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PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Category – A/B1

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

MODULE 7 Sub Module 7.3

TOOLS

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

Module 7.3 TOOLS ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 Mar
Module 7.3 TOOLS ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 Mar

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Contents INTRODUCTION

Category – A/B1

Contents

INTRODUCTION ------------------------------------------------------------ 1

COMMON HAND TOOLS TYPES-------------------------------------- 1

COMMON POWER TOOLS-------------------------------------------- 46

OPERATION AND USE OF PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ----------------------------------------------------------- 54

LUBRICATION METHODS AND EQUIPMENT ------------------- 65

OPERATION, FUNCTION AND USE OF ELECTRICAL GENERAL TEST EQUIPMENT --------------------------------------- 70

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

For Training Purpose Only

Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 INTRODUCTION Servicing of an aircraft,

Category – A/B1

INTRODUCTION

Servicing of an aircraft, requires the dismantling, cleaning, examination, adjustment and re-assembly of the parts in accordance with the maintenance schedule. Further aspects of the work may require the manufacture of simple components from metal or other materials, the drilling and tapping of holes, removal of burrs and other operations. A reasonable degree of skill, in the use of hand tools is, therefore, to be expected from all trades-persons. This skill can only be obtained by practice, but it may be stated, that the more efficient the tool, then the better will be the finished work.

COMMON HAND TOOLS TYPES

The best results are always obtained by using the correct tool for the task. Care and maintenance of all tools is very important, since damaged or inefficient tools can lead to injury of the user or damage to the components. A range of common hand tools is considered in this part of the course.

Engineer’s Rule

An engineer’s rule (refer to Fig. 1) is made from high-carbon steel and is graduated in Imperial and Metric units. Rules are classified by the length and width of their graduated portion, must be kept free from rust and should not be subjected to rough usage. The most common engineer’s rule has a length of 300mm (1ft) but rules can be obtained in lengths of up to 1,800mm (6ft).

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Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The increment graduation marks are etched into the rule surface providing a grooved recess. These grooves enable dividers to be set to a greater accuracy, as the divider points can be felt to ‘drop in’ to the recess.

Metric Scale

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 24 25 26 27
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
2 3
4
1 0
1
1
1 2
1
1
8 9 10 11 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 3 4 1 0
Edge View Grooves
Edge View
Grooves
26 27 28 29 30 2 3 4 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 Edge

Imperial Scale

For Training Purpose Only

1 2 1 Edge View Grooves Imperial Scale For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00
1 2 1 Edge View Grooves Imperial Scale For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Scriber A scriber (refer to

Category – A/B1

Scriber

A scriber (refer to Fig. 3.1) is used for marking lines on the surface of metals. Scribers are made from high-carbon steel and are classified by their length. One end of the scriber is usually bent at right angles to enable lines to be scribed in difficult places such as through a hole.

All scribed lines, on soft materials, must only be cutting (boundary) lines, and none must be left on the surface of the metal on completion, as they can cause cracks. Other lines, including bend lines and lines for the position of rivets must be marked with a sharp pencil.

Scriber points must be kept sharp and fine by careful ‘stoning’, with an oil stone, rather than an abrasive wheel (grindstone). Using a wheel is likely to generate too much heat, which will result in the temper being drawn from the steel and the point of the scriber becoming soft and useless.

When not in use (and as with other tools with sharp points), placing pieces of cork, plastic or similar material over their points will protect them.

Key-Seat Rule

Key-seat rules are used for marking-off lines, parallel to the axis, on the surface of tubes or round bars (refer to Fig. 2). Sometimes referred to as ‘Box Squares’, key-seat rules are usually graduated and are classified by their length.

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Scriber
Scriber

Key Seat Rule

Round Bar

Scriber and Key Seat Rule Fig. 3.1

For Training Purpose Only

Bar Scriber and Key Seat Rule Fig. 3.1 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00
Bar Scriber and Key Seat Rule Fig. 3.1 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Combination Set The Combination Set

Category – A/B1

Combination Set

The Combination Set (refer to Fig. 3.2), consists of a graduated steel rule, which has a machined groove running along the centre of its entire length. The rule can be slid into three different ‘heads’ and secured, by a locking screw device, so that the combination of rule and ’head’ will enable certain tasks to be accomplished.

The Centre Head is used, with the rule, to locate the centre line

of bars or round tubes.

The Square Head has one working surface at 90° and another

at 45° to the locked rule. This allows the tool to be used, either

in a similar manner to the Fitter’s Square (to check the squareness of work), or it may be used for the marking out of

mitre joints and bevels.

A spirit level and scriber are, sometimes, accommodated in the

base of the Square Head, to permit a check to be done on the

horizontal or vertical accuracy of work pieces.

The Protractor Head also has a spirit level, which rotates with the head, and allows the head to be used, singly, as a clinometers or, in conjunction with the rule, it may be used to mark out and check angles on work pieces.

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Scriber Spirit Level Centre Head Square Head Groove Protractor Head
Scriber
Spirit Level
Centre Head
Square Head
Groove
Protractor Head
Level Centre Head Square Head Groove Protractor Head Combination Set Fig. 3.2 For Training Purpose Only

Combination Set

Fig. 3.2

For Training Purpose Only

Protractor Head Combination Set Fig. 3.2 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Protractor Head Combination Set Fig. 3.2 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Surface Plates and Tables Surface

Category – A/B1

Surface Plates and Tables

Surface plates (and surface tables which are larger), while not actually being classed as marking out or measuring tools, are simply blocks of grey cast iron with finely machined faces which can be used as a standard of flatness. They may also be used to provide a true surface, from which marking out, measuring and testing can be done.

Surface plates are usually mounted on a bench and, normally, only have three supports, or feet, to ensure steadiness, if the surface of the bench were to be slightly uneven.

Surface tables are free standing, on the workshop floor, and their sheer weight provides the required steadiness.

The standard of the surface finish varies. The better grades are scraped and the cheaper ones are merely planed. The accuracy of a planned table depends upon the accuracy of the machine producing it.

Surfaces of grade ‘A’ standard would only be used in Standards Rooms, grade ‘B’ surfaces are for inspection work while grade ‘C’ surface plates and tables would be found in typical workshops.

Surface plates and tables can be used to test for flatness, providing the standards required are not too high. The surface of the plate is lightly smeared with a mixture of engineer’s blue and a few drops of oil. The piece to be tested has to be rubbed

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Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

lightly on to the surface plate and any high spots will show up as blue spots on the test piece. These spots will be filed or scraped until the whole surface shows blue. After use, a light film of oil should be applied to the working surface of the surface plates and tables. They should, then, be protected with a wooden cover, to prevent the onset of corrosion.

V Blocks

V Blocks are accurately machined, six-sided, rectangular blocks

(generally made of cast iron), which may be used, on surface plates and tables, to hold a round bar, which can then be marked in a variety of ways, to give centres and lines parallel to its side. V blocks are classified by the maximum diameter of the work, which they can hold.

All opposite sides of the blocks are parallel and all adjacent faces are square to each other. A 90° groove (in the shape of a V) is machined in two (longer) opposite faces, but the grooves are cut at different depths, to cater for bars of different diameters. The V-cut grooves have a small, square-cut, clearance groove

in the bottom of the V. This ensures that any oil, or dirt runs off

the sides of the V and does not clog the bottom of the V,

causing an imperfect seating of any bar which were to be placed in the blocks.

For Training Purpose Only

which were to be placed in the blocks. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00
which were to be placed in the blocks. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 V blocks are made in

Category – A/B1

V blocks are made in (identified) matching pairs, which must

always be used together, so that a block of one pair should not be used with one of another pair. Some V blocks also have grooves machined along the other two longer, parallel, sides, to locate specially designed clamps, which may be used to securely hold work while it is being accurately marked out or drilled.

Surface Gauge (Scribing Block)

A Surface Gauge, or Scribing Block (refer to Fig. 3.3), is another

marking out tool, used, on a surface plate or table, in conjunction with a scriber (and, occasionally, with V blocks), for the marking of lines, which are parallel to a true surface.

The scriber is clamped to a spindle, which can be accurately pivoted, by means of a fine adjustment screw, on the heavy base. The base, which is generally made from cast iron (or hardened steel) is machined to be as flat as the surface plate on

which it slides, but it is also grooved (in a similar manner to the

V block) so that it can be used on round stock when required.

Two friction-fit pins, in the base, may be pushed down, to assist

in drawing lines parallel to a true edge.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools V Blocks Scribing Block Surface Plate
Sub Module 7.3 - Tools
V Blocks
Scribing Block
Surface Plate

Scribing Block with V Blocks and Surface Plate Fig. 3.3

For Training Purpose Only

with V Blocks and Surface Plate Fig. 3.3 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00
with V Blocks and Surface Plate Fig. 3.3 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Dividers Dividers are used to

Category – A/B1

Dividers

Dividers are used to set out distances and to scribe arcs and circles. The legs are made of high-carbon steel, the spring made of spring steel and the adjusting mechanism of mild steel.

Dividers are classified by the length of their legs. The points should be kept sharp and of equal length by stoning only the outside of the legs. If grinding is used to sharpen the points, it must be done very carefully, as the temper of the points can be drawn, leaving them soft.

The points of dividers should be protected, when not in use, in a similar manner to those of scribers and such tools.

Callipers

Callipers (refer to Fig. 3.4) are a type of measuring device, typically used to measure diameters and distances or for comparing sizes. The three basic types of calliper are:

Outside Callipers: Used to measure the outside diameter of an object and have legs that point inwards

Inside Callipers: Used to measure the inside of a hole and have legs that point outwards

Odd-Leg Callipers (Hermaphrodite or ‘Jenny’ Callipers): This tool is really half callipers and half dividers. It may be used for scribing arcs on metal surfaces from an edge, for scribing lines parallel to an edge or surface, (provided accuracy is not of great importance), and for finding the centre of a round bar.

