Sunteți pe pagina 1din 1826

Informazioni su questo libro

Si tratta della copia digitale di un libro che per generazioni stato conservata negli scaffali di una biblioteca prima di essere digitalizzato da Google
nellambito del progetto volto a rendere disponibili online i libri di tutto il mondo.
Ha sopravvissuto abbastanza per non essere pi protetto dai diritti di copyright e diventare di pubblico dominio. Un libro di pubblico dominio
un libro che non mai stato protetto dal copyright o i cui termini legali di copyright sono scaduti. La classificazione di un libro come di pubblico
dominio pu variare da paese a paese. I libri di pubblico dominio sono lanello di congiunzione con il passato, rappresentano un patrimonio storico,
culturale e di conoscenza spesso difficile da scoprire.
Commenti, note e altre annotazioni a margine presenti nel volume originale compariranno in questo file, come testimonianza del lungo viaggio
percorso dal libro, dalleditore originale alla biblioteca, per giungere fino a te.

Linee guide per lutilizzo

Google orgoglioso di essere il partner delle biblioteche per digitalizzare i materiali di pubblico dominio e renderli universalmente disponibili.
I libri di pubblico dominio appartengono al pubblico e noi ne siamo solamente i custodi. Tuttavia questo lavoro oneroso, pertanto, per poter
continuare ad offrire questo servizio abbiamo preso alcune iniziative per impedire lutilizzo illecito da parte di soggetti commerciali, compresa
limposizione di restrizioni sullinvio di query automatizzate.
Inoltre ti chiediamo di:

+ Non fare un uso commerciale di questi file Abbiamo concepito Google Ricerca Libri per luso da parte dei singoli utenti privati e ti chiediamo
di utilizzare questi file per uso personale e non a fini commerciali.
+ Non inviare query automatizzate Non inviare a Google query automatizzate di alcun tipo. Se stai effettuando delle ricerche nel campo della
traduzione automatica, del riconoscimento ottico dei caratteri (OCR) o in altri campi dove necessiti di utilizzare grandi quantit di testo, ti
invitiamo a contattarci. Incoraggiamo luso dei materiali di pubblico dominio per questi scopi e potremmo esserti di aiuto.
+ Conserva la filigrana La "filigrana" (watermark) di Google che compare in ciascun file essenziale per informare gli utenti su questo progetto
e aiutarli a trovare materiali aggiuntivi tramite Google Ricerca Libri. Non rimuoverla.
+ Fanne un uso legale Indipendentemente dallutilizzo che ne farai, ricordati che tua responsabilit accertati di farne un uso legale. Non
dare per scontato che, poich un libro di pubblico dominio per gli utenti degli Stati Uniti, sia di pubblico dominio anche per gli utenti di
altri paesi. I criteri che stabiliscono se un libro protetto da copyright variano da Paese a Paese e non possiamo offrire indicazioni se un
determinato uso del libro consentito. Non dare per scontato che poich un libro compare in Google Ricerca Libri ci significhi che pu
essere utilizzato in qualsiasi modo e in qualsiasi Paese del mondo. Le sanzioni per le violazioni del copyright possono essere molto severe.

Informazioni su Google Ricerca Libri

La missione di Google organizzare le informazioni a livello mondiale e renderle universalmente accessibili e fruibili. Google Ricerca Libri aiuta
i lettori a scoprire i libri di tutto il mondo e consente ad autori ed editori di raggiungere un pubblico pi ampio. Puoi effettuare una ricerca sul Web
nellintero testo di questo libro da
This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized
by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the
information in books and make it universally accessible.
, , .

--~ ------

-************ ***

a wD
D 1 C T 10 N A R Y.

: " t



() ( \ 0

H. O. F. B | B L | O T H E K


Li ]

K. K.
*-i-. . . .
" -- == - . . .
D I C T I O N A R Y,









Of the Middle Temple, and of Wadham College, Oxford.




