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RIS Utilities Guide

for 32-Bit Applications


August 1996

DNA111760
Version 5.4
Warranties and Liabilities

All warranties given by Intergraph Corporation about equipment or software are set forth in your purchase contract,
and nothing stated in, or implied by, this document or its contents shall be considered or deemed a modification or
amendment of such warranties.

The information and the software discussed in this document are subject to change without notice and should not be
considered commitments by Intergraph Corporation. Intergraph Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this document.

The software discussed in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance
with the terms of this license.

No responsibility is assumed by Intergraph for the use or reliability of software on equipment that is not supplied by
Intergraph or its affiliated companies.

Trademarks
InterAct, Intergraph, and RIS are registered trademarks of Intergraph Corporation. DIALOG, InterServe, and TD1
are trademarks of Intergraph Corporation. All other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective
owners.

Copyright
1996 Intergraph Corporation
All Rights Reserved
Including software, file formats, and audiovisual displays; may be used pursuant to applicable software license
agreement; contains confidential and proprietary information of Intergraph and/or third parties which is protected
by copyright and trade secret law and may not be provided or otherwise made available without proper
authorization.

RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND


Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of
The Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c) (1) and
(2) of Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19, as applicable.

Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States.

Intergraph Corporation
Huntsville, Alabama 35894-0001
Table of Contents
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Table of Contents
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Before You Begin .................................................................................................. 1-3

1.1 Document Purpose ....................................................................................... 1-3


1.2 Audience ....................................................................................................... 1-3
1.3 Document Prerequisites .............................................................................. 1-3
1.4 Related Documentation ............................................................................... 1-3
1.5 Additional Information ................................................................................ 1-4
1.6 Document Conventions ................................................................................ 1-4
1.7 Using On-line Help ...................................................................................... 1-6

1.7.1 Parts of the Help Window ................................................................ 1-6

2. Getting Started ..................................................................................................... 2-3

2.1 Products Needed to Use the RIS Utilities ................................................... 2-4

3. risbatch ................................................................................................................. 3-3

4. risclnsr .................................................................................................................. 4-3

5. risdcode ................................................................................................................. 5-3

6. risdtype ................................................................................................................. 6-3

7. risgui ..................................................................................................................... 7-3

7.1 Exiting the risgui Utility ............................................................................. 7-4


7.2 Performing Queries in the risgui Utility ..................................................... 7-4
7.3 Options... ...................................................................................................... 7-6
7.4 Utilities... ...................................................................................................... 7-7
7.5 Restart .......................................................................................................... 7-7
7.6 Set... .............................................................................................................. 7-8
7.7 Show... .......................................................................................................... 7-9

8. rislod ...................................................................................................................... 8-3

8.1 The Log File ................................................................................................. 8-8


8.2 The Bad File ................................................................................................. 8-9
8.3 Loading Index, View, and Privilege Definitions ......................................... 8 - 10
8.4 Using rislod with the Interactive Interface ................................................ 8 - 10
8.5 Using rislod with the Command Line Interface ......................................... 8 - 17
8.6 BNF Representation of rislod Command Line Syntax ............................... 8 - 18
9. rismgr .................................................................................................................... 9-3

9.1 RIS Schema Manager .................................................................................. 9-5


9.2 Schema Definition ........................................................................................ 9-7

9.2.1 Displaying Schema Information ...................................................... 9-9


9.2.2 Creating Schemas ............................................................................. 9 - 11

9.2.2.1 Creating Schemas (INFORMIX) ....................................... 9 - 15


9.2.2.2 Creating Schemas (ORACLE) ........................................... 9 - 17
9.2.2.3 Creating Schemas (DB2) ................................................... 9 - 19
9.2.2.4 Creating Schemas (SYBASE) ............................................ 9 - 22
9.2.2.5 Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server) ....................... 9 - 24

9.2.3 Dropping Schemas ............................................................................ 9 - 26


9.2.4 Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure Schemas .............. 9 - 28
9.2.5 Obtaining Dictionary Access ............................................................ 9 - 30
9.2.6 Modifying Schema Passwords .......................................................... 9 - 32
9.2.7 Modifying Node Information ............................................................ 9 - 33
9.2.8 Modify DB2 Password Form ............................................................ 9 - 35

9.3 Displaying Table, View, and Index Information ......................................... 9 - 37

9.3.1 Displaying Table Information .......................................................... 9 - 39


9.3.2 Creating Tables ................................................................................ 9 - 40
9.3.3 Dropping Tables ............................................................................... 9 - 42
9.3.4 Appending Columns to Tables ......................................................... 9 - 43
9.3.5 Including Tables, Views, and Indexes ............................................. 9 - 45
9.3.6 Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes ............................................ 9 - 47

9.4 Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files ............................................... 9 - 48


9.5 Locating RIS Client Processes ..................................................................... 9 - 50
9.6 Setting Modes and Enabling Databases ..................................................... 9 - 52

10. risplbck ................................................................................................................ 10 - 3

11. risrecrd ................................................................................................................ 11 - 3

12. risunlod ............................................................................................................... 12 - 3

12.1 Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface ........................................ 12 - 7


12.2 Using risunlod With the Command Line Interface ................................ 12 - 13
12.3 BNF Representation of risunlod Command Line Syntax ....................... 12 - 16

Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS .......................................................... A-3

A.1 RDBMS Versions ............................................................................................... A-3


A.2 UNION and UNION ALL Supported ................................................................ A-3
A.3 Objects of Different Owners Within a Schema ................................................. A-3
A.4 Object Aliases ..................................................................................................... A-4
A.5 Multi-User/Secure Schemas .............................................................................. A-5
A.6 Shared Dictionaries ........................................................................................... A-6
A.7 Dictionary Objects .............................................................................................. A-6
A.8 Dictionary Views ................................................................................................ A-7
A.9 RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT ....................................................................................... A-8
A.10 Interoperability ................................................................................................ A - 11
A.11 Upgrade Utility ................................................................................................ A - 12
A.12 Utilities ............................................................................................................. A - 12
A.13 Parameters ....................................................................................................... A - 13
A.14 Internationalization ......................................................................................... A - 13

Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod ................................................... B-3

B.1 Format for Representing Schema Definitions .................................................. B-5


B.2 Format for Representing Table Definitions ...................................................... B-6
B.3 Format for Representing Insert Into Statements .......................................... B-6
B.4 Format for Representing Field Definitions ....................................................... B-6
B.5 Format for Representing Table Data ................................................................ B-8
B.6 Format for Representing Data File Specifications ........................................... B-9
B.7 Format for Representing Index, View, and Privilege Definitions .................... B - 10
B.8 File Format for Data Files ................................................................................. B - 10
B.9 Use of Spaces and New Line Characters .......................................................... B - 10
B.10 BNF Representation of File Formats .............................................................. B - 11

Glossary ....................................................................................................................... GL - 3

Index ............................................................................................................................ IN - 3
Before You Begin 1 - 1

Before You Begin


__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1-2 Before You Begin
Before You Begin 1 - 3

1.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Before You Begin

1.1 Document Purpose

The RIS Utilities Guide for 32-Bit Applications describes the RIS utilities.

1.2 Audience

This document was written for application users, application designers, and computer
software specialists.

1.3 Document Prerequisites

This document assumes a basic understanding of your operating system, RDBMS software,
and RIS.

1.4 Related Documentation

DNA1151 RIS Installation Guide for 32-Bit Applications


DNA1116 RIS SQL Users Guide for 32-Bit Applications
DNA1003 RIS SQL Commands Quick Reference
DNA1119 RIS Programmers Guide for 32-Bit Applications
DNA1009 RIS Programmers Quick Reference

For information about SQL terms and database structure, refer to documents related to
specific relational database management systems (INFORMIX, ORACLE, DB2, SYBASE, or
Microsoft SQL Server).
1-4 Before You Begin

1.5 Additional Information

For additional information about RIS, see the following files delivered with the RIS software.
The default location for these files is the c:\Program Files\risdp directory.

README Provides product information and describes changes and


additions to the product since the last release.

product.def Lists all dependencies and related parts for the product.

MANIFEST.TXT Lists all files delivered with the product.

1.6 Document Conventions

Filenames and directory paths appear in italic typeface. However, the italic typeface is
also used for emphasis of new words or important phrases. For example:

c:\windows

Command names, menu names, tools, system prompts and messages, and keys may
appear in boldface type. For example:

File menu

OR

Press Enter

The word mouse refers to the 2-button or 3-button mouse.

The word select means to select a command by pressing the left mouse button over a
menu command or by pressing the Alt key and the underlined character
simultaneously.

The word choose means to choose a button or icon by pressing the left mouse button
over a Toolbar button, or application icon.

The word reset means to terminate a command initiated with the mouse. Reset by
pressing the right mouse button.

The word identify means to define an area or place graphic elements in a graphics file.
For PCs, identify with the left mouse button.

The phrase key in generally means to enter data into a field on a dialog box. To
advance to the next field, use the Tab key.
Before You Begin 1 - 5

System key-ins, keywords, and programming code segments, appear in monospaced


type. For example:

main ( )

OR

commit

In actual usage, keywords can be in either upper or lowercase.

Words that appear in angle brackets, < >, are identifiers or names that you must
supply, or dynamic information that can change for each error message. For example:

ERROR: Error opening the file <filename>

Phrases in square brackets, [ ], are optional phrases.

Curly braces contain several options (used in conjunction with a logical OR symbol ( | )
or phrases that can be repeated (used in conjunction with [, ...]). A comma followed by a
series of three periods in square brackets ([, ...]) indicates that the last phrase contained
within curly braces ({}), or the last item, can be repeated numerous times (separated by
commas).

For example: { <column> <data type> } [, ...] means that numerous column names and
associated data types can be specified (separated by commas).

The logical or symbol ( | ) separates phrases or keywords within curly braces ({}) that
can be used alone but not together.

For example: { user | database } means that either the user keyword or the
database keyword can be specified, but not both.

This symbol notes important information.

This symbol cautions about operations that can cause limited damage.

This symbol warns about operations that can cause severe damage.
1-6 Before You Begin

1.7 Using On-line Help

On-line Help is an on-line reference tool accessible at any time the application is in use. The
on-line Help contains a description for each command and tool and step-by-step procedures
for common tasks. For example, if you need to perform a certain task, search and display the
topic. You can move or resize your application and Help windows so that they are next to
each other. This lets you follow the procedures without having to search for the pages in the
documentation.
Before You Begin 1 - 7

1.7.1 Parts of the Help Window

To view the on-line Help, select Contents from the Help menu. To get more specific
information, select one of the major topics or perform a search on a specific topic.
1-8 Before You Begin

Use To

Contents Display a listing of the table of contents for


the on-line Help file.

Search Locate information about a certain topic that


you enter in the Search box.

Back Take you back to the previous Help topics you


have already viewed.

History Display a sequential list of every Help topic


you have viewed during your current Windows
session.

Find Display a dialog box used to retrieve partial or


full text strings in the help file. Use the
Hints button for information on constructing
your search query.

<< View the previous topic in a series of related


topics. The button is dimmed when you reach
the first topic in the series.

>> View the next topic in a series of related


topics. The button is dimmed when you reach
the last topic in the series.

If the graphics in the on-line Help appear distorted, check your graphics driver.
If you are using an Intergraph TD1 machine, the S3 1024x768 256 color (Large
Font) distorts the graphics slightly. Changing to the (Small Font) version
corrects the display. If you are using other drivers, check with your PC manual
for information about available graphics drivers.
Getting Started 2 - 1

Getting Started
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2-2 Getting Started
Getting Started 2 - 3

2.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Getting Started
The Intergraph Relational Interface System (RIS) is a generic interface to relational
database management systems (RDBMSs). RIS offers simultaneous connections to RDBMSs
from many vendors on dissimilar hardware platforms using numerous protocols. RIS makes
an entire network of databases available as if there were a single, local database.

During installation, the RIS utilities path is added to the system path
environment variable. By default, the utilities are loaded in c:\Program
Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin.

RIS Utilities:

1. RIS Batch risbatch

Executes SQL statements in ASCII files.

2. RIS Clean Server risclnsr

Cleans up some of the RIS dictionary tables.

3. RIS Decode risdcode

Prints the error message for a RIS error code.

4. RIS Data Types risdtype

Instructs RIS to interpret a columns data type in a different manner.

5. RIS Interactive risgui

Interactively query databases using RIS.

6. Configure RIS Version risintop

Described in the RIS Installation Guide for 32-Bit Applications.

7. RIS Loader rislod

Transfers data from specially formatted files into new or existing schemas.

8. RIS Playback risplbck

Reads and executes files containing RIS commands generated by applications and
captured with the risrecrd utility.
2-4 Getting Started

9. RIS Record risrecrd

Records all SQL statements and timing data into specially formatted files. Useful for
repeating long sequences when trying to uncover program problems.

10. RIS Unloader risunlod

Extracts data from a schema and places it into specially formatted files.

11. Upgrade Utility risupgrd

Converts a schema (dictionary and schema file) from RIS Version 4 to RIS Version 5.

2.1 Products Needed to Use the RIS Utilities

Refer to the RIS Installation Guide for 32-Bit Applications for information concerning
products needed to use the RIS Utilities.
risbatch 3 - 1

risbatch
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3-2 risbatch
risbatch 3 - 3

3.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risbatch
This utility is a simple, shell-callable program providing easy access to RIS and to underlying
databases. The primary purpose of this utility is batch execution of SQL statements.

Any SQL statement can be specified in an input file, provided that you have the proper
access.

All SQL statements must be terminated with a semicolon (;).

The RIS_PARAMETERS environment variable is used to specify the location of the


parms file.

Output is directed to stdout when the -o option is not used.

To start the risbatch utility, do one of the following:

Type risbatch in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Batch icon:
3-4 risbatch

Usage
______
risbatch [-?] [-V] [-i <infile>] [-o <outfile>]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start


the utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the
utility runs interactively and prompts for the necessary
information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

-i <infile> Specify the input file containing the RIS SQL statements. The
locate client command prompts for the client version.

-o <outfile> Specify the output file where output is stored.

Type help at the risbatch prompt to get a list of available non-SQL


commands.

Examples
_________

In this example, risbatch is invoked with the input file input.sql and the output file
output.sql:

risbatch -i input.sql -o output.sql

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risbatch


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
other Abnormal termination.
risclnsr 4 - 1

risclnsr
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4-2 risclnsr
risclnsr 4 - 3

4.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risclnsr
This interactive utility deletes all nonessential records from the RIS dictionary tables. This
utility is provided to clean up when the server process has not been able to do so. The server
fails to clean up when it is killed or the machine is shutdown or rebooted.

Do not run this utility while the schemas to be cleaned are being accessed.

To start the risclnsr utility, do one of the following:

Type risclnsr in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Clean Server
icon:
4-4 risclnsr

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS Interactive
icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS
Clean Server... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart
button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or
creating or dropping of schemas.

Usage
______
risclnsr [-?] [-V] schema[.password] [user[.password]] [osuser[.password]]

The osuser[.password] option specifies the user and password for a secure schema. If the
schema specified is a secure schema, risclnsr prompts for the osusername and osusername
password (if one exists).

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risclnsr


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
risdcode 5 - 1

risdcode
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5-2 risdcode
risdcode 5 - 3

5.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risdcode
This utility prints error messages for RIS error codes.

To start the risdcode utility, do one of the following:

Type risdcode in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Decode icon:
5-4 risdcode

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS Interactive
icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS
Decode... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart
button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or
creating or dropping of schemas.

Usage
______
risdcode [-?] [-V] [<error code>]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

<error code> Decimal, octal, or hexadecimal error code.

Examples
_________

To get the error message corresponding to an error code of 100, key in one of the following:

risdcode 100 (Using decimal.)

risdcode Ox64 (Using hexadecimal.)

risdcode 0144 (Using octal.)

risdcode

You are prompted to key in the value to be decoded. In this case, key in 100.
risdcode 5 - 5

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risdcode


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Always zero.
5-6 risdcode
risdtype 6 - 1

risdtype
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6-2 risdtype
risdtype 6 - 3

6.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risdtype
This interactive utility lets you instruct RIS to interpret the data type of a column differently
and modify the size of a RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data type.

The variety of data types in database systems permits multiple mappings of database data
types to ANSI standard data types. When a schema is created, or a table is included in a
schema, RIS chooses one interpretation of a data type. This utility lets you instruct RIS to
interpret the data type of a column differently by prompting you for the schema name,
username (for secure schemas), password (if one exists), table names, column names, and
new data types.

The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for parsing
and error messages. The default is English. Consult the file c:\Program Files\Common
Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\langs for other values.

To start the risdtype utility, do one of the following:

Type risdtype in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Data Types
icon:
6-4 risdtype

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS Interactive
icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS
Data Types... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart
button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or
creating or dropping of schemas.

Example:

c:\risdtype
Enter schema (<CR> to exit):sch1
Enter a table or view name (or ? for a list of names):
>blob_table

Pos Column Name type type-string len prec scale null


- - - - -
1 c1 15 ris_blob 0 null null YES

Do you wish to modify this column? <y(es), n(o), d(one with table)>>yes

0 UNSUPPORTED
1 CHARACTER
2 RIS_BLOB
6 RIS_TEXT

Choose a data type from those listed (enter the number) >>2
Current maximum ris_blob length is:0
Current maximum ris_blob length is:10000
Current status for nullable is YES, nulls are allowed
Are null values allowed? <y(es), n(o)> >>yes
Column definitions modified for object sch1.blob_table:
risdtype 6 - 5

Pos Column Name type type-string len prec scale null - -


- - - 1 c1 15 ris_blob 10000 null null
YES

Is this correct? <y(es), n(o), q(uit)> >>yes

Usage
______
risdtype [-?] [-V]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risdtype


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
6-6 risdtype
risgui 7 - 1

risgui
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7-2 risgui
risgui 7 - 3

7.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risgui
The risgui utility lets you interactively perform RIS queries. To start the risgui utility, do
one of the following:

Type risgui in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Interactive
icon.
7-4 risgui

The RIS Interactive Utility form is displayed.

7.1 Exiting the risgui Utility

To exit the risgui utility, select the Cancel button.

7.2 Performing Queries in the risgui Utility

To perform a query in the risgui utility, follow these steps:

1. Select a default schema from the Default Schema field.

2. Key an SQL statement into the Query field. You must terminate the SQL
statement with a semicolon character (;). The statement can wrap across several
lines.

If you need to change the entry, select the Clear button to clear the
Query field, then enter the statement again.

3. Select the Execute button. The results appear in the Results field.

If the query results do not completely fit in the Results field, the risgui utility can
display a screenful at a time. For more information see the section Options....
Select the Continue button to display the next screenful, or the Abort button to
stop the query.
risgui 7 - 5

To save the query results in a file, select the Save Results... button.

History File

When you execute a query, the risgui utility saves the SQL statement in the history
file. To determine the name of the history file, the ris utility uses the file:

1. Specified by the RIS_HISTORY_FILE environment variable.

2. ris.his in the directory specified by the HOME environment variable, if the


RIS_HISTORY_FILE environment variable is not defined.

3. ris.his in the directory from which you started the risgui utility, if the HOME
environment variable is not defined.

