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Workshop Technology & Practice

Book January 2012

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Segun R Bello
Federal College of Agriculture, Is
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Segun R. Bello
[MNSE, R. Engr. COREN]

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Workshop Technology & Practice

Copyright 2012 by Segun R. Bello

Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, 480001 Nigeria


segemi2002@gmail.com; bellraph95@yahoo.com
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ISBN-13: 978-1479283088
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Dedication

My father, late Mr. S. S Bello & mother Mrs. C. A. Bello,

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Acknowledgement

My profound gratitude is expressed to God for the grace He granted me during the
period of preparing this manuscript. The thoughts of men are high and lofty but He
gave strength to the weak to do exploit. God gave me strength when I am weak and
sustained me when my spirit is low.

I wish to express deep appreciations to all students, trainees and technicians


especially the students of Agricultural and Engineering Technology department
Federal Colleges of Agriculture, Ishiagu and Moor Plantation Ibadan, who had
increased in intellectual learning through some of my works. Their contributions,
feedbacks, criticisms and advice, comments and encouragements had contributed
immensely to the putting together of this work.

I remain committed to the course and encouragements of my darling wife and friend,
who has always stand by me and believe in my vision and also provide a peaceable
home atmosphere for me to concentrate on preparing the manuscript and above all
my children for supporting their father.

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Content

Dedication ...........................................................................................................................vi
Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................ vii
Preface ............................................................................................................................... xii
Part 1 WORKSHOP ORGANIZATION AND SAFETY ..................... 1
CHAPTER 1 Health and Safety Management in Workplaces ...................... 3
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 3
Learning objectives ............................................................................................................. 3
What is workplace ............................................................................................................... 4
Environment......................................................................................................................... 4
Hazard definition ................................................................................................................. 5
Risk and consequences of risk taking ............................................................................... 8
Accident ............................................................................................................................... 9
Injury..................................................................................................................................... 9
Definition of Safety ............................................................................................................ 10
Workplace health and safety laws ................................................................................... 11
Health and safety policy.................................................................................................... 13
Work ergonomics .............................................................................................................. 13
Health and safety checklist for handling manual work ................................................... 15
Guidelines for human and machine safety in workshop ................................................. 16
Consequences of human errors in workshop .................................................................. 17
CHAPTER 2 Workshop Organization and Management .............................. 19
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 19
Learning objective ............................................................................................................. 19
Workshop management.................................................................................................... 19
Critical factors in workshop management ....................................................................... 20
Criteria for workshop design and layout .......................................................................... 21
Workshop organization ..................................................................................................... 25
Keeping workshop records ............................................................................................... 26
Workers/staff Induction and training ................................................................................ 26
Health and safety checklist for workshop organization .................................................. 27
Hazards in workshop......................................................................................................... 28
Fire hazards in workshop and prevention ....................................................................... 29
Health and safety checklist for fire prevention ................................................................ 33

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First aid and hygiene in workshop ................................................................................... 34
Health and safety checklist for first aid kit ....................................................................... 39
CHAPTER 3 Personal Protection in Workshop .......................................... 40
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 40
Types of body protection .................................................................................................. 40
Health and safety checklist for handling chemicals ........................................................ 43
Safety checklist for personal protection in workshop ..................................................... 47
Noise in workshop and protection.................................................................................... 48
Part 2 WORKSHOP TOOLS AND MACHINE SAFE-USE ........... 51
CHAPTER 4 Tools and Machine Safety in Workshop ................................. 52
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 52
Learning objectives ........................................................................................................... 52
Hand tool selection ........................................................................................................... 52
Hand tool hazards and causes ........................................................................................ 53
Typical hand tools and safe-use ...................................................................................... 54
Safe practices for hand tool.............................................................................................. 59
Workshop partners responsibility in tool safety.............................................................. 60
Machine safety in workshop ............................................................................................. 61
Hazard areas in machines................................................................................................ 61
Risks and hazard in workshop operations ...................................................................... 62
Ensuring safety with machine controls ............................................................................ 72
Health and safety checklist for machine safety............................................................... 74
CHAPTER 5 Basic Workshop Machines and Operations .......................... 77
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 77
Learning objectives ........................................................................................................... 77
Power machines and operations...................................................................................... 78
Grinding machine and tools.............................................................................................. 78
Abrasive wheels ................................................................................................................ 80
Drilling machine and tools ................................................................................................ 85
Drilling operations ............................................................................................................. 93
Machining screw threads in drilling machine .................................................................. 97
Die operations ................................................................................................................... 99
Taping operations ........................................................................................................... 101
Reaming operation.......................................................................................................... 105
Boring operation .............................................................................................................. 106
Knurling operation ........................................................................................................... 107
Lathe and lathe operations ............................................................................................. 108