L O N DO N :

Printed by J. L. Cox, Great Queen Street,




rott the affairs or






P E R S I A N, A R A B I C, A N D E N G L I SH

D I C T I O N A R Y,




is Y



P. R. E. F. A. C. E.

In the notice prefixed to the last edition of Richardsons Dictionary, the learned Editor
has briefly enumerated the various additions and improvements made in that work,
together with the sources from which they were derived. It may now be merely necessary
to repeat, that the quarto edition of 1806 was, with great labour, revised and enlarged
by Charles Wilkins, Esq., LL.D. F.R.S.; and was enriched with upwards of twenty
thousand words, many of which were pure Persian, and almost all exclusively drawn
from original dictionaries. The orthography of the first edition, likewise, was revised
and corrected on a uniform plan. Several letters of the Persian alphabet were so arranged
as to prevent the confusion and difficulty of reference which existed in the original work;
and, finally, a fount of Persian types was cast under his immediate inspection, which has
been again used for this edition.
It remains for the present Editor to state, concisely, what improvements have been
attempted by him in this, the third edition, and the authorities from which he has drawn
his materials. Richardson's Dictionary being little else than a limited translation from
the great Thesaurus of Meninski, and chiefly intended for the use of Persian students; it
became necessary to institute a rigid comparison between both works : the result was the
correction of numerous errors in translation ; and the insertion of many thousand Arabic
words, which Richardson had purposely omitted, because their occurrence in Persian

authors was deemed improbable. But these words have not been inserted on the sole
authority of Meninski, or of Golius : in all cases of doubt, a direct reference was made
to the v-, 3 Kms, where Golius, in extracting the contents of his excellent lexicon,
had left untouched several thousand words, as well as a variety of allusions connected
with geography, biography, and history. Willmet's Arabic Lexicon has been wholly

incorporated with the present edition ; but that portion of it which was explanatory of
Hariri being confined to the first six chapters, the words of the remaining forty-four
chapters have been taken from the Arabic Scholia, published in Paris by the cminent
Oriental scholar the Baron Silvestre de Sacy, in his beautiful edition of the Makmtu'l
Hariri. Gladwin's works have afforded numerous terms in botany, the materia medica,

rhetoric, and Muhammadan law. The late Doctor William Hunter's valuable Hindstn
Dictionary has furnished the local meanings of Arabic and Persian words in their current
acceptations throughout our widely extended Eastern empire.
It is well known to Oriental scholars that the Arabic language has not received the
attention in this country which was due to so important a branch of literature: particularly
when its indispensable necessity for the complete understanding of Persian authors is
considered. The want of a dictionary, Arabic and English, may have contributed to this
neglect; it has therefore been the object of the Editor to remedy in some measure the
deficiency. He hopes that this consideration will be accepted as a sufficient reason for
having introduced so many additional words of Arabic origin. The present work contains
such Arabic roots (marked with an asterisk *) as are of frequent recurrence, with their
most obvious acceptations. The conjugations to which infinitives or verbal nouns belong,
have been introduced, and the order observed by European lexicographers has been ad
hered to, although varying from the arrangement followed in India by scholars of high and
merited reputation. Where Arabic plurals occur, their singular form has almost invariably
been inserted with them. In order to make the sense of each Arabic infinitive as definite as
possible, it had been originally proposed to explain verbal nouns, according as they were
active or neuter, by the words the act, or state of, in such phrases as the act
of killing, the state of sleeping. But it was soon felt that these expressions would
add much to the bulk of a volume, already too likely to swell into an inconvenient size.
The student, however, will carefully bear in mind that, though they are generally explained
by a word ending in ing, such as els inlak, ruining, J, ghark, drowning, as katr,
dropping, these words are never to be considered as present participles, but always as nouns.
It may be proper to observe, wherever the Persian infinitives occur, that, in addition to their
ordinary signification, they have also, inherently, the power of a gerund or verbal noun.
This remark had been previously made by the learned editor of the second edition; and the
student will find, in the course of his reading, numerous examples of its accuracy. The
first line of the Gulistn will furnish an instance in point; e -j-, -- < 3 - V_s
pdshh r shamidam kih ha kushtan-i asri ishrat kard, I heard of a certain king who gave
the signal for the putting to death of a captive.Among the improvements in the Persian
part of this edition, is the introduction of many pure Persian words. Some of these have
been extracted from that useful Persian Dictionary the t les, Burhn-i kli: , which,
although in great measure incorporated by Doctor Wilkins in the quarto edition, has still
furnished a considerable number of words of purely Persian origin.