When risgui saves a query in the history file, you can go back to the same query later
and execute it again or edit the SQL statement to use it as the basis for a new query.
Select the Previous or Next buttons to display the queries in the history file.

Select the Search... button to perform a search in the history file.

1. Key a search term into the Search String field.

2. Select a search direction (Up or Down).


7-6 risgui

3. Select the Find Next button.

The risgui utility highlights the next match.

Saving and Loading Queries

To save the current query (shown in the Query field) to a file, select the Save... button.
To load a previously-saved query, select the Open... button.

To save the results of the current query, select the Save Results... button.

7.3 Options...

The Options... button modifies the behavior of query results.

1. Select the Options... button.

2. To specify the behavior for query results that do not fit in the Results field, select
one of the following:

Fetch by screenful (Append) fetch one screenful of results. When you


select the Continue button, append the next screenful to the results.

Fetch by screenful (Overwrite) fetch one screenful of results. When you


select the Continue button, discard the results and get the next screenful.

Fetch all rows fetch all results without pausing.

3. Select the OK button to accept the settings or select the Cancel button to reject
them.
risgui 7 - 7

7.4 Utilities...

The Utilities... button lets you start the other RIS utilities from within the risgui
utility.

1. Select the Utilities... button.

In Windows 95, only RIS Manager... is available.

2. Select one of the following buttons to start a utility:

RIS Manager... starts the rismgr utility.

RIS Loader... starts the rislod utility.

RIS Unloader... starts the risunlod utility.

RIS Record... starts the risrecrd utility.

RIS Playback... starts the risplbck utility.

RIS Clean Server... starts the risclnsr utility.

RIS Data Types... starts the risdtype utility.

RIS Decode... starts the risdcode utility.

7.5 Restart

While you are running the RIS Interactive utility, you can run other RIS utilities;
however, if you modify the RIS parameters with the other utilities, or create or drop a
schema, the RIS Interactive utility is not aware of the changes.

Select the Restart button to restart risgui and make it aware of your changes. Your
selection of modes, enabled databases, and default schema is not altered.
7-8 risgui

7.6 Set...

The Set... button sets RIS modes and enables the databases.

1. Select the Set... button.

2. Select the modes for the risgui utility:

ANSI Mode

Verify Mode

Autocommit

Blank Strip Mode

Autorename

Refer to the RIS SQL Users Guide for more information on the RIS modes.

3. Select the databases to enable:

Informix

Ingres

Rdb

ORACLE

DB2

SYBASE

MSSQL
risgui 7 - 9

7.7 Show...

The Show... button gives you additional information about RIS on your system.

1. Select the Show... button.

2. Select one of the following buttons:

Parameters... shows the settings in your parameters file.

Transactions... shows the schemas in transaction.


7 - 10 risgui

About... shows version and copyright information.


rislod 8 - 1

rislod
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8-2 rislod
rislod 8 - 3

8.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

rislod
You must understand the risunlod utility before using the rislod utility.

The rislod utility permits the transfer of schema information between external ASCII
files and RIS schemas by loading schema information from external files into RIS
schemas.

rislod:

Reads schema information from the main external file and data files (if any) and
restores them in the form of RIS schemas.

Restores only user-requested schema information into RIS schemas.

Lets information about multiple schemas be stored in the same external main file.

May create two files to report the loading status: the log file reports successful
loading and the bad file reports unsuccessful loading.

The rislod and risunlod utilities are not designed for use as backup utilities. The
following are some reasons for not using rislod and risunlod as backup utilities:

If a view was created in the database (not with RIS), RIS cannot unload the
definition of the view.

If you drop a schema and then recreate the schema, and there were existing views,
RIS cannot load the definition of the view because RIS lost the definition when
you dropped the schema.

In certain cases data types are mapped slightly differently in ORACLE databases.
ORACLE uses numeric data types, and RIS uses integer, smallint, real, and
double. If you create a column of RIS data type real, it is mapped to a float(21)
ORACLE data type. If you drop the schema, then recreate the schema, RIS maps
the float(21) in ORACLE to a RIS double data type.

For these and further reasons, you should use the databases utilities to back up data
correctly.

The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for
parsing and error messages. The default is English. Consult the file c:\Program
Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\langs for other values.
8-4 rislod

The representation of information must comply with the format defined in


the section File Formats for risunlod and rislod.

The following figure represents the functional mechanisms of rislod and shows the
input requirements and output generated.

Data for ris_blob and ris_text columns cannot be loaded; however, you can
have ris_blob and ris_text columns in a create table statement.

To start the rislod utility, do one of the following:

Type rislod in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Loader
icon:
rislod 8 - 5

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS
Interactive icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then
choose the RIS Loader... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the
Restart button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter
changes, or creating or dropping of schemas.

Usage
______
rislod [-?] [-V] [-n] [-p] [-e <db_list>]
[-m {w|a|e}] [-i <filename>] [-b <filename>] [-d <delimiter>]
[-c <commit>] [-s <schemas>] [-f <filename>]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

-n Set ANSI mode off. ANSI mode is on by default. Refer to the set
mode statement in the RIS SQL Users Guide for 32-Bit Applications
for more information.

-p Preserve blanks. By default, rislod strips trailing blanks from


character data. Refer to the set mode statement in the RIS SQL
Users Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.

-e <db_list> Enable the database specified in the <db_list>. All databases are
enabled by default. Refer to the set enable database statement in
the RIS SQL Users Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
8-6 rislod

-m {w|a|e} Specify the file mode for output files. The w overwrites an existing file,
the a appends to an existing file, and the e returns an error if an
output file with the specified name exists.

-i <filename> Specify the main input ASCII file from which RIS schema information
is loaded. The default main filename is ris.dmp.

-l <filename> Specify the log file into which RIS schema status information is
recorded. The default log filename is ris.log.

-b <filename> Specify the bad file into which rejected RIS schema information is
dumped. The default bad filename is ris.bad.

-d <delimiter> Specify the character for delimiting column values of character type
while loading rows in a table. A single quotation mark () is the default
delimiter character.

-c <commit> Specify the commit interval value that informs the loader to commit
after inserting <commit> number of rows for a table. The default
<commit> value is 25.

-s <schemas> Specify schema and schema-related information, such as tables,


indexes, views, and grants. Alternatively, you can specify this
information in a specification file.

-f <filename> Specify the name of the specification file for <schemas>. This option
cannot be used with the -s option.

See the section Using rislod with the Command Line Interface for more detailed
information.

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\rislod


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.

rislod loads user-requested RIS schema objects (items) from external ASCII files into
RIS schemas. rislod can:

Load schema definitions

Load table definitions

Load table data


rislod 8 - 7

Load index definitions

Load view definitions

Load privilege definitions

Load multiples of above items in a single run

Load items of one schema into any other existing schema

Load table definition only without table data

Load table data into existing table

Delete records from the table before loading table data from external file

Load table data from separate data file

Commit table data insertion after specific interval

Overwrite or append the log and bad files or return error if files exist

Enhanced features of rislod include the following:

Setting the ANSI mode on/off

The ANSI mode can be turned on or off, depending upon your requirements,
before starting the loading execution.

Enabling specific databases

rislod lets you enable specific databases before starting the loading execution.

Loading of any other existing schema

rislod permits information about a particular schema to be loaded into another


existing schema using the rislod rename capability. You do not need to edit or
correct the external main file to use this feature.

Returning error and/or delete table records before loading

You can specify that rislod report errors while loading data into a table, if the
table already exists. You can also specify that rislod load data into existing tables
or delete data from existing tables before loading.

Committing insertion at a specific interval

To improve execution performance, rislod commits table data insertions at specific


intervals, rather than committing after each table insertion. By default, table
data insertions are committed after 25 rows are inserted.
8-8 rislod

Not imposing the order of information stored in the main external file

For an index, view, or privilege definition to be loaded successfully, all its


references must exist. rislod does not impose a strict order on the information
stored in the main file because it often postpones the loading of an index, view, or
privilege until its references are loaded.

There are three ways to interact with rislod: using the Interactive Interface, the
Command Line Interface, or the Embedded Programming Function Interface.

1. Interactive Interface. When rislod is invoked without any command line


arguments, interactive prompts display. You are prompted for required inputs as
the main external file is scanned.

See the section Using rislod with the Interactive Interface for more information
about the meanings of these prompts and the corresponding actions taken by
rislod.

2. Command Line Interface. When rislod is invoked with arguments, the rislod
command line interface activates. This interface lets you specify, in a single
command, the responses to various prompts that would have been generated if
rislod had been invoked interactively. Errors encountered during parsing are not
reported in the log or bad file, and rislod terminates abnormally.

See the section Using rislod with the Command Line Interface for more
information about the syntax for constructing a rislod command and the
semantics of the command.

3. Embedded Programming Function Interface. The RIS_loader function provides


the functionality of rislod in an embedded program when you call the function and
pass the appropriate structures. Refer to the RIS Programmers Guide for more
information.

8.1 The Log File

When rislod begins execution, it creates a log file. The default log filename is ris.log.
You can specify a different name for the log file. The log file can be opened in overwrite
or append mode. If rislod cannot create a log file, execution terminates.

The log file contains a detailed summary of the execution with several sections:

Section . . . Contains . . .

Header File mode for the log and bad files


Input main external filename
Log filename
Bad filename
Commit interval for loading table data
rislod 8 - 9

Schema Information Schema section, containing:


Schema name
Whether the schema loaded successfully or
unsuccessfully
Renamed schema name (if selected)

Table section, containing:


Table name
Whether the table was created successfully or
unsuccessfully
Number of rows loaded successfully
Number of rows loaded unsuccessfully

Index section, containing:


Table name
Number of indexes loaded successfully for this table
Number of indexes loaded unsuccessfully for this table

View section, containing:


View name
Whether the view loaded successfully or
unsuccessfully

Grants Summary For each schema loaded:


Schema name and table or view name
Number of grants loaded successfully for this table or
view
Number of grants loaded unsuccessfully for this table
or view

Miscellaneous Date and time of the run


Total elapsed time

8.2 The Bad File

As it executes, rislod creates a file called the bad file. The bad file contains all schema
item definition statements that rislod attempted to load but could not. These
statements could be create schema, create table, insert, table field
definition, create index, create view, or grant statements. The default
name for the bad file is ris.bad, but you can specify a different name for the file.

Statements that fail to load are dumped to the bad file with appropriate error codes and
error messages. These error codes and messages are commented so the bad file can be
used again, after it is edited or corrected, to load rejected schema information.

For example, if rislod cannot load a schema statement, then all the schema information
pertaining to this schema is dumped to the bad file. Or, if the create table
statement fails, and data are to be loaded in this table, then all table data statements
such as create table, insert, table field definition, and data statements
are dumped to the bad file. The error messages are ignored by rislod.
8 - 10 rislod

Additionally, the status of each schema item being loaded is echoed to the screen in the
interactive and command line interfaces.

The bad file can be opened in overwrite or append mode.

8.3 Loading Index, View, and Privilege Definitions

For an index to be loaded, the table it references must exist. Similarly, for a view to be
successfully loaded, all the tables and views it references must exist. To successfully
load a privilege definition (a grant statement), the grantee, relation, and access
privileges referenced in the statement must also exist. To take away the burden of
organizing information into a proper order for loading, rislod postpones the loading of
the index, view, or privilege definition until its references have been loaded.

When an index definition in a schema is fetched, rislod tries to load it. If rislod receives
an error message from RIS stating that the table on which the index is created does not
exist, the index definition is stored in a temporary file. After rislod has tried to load
every statement in the schema once, it attempts to load the indexes from the temporary
file again. The same thing happens to a view definition that could not be loaded the
first time because its references did not exist. rislod continuously loads these views in
the temporary file until all of them have been loaded or until no more views can be
loaded successfully.

When rislod fetches a privilege definition in a schema, it is broken down into several
grant statements, one for each grantee specified. rislod tries to load each of the new
grant statements. If RIS notifies rislod that the statement could not be loaded, the
grant statement is stored in a temporary file along with the information about the
schema to which it belongs. After rislod tries to load every statement in the files at
least once, rislod tries to load the grant statements in the temporary file again. rislod
continuously loads these grant statements until either all of them have been loaded or
no more grant statements can be loaded successfully. In this approach you may notice
the breakdown of a grant statement and notice that some of the grant statements are
loaded at the end of a rislod session.

8.4 Using rislod with the Interactive Interface

Invoking rislod without any command line arguments displays interactive prompts.

Accepting Default Values. Most prompts have default values indicated in square
brackets ([]). Press the ENTER key to select these default values.

Selecting Nondefault Values. To select a nondefault value choose the character in


parentheses corresponding to the option you want. Key in that character and
press ENTER.

Specifying Other Information. Some prompts ask you to enter information, such as
filenames. Key in the information requested and press ENTER.
rislod 8 - 11

The following list discusses the interactive prompts in detail.

1. Set mode ansi ON(y/n) :[y] >

The default is set ANSI mode on. See the RIS SQL Users Guide for 32-Bit
Applications for more information.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default.

Select n to turn off ANSI mode.

2. Preserve blanks? (y/n) :[n] >

This prompt lets you set the blankstrip mode. By default rislod strips trailing
blanks from character data.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default if you do not want to preserve trailing
blanks.

Select y if you want to preserve trailing blanks.

3. Set mode enable databases?


all(a) specific(s) :[a] >

This prompt lets you enable databases during the loading of a schema.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to enable all RIS-supported databases.

Select s and rislod prompts you for a database type:

Enter DBMS type (ex. informix) :[return] >

Enter the RIS-supported database type, such as informix, ingres, or


oracle. This prompt repeats until you press ENTER without entering a
database name.

4. File mode of all output files? overwrite(w) append(a) error out if exists(e) :[e] >

This prompt lets you set the file mode for log and bad files. The file mode affects
the log and bad files only. The default is e, error out mode.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default; when you are prompted for the log and
bad filenames, rislod prompts you to quit if the files you specify already
exist.
8 - 12 rislod

Select w to overwrite the existing log and bad files.

Select a to append to the existing log and bad files.

5. Main file for loading :[ris.dmp] >

This prompt lets you specify the name of the main file for loading. The default
name for the main file is ris.dmp.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default filename.

Enter another filename for the main file.

6. Log file :[ris.log] >

This prompt lets you specify the name of the log file for loading. The default name
for the log file is ris.log.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default filename.

Enter another filename for the log file.

If you selected e for error out mode at the prompt File mode of all output files?,
and a file with the name you specify exists, the message Log File already exists is
displayed. You are prompted:

Quit risload? (y/n):[n] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default. You are again prompted to enter a
name for the log file; key in a new filename.

Select y to quit rislod.

7. Bad file :[ris.bad] >

This prompt lets you specify the name of the bad file for loading. The default
name for the bad file is ris.bad.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default filename.

Enter another filename for the bad file.


rislod 8 - 13

If you selected e for error out mode at the prompt File mode of all output files?,
and a file with the name you specify exists, the message Bad File already exists is
displayed. You are prompted:

Quit risload? (y/n):[n] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default. You are again prompted to enter a
name for the bad file; key in a new filename.

Select y to quit rislod.

8. Enter delimitation used in the files for loading: [] >

This prompt lets you specify the delimiter to use for enclosing character values of
variable lengths to use in the main and data files.

You cannot use the space character as a delimiter.

The files generated by risunlod use single quotation marks () for


delimitation. This feature of rislod lets you use files not prepared by
risunlod for loading as long as the other parts of the files comply
with the file format used by rislod.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default.

Enter another delimitation character.

9. Enter commit interval :[25] >

The commit interval lets you commit the insertion of rows in a table after the
specified commit interval value. The default is 25 (commit after inserting 25 rows
in a table).

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default.

Enter another commit interval.

10. Which schemas should be loaded?


all(a)
prompted - optionally transfer into existing schema(p) :[a] >

This prompt lets you choose between loading all the schemas or only selected
schemas from the main file. The default is a for all schemas.
8 - 14 rislod

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to load all the schemas from the main file.

Prompts let you choose how to load tables, indexes, views, and privilege
definitions. These prompts appear once, after the prompt for the schema, if
you choose to load all the schemas in the main file.

Select p and rislod generates a list of schemas and prompts you before
loading each schema. (After each schema is selected, you are prompted for
how to load tables, indexes, views, and privilege definitions for that schema.)

Load schema <schname>(y/n) :[y] >

Do one of the following:

Select y to load the specified schema. If you select p at the prompt Which
schemas should be loaded? and you select y at this prompt, you are
prompted to optionally load into another existing schema:

To Transfer <schema>s items into another existing schema...


Enter an existing schema name :[<return>]

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER if you do not want to use another existing schema;


rislod loads the schema into the schema name specified in the main
file.

Enter the name of an existing schema. rislod then prompts for the
username, user password, and schema password, if necessary, for the
specified schema.

Select n if you do not want to load the specified schema.

rislod lets you rename schemas only if the prompted (p) selection was
made at the Which schemas should be loaded? prompt.

If the schema is a secure schema, you are prompted for the database
username, the database username password, the operating system
username, and the operating system username password. If the
schema has a password, you are prompted for the schema password.

Passwords are not echoed to the screen.

11. Which tables should be loaded?


all(a) prompted(p) none(n) :[a] >

Do one of the following:


rislod 8 - 15

Press ENTER to accept the default and load all the tables in the schema.

Select p if you want to be prompted for each table.

Select n if you do not want to load any tables.

If you select a or p at the prompt Which tables should be loaded? the following
prompt appears next:

Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o):[b] >

This prompt lets you decide whether to load both the definitions and data of the
tables in the schema or load only the definitions.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and load both table definitions and data.

Select o to load table definitions only.

rislod loads either fixed or variable formatted table data.

If only the definitions exist for some or all of the tables in a


schema, choosing to load both definitions and data does not
cause any problem to rislod. These tables are created without
data in them. Similarly, if both the definitions and data exist
for some or all of the tables in a schema, choosing the second
selection does not cause problems. These table data are
discarded and the string only definitions is placed in the log file.

Select n if you do not want to load any tables.

If you select b at the prompt Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o) the
following prompt appears:

Continue loading into a table even though that table


exists (y/n):[n] >

When loading a table definition of a table that already exists, an error


message is generated stating that a table/view with this name already
exists. Whether or not the data is loaded into the existing table depends on
the answer to this prompt.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and data are not loaded into an
existing table.

Select y to load data into an existing table.


8 - 16 rislod

If y is selected for the previous prompt, the following prompt is displayed:

Clear existing data from table before loading(y/n) :[n] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and keep existing data.

Select y to delete all rows from this table before loading data from the
main file.

12. Which index definitions should be loaded?


all(a) prompted(p) none(n): [a] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and load all index definitions.

Select p and rislod generates a list of indexes and prompts for each index
definition:

Load definition <definition>(y/n):[y] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to load the specified definition.

Select n if you do not want to load the index definition.

Select n and no index definitions are loaded.

13. Which views should be loaded?


all(a) prompted(p) none(n):[a] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and load all views.

Select p and rislod prompts for each view:

Load view <view>(y/n):[y]:

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to load the specified view.

Select n and the specified view is not loaded.