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Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

round bar. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Outside Inside Calipers Fig. 3.4 Oddleg
round bar. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Outside Inside Calipers Fig. 3.4 Oddleg

Outside

Inside
Inside

Calipers

Fig. 3.4

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Outside Inside Calipers Fig. 3.4 Oddleg For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

Oddleg

For Training Purpose Only

Outside Inside Calipers Fig. 3.4 Oddleg For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Outside Inside Calipers Fig. 3.4 Oddleg For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Hammers Hammers (refer to Fig.

Category – A/B1

Hammers

Hammers (refer to Fig. 3.5) are classified by their weight and type of head. Steel heads are forged and manufactured from high-carbon steel. Most shafts are made from straight-grained Ash or Hickory and are secured to the head by wedging.

As can be seen from Fig. 3.5, the main types of engineering hammers are the:

Ball Pein: The flat surface is used for most general-purpose work whilst the ball pein is used primarily for riveting-type operations

Straight Pein: Used for general work, the narrow, straight pein being particularly suitable for use where access to the work is limited

Cross Pein: As for the straight pein, but the axis of the pein is at 90° to that of the shaft

Hide/Copper Face: The rawhide facing enables heavy blows to be delivered without damaging the surface of the work, while the copper face may be used for heavier types of work than hide faced hammers

Rubber Head and Plastic Face: More modern versions of the Hide Face hammer. Can often have one of each type of face on each end of the head

Claw Hammer (not shown): More commonly used for woodworking. The face is used for hammering nails whilst the claw is used for removing nails

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Body Hammer: Little used in aircraft work, as they are primarily used to remove dents and blemishes from sheet metal. They are also known as planishing hammers.

The weight of hammer required can be found with experience. Before use, it must be ensured that the head is secure on the shaft. The shaft should be gripped close to the end opposite the head, as proper control is not possible if it is held close to the head.

control is not possible if it is held close to the head. ISO 9001:2008 Certified For
ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 7 Mar
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
For Training Purpose Only
PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01
Rev. 00
7.3 ‐ 7
Mar 2014

Ball Pein

Straight Pein

Cro

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Punches Although punches are not

Category – A/B1

Punches

Although punches are not ‘pounding tools’, they do allow the force from a hammer blow to be concentrated in the immediate area of the punch tip. This in turn means that the pressure at the end of the punch is increased compared to a hammer blow without a punch.

Over a period of time, the hammered shank end of a punch, tends to deform into the shape of a mushroom. To reduce the chance of a metal chip flying off and causing injury, during punching operations, the deformation should be removed and the shank end returned to its original shape by the use of a bench grinder.

Eye or face protection should always be used when using punches of any type.

The types of punches, more commonly found in an engineer’s toolkit, include:

Centre Punches

Pin Punches

Hollow Punches

Drifts

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The first three punches are, usually, constructed from hexagonal (or knurled, round) rods of tempered, cast steel with a length of approximately 127 mm (5 in), a gripping diameter of approximately 3.175 mm (0.125 in) and a smaller, driving end of the appropriate size.

Centre Punches are relatively sharp-pointed tools, used to make an indentation in metal. The indentation aids in locating the centre of a hole and for starting a drill bit when drilling the hole. The points may be ground at angles between 60to 90°, depending on the hardness of the metal on which the punch is being used. The softer the metal, then the larger will be the angle of the punch’s point.

When using a centre punch, it must be struck hard enough to give an indentation large enough for a drill bit to start, but not so hard as to distort the metal.

Another form of Centre Punch is the ‘Dot’ or ‘Prick’ Punch (also ‘Pricker’), which has a finer point and is used to make indentations along a drawn line when the line is, otherwise, difficult to see. The indentations may also be used, when sawing down to a line, as ‘witness’ points, to show that the cutting is accurate.

For Training Purpose Only

to show that the cutting is accurate. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
to show that the cutting is accurate. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Centre punches should not be

Category – A/B1

Centre punches should not be used to drive out pins or rivets from their holes.

Pin Punches, as their name implies, are the tools to be used for the removal of pins and rivets from their respective holes. The driving end of a Pin Punch is cut flat, and its diameter ground to match that of the pin or rivet which is being driven from its hole. Pin Punches may be found with parallel or tapered driving ends.

Hollow Punches are used to punch out bolt (or stud) holes in soft, thin sheets, such as shimming or gasket materials, which are difficult to cut with drills. The material being cut should be supported by a wooden block, to avoid damaging the cutting end of the Hollow Punch.

Drifts may be fashioned from aluminium alloy, copper or steel bars (or tubes), and are used for driving out bearings, bushes or shafts from their respective cages or housings.

Only steel drifts should be used on bearings, due to the possibility of small metal chips, from the softer metals, breaking off and fouling the bearing assemblies.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

assemblies. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev.
assemblies. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev.

For Training Purpose Only

Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Metal-Cutting Chisels Metal-cutting

Category – A/B1

Metal-Cutting Chisels

Metal-cutting chisels (also called Cold Chisels) are used in conjunction with steel hammers. Chisels are forged, usually using short lengths of hexagonal-sectioned, high-carbon steel bars, with the cutting edge hardened and tempered.

To prevent flying particles when hammering, the striking end is not hardened and is, therefore, comparatively softer. Periodically, the burr, that forms at the striking end of the chisel, should (in a similar manner to punches), be removed by filing or grinding.

Alternatively, the chisels may be made of nickel-alloy steel, specially heat-treated, to produce a long-lasting cutting edge.

Chisels are classified by their shape, overall length, cross- Section of shank and width of cut. There are four principal shapes of chisels (refer to Fig. 3.6), in general use. They are the:

Flat

Cross-Cut

Diamond-Point

Half-Round.

Flat chisels are used for general chipping work, such as parting sheet metal or cutting flat surfaces, preparatory to filing. The cutting edge is formed slightly convex.

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Cross-Cut (or Cape) chisels are used to cut narrow, flat- bottomed, grooves, such as keyways in shafts or where it is not practical to use a flat chisel. These chisels are also used to remove the heads of round-headed rivets during repairs.

Diamond-Point chisels are particularly useful for cutting in corners, cutting small oil grooves and for rectifying an incorrect start when drilling.

Half-Round (and may, also, be called Round) chisels are general-purpose, grooving chisels, which are suitable for cutting half-round, bottomed, grooves. They are also suitable for rectifying an incorrect start when drilling.

suitable for rectifying an incorrect start when drilling. Flat Cross-Cut Diamond-Point Chisel Types Fig. 3.6

Flat

for rectifying an incorrect start when drilling. Flat Cross-Cut Diamond-Point Chisel Types Fig. 3.6 Half-Round For

Cross-Cut

Diamond-Point
Diamond-Point

Chisel Types

Fig. 3.6

drilling. Flat Cross-Cut Diamond-Point Chisel Types Fig. 3.6 Half-Round For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

Half-Round

For Training Purpose Only

Chisel Types Fig. 3.6 Half-Round For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 10
Chisel Types Fig. 3.6 Half-Round For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 10

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 When selecting a chisel for

Category – A/B1

When selecting a chisel for a specific task, consideration must be given both to the nature of the work and to the material that is to be cut. The nature of the work governs the choice of shape, whilst the angle formed by the cutting edge is influenced by the hardness of the metal.

In general, it may be assumed that the softer the metal the more acute should be the cutting angle. Table 5 shows some suggested cutting angles for use on typical metals, found in aircraft engineering workshops.

Table 1 Suggested Chisel Cutting Angles

Hard Steels

70

Mild Steels

60

Soft Metals

40

High-carbon, steel chisels should be sharpened by grinding on an abrasive wheel, but nickel-alloy, steel chisels are sharpened by filing. The cutting edge of the chisel must be kept cool, during grinding, by frequent immersion in water, which will prevent the temper being drawn from the metal.

Bench Vice

The bench vice (refer to Fig. 3.7) is used to firmly grip the material or item upon which work is being done in a workshop. The body of the vice is provided with detachable steel jaws. The screw is made with a square or with a buttress thread.

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Most types of bench vice have a quick-release mechanism, operated by a small lever. The jaws can then be slid either open or closed until the correct position is reached. The lever disengages the half nut from the thread to permit the sliding action and it is driven back into engagement by a strong spring. Bench vices are classified by the length of their jaws.

The height of the top of the vice above the ground is important, and should ideally, be level with the technician’s elbow when standing adjacent to the vice. With the vice at the correct height, work will be less tiring and correct control of the tools, such as files and saws, will be achieved.

The vice must be secured firmly to the bench (with occasional checks of the holding-down nuts), and the screw should be kept clean and lubricated. The jaws must not be over-tightened as the mechanism may be damaged or the work piece becomes distorted.

To protect soft materials from the hardened serrated, vice jaws, aluminium ‘vice clamps’ (or clams) can be positioned over the jaws. Other, special holding devices, such as ‘V’ blocks (made out of wood to protect tubular items) can be manufactured locally.

For Training Purpose Only

items) can be manufactured locally. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 11
items) can be manufactured locally. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 11

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Bench Vice Fig. 3.7 ISO
Category – A/B1
Category – A/B1

Bench Vice

Fig. 3.7

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Hand Vice

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

A hand vice (refer to Fig. 3.8) is classified by its overall length

and can be used when splicing cables or holding small objects

that are to be shaped or drilled. The body and screw are made

of mild steel, with a wing nut provided for the operation of the

hand vice. Small vice clamps can also be used with these vices when working with soft material.

be used with these vices when working with soft material. Hand Vice Fig. 3.8 For Training

Hand Vice

Fig. 3.8

For Training Purpose Only

with soft material. Hand Vice Fig. 3.8 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
with soft material. Hand Vice Fig. 3.8 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

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Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Hacksaws The hacksaw is the

Category – A/B1

Hacksaws

The hacksaw is the most widely-used, metal-cutting, hand saw. Hacksaws are used for parting off, or for cutting materials approximately to size. They are designed primarily for cutting metal, but may be used on other materials. The saw consists of a mild steel frame, with a suitable handle and a replaceable, serrated blade, which is made from high-carbon or alloy steel.