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Types of lathes ................................................................................................................ 108
Lathe operations.............................................................................................................. 124
Milling operation .............................................................................................................. 140
Milling machine ................................................................................................................ 141
Metal chipping operations............................................................................................... 156
Part 3 BENCH FITTINGS AND METAL FABRICATION............ 159
CHAPTER 6 Bench Work and Fittings....................................................... 160
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 160
Learning objectives ......................................................................................................... 160
Bench Work and fitting operations ................................................................................. 160
Bench and fitting tools..................................................................................................... 161
Surface developments .................................................................................................... 180
Development of lower surfaces of geometrical solids .................................................. 184
Development of frustum of cone .................................................................................... 186
CHAPTER 7 Metal Fabrication and Processes ......................................... 189
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 189
Learning objectives ......................................................................................................... 189
Classification of metals ................................................................................................... 189
Properties of metals ........................................................................................................ 190
Testing of metals ............................................................................................................. 192
Heat treatment of metals ................................................................................................ 193
Sheet metal working operations ..................................................................................... 195
Metal joining operations (joints) ..................................................................................... 205
Permanent joint processes ............................................................................................. 209
Non-permanent joining processes ................................................................................. 220
Soldering and brazing ..................................................................................................... 221
Riveting systems ............................................................................................................. 225
Practical Approach to Metal Fabrication ........................................................................ 237
Work plan for machine fabrication ................................................................................. 237
Appendix Quantities for Measurement ........................................................ 239
Practice Questions .......................................................................................................... 242
Part 1: Workshop organization and safety .................................................................... 242
Part 2: Machine and tool safe-use ................................................................................. 243
Part 3: Bench, fittings and metal fabrication.................................................................. 245
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 248
Notes ................................................................................................................................ 252

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Preface

This book was designed to help students acquire requisite knowledge and skills in
basic workshop technology and practices, workshop management, workshop
organization and handling of tools and machines in preparation to meet the demands
of the manufacturing sector of our economy. The book was prepared based on the
curriculum of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), and Nigeria University
Commission (NUC) to satisfy the requirement of course outline for National Diploma
Programme in manufacturing technology, basic workshop practices and workshop
safety in Nigeria monotechnics, polytechnics and Universities.

The book comprises of three parts which extensively explore the following areas of
workshop technology:

Part 1: Workshop organization and safety: This section comprises of three chapters which
discussed

Health and safety management systems


Workshop organization and management and
Personal protection in the workshop

Part 2: Machines and tools safe-use: This section comprises of two chapters addressing

Tools and machine safety in workshop and


Machine and tools safe-use

Part 3: Bench, fittings and metal fabrication: This third section describes essential
operations in

Bench works and fittings and


Metal fabrication process and procedures

The author believed that at having read through this book, users will be able to
appreciate the work environment and the influences it has on the workers safety and
as well have gained enough experience in workshop management, proficiency in safe
tool handling, use and machine operation which guarantees effective job delivery
without incidences of hazards, injury or accident.

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Part 1

WORKSHOP
ORGANIZATION AND SAFETY

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CHAPTER 1

Health and Safety Management in Workplaces

It is hard planning for safety, but harder planning for


recovery after failure to planning

Introduction

Health and Safety Management System (HSMS), is a process for minimizing incidence
of injury, illness and even death at workplaces. Several safety elements have been
identified which could influence the development of a successful safety and health
management system, however four of these elements have been found to be critical
and they include:

1. Leadership qualities of management (employer, supervisors, foreman etc) on


safety and employees involvement,
2. Worksite analysis of potential hazard spots,
3. Hazard prevention and control, and
4. Quality and frequency of organizing safety and health training programme.

Safety and Health management system provides basic essential information about
these critical elements and the organization (arrangement) of workplace environment
as well as accepting the responsibility of the operators safety within those
workplaces.

