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Dr.

Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Antennas and Propagation


Chapter 2: Fundamental
Parameters of Antenna

Dr. Dung Trinh

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Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2014

Far field Radiation


The electric field and magnetic field can be written in terms of magnetic
vector potential A
1
= and =


| |

where: () = ( )

4| |

For antenna and scattering problems, we usually interested in the spherical


components of the E and H fields. Therefore the vector potential of A in
spherical coordinates can be written as:

= , , + , , + , ,

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Far field Radiation


Near field Far field

= || = 2 + 2 2 For phase variation:

|| = 2 + 2 2cos cos
For amplitude variation:
where: = (, , , )

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Far field Radiation


In the spherical coordinate:
Far field
Field point:
, , ) = sincos, sinsin, cos
Source point:
, , ) = sincos, sinsin, cos

cos = = coscos + sinsincos

= (, , , )



| |
() = ( ) ( ) cos , + ,
4| | 4

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Far field Radiation


Then the electric field E in the far-field region can be written as:
1
= +


, + ,

1
where: , = ( ) cos
4

1
, = ( ) cos
4

And the magnetic field H in the far-field region can be written as:

1 1
= , ,

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Radiation power density


Electromagnetic waves are used to transport information through a wireless
medium or a guiding structure. It is nature to assume that power and energy
are associated with EM fields. The quantity used to describe the power
associated with an EM wave is the instantaneous Poyting vector:
=
: instantaneous Poyting vector (W/m2)
: instantaneous electric field intensity (V/m)
: instantaneous magnetic field intensity (A/m)

It is often more desirable to find the average power density. For time-
harmonic variations of the form ejwt:
, , , = , ,
, , , = , ,

1
Using the identity = + , we can write:
2

= = +

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Radiation power density


Then the average Poyting vector can be written as:

=

Using the far-field form of E and H, we get:


.. 1
() = Re (, ). + (, ). . (, ). (, ).

1
() = 2
| (, )|2 + | (, |2
2. .

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Radiation Intensity
Radiation intensity U in a given direction is defined as the power radiated
from an antenna per unit solid angle.
= (. )(. sin. ).
Power radiated over an area dS is:
(). = (). . 2

() = 2 . ()

Radiation intensity does not depend


on r, only depends on .

The total power radiated is given by:

= ().

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Total radiation power


= ().

dS (r.d )(r.sin .d ).r
= (). .

2

= (). . (. )(. sin. ). r


=0
=0


M
2

r
= (). 2 . sin. .
=0
=0
2


= (, ). sin. .
=0
=0

= (, ).
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Total radiation power


Example: An antenna radiated a field given by:
, = sin

Calculate:
a. Power density (Poyting) vector W(r)?
b. Power intensity?
c. Total radiation power?

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Polarization
Polarization of an antenna in a given direction is defined as the
polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna.

The polarization of a plane wave refers to the direction of the electric


field vector in the time domain. z

E ( z, t )
x
We assume that the wave is traveling in the positive z direction.

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Polarization
Consider a plane wave with both x and y components
y

Ey

x
Ex

Phasor domain: E( z ) ( x E x y E y ) e jkz

Assume:
E x a real number
E y be j

(In general, = phase of E y phase of E x )


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Polarization
Time Domain: y
E (t)
At z = 0:

Ex Re ae jt a cos t
E y Re be j e jt b cos t

Depending on b/aonand
Depending b/ab,and ,different
three cases arise:
three different cases arise:
Linear polarization
Circular polarization
Elliptical polarization
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Linear Polarization
E x a cos t
0 or
E y b cos t

At z = 0: E x a cos t
E y b cos t + sign: = 0
- sign: =

E x a y b cos t
y
x
y
b
E
This is simply a (shown for = 0
tilted plane wave.
x
a
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Circular Polarization
b = a AND /2

E x a cos t Ex a cos t
At z = 0: E y b cos t E y a cos(t / 2) a sin t
y
EE convention
E (t )
/ 2
a
LHCP
x

/ 2
RHCP

E Ex2 E y2 a 2 cos2 t a 2 sin2 t a 2


2

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Circular Polarization
Rotation in space vs. rotation in time

Examine how the field varies in both space and time:

E( z ) x a y be j e jkz Phasor domain

E ( z, t ) x a cos t kz y b cos t kz Time domain

There is opposite rotation in space and time.

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Circular Polarization
A snapshot of the electric field vector, showing the vector at different points.

Notice that the rotation in space


matches the left hand!

