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Design and Fabrication of Coconut

Dehusking Machine
Jibin Jacob1, Rajesh Kumar S.2
1
Post Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology,
Nalanchira, Trivandrum, Kerala 695015 , India.

2
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology,
Nalanchira, Trivandrum, Kerala 695015, India.

Abstract-In general, Coconuts are dehusked manually using machines was available, the reasons for the failure of
either a machete or a spike. These methods require skilled these machines include unsatisfactory and incomplete
labor and are tiring to use. Attempts made so far in the dehusking, breakage of the coconut shell while dehusking,
development of dehusking tools have been only partially spoilage of useful coir, greater effort needed than manual
successful and not effective in replacing manual methods.
methods, etc.
Considering the drawbacks of manual dehusking methods,
and existing automated dehusker, power operated coconut Based on this realization the necessity of a new
dehusking machine was developed. This power operated automated machine which simplify as well as increases
coconut dehusking machine operates on 1-phase, 1 hp the productivity of the coconut dehusking, arise. This new
electric motor. It consists of main parts like frame, electric mechanism will directly boost any economy that relies on
motor, speed reduction unit and dehusking unit. Single coconut plantations.
person is required for operating the dehusker. During the The present work involves the design, fabrication and
tests, average time required for dehusking a coconut was testing of a coconut dehusker that overcomes the
found to be 25 second, and the machine can dehusk 120-150 previously reported drawbacks. The design and
coconuts per hour.
developmental stages called for a closer look at the
Keywords- Circular Pitch, Horizontal pitch, Tynes magnitude and direction of the dehusking forces and their
generation mechanisms. In short the main objective of this
project work is to introduce a newer machine that can,
I. INTRODUCTION
overcome the disadvantages and limitations of existing
India has recently achieved the distinction of being the machines, which includes manual and automatic coconut
highest producer of coconuts in the world, having dehusker.
overtaken the next highest producer, the Philippine
Islands. India ranks third on world coconut map and in II. OVERVIEW
recent times became the largest producer of coconut with Considering all the existing powered and non-powered
the production of 16.9 billion nuts from acreage under coconut dehusking machines, world market require a
plantation of about 1.89 million hectares [4]. better coconut dehusking machine, which is both
Coconut is being cultivated in an area of over 1.94 economically viable and efficient.
million hectares in India. The estimated requirement of Major disadvantages of existing power operated
coconut seedlings in the country is in the region of 30 coconut dehusker are:
million per annum [4]. 1. High initial cost
Dehusking is the important post harvest operation, 2. Low rate of dehusking
which is necessary step towards making the coconut ready 3. High power consumption
for the further utilization. Also it gives husk, which is 4. Less availability
important material for coir processing industry. 5. Lack of better dehusking method
6. Operational difficulty
A. Present Study 7. Large in size
We have many methods to dehusk the coconut. It is by III. WORKING PRINCIPLE
manually, mechanically and also by the use of automated
This power operated coconut dehusking machine
machines. Manual dehusking with knife is a common
operates on single phase, 1 hp electric motor. It consists of
practice. Need for the improvement in present method is
the lack of sufficient manpower. This necessitates the use main parts like
of appropriate machinery to aid in various tasks in 1. Frame,
coconut plantation. Traditional devices currently in use, 2. Electric motor,
3. Power transmission and speed reduction unit,
such as the blade and spear are difficult and less
productive. Even though limited number of automated 4. Dehusking unit.