The manners of mankind must ever form an Into this train of thought I have been led by
interesting inquiry. In every age and climate that minute attention to the analysis of the Persian
they display a wonderful diversity of character; and Arabic idioms, which the construction of my
and exhibit a picture so variously coloured, that work unavoidably required: and I was willing to
we are convinced by experience alone, that the soften the extreme painfulness of incessant labour,
great original of the whole is man. In all in by occasionally tracing, together with Eastern lan
vestigations of this important subject, Language guage, the opposition and coincidence of Asiatic
claims a superior degree of attention: in many and European customs. Some points will of con
points it will be found a most unerring guide; and, sequence be touched, which, at first view, may
when viewed on philosophic ground, may be have no apparent tendency to advance the ac
considered as the great barometer of the barbarity quisition of those tongues: yet the mere science
or civilization of a people. A poverty of dialect of words is, after all, but the outline of language;
is generally accompanied by savageness and igno whilst the colouring and expression are only to be
rance; refinement is only advanced by a general found in the virtues and the genius, in the vices
diffusion of knowledge; and knowledge must and the follies of a people. In the course of this
necessarily be confined within narrow limits, till enquiry I shall have occasion, at the same time,
written language has conveyed it through every to doubt of many received opinions; and to ques
order of men. No authority can at the same time tion the positions of some superior men: whose
so decisively fix the peculiar habits and pursuits of want of knowledge in the languages of the East
a nation as the sounds by which they articulate has produced much false reasoning; whilst their
their ideas. The vanity of a traveller may attachment to system has heaped error upon error,
heighten a plain story into the marvellous; and and raised splendid fabrics upon pillars of ice.
the credulity of a historian may give a currency The origin of ancient tongues, like all research
to the fiction: but when radical words in any into high antiquity, is naturally involved in per
tongue are expressive of certain customs, objects, plexity and darkness; and every disquisition,
and modes of thinking, our reason cannot, for a however ingenious, must rest at last on the uncer
moment, entertain a doubt of their existence. tain basis of fancy and conjecture. Yet, on this
ii D ISS E R T A TI O N.

visionary field, learned and pious men have disputed Kuraysh. The first, though the language of the
with much want of temper. The original idiom most powerful of the Arabian princes, appears how
of man has been considered as an interesting pur ever to have been little cultivated by the indepen
suit; and advocates have been found for the dent tribes; or even by those who paid them a
superior claim of every ancient tongue: Adam feudal obedience: a remarkable instance of which
has been taught dialects he never knew ; and the is related by Muhammadan writers. An envoy
language even of Omnipotence they have not from a feudatory state having been sent to the
blushed to determine with precision. To pierce Tubba, that prince, when he was introduced, pro ..
through the obscurity of those distant periods, nounced the word Theb ; which in the Himyarit
seems however above the powers of man; and to implied Be seated : unhappily it signified Precipi
have no other tendency, than unprofitably to be tate yourself in the native dialect of the ambassador;
wilder the human understanding. I shall avoid who, with a singular deference for the orders of
therefore those unknown regions through which his sovereign, without hesitation or enquiry, threw
there appears no guide; and confine myself to the himself instantly from the castle-wall and perished.
simple information of reason and probability." The Kuraysh tribe were the noblest and the most
The source of the Arabic Language lies far learned of all the Western Arabs: they were also
beyond historic proof. Grammarians carry the the greatest merchants, and carried on an exten
older dialect to the family of Heber, the fourth in sive commerce with every adjacent state; whilst
descent from Noah ; and the more modern to the Kaaba, or Square Temple of Mecca, which,
Ishmael, the son of Abraham. These are Arabian before the era of Muhammad, was solely under
tales; yet they apparently furnish this strong con their guardianship, drew annually a great con
clusion; that when nations have recourse to fable course of pilgrims from every Arabian tribe, and
and tradition for the epoch of an invention, no every country where the Sabean religion prevailed.
period within the demonstration of record can Where many strangers are accustomed to assemble
possibly be found to fix its more exact commence at stated times, politeness and refinement are a
ment. Though rude perhaps in its origin, and natural consequence. Numbers of the pilgrims
gradual in its progress to improvement, the richness were people of the first rank, and possessed of all
of the Arabic has been long proverbial; and many the science peculiar to their country or their age.
circumstances have concurred to render it not Great fairs were held during their residence, and
only the most copious of any known tongue; but a variety of gay amusements filled up the intervals
to preserve it uncorrupted amidst all the political of their religious duties. Of those entertainments,
and literary revolutions of surrounding states. literary compositions held the most distinguished
The Arabians were never conquered. The rank; every man of genius considering not his
Romans, the Persians, and the Ethiopians, made own reputation alone, but even that of his nation
indeed, at different times, impressions upon par or his tribe, as interested in his success. Poetry
ticular districts; but they were all too slight, and and rhetoric were chiefly cultivated and admired :
of too short duration, to introduce any material the first being looked upon as highly ornamental;
alteration into their government, their language, and the other as a necessary accomplishment in
or their manners. From very early times, this the education of every leading man. An assem
immense peninsula was divided into many states; bly, at a place called Ukz, had been, in con
some independent, and others tributary to the sequence, established about the end of the sixth
Tubbas or Himyarit sovereigns of Arabia Felix. century; where all were admitted to a rivalship of
In those states many different dialects prevailed; genius. The merits of their respective produc
the principal of which were the Himyarit and the tions were impartially determined by the assembly