Learning objectives

The main objective of Health and Safety Management System in workplace is to


elaborate on the responsibilities of the workplace partners (employer and employee)
toward safe work practice and procedure under the Health and Safety at work Act.
Specific learning objective as provided in this chapter include the expansion of
students knowledge of workplace elements and the role of various health and safety
Acts, and organization of the physical environment to avoid hazard.

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What is workplace

A workplace is anywhere work is done, or is to be performed by a worker, person or


group of persons conducting an undertaking or business. A workplace could therefore
be a workshop, a business shop, an office, a farm shop, home, playground etc.

Components of workplace

Components of workplace refers to both the physical and environmental factors that
constitute a workplace and include; physical objects/hardware (such as machinery,
furniture, structures etc), human being (operators, workers, inspectors and their team,
visitors etc) and the environment (operating environment).. a common denominator
within the workplace is the environment which is explained below.

Environment

An environment is the totality of all factors that constitute a workplace. The


environments in which people live have a great deal to do with the determination of
risk level, injury, hazards and opportunities for injury and hazard prevention.
Environment has been known to have some influence on work output or productivity.
For instance, working in a safe and healthful environment can stimulate innovation
and creativity resulting in increased performance and higher productivity.

Two environments are generally identifiable in every workplace; the physical


environment and the operating environment.

Physical environment

The physical environment is the actual place or site where work is done. In other
word, it is the actual workplace and it includes:

1. Factory or plant
2. Workshops
3. Farms (field) and farmsteads,
4. Roadway,
5. Vehicles/machinery,
6. Buildings, farm structures and the settings in which we live, work (offices) and
play.

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Operating environment

The operating environment implies both the physical and atmospheric conditions that
could have an influence on job delivery in the workplace. Several factors influences
the operating environment, such factors include

1. Seasonal variations,
2. Weather variability,
3. Temperature variation,
4. Relative humidity etc.

Other critical factors that are environmentally dependent include:

1. Exposure to harmful substances, and


2. Working within confined and limited (small) spaces
3. Working in poorly ventilated enclosures
4. Working in poorly illuminated environment
5. Attack by insects and wild animals etc.

All these and factors environment harbours potential hazards when not controlled
with attendant consequences of injury and even death in extreme cases.

Hazard definition

Hazard is any situation, condition or extreme events (natural or caused) with a certain
degree of probability of having adverse result or consequences on safety or health of
workers. It expresses any activity tat has potential to adversely or negatively impact
human health, property, or the environment. It causes harm or injury. These hazards
could occur at some specific places known as hazard points.

Hazard points

Hazard points are those points within the physical and operating environment that
could cause injury such as moving parts of machinery, working at heights, slippery
surfaces, and contact with electrical energy, excessive noise, toxic substances, and
lifting of heavy objects among several other sources.

Workplace hazards

These are hazards that are particularly domicile in the work environment. Theses
could be as a result of human inefficiency, machine malfunction, inclement weather
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(abrupt weather change) and/or accidental occurrences. Workplace hazard has both
short term (safety implications) and long term health implications) effects when not
put under checks.

Classes of hazard

The short term and long term effects of workplace hazards gives to two b broad
classes of hazards viz safety hazard and health hazards.

Safety hazards

Safety hazard refers to circumstances that can cause immediate injury to a worker. For
example, if electrical equipment are not properly grounded, it could become
energized and possibly electrocute an employee. Or, if a workers hands come in
contact with moving saw blade, he or she could have one or more fingers cut off
instantly or result in instant injury. Safety injuries are commonly associated with
physical environment.

Physical environment that could cause safety hazard include but not limited to the
followings:

1. Machine/machinery such as:


a. Point of operation
b. Rotary and reciprocating movements
c. In-running nip points (pinch points) etc.
2. Kickbacks from machine due to sudden impact loading, sudden blow from
workload etc.
3. Flying chips, thrown object etc. such as flying stone propelled by mower blade etc.
4. Sharp projections from tool edges e.g. anvil edge, projecting object in load vehicles
etc.
5. Fire and explosion hazards
6. Electrical shock, stunning, burn or electrocution as a result of contact with
exposed or un-insulated life wire.

