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IDL - International Digital Library Of

Technology & Research

Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

Study Of Mechanical Properties Of High

Strength Concrete By Partial Replacement Of
Cement With Fly Ash And In Corporating Of
V.Sowmya1,K.Srinivasa Rao2
U.G Student,2Asst. Professor,
, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sir C R R College of Engineering, Eluru,India

Abstract: Concrete is considered as durable and with cement and the chemical reaction is started called
hydration which gives the strength to the concrete.
strong material. Concrete is one of the most popular
material used for constructions. The present In the case of larger structures different types of
investigation deals with High strength concrete of mixes are used in concrete like M20, M40, and M60
M60 by adding fiber material to strengthen the etc. if the strength is up to 40N/mm is allowed to be a
concrete. Partial replacement of OPC with fly ash in conventional concrete, but if the strength is above
percentages of 0%, 5% and10% in various ratios and 40N/mm it is treated as High strength Concrete
also add Masterpel777, super plastisizer for (HSC). HSC is used widely in larger industry projects
workability purpose. Exposure periods of 7, 14 and 28 like Polavaram project (A.P) for bearing high
days on various tests. In this project we have designed pressures. In order to develop High strength concrete
M60 grade concrete using Design mix of Department we may use lower water powder (cement) binding
of Environment method of various strengths. ratio and chemical admixtures which results better
Keywords: High strength concrete, Fly ash, Super
plastisizer, Fibre, Masterpel777, DOE Method. High strength concrete is very costly, but it is used in
civil industry by replacing different waste materials
like fly ash, plastic, GGBS, E-Waste, fibers results to
decrease the effective cost. In this graduation project
replacing the cement by fly ash and felt fibers in
In our country concrete industry plays a major role for
concrete with various percentages. We successfully
development of nation, government spend a huge
performed different experimental investigation tests
amount for building the nation like bridges, buildings
for finding the mechanical properties of concrete of
and dams etc. Cement is strong binding material,
high strength grade M60. The super plasticizer used in
coarse aggregate gives strength, fine aggregates are
this investigation is Masterpel-777.
used as void filler and water gives the strong bond
between the three ingredients. Usually hard broken
granite (HBG) is used as coarse aggregate and well
graded sand is used as fine aggregate. Water is reacts 1. To study the optimum percentage composition of fly
ash replacing cement which does not affect the

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

concrete strength. 8. Glass fiber
2. To determine the compressive strength, flexural 9. Synthetic fiber
strength, split tensile strength of concrete with
cement replaced by different percentages of fly ash. Steel fibers are defined as short, discrete length of steel
3. To study the durability aspects of concrete. having aspect ratio from 20 to 100 with any cross section.
Aspect ratio means ratio of length to diameter. We are taking
aspect ratio 40 in this project.
In this project we use the steel fiber for increasing the
Fly ash is the byproduct of the combustion of coal in strength of concrete. Steel fibers are added to concrete to
electric power generation plants and also the burning of improve the structural properties like tensile and flexural
plants etc. Fly ash includes major components of silicon strength. The steel fiber increases the flexural strength up to
dioxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide etc. in different
25% to 100% depending upon proportion of fiber added.
proportions, due to these chemical properties fly ash is used
as replacement of cement and increases the strength of MASTER PEL 777 SUPERPLASTIZER:
concrete and decreases the cost. If we increase the fly ash
content in concrete beyond the limits then strength of Masterpel is a specially blended admixture that is used to
concrete is decreases. produce water resistant and efflorescence controlled concrete
mortar. The liquid super plasticizer or admixture is designed
Fly ash can be classified into two types based on to increase the workability of concrete and also decreases the
chemical properties and source. water content.