Select n and no views are loaded.


rislod 8 - 17

14. Which privilege definitions should be loaded?


all(a) prompted(p) none(n):[a] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and load all privilege definitions.

Select p and rislod prompts for each table or view on which one or more
privileges are defined:

Load access privilege on <relation>(y/n):[y]

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to load the specified privilege definition.

Select n if you do not want to load the privilege definition.

Select n and no privilege definitions are loaded.

If you selected p at the prompt Which table should be loaded? the following prompt
is displayed.

Load table <table>(y/n):[y]

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default and load the specified table.

Select n and the specified table is not loaded.

When all the necessary information has been specified, rislod processes the schema(s)
selected.

8.5 Using rislod with the Command Line Interface

The command line can be used to specify which schemas in the main file should be
loaded. It can also be used to specify which information in the schemas should be
loaded. The syntax for constructing a rislod command is almost the same as the syntax
for constructing a risunlod command, except for a few additions and changes.

Examples
rislod -i \dir1\dir2\mainfile -d\" -l load.log -b load.bad
-f ..\dir3\specfile -n -mw -e rdb informix -c 15

Option Specifies
8 - 18 rislod

-i Main filename. The default is ris.dmp.

-d Delimiter. The default is a single quotation mark (). The delimiter in this
example is a double quotation mark. The backslash before the delimiter
causes the shell not to interpret the double quotation mark.

-l Log filename. The default is ris.log.

-b Bad filename. The default is ris.bad.The delimiter in this example is a


double quotation mark. The back slash before the delimiter causes the shell
not to interpret the double quotation mark.

Additional options not used in the example are:

Option Specifies

-n ANSI mode off.

-e Enable databases listed after this option.

-m Set the file mode (w, a, or e) for the output files (such as log and bad files).

-c Commit interval.

rislod -s sch1.create_sch_passwd1.user_passwd1 all


-s sch2 .create_sch_passwd2 .user_passwd2 new table with data all

-s sch3 clear table with data t1 t2 grant all

-s sch4 rename sch5 .sch5pass table t1 index t2 view v1


grant t2 v2 sch.t3 sch.v3

rislod lets you specify up to three passwords after a schema name (schema password,
osuser password, and user password). Passwords are necessary if they are not already
stored in the main file. For schema sch2, data is loaded only into newly created tables.
For schema sch3, data is loaded into tables t1 and t2 after deleting previously inserted
rows even if it already exists before loading. For schema sch4 all the following items
are loaded into existing schema sch5. No data is loaded into table t1, but index
definitions on table t1 and privilege definitions on table t1 and view view1 are loaded.

The specification file format is the same for both rislod and risunlod.

8.6 BNF Representation of rislod Command Line Syntax

Backus Naur form (BNF) is a method of describing the syntax of a language. It is used
here to show the capabilities of the RIS command line interface.

The following is the BNF representation of the syntax for constructing a command line.
rislod 8 - 19

<command_line> ::= rislod


[-n]
[-e <database_list>]
[-m <file_mode>]
[-i <input_file>]
[-b <bad_file]
[-l <log_file>]
[-d <delimiter>]
[-c <commit_interval>]
{
{
-s <schema>
[.<create_sch_passwd>]
[<os_name>[<user_name>]]
[.<os_passwd>]
[.<user_passwd>]
[rename <new_schema>
[.<new_sch_passwd>]
[user <user_name>[.<user_pwd>]]]
[<info_tobe_load>]
} [...]
|
-f <spec_file>
}

<database_list> ::= {<database> [...]}

<file_mode> ::= w | a | e
w represents overwrite file mode
a represents append file mode
e represents return error

<info_tobe_load> ::= all


|
{
[
{
table
| [{new | clear}] table with data
} <table_tobe_load>
]
[view <view_tobe_load>]
[index <index_tobe_load>]
[grant <grant_tobe_load>]
}

<table_tobe_load> ::= all | {<table>[ ...]}

<view_tobe_load> ::= all | {<view>[ ...]}

<index_tobe_load> ::= all | {<table>[ ...]}

<grant_tobe_load> ::= all


|
{
{
[<schema>.]<table>|[<schema>.]<view>
} [ ...]
}
8 - 20 rislod

The following is the BNF representation of the format for a specification file.

<spec_file_format> ::= {<schema> [.<create_sch_passwd>] [.<user_passwd>]


<info_tobe_load>}[;<new_line>...]
rismgr 9 - 1

rismgr
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9-2 rismgr
rismgr 9 - 3

9.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

rismgr
This utility creates, changes, and drops RIS schemas. You can also use it to display
information about existing schemas.

To start the rismgr utility, do one of the following:

Type rismgr in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Schema
Manager icon:
9-4 rismgr

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS
Interactive icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then
choose the RIS Manager... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the
Restart button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter
changes, or creating or dropping of schemas.

Usage
______
rismgr

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\rismgr


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\forms\v5forms\*
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
rismgr 9 - 5

9.1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

RIS Schema Manager


The RIS Schema Manager dialog box displays a three-column list showing all the
schemas known to RIS, each schema type (standard or secure), and whether the
schemas associated dictionary is owned or shared. Buttons corresponding to the
actions of the Schema Manager are also on the dialog box. When you choose a button,
you initiate that particular action, and the associated subordinate dialog box is
displayed. When you choose one of the schemas from the list on the RIS Schema
Manager dialog box, information about that schema is displayed on the subordinate
dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Activate the RIS Schema Manager.

The RIS Schema Manager dialog box appears.


9-6 rismgr

2. Choose the button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box for the function
you want to use. The RIS Schema Manager functions are described briefly in the
following list. See the section listed for a complete description.

Button Name Function

Schema Definition Provides additional functions and dialog boxes for


defining schemas. See the section Schema Definition.

Data Definition Provides additional functions and dialog boxes that


manipulate tables, views, and indexes. See the section
Displaying Table, View, and Index Information.

Schema File Lets you review and manipulate schema files. See the
section Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files.

Locate Client Lets you review and specify the location of a RIS client
process. See the section Locating RIS Client Processes.

Set Lets you set ANSI, autocommit, autorename, blankstrip,


and verify modes on or off and enable different
databases. See the section Setting Modes and Enabling
Databases.

3. Do one of the following:

Choose the Reset button to erase the subordinate dialog boxes.

The RIS Schema Manager rereads the RIS schemas file.

Choose the Close button to end the RIS Schema Manager session.

Choose the Help button to obtain RIS Schema Manager help.


rismgr 9 - 7

9.2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Schema Definition
The Schema Definition dialog box lets you initiate functions to display schema
information, create and drop schemas, access secure schemas and dictionaries, and
modify schema passwords, node information, and DB2 passwords.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Schema Definition button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog
box.

The Schema Definition dialog box appears.

The dialog box has eight buttons, each letting you initiate a particular function.

2. Do one of the following:

Choose the button from the Schema Definition dialog box for the function
you want to use. The Schema Definition functions are described briefly in
the following list. See the section listed for a complete description.

Button Name Function

Schema Information Displays information about a specified schema.


See the section Displaying Schema Information.

Create Schema Creates schemas. See the section Creating


Schemas.

Drop Schema Drops schemas. See the section Dropping


Schemas.
9-8 rismgr

Secure Schema Access Grants and revokes access to a secure schema.


See the section Granting/Revoking Access
Privileges to Secure Schemas.

Dictionary Access Grants and revokes dictionary access to a


schema. See the section Obtaining Dictionary
Access.

Modify Schema Password Modifies the schema password. See the section
Modifying Schema Passwords.

Modify Node Information Modifies node information. See the section


Modifying Node Information.

Modify DB2 Password Modifies the DB2 password. See the section
Modify DB2 Password Form.

Choose the Reset button to dismiss the subordinate dialog boxes.

Choose the Close button to dismiss the Schema Definition dialog box.

Choose the Help button to obtain RIS Schema Definition help.


rismgr 9 - 9

9.2.1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Displaying Schema Information


The Schema Information dialog box displays information about a specified schema.
You can key in a schema name or select a name from the Schema Name list on the RIS
Schema Manager dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Schema Information button from the Schema Definition dialog
box.

The Schema Information dialog box appears and displays information about the
selected schema (if one has been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog
box).

2. Do one of the following if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:

In the Schema Name box, type a schema name.

Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box.

The schema information is displayed.

The following information is displayed:

Schema Name Displays the schema name.


9 - 10 rismgr

Schema Type Displays whether the schema is a standard or secure


schema.

Network Protocol Displays the type of network protocol being used to


communicate with the RIS data server.

Nodename or Address Displays a nodename, an Ethernet address


(specified in the [lan.]address) dialog box, an Internet address, or an address
appropriate for the protocol of the machine where the RIS data server is
located.

Database Username Displays the database username.

OS Type Displays the operating system type on which the server is


running (for example, UNIX or Windows NT).

Dictionary Owner Displays the user who owns the dictionary.

Database Type Displays the database type (for example, INFORMIX, or


ORACLE).

3. To dismiss the Schema Information dialog box, click Close.


rismgr 9 - 11

9.2.2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas
The Create Schema dialog box creates new RIS schemas and corresponds directly to
the RIS create schema statement. The database-specific information on the Create
Schema dialog box can be entered in three ways:

By entering the information directly in the boxes. If the schema is being created
on a database unknown to RIS, this is the only alternative.

By selecting an existing schema from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box. The
database-specific information about that schema is entered into the Create
Schema dialog box. This method is particularly convenient when creating
additional schemas on a database.

By selecting the Display Databases button. A dialog box listing all the known
RIS databases appears. Selecting one of these databases enters information about
that database into the Create Schema dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Select the Create Schema button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Create Schema dialog box appears.


9 - 12 rismgr

The Create Schema dialog box has two areas:

The DBMS-independent area

The DBMS-dependent area

2. Enter the appropriate values for the DBMS-independent section of the dialog box.
The following list explains the DBMS-independent controls.

Schema Name Type a name for the schema you want to create.

(Schema Name) Password Enter a password for the schema. The No


Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display
(Echo) when it is entered.

Schema Type Click this button to toggle between Standard and Secure
schemas.

Network Protocol Select the type of network protocol to use to


communicate with the RIS data server. Only the top (#1) protocol is used in
the create schema statement. When you select a protocol, it moves to the
bottom (#4). ISO, XNS and DECNET are not currently supported.

To change the order of the Network Protocol boxes, select one Network
Protocol box and its value is replaced with the value of the Network Protocol
box below it. The value that was originally selected is moved to the bottom
of the list.

Nodename or Address Specify a nodename, an Internet address, or an


address appropriate for the protocol of the machine where the RIS data
server is located. Enter a value or click the Get Client Address button.

Get Client Address Click this button to enter the addresses of the client
machine in the Nodename or Address boxes. This is useful when the RIS
client and the RIS data server are on the same machine.

Database Username Type the database username.

(Database Username) Password Type a password for the database


username. The No Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (No
Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.

Include Database Users Tables/Views Click this button to toggle between


Yes to include the database users tables and views, or No not to include the
database users tables and views.

OS Type From the list, select the operating system type on which the RIS
data server is running.

Use Existing Dictionary Click this button to toggle between No (the


default) and Yes. You must already have permission from the dictionary
owner to use an existing dictionary.
rismgr 9 - 13

Dictionary Owner Type a user who owns a dictionary in the particular


database.

3. Do one of the following:

Select a database type from the Database Type list. If the selected
database type requires additional information, boxes to enter that
information are displayed when you select the database type.

The supported RDBMSs are:

INFORMIX

ORACLE

DB2

SYBASE

MSSQL

The DBMS-dependent controls for each database type are


explained in separate subsections following this section.

To display databases known to RIS, select the Display Databases button.


9 - 14 rismgr

The Databases dialog box appears. Databases known to RIS are listed on
this dialog box. Select a database from the dialog box. Controls containing
information specific to the database selected are shown on the Create
Schema dialog box.

4. See the section specific to the type of database on which you are creating the
schema for instructions on filling in the DBMS-dependent boxes.

For more information, see these sections:

Creating Schemas (INFORMIX)


Creating Schemas (ORACLE)
Creating Schemas (DB2)
Creating Schemas (SYBASE)
Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server)
rismgr 9 - 15

9.2.2.1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas (INFORMIX)


When you select the INFORMIX DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create
Schema dialog box, the INFORMIX-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Enter the appropriate values for the INFORMIX-dependent controls. The


following list explains these controls.

Database Name Specifies the INFORMIX database name accessible to the


schema.

If the RISINFDS data server or RISINFNS net server is on a UNIX node:

For the INFORMIX Standard Engine product, the <dbname> must be a full
pathname (for example, /usr2/informix/dbnam1). On UNIX systems, the
filename portion cannot be longer than ten characters because INFORMIX
adds a DBS suffix to it.

For the INFORMIX OnLine Engine product, the <dbname> needs only to be
the database name.

If the RISINFDS data server or RISINFNS net server is on a Windows NT


node:

For the INFORMIX Standard Engine product, the <dbname> must be a full
pathname and must include the INFORMIX server name with the @
separator: </C=/dbs/dbname@servername>
9 - 16 rismgr

For the INFORMIX OnLine Engine product, the <dbname> must include only
the INFORMIX server name with the @ separator: <dbname@servername>

Database Management System Location Enter the path where the


INFORMIX RDBMS software is installed.

SQLEXEC Specifies whether INFORMIX OnLine or INFORMIX


Standard Engine is being used. Enter this information if both the Standard
Engine and Online exist on the machine; otherwise, INFORMIX defaults to
Online. For the INFORMIX Database Management System located in
$INFORMIXDIR:

If using INFORMIX OnLine Engine, enter $INFORMIXDIR/lib/sqlturbo

If using the INFORMIX Standard Engine, enter


$INFORMIXDIR/lib/sqlexec

For the INFORMIX Database Management System located in


c:\win32app\informix on a Windows NT node:

If using INFORMIX OnLine Engine, enter,


c:\win32app\informix\bin\sqlturbo.exe

If using the INFORMIX Standard Engine, enter,


c:\win32app\informix\bin\sqlexec.exe

This parameter is not used when the RIS Data server resides
on a Windows NT node. If the RIS data server resides on a
Windows NT node this information is obtained from the
registry.

DBTEMP Enter the path where INFORMIX will create temporary files.

TBCONFIG Enter the path of the TBCONFIG file used by INFORMIX


OnLine. This file permits INFORMIX OnLine to be configured so that a
large number of tables can be used with joins. Also, table structures and
limits can be varied with this file. Refer to your INFORMIX documentation
for more information on the TBCONFIG file.

2. When complete, do one of the following:

To create the schema, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the
Force button.

To dismiss the dialog box without creating a schema, click the Close button.
rismgr 9 - 17

9.2.2.2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas (ORACLE)


When you select the ORACLE DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create
Schema dialog box, the ORACLE-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Enter the appropriate values for the ORACLE-dependent controls. The following
list explains these controls.

Database Name Enter the system identifier (SID) of the ORACLE


database. The SID should be in the correct format for ORACLE.

Database Management System Location Enter the ORACLE home path


(where ORACLE is installed).

OS Username Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server


machine.

Password Enter the operating system log-in password, if any.

For a given ORACLE SID, all schemas created using that SID
must have the same operating system username and password
combination.
9 - 18 rismgr

2. Do one of the following:

To create the schema, click the Apply button.

To clear the form, click the Reset button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the
Force button.

To dismiss the form without creating a schema, click the Close button.
rismgr 9 - 19

9.2.2.3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas (DB2)


When you select the DB2 DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create Schema
dialog box, the DB2-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Enter the appropriate values for the DB2-dependent controls. The following list
explains these controls.

Database Name Enter a DB2 database name accessible by the schema.


The name is case sensitive and must have from one to eight alphanumeric
characters.

Group Name Enter the RACF group name for TCPIP protocol. The RACF
group name is passed to the RIS Transaction Processor security exit on the
IBM mainframe system for use during sign-on processing. (Optional.)

OS Username Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server


machine.

Password Enter the operating system log-in password, if any. The No


Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display
(Echo) when it is entered.

For LU6.2 protocol, the Group Name box is ignored in this


version of RIS.

TCP/IP is not supported.


9 - 20 rismgr

IBM Network Protocol From the list, select the network protocol that RIS
uses to access the IBM machine on which the DBMS resides. The protocol is
LU6.2.

The following controls are valid for LU6.2 network protocol only:

RIS LU Name Enter the SSI local LU name, either fully qualified or
local. This name is case sensitive.

Host LU Name Enter the SSI remote LU name, either fully qualified
or local. This name is case sensitive.

LU62 Mode Name Enter the name the Intergraph System


Administrator assigned to the node that permits communication to the
RIS program on an IBM machine. The mode assigns attributes to the
connection and must be predefined by the Intergraph System
Administrator. The mode name is defined when LU6.2 is configured.
This name is case sensitive.
rismgr 9 - 21

Host Program Name Enter the name the IBM System Administrator
assigned the RIS server when it was installed on the IBM machine. Also
enter the CES transaction name. This name is case sensitive.

2. When complete, do one of the following:

To create the schema, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the
Force button.

To dismiss the dialog box without creating a schema, click the Close button.
9 - 22 rismgr

9.2.2.4
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas (SYBASE)


When you select the SYBASE DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create
Schema dialog box, the SYBASE-dependent controls appear on the dialog box. You
must be granted create procedure privileges before you can create shared schemas.

Operating Sequence

1. Enter the appropriate values for the SYBASE-dependent controls. The following
list explains these controls.

Database Name Enter the name of the database the schema accesses.

Database Management System Location Enter the path where SYBASE is


installed. See the README.TXT file delivered with the RISSYBDS product
for more information. This information is not required for all servers.

OS Username Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server


machine.

Password Enter the operating system log-in password, if any. The No


EchoEcho button causes the password not to display (No Echo) or to display
(Echo) when it is clicked.

DSQUERY Enter the database query listener. This value is the alias
given in the interfaces file. The default name is SYBASE. This information
is not required for all servers.
rismgr 9 - 23

IFILE Enter the name of the interfaces file for the schema. By default,
RIS uses the SYBASE interfaces file named interfaces. On 32-bit operating
systems the ifile is named sql.ini. This information is not required for all
servers.

2. Do one of the following:

To create the schema, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the
Force button.

To dismiss the dialog box without creating a schema, click the Close button.
9 - 24 rismgr

9.2.2.5
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server)


When you select the SQL Server DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create
Schema dialog box, the SQL Server-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence

1. Enter the appropriate values for the Microsoft SQL Server-dependent controls.
The following list explains these controls.

Database Name Enter the name of the database the schema accesses.

Database Management System Location Enter the path where SQL


Server is installed. See the README.TXT file delivered with the
RISMSFDS product for more information. This information is not required
for all servers.

OS Username Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server


machine.

Password Enter the operating system log-in password, if any. THe No


Echo/Echo button causes the password not to display (No Echo) or to display
(Echo) when it is clicked.

DSQUERY Currently this field is not used.

IFILE Enter the name of the interfaces file for the schema. By default,
RIS uses the SQL Server interfaces file named interfaces. This information
is not required for all servers.
rismgr 9 - 25

2. Do one of the following:

To create the schema, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the
Force button.