RHCP

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Circular Polarization
Animation of LHCP wave

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_polarization

Circular polarization is most often use on satellite communications. This is particularly


desired since the polarization of a linear polarized radio wave may be rotated as the
signal passes through any anomalies (such as Faraday rotation) in the ionosphere.

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Circular Polarization
Circular polarization is often used in wireless communications to avoid
problems with signal loss due to polarization mismatch.
Misalignment of transmit and receive antennas
Reflections off of building
Propagation through the ionosphere
Receive antenna

The receive antenna will always receive a signal, no


matter how it is rotated about the z axis.

However, for the same incident power density, an optimum linearly-polarized wave will give the
maximum output signal from this linearly-polarized antenna (3 dB higher than from an incident
CP wave).
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Circular Polarization
Two ways in which circular polarization can be obtained:
Method 1: Use two identical antenna rotated by 90o, and fed 90o out of phase.
y

Antenna 2
/ 2
Antenna 1
x
- -
Vy j 1 90
o
Vx 1
+ +

This antenna will radiate a RHCP signal in the positive z direction, and LHCP in the
negative z direction.

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Circular Polarization
Method 2: Use an antenna that inherently radiates circular polarization.

Helical antenna for WLAN communication at 2.4 GHz

Helical antennas on a GPS satellite

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Circular Polarization
Summary of possible scenarios
1) Transmit antenna is LP, receive antenna is LP

Simple, works good if both antennas are aligned.


The received signal is less if there is a misalignment.

2) Transmit antenna is CP, receive antenna is LP


Signal can be received no matter what the alignment is.
The received signal is 3 dB less then for two aligned LP antennas.

3) Transmit antenna is CP, receive antenna is CP

Signal can be received no matter what the alignment is.


There is never a loss of signal, no matter what the alignment is.
The system is now more complicated.
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Circular Polarization
Example: The electric field generated by an antenna in the far field has the
form of:
e j .k .r j.sin .
E (r ) sin .cos
.
r

Identify the polarization of the antenna in the direction:


a. x+ b. x- c. y+ d. y-

a. In the x+ direction: , 0, r x; z, y x
j .k . x
2
E (r , t ) Re E (r ).e j t y
e
E (r ) z j. y z
x

e jkx j t j. e jkx
j t
E (r , t ) Re z. .e y.e .
2
.e
x x
r
cos( t kx ) y E (r , t )
cos( t kx) 2 LHCP z
E (r , t ) z. y.
x x
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Radiation Pattern
0
The far field always has the following form: , , = ,

| , |
In dB: dB , = 20log10
| , |

, =

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Radiation Pattern
The far-field pattern is usually shown vs. the angle (for a fixed angle ) in
polar coordinates.
E F ,
dB , 20 log10 F
E m , m
z
30
30

0
60 60

0 dB The subscript m denotes


-10 dB
A pattern cut the beam maximum.
-20 dB m
-30 dB
120 120

150 150
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Beamwidths
The beamwidth of a pattern is defined as the angular separation between
two identical points on opposite side of the pattern maximum:
Half Power beamwidth (HPBW): In a plane containing the direction of
the maximum of a beam, the angle between the two directions in which
the radiation intensity is one-half value of the beam. (IEEE)
First Null Bandwidth.

Three- and two-dimensional power patterns


(in linear scale) of U() = cos2() cos2(3).

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Beamwidths
Example: The normalized radiation intensity of an antenna is represented by
() = cos2() cos2(3), (0 90 360 )
Find the:
a. Half-power beamwidth HPBW (in radians and degrees).
b. First-null beamwidth FNBW (in radians and degrees)

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Beamwidths
Solution: Since the () represents the power pattern, to find the half-
power beamwidth we set the function equal to half of its maximum, or
a. HPBW
()|= = cos 2 ()cos 2 (3)|= = 0.5 cos cos3 = 0.707

0.25 radians = 14.325 = = .


b. FNBW

()|= = cos 2 ()cos 2 (3)|= = 0

This leads to two solutions for :


cos = 0 = 1 (0) = /2 =

cos 3 = 0 = 1/3 1 (0) = /6 =

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Directivity
Directivity of an antenna defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a
given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all
directions.
, ,
, =

If the direction is not specified, it implies the direction of maximum


radiation intensity (maximum directivity) expressed as

= = =

D = directivity (dimensionless)
D0 = maximum directivity (dimensionless)
U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
U0 = radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)
Prad = total radiated power (W)
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Directivity
Example: Find the maximum directivity of the antenna whose radiation
intensity is:

a. = = 0
2
sin2
b. = = 0 2 (Infinitesimal antenna).

a. The radiation intensity is given by:


= 2 = 0
The radiation power is:
2


= (, ). sin. . = 2 0 = 0 2
2
=0
=0
The maximum directivity is equal to
0
= = = = = .
0 2
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Directivity
Example: Find the maximum directivity of the antenna whose radiation
intensity is:
sin2
b. = = 0 2 (Infinitesimal antenna).

