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14 (de) vizualizări44 paginiLecture_3

May 22, 2017

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Lecture_3

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14 (de) vizualizări

Lecture_3

© All Rights Reserved

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Chapter 2: Fundamental

Parameters of Antenna

1

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

The electric field and magnetic field can be written in terms of magnetic

vector potential A

1

= and =

| |

where: () = ( )

4| |

components of the E and H fields. Therefore the vector potential of A in

spherical coordinates can be written as:

= , , + , , + , ,

2

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Near field Far field

|| = 2 + 2 2cos cos

For amplitude variation:

where: = (, , , )

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Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

In the spherical coordinate:

Far field

Field point:

, , ) = sincos, sinsin, cos

Source point:

, , ) = sincos, sinsin, cos

cos = = coscos + sinsincos

= (, , , )

| |

() = ( ) ( ) cos , + ,

4| | 4

4

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Then the electric field E in the far-field region can be written as:

1

= +

, + ,

1

where: , = ( ) cos

4

1

, = ( ) cos

4

And the magnetic field H in the far-field region can be written as:

1 1

= , ,

5

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Electromagnetic waves are used to transport information through a wireless

medium or a guiding structure. It is nature to assume that power and energy

are associated with EM fields. The quantity used to describe the power

associated with an EM wave is the instantaneous Poyting vector:

=

: instantaneous Poyting vector (W/m2)

: instantaneous electric field intensity (V/m)

: instantaneous magnetic field intensity (A/m)

It is often more desirable to find the average power density. For time-

harmonic variations of the form ejwt:

, , , = , ,

, , , = , ,

1

Using the identity = + , we can write:

2

= = +

6

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Then the average Poyting vector can be written as:

=

.. 1

() = Re (, ). + (, ). . (, ). (, ).

1

() = 2

| (, )|2 + | (, |2

2. .

7

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Radiation Intensity

Radiation intensity U in a given direction is defined as the power radiated

from an antenna per unit solid angle.

= (. )(. sin. ).

Power radiated over an area dS is:

(). = (). . 2

() = 2 . ()

on r, only depends on .

= ().

8

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

= ().

dS (r.d )(r.sin .d ).r

= (). .

2

=0

=0

M

2

r

= (). 2 . sin. .

=0

=0

2

= (, ). sin. .

=0

=0

= (, ).

9

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Example: An antenna radiated a field given by:

, = sin

Calculate:

a. Power density (Poyting) vector W(r)?

b. Power intensity?

c. Total radiation power?

10

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Polarization

Polarization of an antenna in a given direction is defined as the

polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna.

field vector in the time domain. z

E ( z, t )

x

We assume that the wave is traveling in the positive z direction.

11

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Polarization

Consider a plane wave with both x and y components

y

Ey

x

Ex

Assume:

E x a real number

E y be j

12

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Polarization

Time Domain: y

E (t)

At z = 0:

Ex Re ae jt a cos t

E y Re be j e jt b cos t

Depending on b/aonand

Depending b/ab,and ,different

three cases arise:

three different cases arise:

Linear polarization

Circular polarization

Elliptical polarization

13

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Linear Polarization

E x a cos t

0 or

E y b cos t

At z = 0: E x a cos t

E y b cos t + sign: = 0

- sign: =

E x a y b cos t

y

x

y

b

E

This is simply a (shown for = 0

tilted plane wave.

x

a

14

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

b = a AND /2

E x a cos t Ex a cos t

At z = 0: E y b cos t E y a cos(t / 2) a sin t

y

EE convention

E (t )

/ 2

a

LHCP

x

/ 2

RHCP

2

15

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Rotation in space vs. rotation in time

16

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

A snapshot of the electric field vector, showing the vector at different points.

matches the left hand!

RHCP

17

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Animation of LHCP wave

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_polarization

desired since the polarization of a linear polarized radio wave may be rotated as the

signal passes through any anomalies (such as Faraday rotation) in the ionosphere.

18

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Circular polarization is often used in wireless communications to avoid

problems with signal loss due to polarization mismatch.

Misalignment of transmit and receive antennas

Reflections off of building

Propagation through the ionosphere

Receive antenna

matter how it is rotated about the z axis.

However, for the same incident power density, an optimum linearly-polarized wave will give the

maximum output signal from this linearly-polarized antenna (3 dB higher than from an incident

CP wave).

19

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Two ways in which circular polarization can be obtained:

Method 1: Use two identical antenna rotated by 90o, and fed 90o out of phase.

y

Antenna 2

/ 2

Antenna 1

x

- -

Vy j 1 90

o

Vx 1

+ +

This antenna will radiate a RHCP signal in the positive z direction, and LHCP in the

negative z direction.

20

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Method 2: Use an antenna that inherently radiates circular polarization.

21

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Summary of possible scenarios

1) Transmit antenna is LP, receive antenna is LP

The received signal is less if there is a misalignment.

Signal can be received no matter what the alignment is.

The received signal is 3 dB less then for two aligned LP antennas.

There is never a loss of signal, no matter what the alignment is.

The system is now more complicated.

22

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Circular Polarization

Example: The electric field generated by an antenna in the far field has the

form of:

e j .k .r j.sin .

E (r ) sin .cos

.

r

a. x+ b. x- c. y+ d. y-

a. In the x+ direction: , 0, r x; z, y x

j .k . x

2

E (r , t ) Re E (r ).e j t y

e

E (r ) z j. y z

x

e jkx j t j. e jkx

j t

E (r , t ) Re z. .e y.e .