978-1-4673-2636-0/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE 155


Frame was constructed by welding, angle iron to the B. Design of Cylinders
dimensions of 9000350500mm using cast iron. Single Dimension of cylinders are designed in a manner to obtain
phase electric motor of specification 1hp, 1500rpm is effective mesh with coconut husk.
used. To transmit the power from motor to the cylinders, 1) Assumptions used:
with required speed, gear and pulley transmission system a. Coconut contacts with the cylinder at an average
are incorporated. The dehusking unit consists of two 0
angle of 30 of contact sector.
cylinders, of different diameters with different speed of th
b. 1/6 of the width of coconut should be inserted
rotation in order to cause tearing effect over the coconut
into the intermediate space of cylinders.ie
husk. The two diameters provide different speeds at
approximately 30mm.for effective dehusking.
opposite directions. This eliminates the use of number
c. Angle AOB =300
speed reduction unit in the machine. The tynes are
mounted on the cylinders in a particular manner, to get
From Figure-2, since the arc AB is considerably
more grip and effective dehusking.
small, we can assume it as a straight line, thereby we get a
The dehusking process in very simple, place the
triangle AOB. From the assumption, the inserted depth of
coconut in between the two rolling cylinders, rotating in
coconut is 30mm.
opposite directions and press it by a manually operated
Using the trigonometric relations, length of straight line,
mechanical linkage. As the cylinders rotate, tynes
i.e. arc AB (L) as 41.41mm.
provided on the periphery will penetrate into the husk and
Using this equation, R=L
tear it away. Tynes are designed in such a way that it will
Where, R is the radius of the cylinder (mm).
not cause any damage to the coconut shell. Removed husk
L is the length of arc (mm).
is in the form of separated fibers, so these fibers are more
Diameter of cylinder = 160mm (approximate)
useful in coir industry. Thus the dehusking can be done,
effectively.
Even though the approximate diameter of cylinder,
IV. DESIGN obtained by the above calculation is 160mm, in the design
In the designing of machine, it is very important to 163mm and 138mm diameter of cylinders are selected to
consider the shape and size of the coconut. After the get different velocities.
detailed study, average dimensions of the coconut where
found. Those values are described below.

Shape : Ovoid
Dimension : 300mm long 200mm wide
Thickness of fiber: 20 to 40mm
Weight : 1Kg
While dehusking the coconut, husk removes as 3 parts.
Each of width : 40 to 80 mm.
A. Design of Tynes
Tynes are the major component in this machine, which
has direct involvement in the dehusking operation. As
shown in the Figure-1, tynes are specially designed in a
manner to get effective penetration with the coconut.
Shape : conical
Height : 27mm
Diameter : 25mm

Figure II. Design of Cylinder

C. Design of Pitch
In the design, we have both Horizontal and Circular
Pitch. Horizontal pitch is the distance between the tynes,
that are horizontally arranged, where as circular pitch is
the distance between the tynes, circularly arranged around
the cylinder. Design of the pitches is same for both the
cylinders.

Figure I. Different views of Tynes

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Assumptions taken for the design:

a. Tynes are arranged on the cylinder to obtain


effective mesh with the coconut husk, in a
particular manner.
b. Optimum number of tynes is mounted over the
cylinder.

1) Horizontal Pitch:

Average length of coconut is founded as 300mm, for


Figure IV. Circular Pitch
making this working model, the length of the cylinder is
limited to 400mm. This specially designed tynes are
mounted on the cylinder in a manner that maximum D. Power transmission and speed reduction unit:
number of tynes to be in contact with the coconut. It
reduces the load on each tynes and increases the The power from 1hp electric motor is transmitted to
efficiency on the dehusking operation. For that 7 and 6 the rotating cylinders through pulleys and gears. The same
series of tynes are mounted on the larger and smaller system is also used to reduce the speed of cylinders. It
cylinder respectively. includes 4 pulleys and 3 gears. Selections of these gears
Thus, Horizontal Pitch = 50.8mm and pulleys are according to the availability in the market.
Since the machine is designed and fabricated as a working
model, major priority is given to the cost factor.
Speed of the motor=1500rpm

1) Dimension of the gear

a. Gear attached to the larger cylinder,


GL= 153 mm diameter, Number of teeth=49
b. Gear attached to the smaller cylinder,
GS =200mm diameter, Number of teeth=54
c. Gear attached to the second transmission pulley,
Figure III. Horizontal Pitch G4=80mm diameter, Number of teeth=25