Health hazards

Health hazards are situations associated with long term exposure to certain substances
or exposure to excessive noise levels or vibrations. Health hazards can cause both
immediate (acute) and longer-term (chronic) health conditions. For example, exposure
to turpentine, waxes and finishes, a chemical used in furniture industry, can result in
a range of health effects, ranging from temporary eyes irritation and more debilitating
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skin effects to severe kidney and bladder damage. Health injuries are commonly
associated with operating environment

Operating environment that could cause health hazards include:

1. Excessive noise resulting from long time exposure to continuous machine operation
or exposure to noisy machine operation.
2. Vibration: Vibration as a result of working on platforms, working around heavy
and undamped equipment or constantly being exposed to moving parts could
cause muscular disorders.
3. Wood dust: These are particulate fine materials that seems harmless, however, long
time exposure to them can heavy inhalation of quantity big enough to result in air
track blockage thereby causing carcinogenic effects on the skin.
4. Harmful chemicals: Exposures to coatings, finishing, adhesives, solvent vapours
could result in health hazards.

Types of hazard

Hazards in workplaces are grouped into four categories accordingly.

Category 1: Physical hazards: Physical hazards could cause traumatic injuries as a result of
human exposure to the source. These hazards results from activities such as:

Lifting and handling heavy loads e.g. manual materials handling


Exposure to repetitive motions resulting from reciprocating systems, or
synchronous operations requiring intermittent hand and body movement.
Slipping and tripping hazards e.g. poorly maintained floors, working on oily
surfaces, poorly designed stair cases or scaffolds or carelessness while working at
heights.
Exposure to moving parts of machinery e.g. exposure to unguarded belts, gears
and chains etc.
Exposure to electrical current and fire, as a result of poor wiring, frayed cords or
lack of precautionary measures
Exposure to excessive noise e.g. portable hand held tools, engines etc.
Exposure to extreme temperatures from heating ports, exhaust pipes and
ionizing radiations from reactors, or leakages form ionization chambers.

Category 2: Chemical hazards: These are injuries caused by exposure to

Chemicals e.g. battery acids, solvents, cleaners, pesticides and herbicides

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Dusts e.g. from grinding, asbestos removal, sandblasting, sawmill dust
Fumes e.g. welding fume, mists and vapour from mist applications or sprays
and gas emissions.

Category 3: Biological hazards: These are hazards resulting from human exposure to
pathogenic substances or materials from sewerages, lagoons (aerobic or
anaerobic). These pathogens include viruses, fungi, bacterial or mold. They
cause an attack on blood and body fluids.

Category 4: Psychological hazards occur as a result of unfavourable working conditions,


inadequate and inappropriate work tools, working with old or worn and out
of fashion (obsolete) tools and equipment and undue exposure to hazards due
to poor management responses to change. Such situations often lead to

Psychological trauma and frustration which could lead to job depression


culminating in work stress, strain, and fatigue.
Other effects include mental exhaustions, disillusionment and delirium.

Occupational hazards

Apart from accidents caused by carelessness and recklessness, workers are exposed to
certain hazards in the course of their undertaken, a form of risk associated with the
work that somebody does. This is known as Occupational Hazards or Job Risk.

Occupational diseases and illnesses

Occupational disease is a major category of environmental hazard, and refers to


illness resulting from job-related exposures. Examples include

Silicosis, a lung disease of miners, industrial workers, and potters exposed to silica
dust; and
Bone disease in workers exposed to phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.

Risk and consequences of risk taking

Risk

Risk is defined as any human venture or engagement with the likelihood of causing a
specific harm or injury to persons or damage to property. For example, if a person
works on a 40-meter high platform without any guard railing and safety harness, the

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risk of falling and getting killed is obviously very high. The tendency of working at
such height and not sustaining any injury is there, however the consequence is grave
when an incidence of hazard occur. Hence risk can be defined as the combination of
the probability or possibility of an event happening and its consequences.

Consequences of risk taking

There is an element of risk in every activity that man is associated with. Risk is present
when we eat, sleep, walk and wherever we work. In as much as we are companions
with risk, efforts should be made to keep the risk under (i.e. minimize exposure to
such risks) as much as possible, else the consequences are that accident could occur
leading to injury or death.

Accident

Accident is an unforeseen occurrence with negative consequence as a result of sudden


impact, system malfunction human error or as a result of carelessness when we
undertake unsafe acts. Accident results in pains, loss of body member or death to
victims, a waste of time, money, materials and damage to equipment. Consequently, it
is of interest to devise measures to prevent or reduce accidents in all operations to the
barest minimum.