To dismiss the dialog box without creating a schema, click the Close button.
9 - 26 rismgr

9.2.3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Dropping Schemas
The Drop Schema dialog box drops schemas using the information you specify and
corresponds directly to the RIS drop schema statement.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Drop Schema button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Drop Schema dialog box appears and displays the name of the selected
schema (if one has been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box).

2. Do one of the following, if the schema you want to drop is not already the selected
schema:

In the Schema Name box on the Drop Schema dialog box, type the
schema name.

From the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box,
select a schema.

If the schema is a secure schema, a dialog box appears. Enter the database
username, database password, operating system username, and operating system
password in the dialog box, if displayed.

3. Do one of the following:

To drop the schema, click the Apply button.

To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views,
indexes, and schema privileges), click the Force button.

The Force button removes the schema regardless of who is


using it.
rismgr 9 - 27

To dismiss the Drop Schema dialog box without dropping the schema, click
the Close button.

Choose the Help button to obtain Drop Schema help.


9 - 28 rismgr

9.2.4
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure


Schemas
The Secure Schema Access dialog box provides access privileges to a secure schema.

Operating Sequence

1. Select the Secure Schema Access button from the Schema Definition dialog
box.

The Secure Schema Access dialog box appears.

If a schema has already been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog
box, this schema information appears on the Secure Schema Access dialog box.

2. Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the active schema:

Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box.

Enter a name into the Schema Name box to display information about a
schema.

A dialog box appears. Enter the database username, database password,


operating system username, and operating system password in the dialog box.

3. Click the Action button to toggle between granting and revoking secure schema
access.
rismgr 9 - 29

4. Click the Privilege button to toggle between granting and revoking resource and
connect privileges.

5. Do one of the following:

Enter a username in the Selected User box.

Select a user from the Access Users list.

Select a user from the All Users list.

6. Do one of the following:

To grant or revoke privileges to the secure schema, click the Apply button.

To dismiss the Secure Schema Access dialog box without altering schema
access, click the Close button.

Choose the Help button to obtain help with granting and revoking schema
access privileges.
9 - 30 rismgr

9.2.5
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Obtaining Dictionary Access


This dialog box grants and revokes access to a dictionary for a selected user.

Operating Sequence

Select the Dictionary Access button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Dictionary Access dialog box appears.

1. Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:

Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box.

Type a name in the Schema Name box to display information about a


schema.

If the schema is a secure schema, a dialog box appears.

Enter the database username, database password, operating system


username, and operating system password in the dialog box, if necessary.

2. Click the Action button to toggle between granting and revoking access.

3. Do one of the following:


rismgr 9 - 31

Enter the name of the user to be granted or revoked access in the Selected
User box.

Select a name from the Access Users list.

Select a name from the All Users list.

4. Do one of the following:

To grant or revoke dictionary access, click the Apply button.

To dismiss the dialog box without granting or revoking dictionary access,


click the Close button.

Choose the Help button to obtain help with granting and revoking
dictionary access privileges.
9 - 32 rismgr

9.2.6
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Modifying Schema Passwords


This dialog box lets you modify the schema password.

Operating Sequence

1. Select the Modify Schema Password button from the Schema Definition
dialog box.

The Modify Schema Password dialog box appears.

2. Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:

Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box.

Type a name in the Schema Name box to display information about a


schema.

3. Type the new password into the New Password box.

If the schema is a secure schema, the Username Password dialog box appears.

Type the database username, database password, operating system username,


and operating sytem password in the dialog box, if necessary.

4. Do one of the following:

To modify the schema password, click the Apply button. You must click the
Apply button after each session to alter the schema.

To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close
button.

To obtain help with modifying schema passwords, click the Help button.
rismgr 9 - 33

9.2.7
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Modifying Node Information


This dialog box lets you modify node information.

Operating Sequence

1. Select the Modify Node Information button from the Schema Definition
dialog box.

The Modify Node Information dialog box appears.

2. Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box or type a schema name in the Schema Name box to display
information about a schema, if there is no selected schema.

3. Choose the Modify Node button from the dialog box. The current addresses
display in the Nodename or Address boxes.

Type the new names or addresses in the boxes. This action can also be used to
change the order of the protocols.

4. Choose the Modify DB User Password button. The database user associated
with the schema appears in the DB Username box. This is a read-only box.

5. Type the database user password in the Password box. The No Echo/Echo
button causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is
entered.
9 - 34 rismgr

This action does not change the users operating system account
password. It changes only the RIS product copy of the user
password. Typically this command is executed after users change
their operating system account passwords. Otherwise an error
occurs.

6. Choose the Modify OS User & Password button. The operating system user
associated with the schema appears in the OS Username box. Type a new
username.

7. Type the operating system user password in the Password box. The No
Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo)
when it is entered.

8. Do one of the following:

To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must select the Apply
button after each session to alter the schema.

To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close
button.

To obtain help with modifying node information, click the Help button.
rismgr 9 - 35

9.2.8
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Modify DB2 Password Form


This dialog box lets you modify the DB2 password.

This operation is valid only for DB2 schemas.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Modify DB2 Password button from the Schema Definition dialog
box.

The Modify DB2 Password dialog box appears.

2. Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager
dialog box or type a schema name in the Schema Name box to display
information about a schema, if the schema you want is not already the selected
schema.

3. Type the original password into the Old DB2 Password box and the new
password into the New DB2 Password box. The Alternate LU62 Mode box
appears on the dialog box if this information is required. Enter the LU6.2 mode
value if the box displays. The No Echo/Echo buttons cause the passwords to not
display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when they are entered.

4. Do one of the following:

To alter the schema, click the Apply button. This action changes both the
MVS system password and the schema password. You must select the
Apply button after each session to alter the schema.

To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close
button.
9 - 36 rismgr

To obtain help with modifying the DB2 password, click the Help button.
rismgr 9 - 37

9.3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Displaying Table, View, and Index Information


The Data Definition dialog box has six buttons that display information about the
tables, views, and indexes defined for the specified schema, and let you make
modifications.

The Data Definition function performs six actions:

1. Displays table information

2. Creates tables

3. Drops tables

4. Adds a column to a table

5. Includes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary

6. Excludes tables, views, and indexes in the in-memory data dictionary

When you click the button for one of these actions, a dialog box associated with that
action appears.

If the selected schema requires a password, or a database


username/password and operating system username/password, the
information must be entered before the dialog boxes can accept
information.
9 - 38 rismgr

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Data Definition button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.
The Data Definitiondialog box appears.

2. If the schema you want is not already the selected schema, do one of the following:

From the RIS Schema Manager dialog box, select a schema from the
Schema Name list.

In the Schema Name box, type a name.

3. Do one of the following:

Click the button for the action you want to perform. See the section for the
action chosen for further instructions.

Click the Close button to dismiss the Data Definition dialog box.

Click the Help button to obtain further information about the Data
Definition dialog box.
rismgr 9 - 39

9.3.1
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Displaying Table Information


The Table Information dialog box displays the definition of the specified table. For
each column in the table, the list columns display information such as the column
position, column name, DBMS column name, column type, and whether nulls are
permitted in the column. Also, a box is provided to search for specific columns.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Table Info button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Table Information dialog box appears.

2. To choose a table, type the table name in the Table Name box or select the table
from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.

The table information appears on the Table Information dialog box.

3. To dismiss the Table Information dialog box, click the Close button.

4. To obtain further information about the Table Information dialog box, click the
Help button.
9 - 40 rismgr

9.3.2
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creating Tables
The Create Table dialog box creates tables in the schema specified on the Data
Definition dialog box. If the name of an existing table is typed in the Table Name
box or selected from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box, the
definition of that table is loaded into the Create Table dialog box. This can be useful
when creating several similar tables.

The Create Table dialog box creates new tables. It cannot be used to
modify existing tables. The ability to load existing table definitions into
the dialog box exists only to provide a templateor starting pointfor
new tables.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Create Table button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Create Table dialog box appears.

2. The Create Table dialog box has two sets of control buttons. There is a set of
dialog box control buttons (across the bottom of the dialog box), and a set of mode
control buttons.

The mode control buttons are used to execute and reset the different modes of the
dialog box. The Create Table dialog box operates in three modes that are
represented by three buttons:
rismgr 9 - 41

Insert Column Click this button to add new columns to the table
definition. If a column is selected in the Column Name list, the new column
is inserted in front of the selected column. Otherwise the new column is
appended to the list. Click the mode Apply button to insert the column.

Drop Column Click this button to drop columns from the table definition.
Choose the column to drop by clicking the column in the Column Name list.
Click the Mode Apply button to drop the column.

Modify Column Click this button to modify column definitions. Choose the
column to modify by typing the column name in the Column Name Search
box, or by clicking the column in the Column Name list. Click the Mode
Apply button to modify the column.

Clicking the mode Cancel button clears the dialog box mode.

3. Type the table name in the Table Name box or select the table from the
Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.

4. Do one of the following:

To create the table, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To dismiss the dialog box without creating the table, click the Close button.

To obtain further information about the Create Table dialog box, click the
Help button.
9 - 42 rismgr

9.3.3
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Dropping Tables
The Drop Table dialog box drops tables from the schema specified on the Data
Definition dialog box. Dropping a table removes the table data, the table structure,
and any associated indexes. Once a table has been dropped, it no longer exists in the
database nor does it exist to RIS.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Drop Table button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Drop Table dialog box appears.

2. To choose the table to drop, type the table name in the Table Name box or select
the table from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.

3. Do one of the following:

To drop the table, click the Apply button.

To dismiss the dialog box without dropping the table, click the Close button.

To obtain further information about the Drop Table dialog box, click the
Help button.
rismgr 9 - 43

9.3.4
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Appending Columns to Tables


The Alter Table dialog box alters existing tables in the schema specified on the Data
Definition dialog box. This dialog box corresponds to the RIS alter table
command. You can append only one new column at a time to an existing table.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Alter Table button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Alter Table dialog box appears.

2. If the table you want to alter is not already the selected table, do one of the
following:

Type a table name in the Table Name box.

Select a table from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.

3. Define the new column by entering the information in the controls of the Column
Definition to Append to Table group box. The following list explains these
controls.

Column Name Type the name for the new column.


9 - 44 rismgr

dbms Column Name Type a column name for the underlying database.
By default, this name is the same as Column Name, but you can specify
another name.

Column Type Choose the data type for the column.

Length Choose the data length. This box remains inactive unless the data
type you choose requires it.

Nulls Choose whether NULL values are allowed in the column. Toggle
between yes to allow NULL values or no.

4. Do one of the following:

To append the column to the table, click the Apply button. Repeat from
Step 2 to define another new column.

To clear the Alter table dialog box, click the Reset button.

To dismiss the Alter Table dialog box, click the Close button.

To obtain further information about the Alter Table dialog box, click the
Help button.
rismgr 9 - 45

9.3.5
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Including Tables, Views, and Indexes


This dialog box includes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Include button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Include dialog box appears.

2. Do one of the following:

In the dbms Table Name box, type a name.

From the dbms Table Names list, select the name you want to include.

3. From the Type list, choose table, view, or index.

4. Do one of the following:

To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must click the Apply
button each time you include a table, view, or index.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.


9 - 46 rismgr

To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close
button.

To obtain further information about the Include dialog box, click the Help
button.
rismgr 9 - 47

9.3.6
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes


This dialog box excludes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary.

Operating Sequence

1. Choose the Exclude button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Exclude dialog box appears.

2. Do one of the following:

In the Table Name box, type a name.

From the Table Names list, select the name you want to exclude.

3. From the Type list, choose table, view, or index.

4. Do one of the following:

To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must click the Apply
button after excluding each table, view, or index.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close
button.

To obtain further information about the Exclude dialog box, click the Help
button.
9 - 48 rismgr

9.4
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files


The Schema File dialog box lets you review and manipulate schema files.

By default, RIS maintains the schema file c:\Program Files\Common


Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\schemas, which tracks the schemas known to RIS.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Schema File button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Schema File dialog box appears.

2. Choose one of the buttons on the right side of the dialog box. If you click the
Locate Schema File button, all the controls become active, letting you enter the
appropriate values. The following list explains the buttons.

Show Schema File Location Produces read-only information on the


specified schema file.

Locate Schema File Lets you rename your schema file or specify a
different protocol.

Checksum Schema File Recomputes the checksum for the specified


schema file.

Checksum is a mechanism used to verify that the schema file


has not been corrupted. If you manually edit the file (instead of
making changes through the RIS Schema Manager), the
checksum is no longer accurate.
rismgr 9 - 49

3. Enter the appropriate values on the dialog box when the Locate Schema File
button is clicked. The following list explains the controls on the Schema File
form.

Local, TCP Choose a network protocol for your schema file from the check
boxes. XNS and Decnet are not supported.

Schema File Name Type the name of a schema file. The full pathname for
the schema file must be specified unless the RIS HOME directory (the
default directory) is intended.

Nodename or Address Type the nodename or address where the schema


file is located. If the complete path is not specified, the file is assumed to be
located where RIS was installed.

Username Type a system user name that has access to the schema file.

A schema file must be readable by all users permitted to access


the schemas. A schema file must be readable and writable by
all users authorized to create, alter, or drop schemas. The
users permitted to create, alter, and drop schemas must be able
to create and delete files in the directory where the schema file
is located.

Password Type a system password associated with Username. The No


Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (the default, No Echo)
or display (Echo) when it is entered.

4. Do one of the following:

To locate the schema file, click the Apply button.

To dismiss the dialog box, click the Cancel button.

To obtain help with the Schema File dialog box, click the Help button.
9 - 50 rismgr

9.5
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Locating RIS Client Processes


The Locate Client dialog box lets you review the location of a RIS client process or
specify a new location. Use this process when there is a need to run RIS Client on a
different machine.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Locate Client button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Locate Client dialog box appears.

2. Click the Show Client Location button to show the current location of the RIS
Client process.

OR

Click the Locate Client button to specify a new location for the RIS Client
process.

3. In the Nodename or Address box, type the nodename or address of the RIS
Client machine.

4. In the Username box, type the name of the operating system user for the RIS
Client machine.

5. In the Password box, type the user password, if any. The No Echo/Echo button
causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.

6. Choose the Local or TCP network protocol. XNS and Decnet are not supported.
rismgr 9 - 51

7. Do one of the following:

To relocate the client, click the Apply button.

To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

To dismiss the Locate Client dialog box without relocating the client, click
the Close button.

To obtain help with the Locate Client dialog box, click the Help button.
9 - 52 rismgr

9.6
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Setting Modes and Enabling Databases


The Set dialog box sets the ANSI, Verify, Blank Strip, Autocommit, and Autorename
modes on or off and enables various databases.

Operating Sequence

1. Click the Set button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Set dialog box appears.

Setting any of these functions affects only the remainder of the RIS
Schema Manager session.

2. To set modes and enable databases, click the OK button.

3. Click ANSI Mode check box to set ANSI on or off. The default is on.

If you set ANSI Mode to on, schema, table, column, view, and index names are
limited to 18 characters. Use this mode when creating names (for tables,
columns, and so forth) that should be ANSI compliant (18 characters or fewer.)

If you set ANSI Mode to off, names can be up to 31 characters, based upon the
underlying RDBMS. Remember, though, that these names may not be
portable.

4. If you set Blankstrip Mode to on, risunlod strips trailing blanks from character
data. Set this mode to off if you want to preserve trailing blanks.
rismgr 9 - 53

5. If you set Verify Mode to on, table and view definitions retrieved from the
database are validated against the definitions stored in the RIS dictionary tables.

Setting Verify Mode to off retrieves definitions from the database only, omitting
the validation. Omitting validation reduces the execution time when referencing a
table or view for the first time; however, if an application dynamically creates
tables and views, the definitions in the RIS dictionary tables and the DBMS may
become inconsistent if Verify Mode is off.

6. If you set Autocommit on, changes made to the Set form take effect
immediately. If Autocommit is off, the changes take effect only when you select
OK.

7. If you set Autorename on, schema, table, column, view, and index names that
are longer than the particular database limitation are automatically renamed to
comply with the shorter length. The default is on.

8. Click the Enabled Databases check boxes to choose RDBMSs that can be used.
Use this function when you want to create table or column names that conflict
with the keywords of other databases.

9. Do one of the following:

To set modes and enable databases, click the OK button.

To void the process, click the Cancel button.


9 - 54 rismgr
risplbck 10 - 1

risplbck
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10 - 2 risplbck
risplbck 10 - 3

10.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risplbck
This utility reads a <commandfile> that contains a list of the RIS commands executed
by an application and executes each of the RIS commands. The <commandfile> is
generated with the risrecrd utility.

RIS recording is controlled by the risrecrd utility. The risplbck utility reads a file
generated by a RIS application that is executed while RIS recording is on. This file
contains a list of all the RIS commands executed by the application. The risplbck utility
executes each of the RIS commands and compares SQLCODEs and times.

This utility is for debugging purposes only.

The risplbck utility can only read files generated with the risrecrd utility
of the same basic version. That is, if you generate a file with risrecrd
Version 4.3, then you can play back the file only with risplbck Version
4.x.x.x.

The risplbck utility compares the SQLCODEs of the recorded commands with the
SQLCODEs of the playback commands and reports if they are different. If they are
different, the action risplbck takes is specified in the action file. Each row of the action
file has three fields separated by colons(:): 1) the recorded results; 2) the playback
results; and 3) an action. Valid values for the two results fields are:

SUCCESS RIS command executed successfully.


END_OF_DATA RIS command returned end-of-data.
ERROR RIS command returned an error.

Valid values for the action field are:

STOP Stop the playback execution.


CONTINUE Continue the playback with the next RIS command.
RETRY Retry the RIS command one time, if it fails, stop.

Here is a sample row:

SUCCESS:END_OF_DATA:CONTINUE

The row indicates that if a command executed successfully at record time, but got an
end-of-data during playback, continue with the playback anyway.

By default, risplbck continues on all results.


10 - 4 risplbck

To start the risplbck utility, do one of the following:

Type risplbck in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Playback
icon:

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS
Interactive icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then
choose the RIS Playback... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the
Restart button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter
changes, or creating or dropping of schemas.
risplbck 10 - 5

Usage
______
risplbck [-?] [-V] [-n] [-i] [-c] [-d]
[-t] [-f] [-v] [-a <actionfile>] [-o <outputfile>] [<commmandfile>]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

-n No execute mode. Just read and validate the file.

-i Immediate playback mode. Ignore any delays.

-c Calculate command times. If command times were recorded, compare


the playback command times and the recorded command times and
report the difference.

-d Calculate delay times. If delay times were recorded, compare the


playback delay times and the recorded delay times and report the
difference.

-t Calculate total elapsed times. If elapsed times were recorded, compare


the playback elapsed times and the recorded elapsed times and report
the difference.

-f Fetch blob/text files into same files as recorded session. The default is to
fetch blob/text files into temporary files.

-v Verbose mode.

-a Actions are defined in file <actionfile>.


<actionfile>

-o Write all output to <outputfile>.


<outputfile>

Examples
_________

To play back the RIS commands previously recorded in the command file load.rap and
calculate command, delay, and total times, key in:

risplbck -cdt -o load.out load.rap

The risplbck output is written in the load.out file.