at large; and the most approved of their poems, contrary senses, in which the same words are re
written on silk, in characters of gold, were, with ceived, may be found in almost every page of the
much solemnity, suspended in the temple, as the Dictionary; but a short anecdote from the history
highest mark of honour which could be con of the Caliphs will show how much Eastern genius
ferred on literary men. These poems were called pointed to such distinctions. The great Mahmd,
Muallakit (suspended), or Muzahhabt (golden). Sultan of the Ghaznavides, though the son of a
Seven of them are in many European libraries, slave, after having stretched his conquests over a
being the compositions of Amru'l Kays, Tarafa, Zu great part of India and Tartary, in the beginning
hayr, Labid, Antara, Amru, and Hrith. A story of the eleventh century, sent an ambassador to the
told of Labid and Muhammad displays the genius Caliph Alkdir, requesting from that prince, as
and manners of the Arabians in those days. It the fountain of honour among the Muhammadans,
was customary for the great poets to fix, upon the a title suitable to his rank and power. The
gate of the temple, distichs, or longer composi Caliph, on account of the meanness of his origin,
tions, as a general challenge against the next declined compliance for twelve months: till urged
meeting of the Ukz assembly. Labid had put up by the ambassador, and dreading Mahmd's resent
a couplet there, which was thought so sublime, ment, he sent him at length the ambiguous title
that none would hazard any thing in competition: G. wali, which implies, A prince, a friend, and also
till Muhammad at length placing by it the opening a slave. Mahmd easily penetrated the Caliph's
of the second chapter of the Kurn, Labid no meaning; and sent him immediately 100,000 pieces
sooner saw it, than he conceived it to be something of gold, with a wish to know, whether a letter
divine; tore down his own verses; and imme had not been omitted. Alkdir took the hint, and
diately, from being a determined enemy to the despatched instantly letters patent in full form,
new religion, became one of Muhammad's firmest creating him J, wli, which signifies, without
and most powerful friends. He was particularly equivocation, a Sovereign independent Prince.
useful in answering the lampoons of the prince As the Pagan Arabians had a number of dia
Amrul Kays, who continued, till his death, one lects, they had also a variety of characters; but
of the prophet's keenest and most formidable op all of them were so perplexed in their formation,
ponents. and so difficult in their use, that about the begin
From this uncommon attention to promote emu ning of the seventh century they adopted the in
lation and refine their language, the dialect of the vention of Murmir Ibn Murrat, a native of Baby
Kuraysh was the purest, the richest, and the most lonian Irk. In this character the Kurn was
polite of all the Arabian idioms. It was prefer originally written : it was afterwards improved
ably studied; and became, about the beginning of under the denomination of Kik ; and continued
the seventh century, the general language of Ara in use till the appearance of the Niskhi, in the
bia; the other dialects being either incorporated, tenth century of our era. As this new mode of
or sliding gradually into disuse. By this singular writing soon universally prevailed, the other gra
idiomatic union, like the confluence of many dually declined ; and it is now only to be found
streams into one large river, the Arabic has ac in the manuscripts and inscriptions of the first
Tired an uncommon fulness; whilst the luxu ages of the Hijra. The Niskhi, which, with some
riance of synonymes, and the equivocal or opposite variation and corruption, is the same which now
*nses of the same or similar words, have furnished prevails in Arabia, Persia, India, and other Eastern
their writers with a wonderful power of indulging, countries, is generally ascribed to Ibn Mulah, vizier
in the fullest range, their favourite passion for to the Caliphs Al Muktadir, Al Khir, and Arrz,
"tithesis and quaint allusion. Examples of the who reigned from 908 to 940 of our era: but it
b 2
iv D ISS E R T A TI O N.