Injury

In public health practice, injury usually means physical harm to a persons body.
Physical injury (harm) results from contact between people and harmful objects,
substances, or other things in their surroundings. Common types of physical injury
include broken bones, cuts, bruises, brain damage, poisoning and burns. Some
physical injuries are the intended result of acts by people: for instance harm of one
person by another (assault, homicide etc.) or self-harm. Injuries not intended are often
described as accidental injuries.

Examples of causes of injury include being struck by a car, being cut up in a moving
machine part, being cut by a knife, bitten by a dog, or poisoned by inhaled fuel or
other dangerous chemicals.

Nature of body injury

The occurrence of accidents in workplaces often results in one or more of the


following injury types:

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1. Crushing: This is injury which results from caught-in hazard point within
machinery
2. Fracture: This is injury to bone resulting in breakage of the bone as a result of
impact
3. Sprain: This is a type of injury resulting in muscular stress or joint dislocation
4. Bruise or laceration: This is the peeling off of outer skin layer thereby exposing
some blood vessels. The inner tissues are not affected.
5. Scalding and burn: This is as a result of sudden exposure of body part to hot
vapour or heat resulting in skin peeling off (scalding) or suffering some degree
of shin damage (burn).
6. Inflammation: This could be as a result of impact on body casing internal
bleeding or rupture of blood vessels without visible cut and blood flow
7. Superficial injury: Injury occurring at the skin surface such as bruise, minor cut,
or scratches and lacerations.
8. Amputation: This is a case of fatal injury which often result from caught-in and
struck-by accidents,
9. Death: This is a situation in which life flows out of the body as a result of injury
sustained. Such case is regarded as a fatal injury case.

Whether intended or accidental, most physical injuries can be prevented by


identifying their causes and removing them, or reducing peoples exposure to them.

Definition of Safety

Safety in its simplest form is a state of being at little or no risk of injury resulting from
a harmful external impact, inhalation, or contact. It is a holistic approach to a state of
wellbeing that requires people to feel they are free from being harmed in addition to
actually being safe. To be safe in any work environment, you must think about the
nature of your job and plan ahead to avert hazards that could be associated with it.

In the field of safety, it is generally recognized that consequences are only negative
and therefore the management of safety risk is focused on prevention and mitigation
of harm.

3-step approach to safety at workplaces

A person having control of the workplace or a person having control of access to the
workplace must, as far as practicable employ the three step approach to safety at
work. This approach involves three steps as follows:

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Step 1 Recognition: Identify hazards to which a person at the workplace is likely to be
exposed;

Step 2 Evaluation: Assess the risk of injury or harm to a person resulting from each
hazard if any is identified in step 1; and

Step 3 Control: Consider the means by which the risk may be reduced.

Note: It takes effort to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards. If you do not
recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you may be injured or killed by machinery,
electricity, electrical fires, or falls. If you use the safety model to recognize, evaluate,
and control hazards, you will be much safer.

Workplace health and safety laws

The aim of the Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 is to prevent death, injury or illness
caused by a workplace, relevant workplace area, work activities, plant or substances
for use at a workplace. Improving health and safety in workplaces reduces human
and financial cost of injury and disease. Workers, their families, employers and the
community benefit from improved workplace health and safety.

The Workplace Health and Safety Act sets out the laws about health and safety
guidelines for all relevant workplace areas, work procedures or activities by
machinery or substances for use at workplaces as well as safeguarding workers.

All health and safety laws place specific duties of care or legal obligations on various
parties in the chain of machinery design, supply and use. Workers, their families,
employers and the community benefit from these obligations. Improving workplace
health and safety in workplaces reduces the human and financial cost of workplace
injury and disease.

Workplace partners and responsibilities

The following human elements have been recognized as the workplace partners in
any such organization.

a. Employers: This partner provide work or employment to workers in form of hire,


full employment, contract for the purpose of job delivery

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Duties of employer: An employer shall, so far as practicable, provide and maintain a
safe working environment in which his/her employees are not exposed to hazards.

b. Employee: An employee is in the payroll of an employer. He is co-opted to render


services for the achievement of employers objective

Duties of employees An employee shall take reasonable care to ensure his own
safety and health at work and to avoid adversely affecting the safety and health of
any other person through any act or omission at work.

c. Self-employed: He is a job provider (the employer) as well as the employee. He takes


care of service provided and job delivery

Duties of self-employed persons: A self-employed person shall take reasonable care to


ensure his/her own safety and health at work and so far as practicable, ensure that
the safety or health of a person not being his/her employee is not adversely
affected wholly or in part as a result of the work in which he/she or any of his/her
employees is engaged.

d. Supervisors: This is an employee with special skills and mastery in his field
required to offer specialized or expert advice or direction on efficient job delivery.