10 - 6 risplbck

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risplbck


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
risrecrd 11 - 1

risrecrd
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
11 - 2 risrecrd
risrecrd 11 - 3

11.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risrecrd
This utility controls RIS recording for the current user. RIS recording can be turned on,
turned off, and the status of recording can be queried with this utility. When RIS
recording is on, any RIS command executed by any of the current users applications
are recorded and placed in <outputfile>. These commands can then be re-executed by
the risplbck utility.

This utility is for debugging purposes only.

The risplbck utility can only read files generated with the risrecrd utility
of the same basic version. That is, if you generate a file with risrecrd
Version 4.3, then you can play back the file with risplbck Version 4.x.x.x.

The risrecrd utility affects only RIS applications executed by the current
user. If an application is run by a user other than the current user,
risrecrd has no effect.

When specifying the <outputfile>, the characters $$ have special


meaning; they are replaced with the process ID of the RIS application.
This produces unique output files every time the RIS application is run.
To use the $$ characters, the <outputfile> name must be placed in single
quotation marks; otherwise, the shell interprets the $$. For example, an
<outputfile> name of risrap.$$ will generate filenames such as,
risrap.1252, risrap.1323, and so forth.

To start the risrecrd utility, do one of the following:

Type risrecrd in a Command Prompt window.


11 - 4 risrecrd

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Record
icon:

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS
Interactive icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then
choose the RIS Record... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the
Restart button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter
changes, or creating or dropping of schemas.

Usage
______
risrecrd 11 - 5

risrecrd [-?] [-V] [on <outputfile>] [-c] [-d] [-t] [-a] [off] [query]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start


the utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the
utility runs interactively and prompts for the necessary
information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

on <outputfile> Turn RIS recording on and place output in <outputfile>. If a full


path is given for the output file, then all output is placed in the
named file. If only a filename is specified, RIS stores the
recorded output in a file by the directory name where the
application (ris, risbatch, and so forth) was started.

-c Record command times. Store how long each RIS command took
to execute.

-d Record delay times. Store the time between each RIS command.

These values are used by risplbck to reproduce the commands in


real time.

-t Record total elapsed time. Store the total elapsed time from the
start of the application for each RIS command.

-a Append to the output file if it already exists. The default action


is to overwrite the output file.

off Turn RIS recording off.

query Query the current status of RIS recording. The results are
displayed on stdout.

Examples
_________

The following risrecrd command turns record on and places the output in
c:\appl.rap.

risrecrd -c on risrecrd.out

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risrecrd


11 - 6 risrecrd

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
risunlod 12 - 1

risunlod
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
12 - 2 risunlod
risunlod 12 - 3

12.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

risunlod
This utility retrieves information about one or more RIS schemas and stores it in one or
more external ASCII files. You can later reload the schemas from the ASCII files using
the rislod utility.

The risunlod utility is not designed for use as a backup utility. See the
rislod section for more specific information.

The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for
parsing and error messages. The default is English. Consult the file c:\Program
Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\langs for other values.

The representation of information must comply with the format defined in


the section File Formats for risunlod and rislod.

The following figure represents the functional mechanisms of risunlod and shows the
input requirements and output generated.

You cannot unload ris_blob and ris_text data; however, you can unload the
table definition, which contains ris_blob or ris_text columns.
12 - 4 risunlod

To start the risunlod utility, do one of the following:

Type risunlod in a Command Prompt window.

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from Program Manager; then choose the RIS Unloader
icon:

Choose the RIS 05.nn icon from the Program Manager; then choose the RIS
Interactive icon. Choose the Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then
choose the RIS Unloader... button from the Utilities form.

If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the
Restart button before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter
changes, or creating or dropping of schemas.
risunlod 12 - 5

Usage
______
risunlod [-?] [-V] [-p] [-m {w|a|e}]
[-o <filename>] [-s <schemas>] [-f <filename>]

Flags
_ ____

<none> If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the
utility by selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs
interactively and prompts for the necessary information.

-? Display usage information and exit.

-V Display version information and exit.

-p Preserve blanks. By default risunlod strips trailing blanks from


character data. See the set mode statement in the RIS SQL Users
Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.

-m {w|a|e} Specify the file mode for output files. The w overwrites an existing file,
the a appends to an existing file, and the e returns an error if an output
file with the specified name exists.

-o <filename> Specify the main output ASCII file into which RIS schema information is
to be unloaded. The default main filename is ris.dmp.

-s <schemas> Specify schema and schema-related information, such as tables, indexes,


views, and grants. Alternatively you can store this information in a
specification file.

-f <filename> Specify the name of the specification file for <schemas>. This option
cannot be used with the -s option.

See the section Using risunlod With the Command Line Interface for more information.

Files
_____

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risunlod


c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
______________

0 Normal termination.
1 Abnormal termination.
12 - 6 risunlod

The risunlod utility unloads user-requested RIS schema objects (items) into external
ASCII files from RIS schemas. The risunlod utility can unload:

Schema definitions

Table definitions

Table data

Partial table data using risunlods extended where clause

Index definitions

View definitions

The risunlod utility does not unload a view that has a NULL in the
RIS_VIEW_DEFS column in the RIS_VIEWS dictionary view. This
condition exists when a schema is created on a database that has an
existing view in the underlying database. Views created in RIS are not
NULL in the RIS_VIEW_DEFS column.

Privilege definitions

Multiple above items in a single run

Table definition only without table data

Table data in separate data file (one for each table)

Table data in either fixed or variable format (See the section File Formats for
risunlod and rislod for more information.)

As discussed earlier, risunlod requires that all schema information be unloaded before
starting the actual unloading. The schema information is unloaded into the main
external file (the default is ris.dmp) and/or additional data files, if you want. Multiple
schema information can be unloaded in the same main file during a single risunlod
execution.

Enhanced features of risunlod include:

You can open the external main file and data files in overwrite or append mode.
An error is reported if files with the specified names already exist.

All the schema item statements (such as create schema, create table,
insert table, table field definition, create index, create view,
and grant) are unloaded into the main file. If the user wants, risunlod can
unload the table data into separate data files, one for each table.

The risunlod utility provides a risunlod extended where clause to unload partial
data from one table. The risunlod extended where clause has two parts:
risunlod 12 - 7

A join clause that lets the user provide powerful selection criteria to unload
partial data from one table while joining across different tables. The join
clause is optional.

A sql-where clause.

For example, the following risunlod extended where clause for table t1 unloads
partial data from table t1 while joining across table t2.

join t2 where t1.c1 = t2.c1 and t1.c2 > t2.c2

There are three ways to interact with risunlod: using the Interactive Interface, the
Command Line Interface, or the Embedded Programming Function Interface.

1. Interactive Interface. When risunlod is invoked without any command line


arguments, interactive prompts display. You are prompted for the required inputs
before any unloading is done.

See the section Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface for more information
about the meanings of these prompts and the corresponding actions taken by
risunlod.

2. Command Line Interface. When risunlod is invoked with arguments, the


command line interface activates. This interface lets you specify, in a single
command, the responses to various prompts that would have been generated if
risunlod had been invoked interactively.

See the section Using risunlod With the Command Line Interface for more
information about the syntax for constructing a risunlod command and the
semantics of the command.

3. Embedded Programming Function Interface. The RIS_unloader function provides


the functionality of risunlod in an embedded program when you call the function
and pass the appropriate structures. Refer to the RIS Programmers Guide for
more information.

12.1 Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface

Invoking risunlod without any command line arguments displays interactive prompts.

Accepting Default Values. Most prompts have default values indicated in square
brackets([]). Press the ENTER key to select these default values.

Selecting Nondefault Values. To select a nondefault value, choose the character in


parentheses corresponding to the option you want. Key in that character and
press ENTER.

Specifying Other Information. Some prompts ask you to enter information, such
as filenames. Key in the information requested and press ENTER.
12 - 8 risunlod

The following list discusses the interactive prompts in detail.

1. Preserve blanks? (y/n) :[n] >

This prompt lets you set the blankstrip mode. By default risunlod strips trailing
blanks from character data.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default if you do not want to preserve trailing
blanks.

Select y if you want to preserve trailing blanks.

2. File mode of all output files?


overwrite(w) append(a) error out if exists(e) :[e] >

The file mode affects the main file and all the data files. By default risunlod
returns an error if the specified main file or data files already exist.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to accept the default.

Select w to overwrite the existing main file and data files.

Select a to append to the existing main file and data files.

3. Main file for unloading: [ris.dmp] >

This prompt lets you specify the name of the main file for unloading. The default
name for the main file is ris.dmp.

Press ENTER to accept the default filename.

Enter another filename for the main file.

If you selected e (for error out if exists) at the File mode of all output files? prompt,
and a main file already exists, risunlod prompts you to quit unloading or to key in
another filename.

Quit risunlod(y/n) :[n] >

If you select n, risunlod prompts you for a new name for the main file. Specify a
new filename at this prompt or key in y and risunlod exits.

4. Enter schema name (<return> after last schema): >

This prompt lets you specify a schema for unloading.


risunlod 12 - 9

If a secure schema name is entered, the user is prompted for the


database username and database username password, and the
osusername and osusername password, if appropriate. If the schema
has a password, the user is prompted for the schema password.

Do not add the password at the end of the schema name. The
schema and user passwords in a schema definition are not unloaded
into the main file for security reasons. Instead, they are designated
by a period immediately after the schema and user names. If the
passwords are not added to the main file before loading, the user is
prompted for them when loading the schema.

Do one of the following:

Enter the name of the schema to unload. risunlod displays additional


prompts to gather schema information, then returns to this prompt to let you
specify another schema.

You can unload multiple schemas during a risunlod session.


Within a schema, data are unloaded in the following order:
tables, indexes, views, and privilege definitions.

Press ENTER without entering another schema name when you have
entered all the schema information you want to process. risunlod will
process the entered schemas.

Press ENTER without entering any schema names, and risunlod terminates.

5. Which tables should be unloaded?


all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a] >

This prompt lets you specify which table(s) to unload from the specified schema.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to unload all the tables in the current schema.

Select p and risunlod generates a list of tables and prompts you before
unloading each table:

Unload table <table>(y/n): [y] >

Select y to unload the specified table or select n if you do not want to unload
the table.

Select e and risunlod prompts for a table name:

Enter table for unloading:[<return>]

Enter the name of a table to unload.


12 - 10 risunlod

Select n and risunlod does not unload any tables for the schema.

If you selected a, p, or e at the Which tables should be unloaded? prompt, the


following prompt appears:

Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o): [b] >

This prompt lets you decide whether to unload both the table definitions and the
data in the tables or only the table definitions.

Do one of the following:

Select o to unload table definitions only.

Press ENTER to unload both table definitions and data and the following
prompt appears:

Definitions and data in the same file(s) data in a different file(d):[s] >

Press ENTER to store both the definitions and data in the main file, or select
d to store the definitions in the main file and the data in data files with one
data file per table.

The name of a data file is composed of the first three characters (or
fewer) of a schema name, followed by the first three characters (or
fewer) of a table name, followed by a number signifying the number
of data files generated so far in a risunlod session. The name of a
data file is terminated by .dmp. For example, the 100th data file
generated for storing the data in table, tab1, of schema, sch1, has the
name schtab100.dmp. All these files are placed in the current
directory. On the first line of a data file, risunlod specifies the table
and schema from which the data comes.

If you selected a, p, or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded? and


selected b to unload both definitions and data, risunlod prompts you for a fixed or
variable data format for unloading table data.

Data in fixed (f) or variable (v) format: [f]>

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to unload the table data in fixed format and data that does not
fill the entire column is padded with spaces.

Select v and variable length data will be delimited by single quotation marks
(). This saves disk space, and lets you easily edit the data.

If you selected p or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded?, you are also
prompted for risunlods extended where clause for each table to unload partial
data.
risunlod 12 - 11

Enter where clause :[return] >

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to ignore the where clause prompt.

Enter a where clause.

This where clause is risunlods extended where clause. It lets you


join across more than one table for powerful selection criteria.

Examples of the where clause:

Enter where clause: [return] >


c1 = 100 and c2 not like john ENTER

Enter where clause: [return] >


join t2 where t1.c1 = 100
and t2.c2 not like john and t1.c1 = t2.c1 ENTER

The join clause permits additional tables to be specified for better


selection criteria. In the previous example, the current table is
joined with t2 using the join clause.

Partial data can be unloaded only from the current table, even when a
join clause is specified.

Use single quotation marks () for character strings.

6. Which indexes should be unloaded for a table?


all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a]>

If you selected p or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded?,


you should key in n at the prompt Which indexes should be unloaded
for a table? unless indexes on additional tables are required.
risunlod automatically unloads indexes created on the tables selected
as p or e at the Which tables should be unloaded? prompt.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to unload all the indexes created in the current schema.

Select p and risunlod prompts for each table that has indexes:

Unload index on table <table>(y/n):[y] >

Press ENTER to unload the indexes of that table or key in n if you do not
want to unload indexes.

Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter the table:


12 - 12 risunlod

Enter table for unloading index:[<return>] >

Enter a table name and press ENTER.

Select n, and risunlod will not unload any indexes.

7. Which views should be unloaded?


all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a] >

The prompt for unloading views in a schema comes after the prompt(s) for
unloading the indexes.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to unload all the views created in the current schema.

Select p, and risunlod prompts for each view:

Unload view <view>(y/n):[y] >

Press ENTERto unload the view or key in n if you do not want to unload the
view.

Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter a view name:

Enter view for unloading:[<return>] >

Enter a view name and press ENTER.

Select n, and risunlod will not unload any views.

8. Which privileges should be unloaded?


all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a] >

The prompt for unloading privilege definitions comes after the prompt(s) for
unloading views.

As is the case with unloading indexes, risunlod automatically


unloads privilege definitions granted on tables and/or views that
were p or e selections to the Which tables should be unloaded? and/or
Which views should be unloaded? prompts.

Do one of the following:

Press ENTER to unload all the privileges created in the current schema.

Select p, and risunlod prompts for each table or view on which one or more
privileges are defined:

Unload access privilege on <relation>(y/n):[y] >


risunlod 12 - 13

Press ENTER to unload the access privileges or key in n if you do not want to
unload the privileges.

Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter a table to unload all the
privileges defined:

Enter table or view for unloading access privilege:[<return>] >

Enter a table or view name and press ENTER.

Select n, and risunlod will not unload any privileges.

In a schema, privileges may be granted on a table or view owned by


the schema or by another schema. Privileges granted on a table or
view owned by another schema are illustrated in the following
example.

Schema sch1 grants select privilege on its table tab1 to another


schema sch2 with grant option. Schema sch2 can then grant the
select privilege on sch1.tab1 to yet another schema sch3. Thus in
schema sch2, a privilege on the table (tab1) belonging to another
schema (sch1) is defined. The following command line option
illustrates the previous example:

risunlod -s sch2 grant sch1.tab1

When specifying a table or view on which privileges have been


granted, only the name of the relation is needed if it is owned by the
current schema. Otherwise, the relation name must be preceded by
a schema name in the form of <schema>.<relation>.

12.2 Using risunlod With the Command Line Interface

The schemas to be unloaded and the places for storing them can be specified to risunlod
in a command line:

c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\ris05.nn\bin\risunlod [-?] [-V] [-p] [-m {w|a|e}]


[-o <filename>] [-s <schemas>] [-f <filename>]

In a command line, information is specified in four levels:

1. Level One

[-m{w|a|e}]

The -m option specifies the file mode of the output main and data files. The valid
characters suffixing this option are w, a or e representing overwrite, append,
or return error mode, respectively.
12 - 14 risunlod

If the main file or data files exist, and if the -me option is used,
risunlod exits.

[-o <filename>]

The -o option specifies the name to use for the main file. The absence of this
option causes the default main filename, ris.dmp, to be used.

[-s <schemas>]

The -s option is used to specify which schema and which information in the
schema is to be unloaded. More than one -s option can be used for multiple
schemas.

[-f <filename>]

The command line interface permits information specified by -s options to be


stored in a specification file. The -f option is used to specify a specification file.

The -s and -f options are mutually exclusive.

For secure schemas, the clause user <os_usr> [/<os_passwd> must be


specified after the schema name.

The following examples show commands containing Level One information.

risunlod -mw -o \dir1\dir2\mainfile -f ..\dir3\specfile

risunlod -s sch1 .sch1_passwd <level 2/3/4 -s sch2 <level


2/3> -s sch3 <level 2/3/4> -s sch4

The <level 2/3/4> in the second example represents information belonging to


Levels Two and Three.
risunlod 12 - 15

2. Level Two

Level Two specifies the types of schema information to be unloaded. The


specification is mainly composed of keywords.

To specify: Use keyword(s):

Unloading only the table definitions table

Storing table data in the main file table with data

Storing data in the data file table with dfile data

Storing data in the data file with table with var dfile data
variable format

The keywords index, view, and grant are used to specify the information they
represent. If the keyword all is used, then all the information in a schema is
unloaded, and the table data is stored in the main file.

The following example shows commands containing Levels One and Two
information.

risunlod -s sch1 .sch1_passwd all


-s sch2 table with var dfile data <level 3>
-s sch3 table with data <level 3> grant <level 3>
-s sch4 table <level 3/4> index <level 3> view <level 3>
grant <level 3>

The <level 3> in the examples represents information belonging to Level Three.
The middle two lines specify that only tables of schema sch2, and only tables and
privilege definitions of schema sch3, are unloaded.

3. Level Three

Level Three specifies the items of a particular type of information that should be
unloaded. The specification can be either the keyword all (all items) or the item
names.

The following example shows a level 1/2/3 command.

risunlod -s sch1 .sch1_passwd all


-s sch2 table with var dfile data all
-s sch3 table with data t1 t2 grant all
-s sch4 table t1 index t2 view v1 grant t2 v2
sch.3 sch.v3

4. Level Four

Level Four is valid for tables only. It specifies risunlods extended where clause
for a particular table.
12 - 16 risunlod

The following example shows a complete command.

risunlod -s sch1 .sch1_passwd all


-s sch2 table with dfile data all
-s sch3 table with data t1 t2 grant all
-s sch4 table t1 join t2 where "t1.c1 = t2.c2"
index t2 view v1 grant t2 v2 sch.3 sch.v3

The where clause should be within double quotation marks (") for shell
interpretation. The character string within the where clause should be
in single quotation marks ().

For schema sch4, indexes created on the table t1 are also unloaded. Although t1 is
not specified for index, it was specified to be unloaded. Privilege definitions on
table t1 and view v1 are also unloaded.

When a command becomes too complicated, all the -s options can be moved into
a specification file. The specification of each schema is separated by a semicolon
and can occupy more than one line. The flag -s is invalid in the specification file.

The following example shows the contents of a specification file.

sch1 .sch1_passwd all


sch4
table t1 join t2 where "t1.c1 = t2.c1"
index t2
view v1
grant t2 v2 sch.t3 sch.v3

12.3 BNF Representation of risunlod Command Line Syntax

Backus Naur form (BNF) is a method of describing the syntax of a language. It is used
here to show the capabilities of the RIS command line interface.

The following is the BNF representation of the syntax for constructing a command line.