The radiation intensity is given by:


= 2 = 0 sin2
The radiation power is:
2

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= (, ). sin. . =
3 0
=0
=0
The maximum directivity is equal to

0
= = = = .
8
3 0
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Input Impedance
Input impedance is defined as the impedance presented by an antenna at its
terminals or the ratio of the voltage to current at a pair of terminals or the ratio of
the appropriate components of the electric to magnetic fields at a point.

RS jX S IA = +

RA
RA - Antenna resistance
VS ~ VA
jX A
[(dissipation ) ohmic losses + radiation]

XA - Antenna reactance
[(energy storage) antenna near field]

PA is the power delivered to the antenna:


1 =
= +
where:
2
=
+
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Input Impedance
Then we have:
1
1 1 2
= = =
2 2 + + 2 + 2

From the equivalent circuit for the generator/antenna system, we see that maximum
power transfer occurs when: = ( = = ).

Then the maximum power radiated by the antenna is:


1 2
, =
8
Note that the power available from the generator source is
2
1 1
= =
2 4

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Antenna Radiation Efficiency


RS jX S IA
VS , Z S
~ Anten
RR
Z A RA jX A
VS ~ VA RD
Z A RR RD jX
Rr - Antenna radiation resistance (radiation)
jX A
RL - Antenna loss resistance (ohmic loss)

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Antenna Efficiency
The power radiated by the antenna (Pr) can be written as

= e: antenna efficiency.

The power dissipated by the antenna is:

= 1

We have:
1 2
=
2
1
= 2 = =
2 +

1 2
=
2

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Antenna Gain
, ,
Directivity of an antenna: , =

The gain of an antenna in the directions (, ) is defined as:

,
, = = ,

Example: A lossless half wavelength dipole antenna with input impedance


73 is connected to a transmission line whose characteristic impedace is
50. Assuming that the pattern of the antenna is given by: :

= 0 sin3

Find the maximum absolute gain of this antenna.


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Antenna Gain
Solution: At first we compute the maximum directivity of the antenna
= 0
The radiation power is:
2

3 2
= (, ). sin. . = 0
4
=0
=0
The maximum directivity is equal to
0
= = = 2 = .
3
4 0

= .

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Antenna Gain
Solution (cont):
There is a loss due to reflection or mismatch losses between antenna and
the transmission line. The loss is equal to:



= = = .
+

= .

The absolute gain is equal to:


= = . . = .

= .

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Receiving Antenna
E in c
Anten ZL

( , ) Tai

When conjugate matching happens: IL

= RA
RL
Power delivered to the load is:
jX A VL

| |2 VC ~ jX L
= =
8

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Antenna Effective Area


One way to characterize an antenna is E in c
with the effective area. Power delivered Anten ZL
to the receiver (Pc) may be defined in Tai
( , )
terms of the antenna effective aperture
(Ae) as: = .

It can be proved* that:



, , = . , . | , . |


=

Where is power density of the incident wave.
is the antenna effective area.
is the
* : C. A. Balanis, Antenna Engineering, Chapter 2, Section 2.16.

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Antenna Link Friis Equation

The Friis transmission equation defines the relationship between


transmitted power and received power in an arbitrary transmit/receive
antenna system.
Given arbitrarily oriented transmitting and receiving antennas, the
power density at the receiving antenna (Wr) is:


= (, ) + (, = . ,
. .

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Antenna Link Friis Equation


,
We note that: , = = ,

,
= = . , =

The total received power is then

= , , .


Where: , , = . , . | , . |


. , . | , . , | . , .
=
.

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Antenna Link Friis Equation


Example: Two dipoles whose directivity is given by: , = 1.52 are
located at a distance of 100m. Parameters of the system:
f = 600 MHz.
Antenna efficiency: 2%.
= 10, = = 50.
= 20.
Assume that there is no polarization mismatch. Find total received power PR?

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Q&A
Reading: Balaniss book - Chapter 2

Thank you for your attention

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