2) Circular Pitch: 2) Dimensions of the Pulley

Average width of coconut is founded as 200mm, for a. Diameter of the first pulley, attached to the shaft
making this working model, the diameter of the cylinder of motor,D1=31.75mm
is limited to 163 and 138mm. To get effective mesh with b. Diameter of the second pulley, D2 = 304.88mm
the coconut, 12 tynes are mounted around the larger c. Diameter of the third pulley, attached to the shaft
cylinder; where as 10 tynes are mounted around the of second pulley,D3=31.75mm
smaller one. d. Diameter of the fourth pulley, D4=254mm
Diameter of larger cylinder (d1) = 163mm
Circumferential length = 512.07mm 3) Speed:
Number of tynes = 12 ()
Circular pitch = Circumferential length / Number As per the following steps, the speed is reduced from
of tynes 42.67mm 1500rpm to an average of 28rpm to the cylinders.
Diameter of smaller cylinder (d2) = 138mm
Circular pitch = 42.67mm a. Speed of the motor, NM =1500rpm
Number of tynes = 10 b. Speed of the first pulley, attached to the shaft of
motor,N1 =1500rpm
So on the larger cylinder 12 tynes are arranged in c. Speed of the second pulley,N2 = 156.25rpm
1 row. There are 7 rows, therefore a total of 84 tynes are d. Speed of the third pulley, attached to the shaft of
mounted on the larger cylinder. Similarly, there are 6 rows second pulley,N3= 156.25rpm
on the smaller cylinder and each row contains 10 tynes. e. Speed of the fourth pulley,N4 =19.5rpm
Therefore a total of 60 tynes are mounted on the smaller f. Speed of the Gear attached to the second
cylinder. transmission pulley, NG =70rpm
g. Speed of the Gear attached to the smaller
cylinder, NS =32.37rpm
h. Speed of the Gear attached to the larger
cylinder, NL = 24.7rpm

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V. FABRICATION
4) Tangential Velocity: Mainly, the tynes and cylinders are prepared by lathe
operations; such as turning, cutting, drilling, facing, taper
Tangential velocity = R turning etc. The different shafts are turned on the lathe to
a. Tangential velocity of the larger cylinder, get smooth and good surface finish. Along with this
VL = 238.97mm/sec drilling, milling and shaping machines are also used for
b. Tangential velocity of the smaller cylinder, many operations. Different types of drilling bits are used
Vs= 202.31mm/sec to drill holes for the seating of bolts and nuts. Another
main operation on this fabrication stages is the welding.
E. Selection of Motor: Tynes and cylinders, angle irons are joined together using
welding operations. The welding methods used here are
arc welding and gas welding. The fabrication consists of
Different types of coconuts are tested using U.T.M.
different steps as follows:
machine (Tensile Test) for finding the maximum force
required to dehusk the coconut. The maximum value
found to be 1kN.
1. Machining of the tynes are done using lathe,
manually.
Selection of motor is based on the following:
2. Cylinders are machined to 163 and 138mm from
1. Power require to dehusk the coconut
170 and 140mm diameter for larger and smaller
2. Power require to rotate the mass
cylinders, respectively.
3. Cylinders are welded to the shafts of diameter
30mm, using circular plates.
1) Power require to dehusk the coconut
4. For fixing the tynes, holes are made over the
cylinders using drilling machine.
Force required to dehusk the coconut =1kN (obtained
5. Tynes are welded over the cylinders, by inserting
from UTM test). Torque, (T1) =1kN perpendicular
the lower portion of tynes in the holes.
distance from the centre of motor to the point of action of
6. The major load carrying component, frame was
load (200mm).
constructed by joining angle irons as in the
Torque, T1 = 200Nm
design.
Power, P1 = (2NAT)/60
7. Bearings, Bushes, blocks, etc are welded to the
Average Speed, (NA) = 28 rpm
shafts.
Power require to dehusk the coconut, P1
8. Using cast iron plate, seating for motor is made
= 0.586kW=0.786hp
on the frame.
9. Transmission system is attached to the frame, as
per in the design.
2) Power require to rotate the mass

Total mass acting on the centre of cylinder


= mass of cylinder + mass of tynes + mass of coconut
= 20 kg
Force due to the mass = 196.2N
Torque, T2 = 196.2 Perpendicular distance to the
line of action of mass on the cylinder (200mm).
=39.24Nm
Average Speed, (NA) = 28 rpm
Power, P2 = (2NAT)/60
= 0.115kW=0.154hp

Total torque and power require operating the machine.