4. Class C MasterPel 777 is compatible with most admixtures, corrosion

It contains more than 10% of calcium oxide and inhibitors and shrinkage reducers used in the production of
it also possess both pozzolanic and cementious
quality concrete including normal, other mid-range and high-
properties. It is produced by burning of lignite or
sub bituminous coal. range water reducing admixtures, accelerators, retarders. The
Masterpel 777 admixture is used for both water proofing and
5. Class F plasticizing effect for cemenconcrete, mortar and plaster etc.

It contains less than 5% calcium oxide content It is also used in all types of concrete and mortar used in
and it posses pozzolanic properties but needs additive construction of residential and commercial buildings etc. It is
for showing the properties. It is normally produced by also used in the construction of seawalls, tunnels, basements,
burning anthracite or bituminous coal. structural and pre-cast concrete.


Fiber is a natural or synthetic substance .It is used in MATERIALS:

the manufacture of other materials. Synthetic fibers can often
be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to The various materials used in the concrete mix proportion is
natural fibers. explained as follows

Fibers can be classified as four types based physical Cement:

Cement is used as binding material which can hold the both
6. Steel fiber sand and aggregates together. Cement Grades are classified
7. Natural fiber according to average compressive strength. They are as

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

follows 33, 43 and 53 Grade. Test conducted on FA& CA Results

33 Grade cement is used in general construction like Fineness modulus of FA 3.36

plastering, finishing works etc, where high strength is not
required. Specific gravity of sand 2.69

43 Grade cement is used for structural works, pre cast works Bulking of sand 4%
etc, strength development is faster than 33 Grade.
Zone of Sand III as per
53 Grade cement is used for construction of multi storey IS:383-1970
structures, pre cast pre stressed items, bridge, tall structures.
Fineness modulus of CA 7.21
It develops very fast strength and speed up the construction.
Specific gravity of CA 2.7
In this project we can take the OPC of 53 Grade
cement only. The cement is nothing but composition of
different ingredients like silicates, aluminates, limestone and WATER
clay in different percentage.
For proper chemical action, the amount of water required is
about 25% of the weight of cement used; however, more
water is used for proper workability of concrete. The water
used for both mixing and curing should be free from
injurious amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic
materials or other substances that may be harmful to
concrete. Portable water is considered to be satisfactory for
mixing concrete. The water is tested in accordance with IS:
TESTS ON CEMENT 3025 1984.

The following tests are performing to cement to known the The w/c ratio is the one of important factor to determine the
properties. strength of concrete. A lower w/c ratio will yield stronger
concrete, but difficult to work. A higher w/c ratio yields
lower strength concrete. Cement paste is the material formed
Test conducted Results by combination of water and cementations materials. Water
is used for mixing of concrete ingredients should be free
Fineness of cement 5% from impurities.

Normal consistency 32% According to IS 456 2000, the pH value of the water shall
not be less than 6.
Initial setting time 46min
In the Present study,The pH value of water used in the
Final setting time 570 min concrete mix is 7.5




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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

Compressive strength of cubes at the rate of 7, 14, 28 days at
different fly ash percentages 0%,5%&10%.

28 days
14 days
0% 5% 10%

Split tensile strength of cylinders of various % of

Flexural strength of beams of various % of replacement of
replacement of cement by fly ash when immersed in water
cement by fly ash when immersed in water

Split tensile strength of cylinders at the rate of 7, 14, 28 days Flexural strength of beams at the rate of 7, 14, 28 days at
different percentages of fly ash 0%, 5% & 10%.

28 days 28 days
3.5 4.6
3 4.5
4.4 28 days
2.5 28 days
2 4.3
0% 5% 10% 0% 5% 10%

at different fly ash percentages 0%, 5%&10%.

Compressive strength of cylinders of various % of
replacement of cement by fly ash when immersed in water 1. The performance was observed with addition of
super plasticizer Masterpel 777 added for richer
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CYLINDERS: mixes workability of the concrete maintain
Compressive strength of cylinders at the rate of 7, 14, 28 2. When the grade of concrete is increased size of the
days at different fly ash percentages 0%, 5%, &10%. aggregates is reduced. With the help of different
trail mixes well suitable aggregate is graded
aggregate like 10-20mm.
3. Micro cracks appear, sudden failure observed in
high strength concrete cubes. In split tensile test the
cracks are longitudinally occurred.

