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7.6 DESIGN OF SHAFT AGAINST STATIC LOAD http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102012/design of tranmission shafts and dra...

8.0 : DESIGN OF TRANMISSION SHAFTS AND DRAFTING


ROLLERS
8.8 DESIGN OF SHAFT USING A.S.M.E CODE

A.S.M.E. code (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) is one of the approaches followed in design of
transmission shaft. According to this code, the permissible shear stress for shaft without keyways is taken as
30% of the yield strength in tension (Syt), or 18% of the ultimate tensile strength of material (Sut), whichever is
lower. Therefore, the permissible shear stress (d) is

If shafts have keyways ( shown in Fig. 8.8.1), these values have to be reduced by 25%.

Fig. 8.8.1 Shaft, key and pulley assembly

The Eq.(8.22) does not consider the effect of fatigue and shock loads. To account for these, A.S.M.E code
incorporates multiplication factors kb and kt for bending and torsional moments respectively. So the Eq. (8.22)
is modified as

Where kb = combined shock and fatigue factor applied to bending moment


kt = combined shock and fatigue factor applied to torsional moment

The values of kb and kt for rotating shafts are given in the Table 8.8.1.

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7.6 DESIGN OF SHAFT AGAINST STATIC LOAD http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102012/design of tranmission shafts and dra...

Table 8.8.1 Multiplication factors for bending and torsional moments

Load type kb kt

Gradually applied 1.5 1.0

Suddenly applied

Minor shock 1.5-2.0 1.0-1.5

Heavy shock 2.0-3.0 1.5-3.0

A transmission shaft designed for heavy shock load would have larger diameter followed by shafts designed for
minor shock load and then gradually applied load. As heavy shocks are not involved in the case of drafting
rollers, the load can be considered as gradually applied.

The following example illustrates the design of shaft: A main shaft of machine receives power from an electric
motor (not shown in figure) through flat belt ( Fig. 8.8.2).

Fig. 8.8.2 Main shaft carrying a pulley and gear supported by two bearings

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7.6 DESIGN OF SHAFT AGAINST STATIC LOAD http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102012/design of tranmission shafts and dra...

The rpm of the motor is 1435. The diameters of the motor and machine pulleys are 180 and 430 mm
respectively. Motor is placed below the machine shaft such that the axes of both pulleys are in a vertical plane.
The main-shaft transmits power through spur gear (in the plane D) to a drafting system through gear trains (not
shown in figure). The driven spur gear is placed above the gear D such that the axes of shaft, Gear D and driven
gear are in the same vertical plane. The power transmitted by the motor to the main shaft is 15kW. The pitch
circle diameter and pressure angle of the gear are 300 mm and 20 respectively. The ratio of the tight- and
slack- tensions on the belt is 3. Two bearings A and B support the shaft. The properties of material of shaft are:
Sut = 700 N/mm 2 and Syt = 460 N/mm2 and G =79300 N/mm2. Determine the shaft diameter using A.S.M.E
code. The pulley and gear are mounted on shaft using keyways.

Solution:

The net vertical downward force acting on the shaft in the plane of the pulley is
(Tt+Ts ) = 2220.77N
Also,
Mt = Tangential force acting on the gear * radius of pitch circle of gear
238732.41 = Pt * 150
Pt =1591.55 N (acts horizonally in the plane of the gear)
Radial force acting on the gear is Pr = Pt * tan 200 = 579.28 N (acts vertically downwards in the plane of gear).
The reactions at the bearings are: P and Q in the vertical plane and R and S in the horizontal plane containing
the shaft ( Fig. 8.8.2). Taking moments in the vertical plane about A,
(2200.77 * 900) + (579.28 * 300) = (Q * 600), we get Q = 3620.8 N.
Taking moments in the vertical plane about B,
(2200.77 * 300) = (P * 300) + (579.28 * 300), we get , P = 820.75 N
Similarly, the values and direction of R and S in the horizontal plane could be found out. The bending moment
diagram is constructed from left to right, at various planes considering the forces that are acting on the plane
and those on the left side of the plane. Counterclockwise- and clockwise moments are assigned positive and
negative signs respectively.

The bending moments in the vertical plane

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7.6 DESIGN OF SHAFT AGAINST STATIC LOAD http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102012/design of tranmission shafts and dra...

The bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig 8.8.3.

Fig. 8.8.3 Forces and bending moments at different planes of the shaft: Left- vertical
plane; Right- horizontal plane

From the bending moment diagrams, the maximum bending moment is observed at the plane of bearing B. The
resultant bending moment at the plane B is

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7.6 DESIGN OF SHAFT AGAINST STATIC LOAD http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102012/design of tranmission shafts and dra...

BMR at B = (BMH2) + BMY2 )1/2 ...............................................................................................(8.30)

Where, BMH = Bending moment at B in the horizontal plane. BMV = Bending moment at B in the vertical plane.

Therefore, BMR at B = (6662312 + 02)1/2 = 666231 N-mm

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