Fine-toothed blades have 24 or 32 teeth per inch and are used for cutting thin material. Coarser blades, with 14 or 18 teeth per inch are for thicker material. A ‘rule of thumb’ is that at least two teeth must be in contact, with the work being cut, at all times.

The blade mountings must be set in the most convenient position with the teeth facing away from the handle. This allows the blade to cut on the more efficient, forward stroke.

Hand pressure should be applied on this forward stroke and relieved on the return stroke. The full length of the blade should be used for each stroke, if at all possible. This action prolongs the life of the blade, lessens the chance of teeth breaking away from the blade and reduces the chance of the saw jamming during use.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

during use. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

For Training Purpose Only

Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Sheet Metal Shears and Snips

Category – A/B1

Sheet Metal Shears and Snips

Shears are another type of cutting tool used on aircraft sheet metal. Long, straight cuts, across a piece of sheet metal, are made on a guillotine, which may also be referred to as ‘squaring shears’.

The fabrication of smaller parts requires hand cutting, followed with further trimming to the final dimensions. This can be achieved with different types of shears, known as Tinman’s Shears or Aviation Snips. They can vary in length from 175 mm (7 in) up to 300 mm (12 in) and can be straight or curved cutting.

Straight shears (or snips) are primarily for cutting straight or wide radius curves whilst the curved shears are dedicated solely to cutting curves.

Curved shears can be found in symmetrical form, which can be used to cut curves in either direction, or they can be asymmetrical and dedicated to cutting curves in one direction only. The handles of asymmetrically curved shears are usually colour-coded (red and green), to indicate the intended cutting direction. ‘Left-cutting’ shears are coloured red while ‘right- cutting’ shears are coloured green).

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Unlike hacksaws (and files), shears simply part the metal without removing any material. This can, however, cause tiny fractures to occur along the severed lines and so, for this reason, cuts should be made approximately 0.8 mm (0.03 in) from the marking out line and the metal then filed down to the line.

marking out line and the metal then filed down to the line. TIN SNIP For Training

TIN SNIP

For Training Purpose Only

then filed down to the line. TIN SNIP For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00
then filed down to the line. TIN SNIP For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 AVIATION SNIPS ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Category – A/B1

(PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 AVIATION SNIPS ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module

AVIATION SNIPS

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

SNIPS ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools DIAGONAL CUTTER For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

DIAGONAL CUTTER

For Training Purpose Only

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools DIAGONAL CUTTER For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
Sub Module 7.3 - Tools DIAGONAL CUTTER For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Files Files are cutting tools

Category – A/B1

Files

Files are cutting tools for removing metal from a surface and are made of high-carbon steel. The blade is hardened, whilst the tang (to which, a handle must always be attached, for safety reasons, before the file is used), is left in a softer, tougher condition and is, therefore, less brittle. Hand files are classified by their:

Length

Shape

Cross-Section

Cut

Grade.

The length of a file is measured from the shoulder to the tip of the blade. Files are available, for special work, in lengths from 75 mm (3 in) to 350 mm (14 in). The most common sizes are 150 mm (6 in), 200 mm (8 in) and 250 mm (10 in).

Files are available in a variety of shapes (refer to Fig. 3.9), and the most common shapes are those which are:

Parallel

Tapered

Bellied.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Parallel

Tapered

Bellied

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Tip Shoulder Length Tang
Tip
Shoulder
Length
Tang
Bellied Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Tip Shoulder Length Tang Three Most Common Shapes of Files
Bellied Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Tip Shoulder Length Tang Three Most Common Shapes of Files

Three Most Common Shapes of Files Fig. 3.9

For Training Purpose Only

Most Common Shapes of Files Fig. 3.9 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
Most Common Shapes of Files Fig. 3.9 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 The various shapes and the

Category – A/B1

The various shapes and the cross-sections of files allow them to be used on a wide range of tasks. The standard file cross- sections (refer to Fig. 3.10) are:

Hand

Round

Half-Round

Square

Three-Square.

 Round  Half-Round  Square  Three-Square. Hand Round Half-Round Square File Cross-Sections Fig. 3.10

Hand

Round  Half-Round  Square  Three-Square. Hand Round Half-Round Square File Cross-Sections Fig. 3.10 The

Round

Half-Round

 Square  Three-Square. Hand Round Half-Round Square File Cross-Sections Fig. 3.10 The Hand is the

Square

File Cross-Sections Fig. 3.10

The Hand is the most commonly used section for general filing; and the blade is usually parallel in shape. One edge may be without teeth, to permit safe working against a finished surface. Such a file is called a ‘Hand Safe Edge’ (HSE) file.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The Round section is used in association with bellied, parallel and tapered blade shapes, with the bellied being the one most commonly used. These files are suitable for filing small radii.

Half-Round files are mostly associated with bellied-shaped blades. Such files are suitable for use on work of irregular shape or for filing large internal radii.

Square files may be bellied, tapered or parallel in shape. They are used for internal work.

Three-Square (or Triangular) files are, usually, of the bellied shape. They are particularly useful for filing internal corners.

They are particularly useful for filing internal corners. Three-Square For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

Three-Square

For Training Purpose Only

filing internal corners. Three-Square For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 17 Mar
filing internal corners. Three-Square For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 17 Mar

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

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Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 The ‘Cut’ of a file

Category – A/B1

The ‘Cut’ of a file refers to the arrangement of the cutting teeth, on the blade of the file. The pattern, in which the teeth are cut, will depend upon the type of material to be filed. The common cuts of files (refer to Fig. 3.11) are the:

Single Cut

Double Cut

Dreadnought

Rasp.

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The teeth of the Rasp are ‘cut’ with a punch, while the metal is hot, at the time of manufacture. This type of cut is used for filing very soft materials such as wood and leather.

Manufacturers will cut files to cater for a wide range of specialised materials, such as encountered when working with aluminium and other non-ferrous alloys.

The Single Cut file has its teeth cut parallel, in a single direction and (for
The Single Cut file has its teeth cut parallel, in a single direction
and (for general engineering), usually, at an angle of
approximately 60° to the main axis of the blade. This type of cut
is relatively open and the teeth do not clog easily.
Sometimes referred to as ‘Floats’, single cut Hand files are,
chiefly, used for filing hard metals. Round files and the curved
surface of Half-Round files are usually single cut.
The Double Cut file also has one set of teeth cut at an angle of
60° to the centre line of the file, with another, crossing set, cut at
angle of approximately 75°. This is the most widely used type of
file for general purposes.
Single Cut
Double Cut
The cut of the Dreadnought’s teeth, make this file especially
suitable for heavy cutting on broad, soft metal surfaces. Its use
is generally restricted to the larger sizes of flat files.
File Cuts
Fig. 3.11
to the larger sizes of flat files. File Cuts Fig. 3.11 Dreadnought ISO 9001:2008 Certified For

Dreadnought

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

Dreadnought ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 18 Mar
Dreadnought ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 18 Mar

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Filing Techniques Sub Module 7.3

Category – A/B1

Filing Techniques

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The ‘Grade’ of a file refers to the depth and spacing (number of teeth per inch) of the cutting teeth in a similar manner to the size and spacing of the particles employed on abrasive papers and wheels. The rate of cutting and the finish given to the work is determined, to a large extent, by the grade of the file.

Good filing is not just a matter of removing surplus metal. The correct amount of material, at each point on the surface of the work piece, needs to be removed, so that the dimensions and tolerances, set by the drawing, will be met.

While there are several more grades of files, available from manufacturers, the most common grades (or degrees of coarseness) of the single and double cut files, found in a typical aerospace technician’s toolkit, are the:

Proficiency comes with practice. New files should, if possible, be first used on soft metal. This achieves ‘tempering’ of the cutting teeth and will contribute to a longer life for the file.

Bastard

Before starting work, it must be ensured that the work piece is secure and correctly placed, as both hands are required for

Second-Cut

filing tasks.

Smooth.

The Bastard is a comparatively coarse grade of file and, though

A file must never be used without a handle. The file will not be

the number of teeth per inch varies with each manufacturer, the Bastard file has approximately 30 teeth per inch. It removes metal fairly quickly and is intended, primarily, for roughing out, but may be used for the entire work, if the finish is not important.

The Second-Cut files are finer (40 teeth per inch) and, consequently, give a better surface finish to the work, but are slower cutting.

Smooth files (50 to 60 teeth per inch) enable a good finish to be obtained, but such files cut comparatively slowly. They should, therefore, be used for finishing work only.

under full control and the risk of puncturing the wrist or palm is very great.

Files must be handled carefully. File blades, being hard, are also brittle and will break if dropped. After use, all files should be returned to their respective racks or bandolier-type holdalls, to prevent them knocking together and being damaged.

The length and grade of file, appropriate to the shape (and material) of the work piece, and to the quality of the desired surface finish, must always be used.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

be used. ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 19
be used. ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 19

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 As mentioned previously, the height

Category – A/B1

As mentioned previously, the height of the vice is important and platforms may be constructed, to ensure that the elbows of shorter persons are level with the top of the vice. Any platforms, so constructed, should ensure that a correct stance be attained, by the work-person, in front of the vice.