<command> ::= risunlod


[-m <file_mode>]
[-o <output_file>]
{
{
-s <schema>[.<default_sch_passwd>]
[osuser <os_user>[.<os_pwd>]]
[user <user_name>[.<user_pwd>]]
[<info_tobe_unload>]
} [ ...]
|
-f <spec_file>
}

<file_mode> ::= w | a | e
w represents overwrite file mode
a represents append file mode
e represents return error
risunlod 12 - 17

<info_tobe_unload> ::= all


|
{
[
{
{table | table with [var][dfile]data}
<table_tobe_unload>
}
]
[view <view_tobe_unload>]
[index <index_tobe_unload>]
[grant <grant_tobe_unload>]
}

<table_tobe_unload> ::= all | { { <table> [<where_clause>] } [ ...] }

<where_clause> ::= [join <from_list>] where "<conditions>"

<from_list> ::= { <table> [...] }

<view_tobe_unload> ::= all | { <view> [ ...] }

<index_tobe_unload> ::= all | { <index> [ ... ] }

<grant_tobe_unload> ::= all


|
{
{ [<schema>.]<table> | [<schema>.<view> ]
} [ ...]
}

The following is the BNF representation of the format for a specification file.

<spec_file_format> ::= {<schema> [.<password>] <info_tobe_unload>}[;<new_line>...]


12 - 18 risunlod
Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 1

Appendix A
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Changes to This Version of RIS


A-2 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS
Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 3

Appendix A
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Changes to This Version of RIS


This section describes changes between RIS Version 4 and RIS Version 5.

A.1 RDBMS Versions

For the most current information concerning RDBMS version


compatibility for supported RIS platforms, see the Architecture and
Configuration Overview section in the installation guide for your platform.

A.2 UNION and UNION ALL Supported

RIS Version 5 supports UNION and UNION ALL operators with the select
statement. For example:

select * from t1 union select * from t2;

select c1, c2 from t1 union all select c21, c22 from t2;

UNION and UNION ALL are not supported in subqueries. See the RIS SQL Users
Guide for more information.

A.3 Objects of Different Owners Within a Schema

In RIS Version 4 a schema created by an RDBMS user contained only objects (tables,
views, and indexes) owned by that user. In RIS Version 5 a schema can contain objects
owned by multiple users. For example, schema S1, created by RDBMS user U1, can
contain objects owned by RDBMS users U2 and U3, as well as those owned by U1. This
capability:

Is a fundamental redefinition of a schema to be simply a named collection of


objects in a database.

Lets data owned by privileged accounts be included without views or security


violations.

Allows sharing of common objects among schemas. For example, table T1, created
by user U1, can be shared by schemas S1, S2, and S3, where S1 was created by
user U1, S2 by user U2, and S3 by user U3.
A-4 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

Lets applications easily create logical groupings of tables.

Considerations when using this capability:

Since objects owned by different users can be included in the schema, the owner
information is maintained in the RIS dictionary. The dbms_owner value applies
to a table, view, or an index, and can be in upper or lowercase.

This capability cannot be accessed through RIS Version 4.

The access restrictions of the underlying RDBMS are encountered when using this
capability.

Most databases let two different users create tables/views/indexes with the same
name. However the names of tables/views/indexes within a schema are unique,
regardless of the dbms_owner. If both T1 owned by U1, and T1 owned by U2 need
to be included in a schema, one of the tables has to be aliased. See the section
Object Aliases for more information.

A.4 Object Aliases

With RIS Version 5, any column or table name can be given an alias. For example,
table abc_123 with columns abc1, abc2, and abc3, can be included and referred to as
EMPLOYEES with columns FIRST_NAME, GENDER, and DATE_OF_BIRTH,
respectively. This capability:

Lets identically-named tables owned by different RDBMS users exist in a single


schema. For example, suppose three different users create three different tables
with the same name:

RDBMS: PROJ1.NAMES, PROJ2.NAMES, PROJ3.NAMES

These tables must be aliased so that they have distinct names.

SCHEMA1: NAMES1, NAMES2, NAMES3

Names in RIS can be longer than the underlying database supports. See the RIS
SQL Users Guide for more information.

Object names and keyword conflicts can be worked around. For example, if a
column name is a RIS keyword, such as t1(informix, oracle, db2), it can be
included as t1(col1, col2, col3).

Considerations when using this capability:

An exclude/include sequence loses all aliases.

This capability cannot be accessed through RIS Version 4.


Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 5

Within RIS only the RIS names (aliases) are valid. The external/DBMS name is
not valid.

A.5 Multi-User/Secure Schemas

In RIS Version 5 two types of schemas are supported: the standard schema and the
secure schema. The standard schema is a single-user schema and the information
necessary for connecting to this schema is stored in the schema file (this is no different
from a RIS Version 4 schema). The secure schema has no username/password
combination stored for it. The RIS Version 4 (single user) schema is still supported and
still the default. This multi-user/secure schema capability:

Allows no connection until a user provides a username/password combination.

Lets you use the same schema, but provide different RDBMS log-ins.

Considerations when using this capability:

No password is stored in any form by RIS.

Individuals appear distinct to the RDBMS and are subject to RDBMS security
tracking.

The declare schema statement lets you specify a schema name and password, and
optionally, the user and password of the user who owns the schema, and the
operating system user and password in the RIS in-memory data dictionary cache.

This statement must be used to access secure schemas. It can also be used to
access standard schemas. See the RIS SQL Users Guide for more information.
This capability can be used by any site. It is most useful to those interested in
high levels of security (usually DB2, ORACLE, and so on).

The schema administrator (user who creates the schema) controls authority to
connect to a schema and to create tables on a schema, using:

GRANT CONNECT TO <rdbms_user>;


REVOKE CONNECT FROM <rdbms_user>;
GRANT RESOURCE TO <rdbms_user>;
REVOKE RESOURCE FROM <rdbms_user>;

A username/password combination should be provided before a schema is open.

There is case-sensitivity of the RDBMS username (except in cases where some


databases accept names in a particular case; then RIS does a conversion).

This capability cannot be accessed through RIS Version 4.


A-6 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

A.6 Shared Dictionaries

In RIS Version 5 when a schema s1 is created and creates the dictionary as in RIS
Version 4, schemas s2, s3, s4, and so on can be created using the dictionary created by
schema s1. This capability:

Allows multiple schemas in databases that cannot have tables of the same name
(non-ANSI INFORMIX).

Requires minimal dictionary creation when there are many schemas.

Allows limited dictionary creation, administration, and ownership outside of RIS


for DB2, SYBASE, and Microsoft SQL Server.

Considerations when using this capability:

The system administrator must grant and revoke an RDBMS user the authority
to create a schema on a dictionary, using:

GRANT SCHEMA TO <rdbms_user>;


REVOKE SCHEMA FROM <rdbms_user>;

Creators of dictionaries cannot drop all their schemas while there are other
schemas in the dictionary.

An application based on RIS Version 4 must create a dictionary in order to use it.
Additional schemas can then be added to the dictionary and used by applications
based on RIS Version 5. Schemas s2, s3, and so on, cannot be accessed from RIS
Version 4.

A.7 Dictionary Objects

Dictionary objects in RIS Version 5 are all renamed (ris5*). This capability:

Removes the distinction between ris* and ris_*.

Makes RIS dictionary objects now appear in the dictionary views.

Considerations when using this capability:

Additional columns are needed to distinguish among schemas in shared


dictionaries, to distinguish between user objects and dictionary objects, and for
internal/external object names.

Names may need to be changed in queries.

New columns should be considered in queries.


Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 7

A.8 Dictionary Views

In RIS Version 4 the internal RIS dictionary tables were documented with the note that
they are not intended for application use, and information about them was maintained
in the dictionary. In RIS Version 5, the internal tables are not documented and
information about them is not available in the dictionary. Only dictionary views can be
accessed from an application.

In RIS Version 4 the dictionary views showed information about only the user (or
application) objects and the base tables contained both application objects and RIS
dictionary objects. In RIS Version 5, since the base tables are not accessible from the
applications, the views show both user objects and RIS objects.

Considerations:

If only user objects need to be selected, the condition ris_object=N should be used
in the where clause.

This rule applies to the views ris5columns, ris5column_privs, ris5tables, and


ris5table_privs.

In RIS Version 4 the views risdbms_tables, risdbms_views, and risdbms_indexes,


listed the objects, views, and indexes, respectively, that were in the database, but
not included in the schema. Due to the RIS Version 5 capabilities allowing objects
of different users within a schema and shared dictionaries, the exact equivalent of
the RIS Version 4 views cannot be provided. In Version 5, the ris5dbms_tables
view lists all the tables in the database, along with the user that owns the
database. The ris5dbms_views view lists all the views in the database, along with
the user that owns the database. The ris5dbms_indexes view lists all the indexes
in the database, along with the user that owns the database. In some cases, these
lists may include only those tables/views/indexes accessible to the current log-
in/user of the database.

These views are not recommended for use by applications. If used,


the query should have some restrictive condition (specifically,
WHERE). Using select * from these views can lead to significant
performance degradation. Since this view is defined to show
everything, it should be used with caution. In some cases these
views are accessible only for the dictionary creator since some
databases do not allow granting system privileges on catalogs (where
these views are defined).
A-8 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

A.9 RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT

RIS Version 5 allows long binary or long text data that lets you:

Use it for document or picture storage by INFORMIX OnLine and ORACLE. RIS
has no RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT support for INFORMIX Standard Engine, SYBASE,
Microsoft SQL Server, or DB2.

Insert, update, or retrieve large data.

Access character strings with a length greater than 249 characters for other
RDBMSs not supporting RIS_BLOB.

Considerations when using this capability:

To use RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data, the client and data server versions must be at
least 05.01.01.xx.

This feature is available only through the programming interface; no interactive


access is available.

The application should track the data length.

The RIS_BLOB data type is for binary data; for example, GIF files, executables,
and so forth. RIS makes no attempt to convert or interpret the data.

The RIS_TEXT data type is for text data; for example, ASCII files. RIS does
convert the text data between different hardware platforms as it would for char
data.

The text data can be inserted into a RIS_BLOB column, but no blob data should
be inserted into a RIS_TEXT column.

To create a table with a column of RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data type

create table emp (name char(25), id int, picture ris_blob (50000))

The default size of the RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT column is 0. The maximum length


of the data is dependent on the database. If the maximum data size is set to 0,
data can be retrieved from the database to a memory array and not a file.

The file_used field is required for inserting and retrieving. RIS uses the filename
or the memory array as the targeted user variable.

The text data and character data are converted for different hardware platforms.

The maximum size limit cannot be zero when retrieving data from the database.
The maximum size limit is zero when retrieving data from memory.

RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT columns cannot be used in the SQL WHERE clause or


GROUP BY statements, and cannot be indexed.
Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 9

The number of RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT columns allowed in one table is subject to


the restrictions of the underlying RDBMS. INFORMIX allows multiple
RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT columns while ORACLE allows one RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT
column per table.

The size of RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT is subject to the restrictions and limitations of


the underlying RDBMS.

Tables with RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT are created through RIS and data is inserted
through RIS.

Currently, RIS uses the first 8 bytes (ORACLE only) of the RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT
column in databases to store the length of the data. Existing tables with data, when
included in a RIS schema, will result in incomplete data when retrieved from the
database. To manipulate RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data, any tables with
RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT fields need to be created through RIS and the data inserted only
through RIS.

When the maximum size limit for a RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT column is zero, data cannot
be retrieved from the database to a file. This situation does not apply when the data is
retrieved into a memory array.

If a positive, non-zero value is used, RIS will use this value as the maximum size limit
for the RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT object. If the value is zero, or no value is specified (using
default of zero), then RIS does not impose a limit and the maximum size supported by
the underlying RDBMS can be used.

The limit size can be set to zero in the following situations:

An existing table which has RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT columns is included in a RIS


schema

A table is excluded from the RIS schema and later included back into the schema

A table is created through RIS without specifying a RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT column


size.

To check the value of the maximum size limit:

select char_max_length from ris5columns


where table_name = table and column_name = column;
A - 10 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

To reset the maximum size limit use risdtype:

c:\risdtype
Enter schema (<CR> to exit) :sch1
Enter a table or view name (or ? for a list of names):
>blob_table

Pos Column Name type type-string len prec scale null


1 c1 15 ris_blob 10000 null null Yes
Do you wish to modify this column? <y(es), n(o), d(one with table)>>y

0 Unsupported
1 Character
2 RIS_BLOB
3 RIS_TEXT
Choose a datatype from those listed (enter the number) >>2
Current maximum ris_blob length is:0
Current maximum ris_blob length is:10000
Current status for nullable is YES, nulls are allowed
Are null values allowed? <y(es), n(o)> >>y
Column definitions modified for object sch1.blob_table:
Pos Column Name type type-string len prec scale null
1 c1 15 ris_blob 10000 null null Yes

Is this correct? <y(es), n(o), q(uit> >>y

In the above example, RC01 is the dictionary owner as shown in the schema file,
blob_table is the name of the table with a blob column, set to values other than 10000.

RIS limits the data size inserted into a RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT column if a size is
specified when the table is created.

For example:

create table blob1 (c1 ris_blob(100000))

would impose a limit of 100,000 bytes. If the table is created without specifying a size,
then the underlying RDBMSs maximum limit for RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data will be
used.

For example:

create table blob2 (c2 ris_blob)


Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 11

A.10 Interoperability

RIS Version 5 lets multiple versions of RIS products be available on most systems. The
following figure details interoperability of RIS Version 4 and RIS Version 5.

This capability:

Lets you continue to use RIS Version 4 applications with minimal impact. Version
4 applications should continue to run.

Considerations when using this capability:

RIS Client and Data Servers should be upgraded to RIS Version 5.

Multiple versions are available remotely through TCP only.

The ORACLE 7 Data Server requires the RIS Version 5 Client.

The Sybase SQL Data Server requires the Version 5.02 Client.

A RIS Version 4 application attempts to start up a RIS Version 4 Client. Only if


the RIS Version 4 Client is absent does it start up a RIS Version 5 Client.
Removing the entry 04.03 in the registry under
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/Intergraph/RIS will force the RIS
Version 4 applications to start the RIS Version 5 Client. The same is true for
Client/Server.

Only RIS Version 5 applications can query RIS Version 5 dictionary objects. Only
RIS Version 4 applications can query RIS Version 4 dictionary objects.
A - 12 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

The RIS utilities are also applications and the previous restrictions apply.

The risdtype utility of RIS Version 4 cannot be used with the RIS Client Version 5
or the RIS Data Server Version 5.

Files generated by the RIS Version 4 risrecrd utility cannot be processed by the
RIS Version 5 risplbck utility. If an application is built with RIS Version 4, the
resulting record file can be processed only by the RIS Version 4 risplbck utility.

A.11 Upgrade Utility

A utility to convert a schema (dictionary and schema file) from RIS Version 4 to RIS
Version 5 is delivered with the RIS Client.

While RIS Version 4 is not available for Solaris, the upgrade utility can be
used to upgrade a Version 4 schema file on another platform (for example,
CLIX).

Considerations when using this utility:

This conversion should be applied to every existing schema when RIS Version 5
Data Servers are installed.

The RIS Version 4 Data Servers should be removed.

The conversion of the dictionary is irreversible and is done in-place.

The schema file conversion is non-destructive. The Version 5 schema file is


generated from the Version 4 schema file. This feature lets you mix Version 4 and
Version 5 clients to access a Version 5 data server. The schema file that matches
the client version should be used.

A.12 Utilities

The RIS Version 4 ad hoc utility ris has been renamed risbatch. There is now an ad hoc
query utility with a graphic user interface (GUI), called risgui.

Considerations when using the Version 5 loader/unloader:

The loader/unloader provides no BLOB support.

The unloader unloads (or saves) RIS names (aliases) only, not the underlying
object names.

The unloader unloads (or saves) schema ownership only, not underlying RDBMS
ownership.
Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 13

A.13 Parameters

The parameter file generated by a Version 5 application or utility is compatible with


Version 4 applications. In Version 4, if a parameter file existed, all parameters were
expected to be set. Unlike Version 4, Version 5 is more tolerant with respect to
parameter files: any number of parameters can be left unspecified and RIS uses the
default values.

A new parameter, CLIENT_VERSION, has been added with the default value set to
0.0, meaning that the application connects to a compatible client. When future versions
of RIS become available, Version 5 and higher applications will be able to use this
parameter to specify the client version.

Using this parameter causes Version 4 applications to fail; hence, for now,
leave it commented out. When the CLIENT_VERSION parameter is set,
Version 4 applications can no longer use that parameter file.

A.14 Internationalization

RIS for 32-bit applications (Version 5.3.1 and later) support 16-bit or multi-byte
languages. Most 16-bit languages are Asian. In the RIS documentation, the maximum
size allowed for table names, view names, index names, schema names, column widths,
and character data is specified as x characters, where x is an integer. For those using
multi-byte languages, the maximum number of characters should be interpreted as the
maximum size in bytes. RISMGR and RISGUI implement multi-byte character
support.

RIS limitations and guidelines:

RIS schema and user names can be internationalized, but not passwords.

Only alpha-numeric characters can be internationalized.

Setup is not fully internationalized.

RIS does not localize dialogs, gadgets and error messages.

RIS is internationalized on NT only. The RIS application, RIS Client, and RIS
Data Server must be on NT to take advantage of the RIS internationalization.

The period (.) used between username and passwords must be 8-bit English.

All punctuation, keywords, column datatype definitions, timestamp data,


statements must be 8-bit English.

Schemas, tables, views, columns, index names can be 8-bit or 16-bit characters.

RIS data dictionary tables and views are created using 8-bit English characters.
A - 14 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS

The following components of a create schema statement are 8-bit and 16-bit characters:

create schema 8-bit English


schema name 8-bit and 16-bit English
schema pass 8-bit English
db type 8-bit English
dbname 8-bit and 16-bit English
db dir 8-bit and 16-bit English
osuser 16-bit English
ospass 8-bit English
ostype 8-bit English
db user 8-bit and 16-bit English
remote clause 8-bit English
Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS A - 15

Character columns are analyzed to make sure that they are wide enough to hold the
data. For example, a 10 character name in a 16-bit language requires a char(20)
column.

The maximum number of 8-bit characters in a column is 240. The maximum number of
16-bit characters in a column is 120.
A - 16 Appendix A: Changes to This Version of RIS
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 1

Appendix B
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

File Formats for risunlod and rislod


B-2 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 3

Appendix B
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

File Formats for risunlod and rislod


The risunlod and rislod utilities use two types of files: the main file and data files.

The main file contains the schema, table, index, view, and privilege definitions.

Table data, however, can be stored in either the main file or a data file.