afterwards underwent the alterations and improve give great weight to the opinion of Sir John
ments of many eminent penmen of distinguished Chardin : That the old dialect of Persia (except
rank; particularly of Nizm and Tughry, viziers ing what remains of the present language) is
to the Sultans Jalluddin and Masd; and of entirely lost; that no books now exist in it; and
Ykt, secretary to Al Mustasim, the last of the that the jargon and characters of the Parsees of
Caliphs of Bagdad." Carmania and Guzerat are barbarous corruptions
The language spoken anciently in Persia opens or inventions of the Guebre priests; without the
a wide field for unsatisfactory enquiry. Dr. Hyde least similitude to the inscriptions still discernible
derives it from that of Media; which is much the on the ancient ruins of Persepolis.
same as deducing one jargon of the Saxon Hep In support of Chardin's general idea, I shall
tarchy from another. The union of those people, make a few observations on M. Anquetil's Zand
named by Europeans the Medes and Persians, is Avast. In the first place, the number of Arabic
of such high antiquity, that it is lost in darkness; words, found both in his Zand and Pahlavi dialects,
and long precedes every glimmering we can dis furnishes one strong presumption of their modern
cover of the origin of their speech: whatever their date ; as no Arabic was introduced into the Per
language was, therefore, it must have evidently sian idiom earlier than the seventh century of the
been very early the same, with the simple and Christian era. Secondly, The harsh texture of his
common variation of provincial idiom. But in this Zand seems opposite to the genius of Persian pro
tongue we have no genuine remains. We are told, nunciation; being apparently incompatible with
indeed, that it was the language in which Zoroas their organs of speech. There are certain sounds,
ter promulgated his religion and laws; but this to which we find some nations have an invincible
advances not our inquiry: for where or when did antipathy. The French, the Italians, and other
Zoroaster live? and where do the works which foreigners can hardly ever be taught to articulate
have been attributed to him exist? The writers the English th: The Persians, if possible, enter
both of the East and West speak so vaguely, and tain even a greater aversion to a sound somewhat
differ so pointedly, with regard to this personage, similar, (or rather th with a strong aspiration);
that it is completely impossible to fix either the and have accordingly, in every word adopted from
country or the period which gave him birth: whilst the Arabic, changed it uniformly to s. But in M.
the Zartusht of the Persians bears so little resem Anquetil's Zand, the words in which it occurs are
blance to the Zoroaster of the Greeks, that unless uncommonly numerous; and, in his alphabet, we
Dr. Hyde, and other Orientalists, had resolved, at have a character, which, to leave no doubt of the
all events, to reconcile the identity of their persons, sound he means to give it, he illustrates, by placing
we should have much difficulty to discover a single it on a line with the Arabic - thor f'h. The Frs
similar feature. Those fragments of his supposed and Pahlavi dialects, he says, at the same time, were
works which the learned Doctor has given us, sister-descendants from the Zand ; and had come
under the title of the Sad dar, are the wretched off the parent-stock previous to the era of Zoroas
rhymes of a modern Parsee Dastir (priest), who ter; in that idea they must have all been spoken
lived about three centuries ago; from that work in Persia at the same period: but neither in the
we cannot then have even the glimpse of an ori Pahlavi, the Frsi, or in the more modern Persian,
ginal tongue, nor anything authentic of the genius is there a character to be found in the most distant
of the law-giver; whilst the publications of M. degree expressive of this sound. That men may
Anquetil du Perron (Oriental Interpreter to the be taught to conquer a defect in speech, we know
King of France) carry such palpable marks of the is possible; but that a people should have powers
total or partial fabrication of modern times, as to articulate with facility, in one cotemporary