It is recommended that the person stand, with feet apart and (depending on whether the person is left- or right-handed), one foot advanced, in a manner similar to a boxer (or a fencer) taking guard. The body weight should be taken on the balls of the feet but, primarily, over the rearmost foot.

Again depending on the person, the handle of the file is gripped in the appropriate hand, while the palm of the other hand is placed, flat on the back of the file, near the tip, when the tip of the file is resting on the work piece.

Using a rocking action, the body weight is transferred over the forward foot while pushing the file forward (and, simultaneously, to the left or right) with the gripping hand, and exerting equal downward pressure, on the file, with both hands.

The full length of the file should be used for each stroke (which should not be rushed) and, at the completion of the stroke, the action is reversed, excepting that the downward pressure is relieved on the backstroke, as the file does not cut in the rearward direction.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Obviously, if attempting to file a flat surface, then it must be ensured that the file is kept level during the filing action and that regular checks are made to verify the accuracy of the dimensions.

During work (and particularly so with non-ferrous metals), the teeth of the file gradually become clogged (pinned) with small particles. If these pinnings are ignored they will cause scratches to the surface of the work piece with subsequent loss of surface finish. To this end, pinnings should be regularly removed by the use of a ‘file card’ (also called a ‘scratch card’) or wire brush.

Chalk, rubbed along the face of the file, before starting the finishing work, will assist in minimising pinning.

Draw-filing, by grasping the file between the fingers and thumbs of both hands, on either side of a work piece, and rubbing back and forth on the surface, may be used to rectify any ‘hollows’, which may appear on a filed surface, due to incorrect filing action. It may also be used, in conjunction with chalk, applied as previously described, to assist in creating a finer surface finish.

For Training Purpose Only

in creating a finer surface finish. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
in creating a finer surface finish. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Whenever

Category – A/B1

Hand Brace (Hand Drill)

Whenever it is necessary to cut accurate, circular holes in materials, then, where possible, the material should be securely clamped and the holes cut, using fixed, power-operated drilling machines. These machines are usually found in workshops and bays, bolted down to the floor (or to benches) and will be discussed in later topics. Where it is impractical to do the work with fixed machines, then the drilling is done, using either portable power tools or hand-operated drills. Portable, power- operated tools will also be discussed later.

The Hand Brace, or, as it is more usually called, the Hand Drill (refer to Fig. 3.12), is, typically, only used to drill holes of up to 6.5 mm, (¼ in) diameter in thin and comparatively soft materials. The device shown is similar to those most commonly found in the toolkits of aircraft technicians, though the actual design will depend upon each manufacturer.

Another hand-operated drill, the Breast Brace, being larger, is designed to hold larger drills than the hand drill and is, normally, used (in workshops etc.) for drilling holes between 6.5 mm and 12 mm (¼ and ½ in).

The breast brace has one other advantage over the hand drill, in that two running speeds can be selected, which will more closely match the correct speed, required by the various sized twist drills being employed.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

employed. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12 For
employed. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12 For
employed. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12 For

Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12

For Training Purpose Only

Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Hand Brace (Hand Drill) Fig. 3.12 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Twist Drills While the range

Category – A/B1

Twist Drills

While the range of tools, designed to create holes in metals and other materials is vast, the Morse-type (named after its inventor, an American engineer) of Twist Drill (refer to Fig. 3.13) is the one most commonly used in aircraft (and in general) engineering.

The shank is the part of the twist drill that is gripped and driven by the chuck of the drilling machine and it is on the shank that the details of the type (grade) and diameter of the drill can usually be found printed or engraved.

On drills up to 12.5 mm (½”) diameter, the shank is parallel and placed into the jaws of a self-centring chuck. On drills above 12.5 mm the shank is usually tapered (to a Morse Taper) of 1:20. The tapered shank fits directly into a matching tapered housing in the drilling machine spindle.

The tapered shank usually ends in a tang and this arrangement provides a more positive drive, which is necessary to overcome the higher forces when drilling with the larger diameter drills.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The helical flute (or fluting), formed in the drill body, provides a rake angle for the cutting edges of the drill. The fluting also allows any lubricant to flow towards the cutting edges and provides a path for the waste metal (‘swarf’), to move clear.

The land of the drill actually touches the wall of the hole and steadies the drill during rotation. Immediately behind the land, metal is removed from the body of the drill, to reduce the friction during rotation.

Land Flute Point Body Shank
Land
Flute
Point
Body
Shank

Twist Drill

Fig. 3.13

For Training Purpose Only

Body Shank Twist Drill Fig. 3.13 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Body Shank Twist Drill Fig. 3.13 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 In order that the drill

Category – A/B1

In order that the drill will cut properly, the point must be ground to the correct shape (refer to Fig. 3.14). The cutting, angle of 59(118° inclusive), a clearance angle of 12and a web angle of 130°, are typical for normal metal cutting, such as aluminium alloys, steels, cast iron and copper. These can be changed to suit the cutting of different materials such as harder metals, softer metals or plastics.

Web or Point Angle

115°-135° Inclusive
115°-135°
Inclusive

Cutting

Edges

Clearance Angle Cutting 12°-15° Angle
Clearance Angle
Cutting
12°-15°
Angle

59°

Typical Twist Drill Point Angles Fig. 3.14

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

It is essential that the drill point is central and that the cutting angles of 59are equal. An offset point or unequal cutting angles will cause an unbalanced rotation that will, in turn, produce an oversized hole.

To achieve the desired cutting and clearance angles (and resulting web angles), a drill grinding attachment may be found attached to a grinding wheel in a workshop.

Hand grinding/sharpening of drills can be achieved (especially after practice), to an acceptable standard for general work. For the high standard of hole, required to receive rivets, in the pressurised skins of aircraft, it is common practice to discard drills, which have become blunt and to replace them with new drills.

There are many different grades of metal, used in the manufacture of twist drills, the most common being:

Carbon Steel

High Speed Steel

Cobalt Steel.

For Training Purpose Only

High Speed Steel  Cobalt Steel. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
High Speed Steel  Cobalt Steel. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Carbon Steel drills, in addition

Category – A/B1

Carbon Steel drills, in addition to iron and carbon, contain various amounts of manganese, silicon, sulphur and phosphorus. The letters CS may be found on the shanks of these drills.

High Speed Steel (HSS) drills contain a comparatively high percentage of tungsten (8%-12%) with a lesser percentage of chromium (5%) and smaller amounts of vanadium and, possibly, molybdenum added to the carbon and iron in this steel.

HSS drills retain their hardness at low red heat and can, thus, be used at much higher speeds than carbon steel drills. This results in much less damage to the cutting edges and, although HSS drills are more expensive than CS drills they can, over a period of time, result in a greater economy in the purchase of drills.

Cobalt Steel drills, contain up to 12% cobalt, with as much as 20% tungsten, 4% chromium, 1%-2% vanadium and traces of molybdenum combined with 0.8% carbon. These drills are normally used on metals such as stainless steels, titanium and other very hard metals.

Being extremely hard, Cobalt Steel drills are also quite brittle. Because of this, the use of these drills can be very dangerous, and, so, strict observance of the recommended cutting speeds is essential.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Drill diameter sizes are also usually marked upon the shank of the drill and can be identified by the method used in their sizing. The most common methods of identifying the diameter of twist drills are:

Metric

Fractions of an inch

The Number/Letter range.

In the Metric range, the smallest, commercially available, drill has a diameter size of 0.35 mm. The full range proceeds in increments of 0.05 mm up to 5.0 mm, and, for larger sizes, in increments of 0.1 mm.

For Training Purpose Only

larger sizes, in increments of 0.1 mm. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
larger sizes, in increments of 0.1 mm. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 When drilling small holes, up

Category – A/B1

When drilling small holes, up to 6.0 mm (¼”) diameter, the depth of the centre punch mark will, usually, accommodate the non-cutting, chisel-like point of the drill, keeping it on centre and guiding the drill until it is established in the metal.

When a hole larger than 6.0 mm diameter is to be drilled, the centre punch mark is not large enough to accept the non-cutting point of the drill. In this instance it will be necessary to employ the use of a pilot drill (refer to Fig. 3.15) to provide a guide for the larger drill.

Firstly the centre of the hole is marked out on the metal and care must be taken to accurately centre punch the metal.

A small drill (the pilot drill), whose diameter is slightly larger than the non-cutting point of the ‘finished size’ drill, is selected and a pilot hole is drilled in the metal (ensuring that the correct lubricant, for the particular metal, is used).

The pilot drill is replaced by the ‘finished size’ drill, which can, then (and again using lubricant), be guided through the pilot hole to complete the hole to the appropriate size.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

size. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools U s i n g a P
size. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools U s i n g a P
size. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools U s i n g a P
size. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools U s i n g a P

Using a Pilot Drill Fig. 3.15

For Training Purpose Only

l o t D r i l l Fig. 3.15 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01
l o t D r i l l Fig. 3.15 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Stop, and Press (Dimpling), Countersinking

Category – A/B1

Stop, and Press (Dimpling), Countersinking Tools

Two special tools, used during the riveting process, are the ‘Stop’ countersinking bit and the ‘Press’ countersinking, or (as it is more commonly known), the Dimpling tool. Both of these tools have evolved as a result of the need for flush skins on high-performance aircraft.

In order to have the rivet heads flush with the surface, the skin must be prepared by either cutting away a portion of the metal to match the taper of the rivet head, or by indenting (by pressing) the edges of the hole to accept the rivet head.

If the top sheet of the metal, being joined, is thicker than the tapered portion of the rivet head, then the material should be ‘cut’ countersunk.

Whilst the standard countersink bit (or a twist drill, twice the diameter of the rivet hole) can be used, in a hand or power drill, to form a countersunk hole, the lack of accuracy and consistency means they are only useful for small jobs and certainly they should not be used where pressurised skins are concerned.