The representation of the information in a schema starts with one or two statements
specifying the schema and ends with an end of schema indicator. In between, tables,
views, and privilege definitions are represented. As far as rislod is concerned, there is
no order of appearances defined for any two pieces of information in a schema.
However, because risunlod unloads tables before views, and views before privilege
definitions, information in a schema appears in that order ( if the main file is prepared
by risunlod ). The information in a schema is represented in the main file by:

SQL Statements

Field Definitions

Lines of Data

Data File Specifications

Dend Indicators

The following may appear in the main file:

Item Meaning

default schema Specifies a schema

create [secure] schema Defines a schema

create table Defines a table

insert into Specifies a list of columns to be loaded with data

field definition Specifies where in the main file or a data file the values of
each column of a table are located

line of data Represents one row of data in a table


B-4 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod

data file specification Specifies the data filename

end of table indicator Indicates where information from a table ends in the main
file

create index Defines an index

create view Defines a view

grant Defines access privilege

end of schema indicator Indicates where information from a schema ends in the
main file

Commented lines have two hyphens (--) as the first two characters in the
line. The loader ignores commented lines.

The default schema and create [secure] schema statements can appear by
themselves or together. Their presence marks the beginning of a schema, represented
in the main file. Because multiple schemas can exist in the main file, an end of schema
indicator is used to mark the end of a schema:

***RIS*** End of Schema ***RIS***

The items from create table through the end of table indicator in the preceding list
are used to represent tables. The order in the representation is:

create table statement

insert into statement

field definition

lines of data or a data files specification

end of table indicator

Not all of the statements are needed to represent a table. The presence of these
statements is defined by three rules:

1. The create table statement and an end of table indicator are required.

2. The insert into statement and a field definition are required only when data
or a data file specification is present.

3. The insert into statement and a field definition are permitted even if data or
a data file specification is not present.

Rules 1 and 2 cover the situation where only the definition of a table is unloaded. Since
both the insert into statement and field definition are needed for loading
table data, Rule 2 covers situations where one or more rows of data are unloaded into
either the main file or a data file. Rule 3 covers the situation where a table is empty,
but risunlod is instructed to unload data from the table.
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 5

The number of statements representing a table may vary. For rislod to correctly
identify where the information of a table ends in the main file, an end of table indicator
is necessary:

***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***

The representation of index, view, and privilege definitions is much simpler than that of
a table. The definitions are represented by the create index, create view, and
grant statements, respectively.

B.1 Format for Representing Schema Definitions

When representing a schema that already exists, a default schema statement


specifying that schema is sufficient. However, if a schema needs to be created during
loading, a create [secure] schema statement defining the schema must be
specified. This create schema statement should be preceded by a default schema
statement, if the on database clause is not specified. In loading a create
[secure] schema statement, if rislod finds that the schema specified already exists,
the statement is transformed into a simple default schema statement. Then
information is loaded into the existing schema. Since risunlod assumes that a schema
does not exist before loading, it always unloads the complete definition of the schema.

If the schema or user clause has a password associated with it, and you do not want to
leave the password in the main file, the password should be designated by a period
right after the name. In loading a default schema or create [secure] schema
statement, when rislod finds a period alone after the schema or username, it prompts
for the missing password. The password keyed in is not echoed on the screen. Note
that rislod does not store either the schema or the user password in the main file.

The following are some sample default schema and create [secure] schema
statements that are accepted by rislod.

Do not use a semicolon for termination.

1. default schema sch1

2. create [secure] schema sch2.passwd2 on database (oracle, dbname


db2) user user2

3. default schema sch3

4. create schema sch4. user user4.passwd4


B-6 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod

B.2 Format for Representing Table Definitions

A table definition is represented by a create table statement. This statement is


mandatory in representing a table. The following is an example of a create table
statement accepted by rislod:

create table tab1 (char_col1 char(10) not null, char_col2 char(10),


int_col int, smallint_col smallint, double_col double, real_col
real, decimal_col1 (10, 7), decimal_col2 (1,0),
decimal_col3 (1,1))

B.3 Format for Representing Insert Into Statements

The rislod utility uses an insert into statement as a template for loading each row
of data into a table. This statement and a field definition are required only when data
or a data file specification for the table are present in the main file. The following is an
example of an insert into statement defined on table tab1, with seven columns,
accepted by rislod:

insert into tab1 (char_col1,char_col2, int_col, smallint_col,


double_col, real_col, decimal_col1) values (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?)

You should specify only the columns that need to be loaded after the table
name. The number of question marks in the values clause must match
the number of columns being specified. The columns decimal_col2 and
decimal_col3 of the table tab1 have been left out because only NULL
values are loaded into these columns.

B.4 Format for Representing Field Definitions

The rislod utility can load fixed or variable table data. rislod determines whether table
data is fixed or variable by examining the line immediately following the insert
into statement. This line is referred to as a field definition. If rislod detects
***variable*** as the first 14 characters in the field definition, it assumes that the
table data following the field definition is in variable format. Otherwise, it assumes
that the table data is in fixed format.

For rislod to know where to get table data, table locations must be specified. rislod
assumes that:

Data in a table are stored after their field definitions

Each row of data in the table occupies one line

Values of a column occupy the same positions on all the lines.


Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 7

Because of these assumptions, only the positions occupied by each column on a line
need to be specified in the field definition. Thus, a field definition is typically made up
of one or more components, one for each column, consisting of a column name and the
starting and ending positions of the column data on a line. In rislod, the combination of
a column name and its starting and ending positions is referred to as a field.

The following is an example of a field definition for table tab1 accepted by rislod:

char_col1 1 12 char_col2 14 23 int_col 25 35


smallint_col 37 42 double_real_col 44 66 real_col 68 81
decimal_col1 83 94 decimal_col2 95 109

The starting and ending positions of a field are constrained by the following
relation:

10,000 >= ending position >= starting position >= 1.

The starting and ending positions of a column should be separated by one or more
spaces.

risunlod uses a single blank to separate the starting and ending positions.

The keyword var following a column name distinguishes a character column


having variable-length values from a character column having fixed-length values.

The absence of the keyword var after a character column name signifies that the
column values have the same length.

The values of a variable character column are represented differently from those
of a fixed character column. A variable character column value is always enclosed
by a delimitation, while the value of a fixed character column is assumed to
occupy the entire field.

Because a character column supported by RIS can store values of different


lengths, it is always unloaded as a variable character column.

The delimitations used by risunlod are two single quotation marks.

The field definition for a table must include all the columns listed in the insert into
statement of that table. However, columns that are not listed in the insert into
statement may also appear in the field definition. The column decimal_col2 in this
example was not specified in the insert into statement for table tab1.
B-8 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod

The conventions used by risunlod for determining the field width of a column are:

Column Data Type Field width is equal to...

character The column length plus two extra spaces for delimitation

decimal The precision plus two

integer 11

small integer 6

double 23

real 14

risunlod can unload table data in variable format, and rislod can load the same variable
formatted data. The variable table data is identified by the string ***variable*** in
the field definition line. This string is sufficient to identify variable table data following
it. Starting and ending position does not make sense in this format. The column data
is separated (delimited) by a blank space, while the character data of a column is
delimited by default single quotation marks ().

The following is an example of a field definition line and several rows of variable data.
Notice the third row. The delimiter can be escaped from within the string by an extra
delimiter preceding it.

***variable***
1 nyz
23 nyzabc
246 nyzabc
***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***

B.5 Format for Representing Table Data

In the main file or a data file, each row of table data occupies one line. The following is
an example of a row of data for the table tab1:

xxxx yyyy -1234567890 -123.456


1.234567e+20 +123.4567890-1.

This example is prepared according to the field definition for the table tabl1.

In this example, the column char_col1 is a character column with variable-length


values. Thus, its value, xxxx, is enclosed in a delimitation (two single quotation
marks). The column char_col2 is a character column with fixed-length values. There is
no delimitation surrounding its values, and these values are assumed to occupy the
entire fields. In this example, the value for the column char_col2 is a string of four ys
followed by six blanks. NULL value is not represented by the keyword NULL in the
format. Instead, if a column value is NULL, the entire field for storing that value
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 9

should be filled with blanks (not spaces). In this example, the value for smallint_col is
NULL.

Although in the previous example all the values begin at the first positions in their
fields, a column value can actually start anywhere within its field.

The following describes how rislod handles the values of different datatypes stored in a
file.

1. In the field of a variable character column, the first and last nonspace characters
must be delimiters. A delimiter is permitted among the character values. If there
are more characters within a pair of delimiters than the size of the column (n),
only the first n characters are loaded.

2. If the field width (m) is greater than the size of a fixed character column (n), only
the first n characters in the field are loaded. Otherwise, all m characters are
loaded with (m - n) trailing blanks.

3. A decimal value must have precision and scale no greater than that specified for
the column.

4. For an integer or small integer value to be loaded correctly, it must fall within the
ranges of -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 and -32,768 to 32,767, respectively.

5. Real and double values are rounded to precisions 7 and 15.

6. Values of timestamp type are also supported.

B.6 Format for Representing Data File Specifications

A data file specification specifies the location of a data file. The following are some
examples of data file specifications:

***RIS*** schtab100.dmp ***RIS***

***RIS*** \sub_dir1\sub_dir2\schtab100.dmp ***RIS***

***RIS*** ..\sub_dir2\schtab100.dmp ***RIS***

risunlod specifies the complete pathname of a data file in a data file specification. Note
that a data file specification must start at the first column of a line.
B - 10 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod

B.7 Format for Representing Index, View, and Privilege Definitions

An index, view, or privilege definition is represented by a create index, create


view or grant statement. The following are some examples of index, view, and
privilege definitions:

create unique index indx1 on tab1 (char_col1, char_column2)

create view view2


as select * from view1, tab2 where view1.coln = tab2.colm

grant all on tab1 to sch2 with grant option

grant select, insert on sch1.tab1 to sch3

grant select on view1 to sch2, sch3

B.8 File Format for Data Files

A data file may begin with an informative header in the form of:

***RIS*** Data in Table <table> of Schema <schema> ***RIS***

This header is optional. The header is followed by zero or more lines of data. The
format for representing a line of data in a data file is the same as the format defined for
the main file. The header must start at the first column of the first line.

B.9 Use of Spaces and New Line Characters

rislod is tolerant of the number of spaces (a blank or tab character) used to separate
two words or a word from a punctuation mark.

In the BNF representation, when a blank is used to separate two adjacent entities on a
line, the blank can be replaced by any number of spaces. This does not apply to a single
blank used in the end of schema and end of table indicators. When no blank is used to
separate two adjacent entities on a line of the BNF representation, then zero or more
spaces can be used to separate the entities.

End indicators, data file specifications, and data file headers must start at the first
column of a line. Other types of statements and rows of data can start at any column
on a line. A line must be terminated with a single new line character.

A line containing a row of table data is terminated by a new line character. If the data
line contains trailing blanks, these trailing blanks need not be specified. For instance,
if a row of data contains only NULL values (represented by blanks in the entire field),
the line where the row of data is stored may contain zero or more blanks terminated by
a new line character. A space is not necessary to separate any two consecutive column
values on a line.
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 11

Comments and Errors:

For example:

--This is a comment.
--This is another comment.

These are also used to represent errors encountered during loading in the bad file. This
bad file is reprocessable by rislod.

For example:

--risloder Error (-xxxx)


--ssss

--RIS Error (-xxxx)


--ssss

--DB Error (-xxxx)


--ssss

The xxxx represents the error value, and ssss represents the corresponding error
message string.

B.10 BNF Representation of File Formats

The format of the main file is defined by <main_file_format>, and the format of a data
file is defined by <data_file_format> in the following BNF representation.

<main_file_format> ::=
<info_in_schema>[...]

<info_in_schema> ::=
<schema_def>[<table_index_view_grant>][...]<end_of_schema>

<table_index_view_grant> ::=
<table_def_data>|<index_def>|<view_def>|<grant_stmt>|<comments>

<schema_def> ::=
<default_schema>|<create_schema>

<default_schema> ::=
default schema <schema_passwd>
B - 12 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod

<schema_passwd> ::=
<schema>|<schema>[.[<passwd>]]

<create_schema> ::=
create [secure] schema <schema_passwd> [on database (...)] user <user_passwd>

<user_passwd> ::=
<username>|<username>[.[<passwd>]]

<end_of_schema>::=
***RIS*** End of Schema ***RIS***

<table_def_data> ::=
<table_def><end_of_table>|
<table_def><insert_stmt><field_def>
[<table_data>|<file_name_spec>]<end_of_table>

<end_of_table> ::=
***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***

<table_def> ::=
create table <table> ({<column> <type_def> [not null]}[,...])

<insert_stmt> ::=
insert into <table> (<column>[,...]) values (?[,...])

<field_def> ::=
{
{<column> [var ]<starting_posi> <ending_posi>}[ ...]
***variable***
}

<table_data> ::=
{<delimiter><var_len_char_val><delimiter>|<fix_len_char_val>|
<dec_value>|<int_val>|<small_int_val>|<double_val>|<real_val>|
<timestamp_val>} [...]

<file_name_spec> ::=
***RIS*** <file> ***RIS***
Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod B - 13

<index_def> ::=
create [unique] index <index> on <table> (<column> [,...])

<view_def> ::=
create view <view> [(<column>[,...])] as <select_statement>

<grant_def> ::=
grant <privileges> [<schema>.]<table_or_view> to <schema>[,...]
[with grant option]

<data_file_format> ::=
[<header>][<table_data>][...]

<header> ::=
***RIS*** Data in Table <table> of Schema <schema> ****RIS***

<comments> ::= -- [<string>]


B - 14 Appendix B: File Formats for risunlod and rislod
Glossary GL - 1

Glossary
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GL - 2 Glossary
Glossary GL - 3

Glossary
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

absolute pathname Sequence of directories, beginning with the root directory (/)
that locates a file. See also pathname and relative pathname.

accept Receive input, such as characters, integers, or data buttons.


Also, confirming an element selection.

access Perform actions necessary to use software.

activate Change the state of an object or entity so that it accepts or


displays data.

ad hoc query Query formulated at runtime by input from a user or by the


program itself.

address Label, name, or number that identifies an exact storage


location in memory.

alias An alternate label for a command, program, or database


entity such as a line added to the start-up file that lets you
start the software without having to key in the full pathname
each time you want to use the software.

ANSI Acronym for American National Standards Institute, a


private organization that develops, maintains, and publishes
industry standards in the United States.

application System of programs or utilities designed to accomplish


specific tasks as requested by the user.

array Data structure used to organize data into contiguous lists.

arrow keys Keys used to move from one field of a menu or form to
another.

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange


character set.

association A relationship between two or more objects.

attribute Characteristic of an element. See also parameter.

attributes The features of an object, such as color, line width, font, and
font size.
GL - 4 Glossary

bit Binary digit represented by a 1 or 0. Smallest unit of storage


in a digital computer.

BLOB Long binary data type.

button State gadget that has a three-dimensional appearance and


can be set on or off.

C General-purpose, structured programming language


developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s.

cabinet A physical location for documents in DM/Manager. Tables in


the DM/Manager database. An I/NFM catalog.

cache To store frequently used information in a device that is faster


than the device it is usually stored in to improve performance.
For example, frequently used information that is usually
stored on a hard disk drive can be cached in memory, which is
considerably faster.

catalog Table of files, arranged systematically, containing required


and user-defined file attributes.

char Data type that stores one character.

character Alphabetic letter, digit, punctuation, or symbol.

check box A small box that lets you select or unselect an option. When
the check box is selected, an X appears in the box.

checklist State gadget consisting of one or more boxes, followed by text


or symbols, usually arranged in a column.

choose To activate buttons, fields, and so forth on forms.

clicking Pointing to a menu command, button, or item on your screen


and quickly pressing and releasing the left mouse button.

client Portion of a client/server-based application that requests


services.

CLIX Version of the UNIX operating system ported to run on


Intergraph systems.

collection A logical grouping of files for ftr searching and indexing.

column Vertical arrangement of figures or words.

command Software that interacts with the user, obtaining user input
and then acting in a specified way based on that input. Each
icon on the menu accesses a command, although there could
also be additional commands accessed only by key-in.
Glossary GL - 5

command file ASCII file containing the PPL (Parametric Programming


Language) statements needed to provide a user-specific
capability.

command line Alphanumeric key-ins used to invoke an executable directly


from the operating system environment.

CPU Acronym for Central Processing Unit.

CRT Acronym for Cathode Ray Tube.

data dictionary Either a filed object space that contains information about the
classes that make up an application or a set of ASCII files
created by a utility called a data dictionary processor (ddp).

data point Point entered with the mouse or with a precision key-in,
which specifies a position in a drawing file.

data structure Structure whose components are data objects. Data


structures are used to group logically related data.

data type Classification of a data item as an integer, letter, or real


number.

database Collection of comprehensive informational files having


predetermined structure and organization that can then be
communicated, interpreted, or processed by a specific
program.

DB2 A proprietary relational database management system.

decimal Fixed point number data type.

default Predetermined value of a parameter or option that is


automatically supplied by the system or program whenever a
value is not specified by the user.

default schema Schema in which statements are issued unless another


schema is specified (a RIS concept).

delete To remove, destroy, eliminate, or erase.

delimiter Separating mark or space; a character or sequence of


contiguous characters that mark the end of a string of
characters.

device Nonaddressable component of a network, that is, a component


onto which a user cannot log, for example, tape drive, disk
drive, and floppy disk.
GL - 6 Glossary

dialog box A box that requests information about a particular task you
are performing.

dimmed A button or command that is displayed in light gray instead of


black. When a button or command is dimmed, it is disabled
and nonselectable.

disk Round flat plate coated with a magnetic substance on which


data is stored.

document A file or many files that are handled as one entity to the
redlining software.

double Data type which stores a range of floating point numbers.


The storage requirement and range of values are dependent
on the computer and compiler.

drop To discontinue current status or association; to return to a


previous or more primitive status or association; to descend
levels.

edit To add, delete, or change text, graphics, and objects.

EMACS ASCII text editor.

enter To enter data from a mouse or from a keyboard.

entity Graphic or descriptive component in a graphics file. Can also


mean a database table.

environment variable Variable defined on or across invocations of a command shell.


Processes are given access to the information in these
variables by the operating system.

error message Description of an error found in a program.

Ethernet Popular implementation of a local area network.

executable Program that has been written in or translated into, a


machine language that is ready for execution by the
computer.

exit To terminate a job or process.

field Any of the data grouped together in a record (also known as


an attribute or column). Also, a gadget allowing text entry on
a form.

file Collection of logical records stored as a unit.


Glossary GL - 7

filed object space Set of objects filed away for subsequent retrieval. Filed object
spaces let objects be stored and retrieved, with their
connections intact.

filename User-defined name given to an interactively created file. The


name should be relevant to the contents of the file.

flag A variable that can be set to indicate the presence or absence


of a certain condition.

float Data type which stores a range of floating point numbers.


The storage requirement and range of values are dependent
on the computer and compiler.

floppy disk Flexible magnetic sheet used to store information.

font Complete set and style of the characters and symbols of a


typeface used for displaying text.

form Rectangular display through which a user and an application


can communicate using gadgets.

ftr Acronym for Full Text Retrieval.

full pathname Name of the entire path or directory hierarchy to a file,


including the filename. See also relative pathname.

function Small segment of code written to complete a portion of a


larger task.

gadget Graphic device on a form that helps a user enter or receive


specific information.

grant option Relation privilege which gives a schema the ability to grant
relation privileges to other schemas.

graphic Any symbol or method of visual communication that is not


text.

group A collection of icons that represent documents and


applications within the Program Manager.

Help See on-line Help.

