results are listed in Table 2, together with the measured

where F is the frequency in GHz and arg S is in degrees. reflection coefficient.

In order to ensure that the approximations made are valid,

the results were compared with those obtained from the full 3.2 Device placed between two transitions from coaxial to

expression, and the difference was found to be negligble. microstrip line

In this case it is necessary to find the 5-parameters for the

3 De-embedding a device situated in microstrip line device under test. Two slightly different formulations are

required, depending on whether the device is nonreciprocal, or

A device can be embedded in microstrip in two different reciprocal and symmetrical. If one of the transitions is

ways. terminated by a known load, the situation can be represented

by the signal flow-graph shown in Fig. 6. The reflection

3.1 Device placed at end of transition coefficient at the input of the other transition can be

In this case the device can easily be de-embedded. This situation calculated [3] as:

can be represented by the signal flow graph shown in Fig. 5.

(14)

S22AS Fi ~SltS22 ~S2

where Sn , S22, Sl2, S2l are 5-parameters for the transition

and

AS = SnS22 ~Si2S2i

where S'n , S22, S[2, S'2l are S-parameters for the DUT, which

Fig. 5 Signal flow graph for device connected to length of 50 1 are to be calculated:

microstrip line

S22 -VLAS

By using the nontouching loop rule [3], the reflection (15)

coefficient in the device under test is calculated as

where rL is the load reflection coefficient.

r, = (13) The transmission coefficient from one transition to the

rins22-AS

other can be calculated as

where F L is the reflection coefficient for the device under test;

Vin is the reflection coefficient measured at the connector T = (16)

l-S22(S'n +S'22) AS'S2

Table 1 : Phase angle (in degrees) for reflection coefficient of open 22

circuit on 50 SI microstrip line If the device under test is nonreciprocal, four S-parameters

De-embedded from From From must be calculated. If the device under test is turned around,

open-circuited Reference 2 Reference 6 with respect to.Fig. 6, another input reflection coefficient

microstrip lines of F,'n and transmission coefficient T' can be calculated by

length

making S'n change places with S'22 and S i 2 , with S2i, and

3.5cm 4.7cm vice-versa, in eqns. 14 and 16. Four equations are now available,

F(GHz) arg r o c arg r o c arg r o c arg r O c

and all the S-parameters can be calculated. The case of a non-

4.1

symmetrial and reciprocal device is solved by making T = T'.

2.0 - 4.7 - 3.5 - 5.1

2.5 - 7.8 - 9.2 5.1 - 6.3 If the device under test is reciprocal and symmetrical, only

3.0 -11.7 -12.7 -6.1 - 7.6 two 5-parameters, namely S'n and S 2 1 , need to be calculated.

3.5 -14.2 -12.9 7.1 - 8.9 But, in this case, eqns. 14 and 16 are not enough, because of

4.0 -13.9 -15.5 -8.1 -10.1

S21

Table 2: Predicted and measured input reflection coefficients for

open-circuited 3.7 cm long 50 S~2 microstrip line

Predicted using the Measured S

open-circuit de-embedded 22 i,S22

from the 4.7 cm line

F(GHz) arg P.- ir,- arg

Sl2 S'i2

2.0 0.94 21.6 0.93 20.3 Fig. 6 Signal flow graph for device situated between two equal lengths

2.5 0.94 - 69.9 0.94 - 68.5 of 50 ft microstrip line

3.0 0.97 - 153.4 0.95 - 152.8

3.5 1.00 123.7 0.97 122.5 O ,, I

4.0 0.87 31.2 0.93 32.5

Table 3: De-embedded and theoretical S-parameters for 1.74 cm 72.37 1 microstrip line, including step discontinuity from 50 2 microstrip lines