Where a large number of holes need to be countersunk to a consistent depth, then the Stop Countersink tool should be used (refer to Fig. 3.16). This tool can be adjusted to cut an exact countersink repeatedly, regardless of the force applied to the drill/tool combination.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The pilots can be changed, depending on the size of holes in the material, leaving the remainder of the tool to be used for all jobs unchanged. The stop may be held rigidly, during cutting, to prevent marking the surface.

Locknut

Stop

Fibre Collar Face Pilot Drill Chuck Fitting Chip Opening
Fibre Collar
Face
Pilot
Drill Chuck
Fitting
Chip Opening

Stop Countersink Tool Fig. 3.16

For Training Purpose Only

Stop Countersink Tool Fig. 3.16 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 26
Stop Countersink Tool Fig. 3.16 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 26

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Press countersinking or ‘dimp ling’

Category – A/B1

Press countersinking or ‘dimpling’ is done where the aircraft skin is too thin to countersink, and without the attendant risk of enlarging the drilled hole. The edges of the hole are formed, to accommodate the head of the rivet, by using a set of dimpling dies, using either ‘coin dimpling’ or ‘radius dimpling’ methods.

Coin dimpling forces the sheets into the lower die, leaving a sharply defined and parallel-sided hole. This process also allows a number of sheets to be ‘stacked’ together at the expense of a complex pair of tools and leaves a neat, clean dimpled hole with smooth sides (refer to Fig. 3.17).

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Radius dimpling uses a male die to drive the sheets into a female die. The sides of the formed holes are not as smooth as the coin dimpling method, but this less- precise operation is quicker and cheaper to achieve.

With harder materials, such as magnesium and certain aluminium alloys, a process called hot dimpling is used. This method involves pre-heating the metal, so that it forms more easily and is less likely to crack when shaping takes place.

Punch Skin Die
Punch
Skin
Die
Dimpled Skin
Dimpled
Skin

After Rivet has been Formed

Punch Skin Die Dimpled Skin After Rivet has been Formed Dimpling Tool Fig. 3.17 ISO 9001:2008

Dimpling Tool

Fig. 3.17

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

For Training Purpose Only

Tool Fig. 3.17 ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Tool Fig. 3.17 ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Reamers Reamers are precision-ground

Category – A/B1

Reamers

Reamers are precision-ground tools, which are used to enlarge drilled holes to accurate dimensions and provide a smooth internal finish to accommodate precision-ground bolts and some special types of rivets. Reamers are manufactured from high- carbon steel or alloy steel and are fluted to provide a series of cutting edges.

They are available, either for use by hand, or for using with a suitable drilling machine. Machine reamers can usually be

identified by the Morse tapered shank, which is inserted directly

into the spindle of a drilling machine.

The use of machine reamers is, usually, the prerogative of specialist machinists and not of line- or hangar-based aircraft engineers so that only the hand-operated reamers will be discussed here.

Hand reamers are rotated, by means of the hand wrench, which locates on the squared portion of the shank. They must always be rotated only in the cutting direction, even when withdrawing from a hole. The cutting lubricants, used on specific materials, are those which are used for drilling procedures.

Reamers are used for removing only small amounts of material,

which, typically, for hand reamers, is approximately 0.2 mm-0.3

mm (0.008 in-0.012 in), so holes should be drilled with this fact

in mind.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Reamers are supplied in protective sleeves, to protect the fine, vulnerable cutting edges, which run along the body of the tool and, to preserve the sharp edges, they should be kept in their sleeves when not in use.

The three most common types of hand-operated reamers are the:

Hand Parallel Reamer

Hand Expanding Reamer

Hand Taper Reamer.

Hand Parallel Reamers (refer to Fig. 3.18) are fixed-size, parallel-bodied reamers, possessing either straight or spiral flutes. The straight fluted reamer can be considered to be the general-purpose reamer, whilst the spiral fluted reamer is used for reaming holes which have keyways or grooves as the spiral flutes smoothly bridge the edges of the gap in the metal while the reamer rotates.

For Training Purpose Only

in the metal while the reamer rotates. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
in the metal while the reamer rotates. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Straight Fluted Reamer Spiral Fluted

Category – A/B1

(PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Straight Fluted Reamer Spiral Fluted Reamer Hand

Straight Fluted Reamer

PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Straight Fluted Reamer Spiral Fluted Reamer Hand Parallel Reamers Fig. 3.18 ISO

Spiral Fluted Reamer

Hand Parallel Reamers Fig. 3.18

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Hand Expanding Reamers (refer to Fig. 3.19) are used where standard parallel reamers of the required dimension are not available. This type of reamer has separate, replaceable blades that slide, in tapering slots, and which are held in position by a pair of circular nuts. The reamer blades can be adjusted to the required cutting size by slackening one nut and tightening the other.

The shape of each blade is such that, at any point along the slot, its cutting edge is always parallel to the axis of the reamer. The size range of each expanding reamer is stamped on its shank. The actual size set during adjustment can be checked using either a ring gauge or micrometer/calliper.

checked using either a ring gauge or micrometer/calliper. Hand Expanding Reamer Fig. 3.19 For Training Purpose

Hand Expanding Reamer Fig. 3.19

For Training Purpose Only

Hand Expanding Reamer Fig. 3.19 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 29
Hand Expanding Reamer Fig. 3.19 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 29

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Hand Taper Reamers (refer to

Category – A/B1

Hand Taper Reamers (refer to Fig. 3.20), are used to produce a tapered hole for the insertion of a standard taper pin. The two types of tapered reamers are the:

Metric: This type, and its corresponding taper pins, has a taper of 1:50. Its size is etched, or stamped, on the shank, and refers to its smaller diameter

Imperial: The reamers and the taper pins, for which they are used, have a taper of 1:48. The size of a reamer is indicated by numbers (which range from 0 to 10), or by a fractional designation. The size is etched or stamped on the shank and refers to its larger diameter.

The difference between the Metric and Imperial tapers is very slight, but it is sufficient to make the taper pins incompatible. When replacement taper pins are required, particularly when both types are available, then great care must be taken to ensure that pins of the correct taper, size and type are installed.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

installed. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Hand Taper Reamer Fig. 3.20 For Training

Hand Taper Reamer Fig. 3.20

For Training Purpose Only

- Tools Hand Taper Reamer Fig. 3.20 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
- Tools Hand Taper Reamer Fig. 3.20 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Internal Screw Thread, Cutting Taps

Category – A/B1

Internal Screw Thread, Cutting Taps

Taps are used for the hand cutting of internal (female) screw threads of the common types, up to a maximum diameter of approximately 25.4 mm (1.0 in). They are short, threaded bars of hardened and tempered steel, which are fluted to give cutting edges and the end of the shank is squared, to facilitate turning with a wrench (refer to Fig. 25). Taps are normally made in sets of three, with the exception of the BA thread tap sets, which have only two taps to a set. A tap set, which all have the same maximum diameter, normally consists of a:

Taper Tap

Second Tap

Plug Tap

The Taper Tap is used to start the thread cutting process. It is tapered gradually from the point for about two thirds of the threaded length, so that it can enter the pre-drilled hole easily and assist in the correct alignment of the tap (which is very important) before cutting commences. The last third of its length has fully formed threads.

The Second (or Intermediate) Tap is used, following the taper tap, to deepen the thread. This tap is tapered for the first two or three threads only and, where it is possible for the tap to pass the whole length through a hole, it is capable of cutting a fully formed thread. The Intermediate is the tap that is not available in BA thread tapping sets.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The Plug (or Bottoming) Tap has no taper and its purpose is to finish the threads in deep, through holes or to cut threads to the bottom of ‘blind’ holes.

Before the thread can be cut, a hole must be drilled in the work piece. This hole must be of the correct size and the drill that is selected (the ‘tapping’ drill), must have the same diameter as the minor diameter of the thread needed to be cut. The correct tapping drill size can be obtained from workshop charts and reference books.

Unfortunately, because taps are ‘glass hard’ they are also brittle and can, thus, be easily broken if due care is not given to their use. It is imperative that the tap’s location in the drilled hole be constantly confirmed and that its main axis is maintained in proper alignment with the corresponding axis of the hole.

Adequate cutting fluid (as used in the drilling procedure) must be applied, and the arms of the wrench should be of an appropriate length (not too long) so that the possibility of the tap wobbling in the hole, or excessive turning force being applied to the tap (and especially to the smaller diameter taps), is minimised.

If a tap jams, and snaps off in a hole, its removal can cause serious difficulties.

For Training Purpose Only

can cause serious difficulties. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 31 Mar
can cause serious difficulties. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 31 Mar

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Plug Tap Full Length Threads

Category – A/B1

(PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Plug Tap Full Length Threads Full 2-3

Plug Tap

Full Length

Threads

Full 2-3 Thread Threads Taper
Full
2-3 Thread
Threads
Taper

Second Tap

Length Threads Full 2-3 Thread Threads Taper Second Tap Gradual Full Taper Tap Taper Threads Conventional
Gradual Full
Gradual
Full

Taper Tap

Taper

Threads

Conventional Tap Set Fig. 3.21

Following the drilling of the correct sized hole, the tapping procedure involves ensuring that the work piece is securely held (firmly attached to another component or clamped in a vice) and that the taper tap is attached to the correct sized wrench. Taps, incidentally, may have ‘right’ or ‘left hand’ threads.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Applying lubricant as required, the taper tap is inserted into the hole and its correct alignment verified (by use, for example, of an Engineer’s square), before it is rotated clockwise (for a ‘right hand’ thread), slowly and gently, until the initial threads are established.