Total Torque (T) = T1+T2= 239.24Nm


Total power to operate the machine, P = P1+ P2
= 0.786 hp + 0.154hp =0.943hp
Power Rating = 0.703 kWh
There by, motor is selected with following specification
Single phase, 1Hp, 1500 rpm.
Figure V. Coconut Dehusking Machine

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VI. RESULT AND EVALUATION 3) Profit Analysis
It is observed that the machine has the capacity to
dehusk the commonly available coconut of different Net Profit per 1000 coconut
thickness and hardness, effectively. The machine can = Cost for manual dehusking Cost for machine
normally dehusk about 120 to 150 coconuts per hour even dehusking = 800-350= 450
though, time require to dehusk is related with the age of Payback period = 18000/450
coconut. TABLE 1. Shows time taken to dehusk, different = 40 days.
aged coconut.
TABLE I. OBSERVATION AND TABULATION
B. Advantages:
1. It is user friendly, rapid and can be operated
SL. Age of Dehusking Remarks safely.
No. coconut time(sec) 2. Compact in size and portable.
(days) 3. Husks are separated, in the form of thin fibers; so
1. 0-2 20 Can dehusk it is very useful to make other valuable products.
easily 4. The coconut shell of any thickness and hardness
2. 2- 6 25 Can dehusk can be easily removed.
easily 5. Skilled labor is not required to operate the
3. 6-10 30 Can dehusk machine.
easily 6. Less maintenance.
4. 10 20 35-45 Difficult to
dehusk C. Dis advantages:
1. Since the machine is mainly designed for large
From the above table, average time taken to dehusk a
scale coconut growers, it is not economic for
coconut = 25seconds. Major observations during working
are: house hold purposes.
1. Negligible vibration level was observed. 2. Length in between the cylinders is not adjustable.
2. Negligible variations in Speed of component VII. CONCLUSION
pulleys are observed. This may due to the slip in
pulley. In this modern world the time and cost has more
weightage for each and every operation. So a new
A. Profit Estimation machine has been designed, fabricated and named as
General Data used for profit estimation are: Coconut dehusking machine to reduce the cost and to
save energy. By comparing with many types of existing
Net cost of the machine = 18,000 methods, includes traditional, and automatic, it can be
Working cost of machine, per hour = 6 concluded that this machine require less power and less
Number of coconut dehusk per hour=120 human effort, and the test results substantiate the above.
Cost for dehusking one coconut = 6/120=5paise VIII. FUTURE WORK
Cost to dehusk 120 coconuts manually = 96 1. By increasing the length of the cylinders, rate of
Cost for dehusking one coconut, manually dehusking can be increase.
= 0.80paise 2. Length in between the cylinders can be adjusted
1) Per Day Cost analysis: Using machine so as to accommodate various dimensions of
coconuts
3. Tynes can be attached to the cylinder using
Number of hours of working per day = 8.5 hours fasteners; so that replacement can be easily done.
Number of coconuts dehusking per day = 1000
Cost for dehusking 1000 coconuts
= (6/120) 1000= 50Rs REFERENCES
Cost for human assistance = 300Rs [1] A.V. Gajakos. development of power operated coconut dehusker
February-May 2008, Vol. 3 (1&2):167-170.
Total Cost for dehusking 1000 coconuts
[2] S.K Hajra Choudhury, S.K. Bose, A.K. Hajra Choudhury, Nirjhar
= 300+50 = 350Rs. Roy, Elements of Workshop Technology, Vol: , Machine Tools,
Media Promoters & Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Edition:1964.
2) Per Day cost Analysis: Manually [3] K. Mahadevan, Dr. K. Balaveera Reddy, Design data Hand Book
For Mechanical Engineers, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New
Number of hours working per day = 8.5 hours Delhi, Edition: 1987.
[4] R.K. Singh and B. Subburaj, Market share of Tender nuts - An
Number of coconuts husking per day = 1000
Estimation - Indian Coconut Journal 8-10, Vol. XXXIV No. 5
Cost for dehusking 1 coconut = 0.80 September, 2003.
Cost for dehusking 1000 coconuts [5] C.V. Sairam S. Arul Raj and Rajagopal Perspectives of Marketing
= 10000.80 = 800 Research for Coconut and its products; (CPCRI, Kasargod Kerala)

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