Duties of supervisors: A supervisor shall take such measures as are practicable to


ensure that the workplace, or the means of access to or egress from the workplace,
as the case may be, are such that persons who are at the workplace or use the
means of access to and egress from the workplace are not exposed to hazards.

Safety obligations

Every workplace partners has an obligation to ensure safety at every stages of their
involvement. You can have more than one set of obligations stipulated under the
Safety Act. For example, if you are an employer and a principal contractor (a sole
proprietor) at the same time within the same workplace. In this case, you would have
two sets of obligations - those of an employer on one hand and an employee on the
other. You must meet all the obligations under the Acts. This can be done through the
following ways:

1. Regulations. Issue regulations that either prohibit exposure to a risk or prescribe


ways to prevent or minimize exposure to such risks and you must comply with
such regulations.

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2. Codes of practice: Code of practice is a document which gives practical advice about
ways to manage exposure to risks identified as typical in workplace. This
document states ways to manage exposure to risks within workplace and job
practices. To meet your obligations under the Act, you must follow codes of
practice or adopt another way that offers at least the same. Examples of such codes
include Tractor Code, 1995.
3. Where there is no regulation or code of practice about exposure to a risk, you can meet
your obligations by choosing any appropriate way to minimize exposure to a risk
and you must take reasonable precautions and exercise proper diligence in making
sure the risk is managed. To properly manage exposure to risks, the risk
management process must be undertaken to identify hazards and determine
appropriate control measures. Such processes are set out in a document called the
risk management code of practice
4. Safety planning. Plan your work and plan for safety. Take time to plan your work,
not alone, but with others. Safety planning is an important part of any task. It is
hard to take the time to plan for safety. But, you must plan. Plan to be safe!

Health and safety policy

A written health and safety policy is an important documentary part of safety rules for
managing health and safety in your workplace and an important step in
demonstrating management commitment. A health and safety policy explains:

1. The employers commitment to health and safety


2. The overall goals and objectives for health and safety
3. The responsibilities of management, workers, as well as visitors and contractors
where applicable

Work ergonomics

Ergonomics is the human factors involvement in satisfactory work or job delivery and
systems to maximize safety, comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them.
Ergonomics is not limited to human comfort in manual handling operations, but also
in automated tool and machine handling.

Ergonomics in manual handling: Manual handling of task includes any activity which
requires a person to lift, lower, push, pull, hold or carries any object, animal or person.
For instance, lifting/lowering heavy load could lead have some health implications
hence some ergonomic considerations should be addressed to minimize the

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consequences of such action. These considerations are assessed by the following
factors:

1. Moderating the extent of weight being lifted. Match up weight to be lifted with
body weight;
2. Study the nature of body posture and improve on body layout when carrying
load;
3. Regulate work frequency and duration of operation (under long time and short
time operations);
4. Study object physical and material characteristics to know the best approach in
handling it;
5. Individual characteristics (physical, physiological, psychological and mental
fitness) should be considered and
6. The physical and operating environment should be favourable to human
effectiveness in job handling.

Guidelines for hand work

The following guidelines have been scientifically proved to influence effectiveness of


hand work handling operation.

1. Avoid placing needed tools or other items above shoulder height.


2. Position items that are used often within 17 inches (430mm) of the worker.
3. For standing work, use the proper work station height (Figure 1-1).

Figure 1-1: Proper workstation height for light and heavy work.

4. Optimal working height (OWH) of worker is based on body dimensions. Elbow


height is measured with upper arms in neutral position Figure 1-2A; for heavy
work, OWH is between elbow and the waist height (B); for light work, it is

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approximately at elbow height (C); for precision work, it is approximately 5cm (2
inches) above elbow height (D).

Figure 1-2: Working Heights

5. Sitting down while working reduces the strain on the lower back and legs.
Standing causes legs to swell (more than walking does). The best jobs are ones
that allow workers to do different types of work, changing from sitting to
standing to walking and back again.
6. When movements are repeated over and over, as in picking from production line
or weeding with hoe, allow enough time in between each stroke/movement for
adequate recovery, by having the worker alternate with a low-repetition task. For
example, a worker who performs a high repetition weeding task should be given
other tasks that do not require repetitive hand motions, like carrying the finished
boxes to the loading area.
7. Allow foot and knee clearances for both standing and sitting workers, so they can
get close to the work.