Once the initial threads are established, the tap must not be rotated continuously, otherwise the cuttings will not break off and the tap will, consequently, jam in the hole and, if forced, it will shatter.

To this end, the tap, after each full turn, is rotated backwards, approximately ½ to ¾ of a turn, to break the cuttings off. The forward rotation is then continued, with subsequent cutting breaks, until the full thread portion of the tap has cut sufficient full threads in the hole.

After the preliminary cut, the process is repeated, using the second tap (if not a BA thread), and, if required, repeated again using the plug tap. The thread, and each end of the hole (where accessible), should be cleaned out if burrs or swarf are present and, with ‘blind’ holes, the swarf must be cleared out of the hole regularly to prevent the tap binding at the bottom of the hole.

In the event of a tap breaking in a hole, it may be necessary to resort to specialist procedures (spark erosion for example) for its removal without causing further, and, possibly, expensive damage, to the component or work piece.

For Training Purpose Only

damage, to the component or work piece. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
damage, to the component or work piece. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 External Screw Thread, Cutting Dies

Category – A/B1

External Screw Thread, Cutting Dies

Dies are used for the hand cutting of external (male) threads on round rods or bars of comparatively small diameters. While there are several designs of dies (depending on the diameter of the thread being cut), consideration is given here only to the ‘split’ circular or button dies (refer to Fig. 3.22), which are, typically, found in aircraft maintenance workshops and may be used, by aircraft technicians, for the manufacture of studs and similar items.

Circular dies consist of an internally threaded (‘right’ or ‘left handed’) disc of hardened and tempered steel, which is fluted to form several cutting edges. Dies also need to be rotated (in a similar manner to the previously mentioned taps), in order to cut threads but, unlike a tap and wrench, a die is rotated by the use of a stock.

Die discs, within the smaller diameter ranges have a standard outside diameter, which allows a range of dies, with different internal sizes, to be used with the same, standard, stock. The discs are ‘split’, to allow for a degree of adjustment to the depth of the thread being cut.

The manufacturers name, thread type, diameter and number of threads per millimetre (or inch) are marked on the face of the die (Taps, incidentally, are similarly marked on their shanks).

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Split Die Shoulder Stock Outer Securing and Adjusting Screws
Split Die
Shoulder
Stock
Outer Securing and
Adjusting Screws

Centre Adjusting Screw

Circular Die and Stock Fig. 3.22

For Training Purpose Only

Screw Circular Die and Stock Fig. 3.22 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
Screw Circular Die and Stock Fig. 3.22 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Before external thread cutting is

Category – A/B1

Before external thread cutting is commenced, it is necessary to obtain a suitable length of rod, the diameter of which is equal to the major diameter of the thread to be cut. Care needs to be taken in this matter (and especially where closely sized Imperial and Metric rods are available) because it is possible to create a thread on slightly undersized or oversized rods.

The undersized rod would, of course, be a looser fit with the corresponding female threaded item, which would not be acceptable, while the oversize rod may cause damage to the other threaded device by being too tight a fit.

The die should be placed in the stock with the tapered threads (if any) away from the shoulder and the split aligned with the centre adjusting screw. It is next necessary to set the die to the maximum diameter, by slightly slackening the outer adjusting screws and gently tightening the centre adjusting screw. This will ensure that the first cut will be shallow. Failure to do this will invariably result in a poor quality thread.

A shallow taper, or chamfer, must be ground or filed onto the end of the rod; to assist in the location of the die before cutting commences and the rod should be clamped firmly, and, preferably, vertically in the bench vice with the tapered end uppermost.

Once more, adequate lubrication must be used throughout the procedure, again, using the same lubricants as used for the drilling and tapping tasks.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Ensuring that the die is set to cut the maximum diameter, as described previously, the die should be placed squarely onto the taper of the rod and, with steady downward hand pressure, and the die is carefully rotated (clockwise) to start the cut.

It must be ensured that the die remains square to the rod at all times during the cutting, which is continued in a series of small arcs, reversing each time to sever the cuttings, in a similar manner as is done when using the taps.

When enough thread has been cut, the die is removed and the thread checked, using a finished nut. If the thread proves to be too tight, then, after backing off the centre adjusting screw and (carefully) turning the outer adjusting screws inwards another cut is made with the die.

The procedure is repeated as often as necessary until a satisfactory fit is achieved between the two, mating, threaded items.

As the internal tapped thread is NOT adjustable, the internal thread should be cut first. The external thread, which CAN be slightly adjusted, should always be cut last to ensure the desired degree of fit between the respective threads.

For Training Purpose Only

of fit between the respective threads. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
of fit between the respective threads. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Screwdrivers Despite the many shapes

Category – A/B1

Screwdrivers

Despite the many shapes and sizes which may be met, it can be stated that screwdrivers may be divided into two main groups, which, basically, are:

Blade Screwdrivers

Cross-Point Screwdrivers.

Blade (or Common) screwdrivers consist of a high carbon or an alloy steel blade, mounted into a wooden or composite handle. The end of the blade is ground to engage the diagonal slot in the head of the screw. If the blade is of high carbon steel, it will be hardened and tempered.

Screwdrivers in this category are classified by type and by the length of blade, which can be from approximately 35 mm (1.5 in) to 300 mm (12 in) long, although special screwdrivers can be obtained with blade lengths of 500 mm (20 in).

Some variations may incorporate a reversible ratchet device in the handle while others may also have an Archimedes’ drive (as in a ‘Pump’ screwdriver).

All of these features would form part of the classification of the screwdriver.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The correct engagement of the screwdriver blade in the slotted head of the screw or bolt is most important. The most common faults can be seen in the illustration. The end of the blade should never be ground to a sharp chisel edge and a blade of the correct thickness and width should always be chosen.

Screwdrivers of the wrong size can cause serious damage to fasteners, surrounding aircraft structure and to the persons using them.

aircraft structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large

Blade too Small

structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct
structure and to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct

Blade Correct

to the persons using them. Blade too Small Blade Correct Blade too Large Correct Screwdriver Engagement

Blade too Large

Correct Screwdriver Engagement Fig. 3.23

For Training Purpose Only

Screwdriver Engagement Fig. 3.23 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 35 Mar
Screwdriver Engagement Fig. 3.23 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 35 Mar

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Cross-Point Screwdrivers have been

Category – A/B1

Cross-Point Screwdrivers have been designed, by the several manufacturers of the different types of screw heads (refer to Fig. 3.24).

These screw heads allow greater torque to be applied to the fasteners but, due to the variations in design, it is vital that the correct screwdriver be used with each type of screw head as they are not compatible.

The accurate fit of cross-point screwdrivers into the recess in the respective screw head is essential if damage is to be prevented.

Reed and Price Phillips
Reed and Price
Phillips

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

There is also a wide selection of other specialist screwdrivers, which have been made to allow certain tasks to be accomplished. These can include:

Offset (or Cranked) Screwdrivers: which can reach screws with little clearance above their heads (and which may, also, have a blade at one end and a cross-point at the other)

Reversible Tip Screwdrivers: with hexagonal shanks, that allow the shank of the screwdriver to be reversed in the handle to provide a different tip, with a blade at one end and a cross-point at the other end of the hexagonal shank

Interchangeable Tip Screwdrivers: which have a selection of socket-like tips that can be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head.

be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various
be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various
be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various
be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various
be interchanged to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various

Posidrive

to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various Types of
to suit any particular type of screw head. Posidrive Triwing ISO 9001:2008 Certified Various Types of

Triwing

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Various Types of Cross-Point Screwdrivers Fig. 3.24

For Training Purpose Only

of Cross-Point Screwdrivers Fig. 3.24 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 36
of Cross-Point Screwdrivers Fig. 3.24 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 36

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Pliers Pliers are classified by

Category – A/B1

Pliers

Pliers are classified by type and overall length and usually made from alloy steel, with an insulated handle. They are designed for gripping, bending or moving small items that cannot be easily handled with the fingers. Some of the many types, that are available for a variety of purposes, include:

Side-Cutting Pliers: which are the general-purpose type, and are useful for the installation and removal of split pins. They also have a facility for cutting wire

Round-Nosed Pliers: which are useful for putting small radius bends into wire in addition to a variety of other tasks

Flat-Nosed Pliers: which, because the jaws are much thinner, may be used for many small holding and bending tasks, that are not possible with the side-cutting pliers

Needle-Nosed Pliers: which have finely pointed jaws and can be used in electrical and electronic work, that involves holding small components and thin wires. Needle-nosed pliers may, sometimes, have the jaws turned at right angles to the handles, to allow the operator to see the work being held

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Wire-Locking Pliers: which are used for the specific task of gripping wire, during the wire-locking of components. Due to their integral Archimedes’ screw, they are also able to spin and so twist two wires, so that a neat and tight wire-locking is obtained.

Circlip Pliers: these may be found in two basic forms (Internal and External). Both types have pins on the ends of the jaws, which are used to install and remove circlips from around (and from within) components. The mechanisms are designed so that, squeezing the handles together, either results in the jaw pins coming together, (Internal), or spreading apart (External).

There are other groups of gripping tools that could, loosely be called pliers, but they usually go under the names of grips or clamps. These include ‘Mole’-type Grips: which can be locked, holding a component, freeing up the operator’s hand for other work, Pipe Clamps, which can be used for gripping pipe unions, and Slip-Joint (or Water Pump) Pliers that can have several, different gripping ranges, due to their multi-pivot mechanisms.

For Training Purpose Only

due to their multi-pivot mechanisms. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 37
due to their multi-pivot mechanisms. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 37

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Spanners, Sockets and Wrenches The

Category – A/B1

Spanners, Sockets and Wrenches

The commonest spanners are those which are used on the standard hexagonal heads of bolts, nuts, screws and similarly shaped fastening devices.