2

.e

x x

r

cos( t kx ) y E (r , t )

cos( t kx) 2 LHCP z

E (r , t ) z. y.

x x

23

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Radiation Pattern

0

The far field always has the following form: , , = ,

| , |

In dB: dB , = 20log10

| , |

, =

24

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Radiation Pattern

The far-field pattern is usually shown vs. the angle (for a fixed angle ) in

polar coordinates.

E F ,

dB , 20 log10 F

E m , m

z

30

30

0

60 60

-10 dB

A pattern cut the beam maximum.

-20 dB m

-30 dB

120 120

150 150

25

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Beamwidths

The beamwidth of a pattern is defined as the angular separation between

two identical points on opposite side of the pattern maximum:

Half Power beamwidth (HPBW): In a plane containing the direction of

the maximum of a beam, the angle between the two directions in which

the radiation intensity is one-half value of the beam. (IEEE)

First Null Bandwidth.

(in linear scale) of U() = cos2() cos2(3).

26

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Beamwidths

Example: The normalized radiation intensity of an antenna is represented by

() = cos2() cos2(3), (0 90 360 )

Find the:

a. Half-power beamwidth HPBW (in radians and degrees).

b. First-null beamwidth FNBW (in radians and degrees)

27

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Beamwidths

Solution: Since the () represents the power pattern, to find the half-

power beamwidth we set the function equal to half of its maximum, or

a. HPBW

()|= = cos 2 ()cos 2 (3)|= = 0.5 cos cos3 = 0.707

b. FNBW

cos = 0 = 1 (0) = /2 =

28

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Directivity

Directivity of an antenna defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a

given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all

directions.

, ,

, =

radiation intensity (maximum directivity) expressed as

= = =

D = directivity (dimensionless)

D0 = maximum directivity (dimensionless)

U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)

Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)

U0 = radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)

Prad = total radiated power (W)

29

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Directivity

Example: Find the maximum directivity of the antenna whose radiation

intensity is:

a. = = 0

2

sin2

b. = = 0 2 (Infinitesimal antenna).

= 2 = 0

The radiation power is:

2

= (, ). sin. . = 2 0 = 0 2

2

=0

=0

The maximum directivity is equal to

0

= = = = = .

0 2

30

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Directivity

Example: Find the maximum directivity of the antenna whose radiation

intensity is:

sin2

b. = = 0 2 (Infinitesimal antenna).

= 2 = 0 sin2

The radiation power is:

2

8

= (, ). sin. . =

3 0

=0

=0

The maximum directivity is equal to

0

= = = = .

8

3 0

31

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Input Impedance

Input impedance is defined as the impedance presented by an antenna at its

terminals or the ratio of the voltage to current at a pair of terminals or the ratio of

the appropriate components of the electric to magnetic fields at a point.

RS jX S IA = +

RA

RA - Antenna resistance

VS ~ VA

jX A

[(dissipation ) ohmic losses + radiation]

XA - Antenna reactance

[(energy storage) antenna near field]

1 =

= +

where:

2

=

+

32

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Input Impedance

Then we have:

1

1 1 2

= = =

2 2 + + 2 + 2

From the equivalent circuit for the generator/antenna system, we see that maximum

power transfer occurs when: = ( = = ).

1 2

, =

8

Note that the power available from the generator source is

2

1 1

= =

2 4

33

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

RS jX S IA

VS , Z S

~ Anten

RR

Z A RA jX A

VS ~ VA RD

Z A RR RD jX

Rr - Antenna radiation resistance (radiation)

jX A

RL - Antenna loss resistance (ohmic loss)

34

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Antenna Efficiency

The power radiated by the antenna (Pr) can be written as

= e: antenna efficiency.

= 1

We have:

1 2

=

2

1

= 2 = =

2 +

1 2

=

2

35

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Antenna Gain

, ,

Directivity of an antenna: , =

,

, = = ,

73 is connected to a transmission line whose characteristic impedace is

50. Assuming that the pattern of the antenna is given by: :

= 0 sin3

36

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Antenna Gain

Solution: At first we compute the maximum directivity of the antenna

= 0

The radiation power is:

2

3 2

= (, ). sin. . = 0

4

=0

=0

The maximum directivity is equal to

0

= = = 2 = .

3

4 0

= .

37

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Antenna Gain

Solution (cont):

There is a loss due to reflection or mismatch losses between antenna and

the transmission line. The loss is equal to:

= = = .

+

= .

= = . . = .

= .

38

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Receiving Antenna

E in c

Anten ZL

( , ) Tai

= RA

RL

Power delivered to the load is:

jX A VL

| |2 VC ~ jX L

= =

8

39

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

One way to characterize an antenna is E in c

with the effective area. Power delivered Anten ZL

to the receiver (Pc) may be defined in Tai

( , )

terms of the antenna effective aperture

(Ae) as: = .

, , = . , . | , . |

=

Where is power density of the incident wave.

is the antenna effective area.

is the

* : C. A. Balanis, Antenna Engineering, Chapter 2, Section 2.16.

40

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

transmitted power and received power in an arbitrary transmit/receive

antenna system.

Given arbitrarily oriented transmitting and receiving antennas, the

power density at the receiving antenna (Wr) is:

= (, ) + (, = . ,

. .

41

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

,

We note that: , = = ,

,

= = . , =

= , , .

Where: , , = . , . | , . |

. , . | , . , | . , .

=

.

42

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Example: Two dipoles whose directivity is given by: , = 1.52 are

located at a distance of 100m. Parameters of the system:

f = 600 MHz.

Antenna efficiency: 2%.

= 10, = = 50.

= 20.

Assume that there is no polarization mismatch. Find total received power PR?

43

Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Q&A

Reading: Balaniss book - Chapter 2

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