Help window Form in which the Help topics are displayed by the Help
process.

hierarchy Classified structure with superiors (roots) and subordinates


(dependents) for grouping files or commands.
GL - 8 Glossary

horizontal Parallel to, in the plane of, or operating in a plane parallel to


the horizon or to a base line.

icon Symbol that graphically identifies a command, application, or


document.

ID Name composed of numbers or characters given for


identification purposes to a record. A record number.

identify To indicate your selection on a form or graphics by placing a


data point on the item.

index Storage mechanism used to provide faster access to the rows


in a table.

indexing Extraction and sorting of all the indexable words in any new
or modified documents and updating the index files with the
new information.

INFORMIX Relational database management system.

int Data type which stores a range of integer values.

integer Value in the set of all positive and negative whole numbers
and zero. Also, a data type which stores a range of integer
values. Storage requirement and range of values are
dependent on the computer and compiler.

interactive Of or relating to the process of entering data and receiving a


response from the computer.

interface Shared boundary through which the user and software


communicate.

I/ORL Intergraph On-line Reference Library. Provides easy access


to Intergraph documentation on compact disk.

item Unit of storage within a larger unit, such as a file in a


cabinet.

job The smallest organizational unit in the structural outline of


DM/Capture. A job correlates to one item (that is, a storage
unit) in the database. A job can contain one file or multiple
files.

joining Process of relating the data in two or more tables, possibly


restricted by some condition.

key-in Information or command keyed in, rather than selected using


a mouse.
Glossary GL - 9

keyword Word defined to have special meaning in a programming,


command, query language, or indexing.

library Collection of subroutines.

linear Having a single dimension; a line.

link Combine one or more program segments, subroutines, or


library routine into a single executable program.

local The physical location of the data on the machine or the


location of the data by the way of remote mounting
capabilities.

local area network Computer networking scheme in which nodes that are
geographically local are connected to a network through
multiplexers, and networks of geographically remote nodes
are connected through routers.

log file File containing the direction of the translation, the command
line used, a count of elements processed, and any errors
encountered during the translation process.

log in Enter the necessary information, such as a username and


password, to begin a session on a terminal.

log-in Username/password combination used to gain access to a


computer.

memory Device that can store data.

menu Means for storing and selecting commands: icon-based,


function key, or paper.

Microsoft SQL Server A proprietary relational database management system.

Microsoft Windows A windows-based graphical interface that is used with MS-


DOS.

mode Particular functioning arrangement or condition. Also, the


behavior of a gadget.

mouse Hand-controlled input and command selection device. There


are several models; most common are the 2-button mouse, the
3-button mouse, and the 12-button mouse.

MSSQL Acronym for the Microsoft SQL Server.

network Interconnection of host computers and workstations that lets


them share data and control. The term network can mean the
devices that connect the system, or it can mean the connected
system.
GL - 10 Glossary

node Any addressable component of a network; that is, any


component of the network onto which a user can locally or
remotely log in.

nodename Symbolic name given to each device on an ethernet network


which can be translated into a network address.

NULL Indicates no value.

on-line Help Set of on-line, context sensitive files, that provide information
to the user about the capabilities of an application.

operating system System programs that control the overall operation of a


computer system.

operator Symbol that indicates that an arithmetic, logical, or relational


operation is to be performed.

ORACLE Relational database management system.

ORL See I/ORL.

overview Reduced resolution display of an image in a raster data file.


An overview is normally located in the raster data file itself.

pair An association of two objects, such as a document to a piece of


equipment.

parameter Property that associates a variable name with a value.

Parametric Programming language developed by Intergraph Corporation


Programming for writing user commands to automate operator activities.
Language

password Word that is entered during log in that prevents unauthorized


people from using the file, software, or computer.

path Sequence of directories leading to a file or a sequence of


menus leading to a command.

pathname Sequence of directories leading to a file. See also absolute


pathname and relative pathname.

place To create and position an element or object.

portable Designating a program that is easily executed (or can be


easily modified to execute) on multiple computers or software
systems.

PPL Abbreviation of Parametric Programming Language.


Glossary GL - 11

privilege Described by the ANSI SQL Standard. A privilege is a right


to access. For example: a relation privilege is a right to
access a relation (table or view) within a database.

process Entity composed of a program or series of programs.

Program Manager The main window in Microsoft Windows, used to start


applications and open documents. It also organizes the
applications and documents into groups. Within these groups
reside icons that represent each application and document.

prompt Text displayed by a command that tells you the inputs


expected by that command.

query A search in a database.

query criteria Values used to limit a database search.

quit Terminate a job or process without saving any changes or


data entered. Also, to dismiss a form without processing any
changes.

raster Pattern of horizontal scanning lines on the screen of a CRT:


input data causes the beam of the tube to illuminate the
correct pixels on these lines to produce the required
characters, curves, and so forth.

raster data Generic term that refers to a group of pixels. Each of these
pixels has an associated color and together they form a
viewable image.

raster data file File containing raster data (pixels). Raster data files can be
generated by optical scanner, video frame grabber, digital
camera, interactive paint package, and so forth. Intergraph
raster data files are characterized by specific data formats
which are identified in the file headers.

RDBMS Acronym for Relational Database Management System, the


software that lets you organize, store, and manipulate data in
a database.

real Data type which stores a range of floating point numbers.


The storage requirement and range of values are dependent
on the computer and compiler.

record Grouping of logically related data which can be manipulated


as a single entity. One or more records make up a file or a
table. Also known as a row or tuple.

relation Table or view.


GL - 12 Glossary

relation privilege Privilege granted to a schema regarding its access to relations


in other schemas.

relational database Organizes data in two-dimensional tables to define


relationships.

Relational Interface Intergraph software system that provides a generic interface


System for applications to access many popular relational database
management systems.

relative pathname Sequence of directories leading from the current directory to a


particular file. See also pathname and absolute pathname.

report Standard and user-definable table format for information


queried from the database.

requester See client.

resize To change the size and position of a form or window.

resolution Number of pixels of which a screen is composed. The greater


the number of pixels, the higher the resolution.

RIS Acronym for Relational Interface System, the software that


lets different relational database management systems
communicate with each other.

root Element upon which an associative element or macro


depends.

routine Set of functions constructed to process specific information.

row Grouping of logically related data which may be manipulated


as a single entity. One or more rows make up a file or table.
Also known as a record or tuple.

run To execute a program or process.

scale To enlarge or reduce the size of a defined element, modifying


only the dimensions, not the ratio among the pieces.

schema Concept described by the ANSI SQL Standard as a collection


of tables and views. Within RIS, this collection corresponds to
the collection of tables and views within a database.

scripts C-like statements that let you further customize reports.

scroll To move vertically or horizontally through displayed text,


symbols, or windows.
Glossary GL - 13

scroll bar A gadget that lets you move vertically or horizontally through
displayed text symbols. Also, a numeric gadget you can use to
send numerical values to another gadget.

search term Words or phrases used in an I/FTR search query.

select To activate a command. This can be done by the user or


software.

server Computer, connected to a network, that provides services to


one or more devices on that network. A server can also refer
to a process that provides services to one or more client
(requester) processes locally or remotely.

set Grouping of items that can be manipulated as a single item.

shell Body of commands providing interface to low level software.


For example, a UNIX shell provides an interface between
users and the UNIX kernel.

site Top level catalog classification that represents a location.

slider Numeric gadget that accepts and displays numerical values.


Also, the three-dimensional portion of a slider gadget that
moves along a linear track.

smallint Data type which stores a range of integer values. Storage


requirement and range of values are dependent on the
computer and compiler.

SNA Acronym for Systems Network Architecture. The primary


networking strategy for IBM, introduced in 1974. SNA is
made up of a variety of hardware and software products that
interact together.

specification file Defines the characteristics of a unique class: name and


version number, ancestry, instance data structure, channels,
messages, and overrides.

SQL Acronym for Structured Query Language.

statement Word or group of words that has a specific meaning in a


programming language.

states Steps that an item goes through from creation to completion.

stop Terminate a job or process.

string Sequence of characters.


GL - 14 Glossary

Structured Query Structured language designed for accessing relational


Language database management systems.

SUN/OS The computer operating system for a SunOs UNIX


workstation.

SUN/SOLARIS The computer operating system for a SUN Microsystems


UNIX(r) workstation.

Sybase A proprietary relational database management system.

syntax Rules governing the structure and use of statements in a


language.

system Collection of information and processes designed to interact to


complete a task.

table Collection of data for quick reference, stored in sequential


locations in memory or printed as an array of rows and
columns of data items of the same type.

tap To quickly press and immediately release a button.

TCP/IP Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol;


a network protocol.

template library A CLIX file that stores templates.

text Graphic gadget used to label other gadgets.

text editor Utility that lets you create an ASCII file.

timestamp Data type that stores a timestamp consisting of year, month,


day, hour, minute, second.

toggle To switch; to change between two alternatives. Also, a state


gadget that can be used to change between two alternatives.

transaction Concept described by the ANSI SQL Standard. A transaction


is a group of SQL Statements that affect the database
simultaneously or can be canceled simultaneously.

translation Converting an ASCII file to a binary file.

tuple Record or a row.

type Type of data that a programming variable can contain.

unit Representative of a building location within a site.


Glossary GL - 15

UNIX General purpose operating system developed at Bell


Laboratories in the late 60s and early 70s.

user Person who uses a computer.

user interface End users means of communicating with the software,


including any of the means of entering values, selecting
commands, or locating elements. The menus and prompts are
examples of user interfaces.

value Numeric or character data.

variable Quantity that can assume any one of a set of values.

VAX/VMS Computer/operating system combination. The VAX is a


family of processors manufactured and sold by Digital
Equipment Corporation. VMS is an operating system for the
VAX family.

version The number associated with the specific release of a product.

vi ASCII text editor available on many systems.

view Concept described by the ANSI SQL Standard, used to


combine tables or restrict access to columns in a table. A view
looks and acts like a table, but does not actually store data.

window Independent rectangular area that displays applications or


documents and can be moved, resized, reshaped, minimized,
or maximized.

Windows NT General purpose 32-bit operating system developed at


Microsoft Corporation.

workstation Terminal that contains an internal CPU and can operate in a


standalone mode or as part of a network.

XNS Communication protocol used on the Ethernet network.


GL - 16 Glossary
Index IN - 1

Index
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IN - 2 Index
Index IN - 3

Index
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

A create view B-4


accessing creating
dictionary views A-7 log files 8-8
aliases schemas 9-3
exclude/include sequences A-4 tables, granting and revoking authority
object A-4 A-5
within RIS A-5 creating dictionaries A-6
ASCII files
loading schema information from 8-3 D
data
B file B-3
bad file 8-9 file specification B-3, B-9
batch execution of SQL statements 3-3 including owned by privileged accounts
binary data A-8 A-3
BLOBS inserting large A-8
programming interface A-8 long binary A-8
long text A-8
C retrieving large A-8
changing updating large A-8
columns data type 6-3 data definition dialog box 9-37
schemas 9-3 data files
choose 1-4 format B-10
clean servers 4-3 data type 6-3
client changing 6-3
locate 9-50 RIS_BLOB A-8
command line interface 8-17 RIS_TEXT A-8
command line syntax 8-18 databases
commandfiles 10-3 multiple schemas in A-6
commands DB2
recording 11-3 create schema dialog box 9-19
connecting to tables dbms_owner A-4
granting and revoking authority A-5 declare schema statement A-5
create index B-4 decode 5-3
create schema dialog box default schema B-3
DB2 9-19 definition of schema in RIS 5 A-3
INFORMIX 9-15 deleting nonessential records from
Microsoft SQL Server 9-24 dictionary tables 4-3
ORACLE 9-17 dialog box
SQL Server 9-24 secure schema access 9-28
SYBASE 9-22 dialog boxes
create [secure] schema B-3 alter table 9-43
create table B-3 create schema 9-11
create table dialog box 9-40 create table 9-40
data definition 9-37
IN - 4 Index

dialog boxes (continued) field definitions


dictionary access 9-30 format B-6
drop schema 9-26 file
drop table 9-42 bad 8-9
exclude 9-47 files
include 9-45 ASCII, loading schema information from
locate client 9-50 8-3
modify DB2 password 9-35 data B-3
modify node information 9-33 log, creating 8-8
modify schema password 9-32 main B-3
schema definition 9-7 outputfile 11-3
schema file 9-48 format
schema information 9-9 data file specifications B-9
schema manager 9-5 data files B-10
Set 9-52 field definitions B-6
table information 9-39 index definitions B-10
dictionary insert into B-6
adding schemas to A-6 privilege definitions B-10
creating A-6 schema definitions B-5
creation A-6 table definitions B-6
objects A-6 view definitions B-10
shared A-6
views G
accessing from application A-7 getting started 2-3
information in A-7 grant B-4
dictionary access dialog box 9-30 GRANT CONNECT TO A-5
dictionary tables GRANT RESOURCE TO A-5
deleting records from 4-3 GRANT SCHEMA TO A-6
displaying schema information 9-3
document audience 1-3 H
document conventions 1-4 Help
document prerequisites 1-3 using on-line 1-6
documentation, related 1-3
dropping schemas A-6, 9-3 I
identify 1-4
E include sequences A-4
end of schema indicator B-4 including data owned by privileged accounts
end of table indicator B-4 A-3
environment variable index definitions
RIS_LANGUAGE 3-3, 6-3, 8-3, 12-3 format B-10
error codes loading 8-10
printing messages for 5-3 indexes
error messages with same name A-4
printing 5-3 INFORMIX
exclude/include sequences A-4 create schema dialog box 9-15
executing commands from commandfiles insert into B-3
10-3 format B-6
inserting large data A-8
F interactive interface
field definition B-3 using rislod with 8-10
using risunlod 12-7
Index IN - 5

K performing RIS queries 7-3


key in 1-4 playback 10-3
printing error messages 5-3
L privilege definitions
line of data B-3 format B-10
load 8-3 loading 8-10
loading privileged accounts
index, view, and privilege definitions including data owned by A-3
8-10
schema information 8-3 Q
loading queries 7-6 queries
locate client 9-50 changing object names A-6
log files, creating 8-8 loading 7-6
long binary data A-8 performing 7-3
long text data A-8 results 7-6
saving 7-6
M
main file B-3 R
Microsoft SQL Server, create schema dialog RDBMS
box 9-24 logins A-5
modify DB2 password dialog box 9-35 security tracking A-5
modify node information dialog box 9-33 versions, compatible with RIS 5 A-3
modify schema password dialog box 9-32 reading commandfiles 10-3
mouse 1-4 record 11-3
recording commands 11-3
N records
names, aliases A-5 deleting from dictionary tables 4-3
new line characters B-10 related documentation 1-3
Relational Interface System 2-3
O reset 1-4
objects retrieving
aliases A-4 large data A-8
dictionary A-6 schema information 12-3
of different owners within a schema A-3 REVOKE CONNECT FROM A-5
ownership A-3 REVOKE RESOURCE FROM A-5
sharing among schemas A-3 REVOKE SCHEMA FROM A-6
on-line Help 1-6 RIS 2-3
operators object ownership A-3
UNION and UNION ALL A-3 password storage A-5
ORACLE utilities overview 2-3
create schema dialog box 9-17 versions
outputfile 11-3 interoperability A-11
overview of utilities 2-3 RIS utilities
ownership of objects A-3 risbatch 3-3
risclnsr 4-3
P risdcode 5-3
parts of the Help window 1-6 risdtype 6-3
passwords rislod 8-3
RIS A-5 rismgr 9-3
stored for schema A-5 risplbck 10-3
risrecrd 11-3
IN - 6 Index

RIS utilities (continued) schema


risunlod 12-3 administrator
risalpha utility A-12 granting and revoking authority A-5
risbatch 3-3 definitions, format B-5
RIS_BLOB A-8 schema manager 9-3
risclnsr 4-3 activating 9-5
risdbms_indexes A-7 create schema dialog box 9-11
risdbms_tables A-7 DB2 9-19
risdbms_views A-7 INFORMIX 9-15
risdcode 5-3 Microsoft SQL Server 9-24
risdtype 6-3 ORACLE 9-17
risgui 7-3 SQL Server 9-24
risgui utility A-12 SYBASE 9-22
RIS_LANGUAGE 3-3, 6-3, 8-3, 12-3 data definition dialog box 9-37
RIS_loader 8-8 alter table dialog box 9-43
rislod 8-3, 8-8 create table dialog box 9-40
ANSI mode drop table dialog box 9-42
enable databases table information dialog box 9-39
file mode 8-11 dictionary access dialog box 9-30
command line syntax 8-18 drop schema dialog box 9-26
files 8-12 exclude dialog box 9-47
loading include dialog box 9-45
bad file 8-9 locate client dialog box 9-50
command line interface 8-8, 8-17 modify DB2 password dialog box 9-35
embedded programming function modify node information dialog box 9-33
interface 8-8 modify schema password dialog box 9-32
interactive interface 8-8, 8-10 schema definition dialog box 9-7
log file 8-8 schema file dialog box 9-48
prompts 8-11 schema information dialog box 9-9
rismgr 9-3 secure schema access dialog box 9-28
ris_object A-7 Schema Manager
risplbck 10-3 Set dialog box 9-52
risrecrd 11-3 Schema Manager dialog box 9-5
RIS_TEXT A-8 schemas
risunlod 12-3 adding to dictionary A-6
command line interface 12-16 changing 9-3
interactive interface creating 9-3
file mode 12-8 definition in RIS 5 A-3
indexes 12-11 dictionary creation A-6
main file 12-8 displaying information 9-3
schemas 12-8 dropping A-6, 9-3
tables 12-9 granting and revoking authority A-5
unloading 12-6 multiple in databases A-6
interactive interface 12-7 multi-user A-5
risunlod and rislod objects of different owners within A-3
file formats B-3 passwords stored for A-5
retrieving information 12-3
S secure A-5
saving sharing objects among A-3
queries 7-6 transferring information 8-3
results 7-6 usernames stored for A-5
Index IN - 7

secure schema access dialog box 9-28 view definitions


secure schemas A-5 format B-10
security A-5 loading 8-10
tracking, RDBMS A-5 viewing on-line Help 1-6
violations, including data without A-3 views
select 1-4 including data without A-3
select statement A-3 with same name A-4
sequences, exclude/include A-4
servers W
cleaning up 4-3 WHERE clause A-7
shared dictionaries A-6 ris_object condition A-7
software changes A-3
spaces B-10
SQL Server, create schema dialog box 9-24
SQL statements
batch execution 3-3
statement
declare schema A-5
select A-3
SYBASE, create schema dialog box 9-22

T
table information dialog box 9-39
tables
creating logical groupings A-4
definitions, format B-6
with same name A-4
with same name in one schema A-4
text data A-8
transferring schema information 8-3

U
UNION A-3
UNION ALL A-3
unload 12-3
updating large data A-8
usernames, stored for schema A-5
using on-line Help 1-6
utilities
risalpha A-12
risbatch 3-3
risclnsr 4-3
risdcode 5-3
risdtype 6-3
risgui A-12, 7-3
rislod 8-8
utilities overview 2-3

V
values, dbms_owner A-4
IN - 8 Index