F(GHz) IS,, I argS,, \Sl2S21\ argS n S 2 1 IS., I argS,, IS,,S 2I I argS 12 S 21

2.0 0.33 23.6 0.93 - 66.2 0.30 24.7 0.95 - 65.3

2.5 0.35 11.4 0.94 - 80.1 0.34 9.4 0.94 - 80.6

3.0 0.33 - 3.7 0.94 - 95.4 0.35 - 5.7 0.93 - 95.7

3.5 0.29 -10.4 0.95 -110.4 0.35 -20.7 0.94 -110.7

4.0 0.28 - 29.6 0.98 -124.6 0.33 -35.8 0.94 -125.8

the presence of AS'. The missing equation is given by the over the 2-4GHz frequency range. These S-parameters can

calculation of the input reflection coefficient with another then be used to either de-embed or predict the behaviour of

known load (T- n ). The use of the expressions for r / n , T, devices, situated in a 5012 coaxial-microstrip system, by

T-n will make it possible to write a system of linear equations, running simple computer programs. The whole procedure has

which will then be solved for S'n and S'2i a simple mathematical formulation, and the experimental

This routine was used to de-embed lengths of high- results obtained show its adequacy.

characteristic-impedance microstrip line, placed between two

equal lengths of 502 microstrip line. The line used in the 5 References

measurements had a characteristic impedance of 72.3712. The

S-parameters for three different lengths (1.0, 1.3 and 1.74 cm) 1 CHAPMAN, A.G., and AITCHISON, C.S.: lA broad band model

of this line were then de-embedded from transmission and for coaxial to stripline transition', IEEE Trans., 1980, MTT-28,

pp. 130-136

reflection measurements. The loads used in the-reflection 2 WIGHT, J.S., JAIN, O.P., CHUDOBIAX, W.J., and MAKIOS, V.:

measurements were 5012 and a short circuit. The de-embedded 'Equivalent circuit of microstrip impedance discontinuities and

S-parameters include the step discontinuity from 5012 lines. launchers', IEEE Trans., 1974, MTT-22, pp. 48-52

Table 3 lists the results for the 1.74cm long line, together 3 MASON, S.J.: 'Feedback theory - further properties of signal flow

with the theoretical values [2]. Similar agreement was graphs', Proc. IRE, 1956, 44, pp. 920-926

4 WHEELER, H.A.: 'Transmission-line properties of a strip on a

achieved with the other lengths of line. dielectric sheet on a plane', IEEE Trans., 1977, MTT-25, pp.

631-647

4 Conclusion 5 SCHNEIDER, M.V.: 'Microstrip line for microwave integrated

circuits', Bell Syst. Tech. J., 1969, 48, pp. 1421-1444

A routine has been presented characterising the transition 6 SILVESTER, P., and BENEDEK, P.: 'Equivalent capacitance of

from coaxial line to microstrip line, in terms of S-parameters microstrip open circuits', IEEE Trans., 1972, MTT-20, pp. 511-516

- AP Physics B Exam Topics Since 1970Încărcat deChris Hansen
- Chapter 5: Newton’s laws of motion.Încărcat deSadiel Perez
- Tri OrigineÎncărcat debhupatin
- SBGF_3240Încărcat deNonato Colares Colares
- Magnetic Trap 18 (Magnet Hopper)Încărcat deDenny1990
- MIL-STD-188-125A High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection ...Încărcat dePedro Bortot
- Signal Flow GraphÎncărcat deHimanshu Agrahari
- Using Substrate SuspensionÎncărcat deNhóc Sidney
- Tutorial 6 OscillationsÎncărcat deWKQ
- EE223 Microwave Circuits Fall2014 Lecture7Încărcat deMeshal Alawein
- c437a0696803d88567f729d2df260f2ee0a6Încărcat deEd
- Abdo Et Al, Josephson Directional AmplifierÎncărcat deschroeder76
- Design of Small Integrated Antenna for Peer to Peer Wireless CommunicationÎncărcat deijmnct
- [MWJ0511] a New Class of Asymmetrical Directional Couplers for Power Antenna Control ApplicationsÎncărcat deRazvan Venter
- 01240143Încărcat desaurabh3129
- [ Ahire2017]Încărcat denad_chadi8816
- 2007_Rectangular Microstirp Patch Antenna_G SinghÎncărcat denikita
- Monitoring of WiAMX Interference PerformanceÎncărcat deRami A. Ganni
- part test--2Încărcat deGaurav Sohal
- Midterm Study QuestionsÎncărcat deDileep
- Tugas Transmisi Daya ListrikÎncărcat deYordan Raka
- TOC 8 UNIT 1.pdfÎncărcat deMs Yosela Maharani
- Adobe After Effects 5.0 Web Help (4876733)Încărcat deppats
- SG Session3 Physics QuibanÎncărcat deSheiloi
- Phy122_0831Încărcat dePenny Lane
- Statics - Chapter 1Încărcat deCeren Şirin
- Lab 2Încărcat deమత్సా చంద్ర శేఖర్
- Life is Just ThatÎncărcat deAri Jogaiswara Adipurwawidjana
- Class-X-SAT stseÎncărcat deHarsh B
- Question 1Încărcat deSantosh Rai