Health and safety checklist for handling manual work

The following checklists in Table 1-1 on manual work handling will help in an
assessment of safety level in manual handling. This checklist is to be used in
conjunction with the Environment health and safety manual procedure 3.2 on hazard
identification, assessment and control - application.
Faculty / Department Information

Workshop Building: ______________Inspected by: ______________________


Department: ___________ Signature: _______________ Location: _____________

Date: ____________________

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Table 1-1: Manual work handling checklist
s/n Question Response
Operations are assessed using the manual
1. Y N NA
handling checklist provided in the EHSM
Often used items are within easy access, between
2. Y N NA
knee and shoulder
3. Heavy items stored at waist height Y N NA
Step-ladders or-stools are used to access items
4. Y N NA
stored on high shelves
5. Repetitive operations minimized Y N NA
6. Regular rest breaks are taken Y N NA
7. Trolleys are available and used to transport items Y N NA
Participants in the inspection process: ___________________________________

Other comments: ____________________________________________________

Recommendations: __________________________________________________

Signature of Person Responsible: _______________________________________

Date of next review: __________________________________________________

Guidelines for human and machine safety in workshop

Human and machine safety will be ensured in workshop when the following
guidelines are taken into consideration

1. Identify all hazards associated with its use.


2. Assess the risks to health and safety of all persons exposed to the hazards.
3. Where possible eliminate or reduce the hazards and risks by full compliance with
the use of design features. Use safety guards put in place.
4. Apply safe/standard-working practices. Do not take unnecessary risks while
handling machine or tools
5. Consider the interaction between people and machine; taking into account
possible ergonomic factors in hazard/risk assessment.
6. Consult with parties involved when considering change, relocation or provision
of new machinery.
7. Assess the work environment including lighting, noise, temperature and general
housekeeping.

One of the most common causes of injury and death in workplaces is as a result of the
unsafe use of equipment. These injuries can ordinarily be prevented by accepting
responsibility for equipment safe-use and taking necessary precautions.

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In this regard, most machinery injuries were not caused as a result of machine
functionality or breakdown but as a result of carelessness to their usage. This is a
pointer that most machinery-related accidents minor or major, casual or fatal results
from human errors.

Consequences of human errors in workshop

Accidents do not just happen, they are caused. It is important to know that accident
never happen until there is an error; machine error, human error or environmental
uncertainties. Your responsibility therefore as an employer, operator, farm/industry
worker and visitor is to eliminate or minimize these errors to the barest minimum by
practicing safe work practice.

Injuries occurs when workers are

a. Not paying close attention (indifference) to work, or


b. When the operator lost concentration or forgot something and was not paying
close attention,
c. When he took a risk, ignored a warning, or
d. When failed to follow safety rules.

Despite the efforts made by manufacturers to make machinery safe, yet all hazards
cannot be totally removed. Consequent on the inability of these hazards to be totally
eliminated, you can be cut, crushed, pulled in or struck by an object thrown by these
machines. You can also be injured if you fall while working on or near any of these
machines. So workers must exercise caution when operating these machines. The
grave consequence of any machinery accident includes injury.

The effects of injury resulting from these hazards range from death, serious injury
requiring hospitalization, dismemberment nuisance injury that stops work for a
short time, or makes work slower and reduces productivity and consequently death..

Ensuring safe work environment

Employers have a duty to minimize the risk of injury at their workplace by ensuring a
safe work environment through inductions training and re-training.

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Induction and training

Supervisors, workers and newly employed workers should be formally trained or re-
trained to have the required requisite knowledge for the application of safe practices
in the use of machinery in their pool. This is particularly important for new employees
or inexperienced people undergoing training.

Areas of training and education should include:

1. Machinery safety procedures, including emergency procedures


2. Correct and safe way of operating machinery
3. Knowledge and understanding of spotting possible dangers within and around
workshop and machinery
4. The purpose and function of safety
5. Reporting of faults (troubleshooting procedure) in machinery including detection
of defects and malfunction in machine parts and operation especially guard
defects
6. The importance of wearing and care of PPE
7. Need for good house and safe workstation keeping- workshop organization and
management to keep workplace and staff safe
8. Other statutory requirements

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