Other spanners are often referred to as special or non-standard spanners, and are used on different types of screw thread fastenings. Some of these special spanners have a limited application, whilst others are specifically produced for a particular component, and will only be found in special toolkits applicable to that component.

Most spanners are manufactured from case-hardened mild steel, hardened and tempered high-carbon steel or alloy-steel, though there are some which are made from copper alloys, where spark-resistant tools are required.

The size of a spanner, is either marked on the jaw face, or on the shank, in the units of the type of thread system being used on the fastening device.

The units, shown on a particular spanner, however, relate to different parts of the fastening devices (refer to Fig. 3.25), so a knowledge of the spanner sizing systems is necessary. The two main sizing systems are those of the:

British Standard Institution (BS) and British Association (BA) Imperial system

American/Unified (Imperial) and the Metric system.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

The British Standard system uses Imperial units (fractions of an inch etc.) and embraces two of the three main thread systems, used in British engineering, one of which is no longer used in aircraft engineering.

The sizing, on BS spanners, relates to the nominal diameter of the nut, bolt or stud, upon which the spanner is to be used. For example, a spanner marked as ½ BS indicates that the spanner is used on a ½" diameter bolt (nut, stud etc.), although the actual distance across the jaws of this spanner would be 0.820".

across the jaws of this spanner would be 0.820". BS and BA (Imperial) Dimensions American/Unified (Imperial)

BS and BA (Imperial) Dimensions

American/Unified (Imperial) and Metric Dimensions
American/Unified (Imperial)
and Metric Dimensions

Spanner Sizing Systems Fig. 3.25

For Training Purpose Only

Spanner Sizing Systems Fig. 3.25 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 38
Spanner Sizing Systems Fig. 3.25 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 38

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Earlier BS spanners can be

Category – A/B1

Earlier BS spanners can be found with two figures stamped adjacent to each other (e.g. 7 / 16 BSW 1 / 2 BSF). The BSW figure relates to the Whitworth thread system, which is not used on aircraft, due to its tendency to loosen when subjected to vibration. The BSF refers to the British Standard Fine thread but, to avoid confusion, the older system has now been brought into line with the BS system, so that a ½" BS (BSF) spanner can (for general engineering purposes) also be used on a ½" Whitworth bolt/nut combination.

British Association (the third British thread system) sizes, also use Imperial measurements, and, although they are in decimal fractions of an inch, they are represented by a whole number (2BA, 4BA, 6BA and so on) which again relates to the nominal diameter of the fastening device.

The American Fine and Unified thread systems, also use Imperial measurements. The sizes, stamped on spanners, refer to the dimensions across the spanner jaws (or across the flats of the hexagon of the fastening device). A spanner marked ½" A/F, would be used on a bolt with an actual diameter of 5 / 16 ".

Metric spanners are marked with a number also denoting the width (millimetres) across the flats, of the hexagon shaped fastener on which it is used.

It is important that the correct procedure is followed to avoid incorrect tools being used to install or remove a nut, bolt, stud or any other fastening device.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

In some instances the correct tool size may be quoted in the maintenance manual. This must be strictly followed.

in the maintenance manual. This must be strictly followed. (BOX END SPANNER) (COMBINATION SPANNER) For Training

(BOX END SPANNER)

manual. This must be strictly followed. (BOX END SPANNER) (COMBINATION SPANNER) For Training Purpose Only

(COMBINATION SPANNER)

For Training Purpose Only

(BOX END SPANNER) (COMBINATION SPANNER) For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 39
(BOX END SPANNER) (COMBINATION SPANNER) For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐ 39

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 There are so many tool

Category – A/B1

There are so many tool catalogues, crammed with a bewildering range of tools that it is impossible to include so many in these course notes. Some of the more common spanners and wrenches (in addition to the previously-mentioned tools), which are liable to be found in the average toolkit, of an aircraft maintenance technician, include such general tools as:

‘Set’ (Open-Jaw) Spanners

Ring Spanners

Flare Nut Spanners.

Sockets

Allen Keys

Torque Wrenches.

The Set or Open-Jaw spanners are usually made in double- ended form, to provide two available sizes in one tool.

The open jaws are ‘set’ at an angle (usually 15°) to the axis of the shank, which is a useful feature, because (when replacing nuts and bolts in restricted spaces), by turning the spanner over, the nut or bolt can be approached from a different angle. They are not, however, totally satisfactory devices, as the jaws only bear against two of the available six flats of the hexagon. There is always the tendency for the jaws to spring open when force is applied to the spanner.

Ring spanners are preferred to set spanners as they give full enclosure of the hexagonal head of the nut or bolt, each corner of which engages snugly within an angle in the aperture of the

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

spanner. This aperture is usually bi-hexagonal, to facilitate the use of the spanner when angular movement is restricted.

Ring spanners are usually supplied in double-ended form, to fit nuts and bolts of consecutive sizes. The ends are normally offset but straight (and also cranked) types of ring spanners can be obtained.

Flare Nut spanners are designed with a gap in the ring, which allows the spanner to be placed over a pipeline or electrical loom, and then to be moved onto the hexagon of the union nut or plug.

Sockets spanners (but, more commonly, simply referred to as sockets) typically, have a six- or twelve-pointed opening, designed to enclose different sized nuts and bolt heads in one end, with a square hole, for the standard ‘T’ bar driver (or an alternative turning device), in the other end.

Socket sets are available in a variety of drive sizes. However, in aircraft maintenance, the ¼" square drive and the 3 / 8 " square drive are the most popular. Other sizes available are the ½", ¾" and 1" square drives. Sockets are available in both Imperial and Metric sizes (though the drive sizes tend to be quoted in Imperial units) and can be used with several accessories, which greatly facilitate the use of the sockets and extend the range of their application.

For Training Purpose Only

extend the range of their application. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
extend the range of their application. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 The socket spanners are usually

Category – A/B1

The socket spanners are usually supplied in complete sets, of incremental sizes to suit various tasks. Deep sockets are used where a bolt extends further through a nut than normal, preventing the use of a standard socket. They are also used to remove spark plugs from piston-type aero engines.

The main accessories, supplied with socket sets, can (in addition to the standard T’ bar driver) include:

Ratchet Handles

Drive Bars

Speed Braces

Extension Bars

Universal Joints

Converter/Adapters.

Ratchet handles allow the turning to continue, even if the space does not allow full rotation of the normal ‘T’ bar driver. Most ratchets are reversible, either by the use of a selector lever or by the square drive being able to be ‘floated’ through the mechanism, to be available on both sides of the ratchet handle.

Drive bars are usually produced with long handles and so, should normally be used only to break the ‘stick’ of a tight nut and not for tightening up. These are also known as breaker bars or knuckle bars.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Speed braces can have a socket or screwdriver blade ‘snapped’ onto their ends. They are normally used to turn down nuts or screws, which have many threads before they tighten-up. Final tightening is completed using either a ‘T’ bar, a ratchet handle or (more usually) a torque wrench.

Extension bars are used where access for a standard drive handle is restricted. Extension bars are made from forged alloy steel and come in a range of nominal lengths from 50 mm (2 in) to 1 m (39 in).

Universal joints allow tightening of nuts, bolts and screws where it is not possible to obtain access in a straight line. They function better if the angle they are working through is not too great.

Converter/Adapters allow sockets from one type of drive to be used with another type. For example, a 3 / 8 " drive socket with a 1 / 4 " drive ratchet would use a ‘step-up’ or ‘step-down’ adapter. Care must be taken, when using larger drive equipment on smaller sockets, that the nuts or screws are not over tightened.

Universal Joint
Universal Joint

For Training Purpose Only

are not over tightened. Universal Joint For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
are not over tightened. Universal Joint For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Extension Bar ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Category – A/B1

(PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Extension Bar ISO 9001:2008 Certified Ratchet handle

Extension Bar

7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Extension Bar ISO 9001:2008 Certified Ratchet handle Sub Module

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Ratchet handle

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

9001:2008 Certified Ratchet handle Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Speed Brace Drive Bar For Training Purpose

Speed Brace

Certified Ratchet handle Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Speed Brace Drive Bar For Training Purpose Only

Drive Bar

For Training Purpose Only

7.3 - Tools Speed Brace Drive Bar For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
7.3 - Tools Speed Brace Drive Bar For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Converter/Adapter Certain bolts and

Category – A/B1

(PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Converter/Adapter Certain bolts and screws, are sunk

Converter/Adapter

Certain bolts and screws, are sunk (or set) below the surface of a component and are used for locking purposes. These set- bolts and set- screws have a hexagonal recess in their heads and the tool used for tightening and loosening these bolts and screws is the Allen Key (also called Allen Wrenches).

Allen Keys are made from hexagonal-section, steel bar, suitably hardened and tempered and are cranked at 90to give the desired leverage. Allen keys are supplied in a variety of sizes to locate with the recesses in the various screws and bolts. They are classified (in Metric or Imperial units), by the dimension across the flats of the hexagon bar from which they are made.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

are made. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Allen Keys The holding power, of

Allen Keys

The holding power, of a threaded fastener is greatly increased, when it is placed under an initial tensile load that is greater than the loads to which the fastener is, normally, subjected. This task is accomplished, by tightening a bolt or nut, to a pre-determined torque or pre-load.

If a fastener is under-torqued, there is danger of the joint being subjected to unnecessary loads, leading to premature failure. When a fastener is over-torqued then the threads are over stressed and can fail.

For Training Purpose Only

are over stressed and can fail. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
are over stressed and can fail. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 A Torque Wrench is a

Category – A/B1

A Torque Wrench is a precision tool that governs the amount of force applied to a fastener and allows accurate torque values to be applied consistently. Under controlled conditions, the amount of force required to turn a fastener is directly related to the tensile stress within the fastener.