- London UndergroundÎncărcat dejrosouza
- Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves in Thin Films With Nonlinear MaterialÎncărcat dejrosouza
- Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Bistable Optical EaveguidesÎncărcat dejrosouza
- Conformal Mapping Analysis of Shielded StriplinesÎncărcat dejrosouza
- Frequency Dependent Characteristics of Thick Microstrip Lines in Lossy Multilayered Dielectric MediaÎncărcat dejrosouza
- S-Parameter Characterisation of a TransitionÎncărcat dejrosouza
- G652 G653 and G655 Optical FibersÎncărcat deMayankSrivastava
- Analysis of FWM Penalties in DWDM Systems ProcÎncărcat dejrosouza
- Colinear Array TheoryÎncărcat dejrosouza

- Sic MosfetÎncărcat deKhương Nguyễn
- muninÎncărcat demselavarasan009
- 4d v11 Odbc Driver Installation GuideÎncărcat deoudet9977
- Android ForensicÎncărcat dejonathan_isec
- semi fi comm 2Încărcat deJose Dolor
- Compact Rio Motor Control Basics Tutorial (8-Slot)Încărcat deAzlan Khudzari
- Elkadaya 1Încărcat deurifan
- J2ME10Încărcat deapi-3766594
- Net ScreenÎncărcat deedimido86
- unity_testing.pdfÎncărcat deSanjeev Bansal
- Capitulo 2 - Livro Conceitos de linguagens de programação - Robert W. Sebesta - PLPÎncărcat deAnderson Andrade Rosa
- Power ElectronicsÎncărcat dePalanisamy Nagappan
- Sage ERP X3 Technical ArchitectureÎncărcat deOlutosin Kalejaiye
- Beginning SAP FioriÎncărcat deamaya100100
- EMBEDDED_SYSTEMS_INTRODUCTION_TO_ARM_COR.pdfÎncărcat deAlexandre de Ávila
- Matlab DTM ExamplesÎncărcat deDramane Bonkoungou
- BizTalk_Server_2013_R2_Licensing_Datasheet_and_FAQ.pdfÎncărcat deasm
- Certify4Sure.642-035Încărcat deadolfomestrech
- CCNA-1-Chapter-4-2016-v5.1-Answers-100Încărcat deKhushi
- Paragon Partition Manager14 Free ManualÎncărcat desorontel
- RBH Integra32 Install SheetÎncărcat deJairo Diaz
- JREÎncărcat deNsetMurcia
- Linux FileÎncărcat deDuluth Markets
- 3260 Spec SheetÎncărcat deZulmar Itzel Vallarta Rodriguez
- New Pass4itsure Cisco 210-255 Dumps PDF - Implementing Cisco Cybersecurity OperationsÎncărcat deRhonda T. Cochran
- vuexÎncărcat deCarlos Augusto
- BRTV1110Dv07.pdfÎncărcat deAhmed Soomro
- L10_geoprocessing2Încărcat deKyle Black
- Gfk-0726b Serial CableÎncărcat dedaovanthanh_bk2007
- Thesis Vipul KatyalÎncărcat deJustin Rabi

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.