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

4. As per the experimental investigation successfully [2]. H.M.Somasekharaiah, A study on fiber reinforced high
found when the fiber is used within the permissible performance concrete using multiple mineral admixtures,
limit 0.1-3%. The target strength of concrete is International Journal of Research in Engineering and
reached at 10% fly ash, in addition to get good
Technology (IJRET), e-ISSN: 2319-1163, p-ISSN: 2321-
improvement in workability.
5. As per Mix Design, Maximum compressive strength 7308.
of standard concrete cube is achieved 61.52N/mm
for M60 grade of concrete in 28 days with water [3]. A.M. Shende, Experimental Study on Steel Fiber
cement ratio 0.32. Reinforced Concrete for M-40 Grade, International
6. Maximum split tensile strength is 3.04 N/mm is
attained in 10% of replacement of fly ash. It is Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), ISSN
increased as compare to 5% of replacement of fly (Online) 2319-183X,(Print) 2319-1821 Volume 1, Issue 1
ash at the age of 28 days. As per Is 456-2000 Split
tensile strength of concrete not so good comparison (September 2012), PP< 043-048. Dayalan J,
with the code. Investigation of this result one of the
uncertainty in high strength concrete. [4]. Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Considerations in
7. Flexural strength of concrete is 4.65 N/mm at the
producing high strength concrete, journal of civil
age of 28 days but it does not reach the required
strength. So, in high strength concrete the flexural Engineering (IEB), 37 (1) (2009) 53-63.
strength achieved by addition of fiber in maximum
limit. [5]. P.Vinayagam, Experimental Investigation on High
8. Maximum compressive strength of cylinders is
35.86 N/mm is attains at 10% of replacement of fly Performance Concrete using Silica Fume and super
ash and felts the 0.5% fibers at the age of 28 days, plasticizer, International journal of computer and
but this not a good result as per code provisions.
communication engineering, vol.1, No.2, July 2012.
[6]. Ankitkumar, Effect of silica fume and Fly ash as
1. To attain high strength concrete by using different type of
cements with felt fibers. partial replacement of cement on strength of concrete,
International Journal of Innovative Research in science,
2. This project may be extended by replacing of different
Engineering and Technology. (An ISO 3297:2007 certified
super plasticizers with fiber to attain desired results.
organization) vol.5, Issue 10, October 2016.
3. To attain high strength concrete by using different types of
pozzolanic materials. [7]. NileshR.Parmar, High strength concrete with pond-ash

4. Comparing different aspect ratios of fibers felt in concrete as partially Replaced by Fine aggregate and fine Fly ash,
to gain required strength. Alccofine as Cement, GRD Journals Recent Advances in
Civil Engineering for Global sustainability/March 2016,
[1]. HimabindhuMyadaraboina, Development of high
volume fly ash concrete using ultra fine fly ash, 23rd [8]. Siddamreddy Anil kumar Reddy, Effect of fly ash on
Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of structures and strength and durability perameters of concrete,
Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay, Australia, 9-12 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
December 2014, S.T.Smith (Ed.). ISSNconline: 2319-7064. Index Copernicus value

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at:

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

(2013):6:14/Impact factor (2013):4.438.

[9]. AmanJatale, Effect on compressive strength when

cement is partially replaced by fly ash, IOSR Journal of
Mechanical and Civil Engineer (IOSR-JMCE). E-ISSN:
2278-1684 volumes, Issue 4 (Jan-Feb. 2013), PP34-43.

[10]. A study on strength characteristics of glass fiber

reinforced high performance-concrete, International
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
volume: 04 Issue: 02| Feb-2017 e-ISSN: 2395-0056, p-ISSN:

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