The amount of torque is the product of the turning force multiplied by the distance between the centre of the fastener and the point at which the force is applied (usually the length of the wrench handle). Table 4 shows various units of torque, including Imperial, Metric and SI values.

Table 4 Various Units of Torque

Imperial

Metric

SI

pound force foot (lbf.ft)

kilogram force metre (kgf.m)

Newton metre

(Nm)

pound force inch (lbf.in)

kilogram force

centi-Newton

centimetre

metre

 

(kgf.cm)

(cNm)

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

There are, again, many different designs of torque wrenches, so consideration is given here only to three basic types of torque wrench. They are the:

Deflecting Beam

Torsion Bar

Toggle Type.

The Deflecting Beam torque wrench, has a square drive, on one end of an accurately-ground beam, with a handle, mounted on a pivot, at the other end.

A pointer is attached to the square drive end of the beam, whilst

a scale is attached to the beam near the handle. When a force

is applied to the handle, the beam bends and the pointer deflects over the scale. The deflection is directly proportional to the torque applied.

The Torsion Bar torque wrench, uses the principle that a bar

accurately deflects in torsion, as well as bending, when a force

is applied. The square drive is accurately ground and has a rack

gear on one end.

When the bar is twisted, the rack moves across a pinion gear in

a dial indicator, which shows the amount of bar deflection. The dial is calibrated in units of torque.

For Training Purpose Only

dial is calibrated in units of torque. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
dial is calibrated in units of torque. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 The Toggle type of torque

Category – A/B1

The Toggle type of torque wrench, is pre-set to the desired torque before it is put on a fastener. When this pre-set torque is reached, a sound (a click), is heard and the handle releases a few degrees, indicating that the set torque value has been exerted. Once this release occurs, then all force is removed.

Note; When a castellated nut is being torque loaded, it must, first, be torqued to the lowest value of the given torque range. The torque may then be increased until the holes are in line, but before the maximum torque value is reached.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

is reached. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Deflecting Beam Torsion Bar Toggle Type

Deflecting Beam

9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Deflecting Beam Torsion Bar Toggle Type For Training Purpose

Torsion Bar

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Deflecting Beam Torsion Bar Toggle Type For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

Toggle Type

For Training Purpose Only

Deflecting Beam Torsion Bar Toggle Type For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Deflecting Beam Torsion Bar Toggle Type For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 COMMON POWER TOOLS Powered tools

Category – A/B1

COMMON POWER TOOLS

Powered tools have to be treated with respect because they can injure, and in exceptional cases, can cause death if they are incorrectly operated. Before using any powered machine/tool, personnel must make sure that:

They have been properly trained and are currently authorised to use it

All protective guards and fences are securely in place

No part of the body or clothing can come into contact with moving parts

Protective clothing is fastened and neck ties (if worn) tucked in or removed

All rings and other jewellery are removed

Safety glasses/goggles are worn wherever there is a debris risk

Where necessary, the appropriate fire extinguisher is readily to hand

A safety mat is available to stand on where electrical machinery is used

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Machinery is checked for any “Warning” notices indicating it is unsafe for use.

Possibly the most common method of powering tools is through the use of electricity, which is readily available from the ac mains supply and can also be provided from portable, dc batteries.

However, because of the fire hazard, associated with the operation of electrically powered tools, and where there is a possibility of flammable vapours being present, pneumatically powered hand tools are provided for aircraft maintenance tasks, such as drilling, cutting, shaping, screw driving, riveting, nut running and setting.

As previously mentioned, these pneumatic tools may be operated from a fixed air supply gallery, in a workshop or hangar, or from a mobile air compressor.

Electrically Powered Pillar Drills

Electrically powered, Pillar Drills are used for heavy-duty drilling tasks, where larger drill sizes and rigid holding-down of the work piece are required.

Pillar drills also have an advantage in that they are equipped with a method of altering the speed of rotation (rpm) of the chuck to suit the material being drilled and the size (and type) of the drill being used.

For Training Purpose Only

(and type) of the drill being used. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
(and type) of the drill being used. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 This flexibility is needed to

Category – A/B1

This flexibility is needed to enable drills of all sizes to cut efficiently and safely for different types of materials. If the rpm of the machine were constant, then the cutting speed of any drill being used would be dependent upon the diameter of the drill. Small drills would cut slowly and larger drills more rapidly.

For example, at a constant rpm, a point, on the circumference of

a drill with a diameter of 10 mm, will travel twice as far, and cut

at a much faster rate, than a similar point on a drill, which has a diameter of 5 mm. At this excessive rpm, the larger drill would become very difficult to control and would, almost certainly, be damaged by over-heating.

The speed of rotation of most fixed drilling machines may be changed, either by means of a gearbox or by a system of coned pulleys.

The work, being drilled, must be clamped in a manner that will prevent any movement during the drilling operation. Failure to observe this precaution may result in spoilt work, a broken drill and it may also cause serious injuries.

Larger pieces of work are clamped directly to the drilling table of the machine, whereas small items are usually held in a machine vice, which has smooth jaws.

It is essential to ensure that the point of the drill aligns with the centre punch mark and adequate cutting fluid (where required)

is applied before drilling starts.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Electrically Powered Hand Drills

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

These drills are useful in certain locations when work cannot be taken to a fixed, pillar drill and where there is no risk of fire from inflammable materials or vapour. They are quicker than the hand brace and, when used correctly, can be perfectly safe.

The smaller electric drills have a 6.5 mm (¼") chuck, whilst other larger drills can be found with chuck sizes up to 13 mm (½") and larger. This size classification simply indicates the largest size of twist drill that the chuck will hold.

Battery powered (cordless), drills offer more freedom than ac powered or pneumatically powered drills, but they should not be used in the vicinity of flammable vapours as they are not considered to be ‘spark proof’.

Pneumatically Powered Hand Drills

The type of pneumatic drill, used for a specific task, depends very much on the access available. Three typical types of pneumatic hand drills, in common use, are the:

Straight Drills

Angled Drills

Pistol Grip Drills.

For Training Purpose Only

Angled Drills  Pistol Grip Drills. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Angled Drills  Pistol Grip Drills. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Straight Drills have conventional chucks

Category – A/B1

Straight Drills have conventional chucks and keys to accept twist drills with diameters up to 5 mm ( 13 / 64 ”) and have push- button operation. These drills can be used for all conventional drilling operations where direct access is possible.

Angled Drills are available for drilling holes in positions where access is not possible with straight types. The most common types of angled drills are the Angled and Offset Head drills (refer to Fig. 3.26), both of which will accept twist drills with diameters in sizes up to 4.8 mm ( 3 / 16 ”). Each drill size requires its own chuck collet, which is tightened into place with collet spanners.

Pistol Grip Drills (refer to Fig. 3.26), have standard chuck and key arrangements, accept twist drills of diameters up to 8 mm ( 5 / 16 ”) and have a trigger operation.

All drills may be found with built-in filters, pre-set compressed air pressure- reducing devices and a requirement for lubrication. The air supply is normally via a quick release, male and female coupling (bayonet type), allowing the tool to be moved from place to place, as the work requires.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

to place, as the work requires. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Typical Angled

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

requires. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Typical Angled and Pistol Grip Pneumatic Hand
requires. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Typical Angled and Pistol Grip Pneumatic Hand
requires. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Typical Angled and Pistol Grip Pneumatic Hand
requires. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module 7.3 - Tools Typical Angled and Pistol Grip Pneumatic Hand

Typical Angled and Pistol Grip Pneumatic Hand Drill Fig. 3.26

For Training Purpose Only

Grip Pneumatic Hand Drill Fig. 3.26 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐
Grip Pneumatic Hand Drill Fig. 3.26 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3 ‐

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Pneumatically Powered Riveting Hammers The

Category – A/B1

Pneumatically Powered Riveting Hammers

The two basic types, into which these hammers may be divided, are:

Short-Stroke:

blows

fast-hitting

hammers,

which

produce

light

Long-Stroke: slower-hitting hammers, which produce heavy blows.

The short-stroke hammers are usually used for 3 / 32 " or 1 / 8 " rivets and their bodies are made from light-weight, aluminium alloy castings.

The long-stroke hammers may be of either the slow-hitting, reciprocating type, or may be a one-shot type, that drives the rivet set only one blow at a time, when the trigger is pulled. These hammers are used to drive the larger rivets and are much heavier than the fast-hitting hammers.

Different handle styles are provided for both types of hammers (refer to Fig. 31). The Pistol Grip and Swan Neck are the most popular styles, with the Push Button (Straight) type being available for special applications where access is not possible for either of the more popular styles of hammer.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Pistol Grip

Swan Neck

Push Button or Straight

Sub Module 7.3 - Tools

Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1
Swan Neck Push Button or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1

For Training Purpose Only

or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3
or Straight Sub Module 7.3 - Tools For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01 Rev. 00 7.3

PTC/CM/B1.1 Basic/M7/01

Rev. 00

PIA TRAINING CENTRE (PTC)

Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

TRAINING CENTRE (PTC) Module 7 ‐ MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Category – A/B1 Pneumatic Miller (Microshaver) Certain

Category – A/B1

Pneumatic Miller (Microshaver)

Certain hollow rivets leave a mandrel projecting from the work after the closing action. These are removed, leaving a flush surface, by careful use of a Miller or Microshaver (refer Fig. 3.27). The miller has an adjustable stop, to prevent the cutting tool (which rotates at high speed), from damaging the aircraft skin. Two rubber feet give the tool stability during the cutting operation.

When the shank of the rivet is closed into a countersunk hole (where the rivet is installed from inside the aircraft skin), there