dialect, sounds which they found impracticable in people of ancient times; and his tenets, we are
another, is a supposition justified by no example, told, were most eagerly and rapidly embraced by
and diametrically inconsistent with the laws of the highest in rank, and the wisest men in the Per
nature. Thirdly, It appears not to bear the most sian empire. But could his success have possibly
distant radical resemblance to the modern dialect been so remarkable, had his religion breathed only
of Persia: a circumstance which all observation the most jejune puerilities; without one ray of
declares to be impossible, had it ever existed as an genius to rescue it from comtempt? without a sen
ancient Persian idiom. No convulsions of govern timent that could elevate the soul, or give one
ment, no efforts of the learned, can ever so far dignified idea of Omnipotence 2 What is thrown
alter a language, as to deface every line of resem into the notes from the Vendidad Sad, will give a
blance between the speech of the present day and specimen of the whole. It is by no means selected
that of even the remotestancestry: nothing but the as the worst: on that ground my choice must have
absolute extirpation of the aboriginal natives can been much perplexed. It first struck my fancy;
apparently accomplish so singular a revolution. and my partiality for it was confirmed, merely from
If we look into the languages of modern Europe, its being shorter than many others, which had even
weshall discover every where the strongest features a superior claim to disgrace the human understand
of their Gothic or Celtic original, amidst all the ing. Upon the whole, M. Anquetil has made no
refinement of Roman and Grecian embellishment. discovery which can stamp his publications with
If we examine the dialect of the modern Greeks, the least authority. He brings evidence of no
notwithstanding their slavish subjection to the des antiquity; and we are only disgusted with the fri
potism of the Turks, we shall find the corruption volous superstition and never-ending ceremonies
but slightly disguises the original tongue. When of the modern Worshippers of Fire.
we view the Syriac, after that country had long I shall now proceed to make some observations
been under the rule of Alexander's successors, on the modern idiom of Persia; and to point out
the texture we perceive unaltered; a slight mix the origin of that singular and intimate connexion
tute of Grecian words making all the difference. which it has long maintained with the language of
When we compare the modern Persian with the Arabia. Early in Persia, as in every wide extended
idiom which prevailed during the Sassanian dy empire, there were many provincial dialects, dis
lasty, we observe it now only enriched by a copious tinguished chiefly by the names of those provinces
introduction of Arabic words; yet still retaining where they were spoken: the principal of which
every characteristic feature which it possessed be were the Prs or Frs, and the Pahlavi. The
fore the Muhammadan conquest. But the Zand, first was the idiom of Frsistn (Persia Proper),
sofar from having the least similitude to one of the and had an extensive range over the most civilized
most regular languages in the world, has more the of the lower districts: whilst the Pahlavi prevailed
air of a Lingua Franca, culled from the dialects of chiefly around the Mzandern or Caspian Sea,
every surrounding country; grouped together with and in the more mountainous dependencies of the
little pretension to grammatical propriety; and empire. So rude however was this latter dialect
more pointedly resembling the spells of Necroman considered, that, after having been discountenanced
cers, than the idiom of a people famed at all times at court as early, it is said, as the reign of Bahaman,
for the melody of their accents." it was at length proscribed in a formal edict by
The last reason I shall offer, on this ground, is Bahrm Gr, in the fifth century of the Christian
the uncommon stupidity of the work itself. The era; and soon after ceased to be a living language.
Ziritusht of Persia, or the Zoroaster of the Greeks, The Frsi, on this event, as it had long been the
was highly celebrated by the most discerning principal, became now the only idiom of Persia;
vi D IS S E R T A TI O N.

being subdivided into the Zabni Dari, or the cyphered, the modern dialect in ancient charac.
language of the court, and the Zabni Frsi, the ters: and if his book is written in the same tongue
dialect of Persia at large. It is to this tongue, (which is probably the case), the whole difference
which seems to have been peculiarly cultivated by between the language of the early kings of Persia,
the great and the learned above twelve hundred and that of the present hour, seems to rest entirely
years before the Muhammadan era, that we should in the difference of character, and in the introduc
apparently point our researches for Persian lite tion of the Arabic; which began to take place in
rature previous to that period; and not to the the seventh century of the Christian era.
uncourtly Pahlavi. So early neglected by the su Before this period the Arabians, confined within
perior orders of men, and confined entirely amongst their own peninsula, made no figure on the theatre
the boorish mountaineers and unlettered peasants, of Asia; and were, in a political light, known only
it appears equally improbable, that men of genius to be despised by the Grecian and the Persian
should have preferred this rude idiom to the polish powers. But the enthusiasm, genius, and intre
ed Dari ; as to suppose a Voltaire to have written pidity of one extraordinary man suddenly changed
in the Bas Breton; or an Addison in the most the scene, and gave a beginning to revolutions
rugged of our county-dialects. equally rapid as complete. The numerous Arabian
The Dari was improved with uncommon care tribes Muhammad, by various means, converted to
by the Sassanian princes; many of whom, as well his faith, or subjected to his power; but died
as their viziers and great officers, published works before any impression was made upon the adjacent
in it; which, though at present hardly known, are states. Abbakar led the way to foreign conquest;
mentioned with high approbation by succeeding and his successor Omar, in the short space of four
writers. Amongst the chief of those royal and years, saw the Caliphat extended from Egypt to the
noble authors was Ardeshr Bbegn, the first frontiers of India. Persia was one of the noblest
prince of this dynasty, who began his reign A.D. acquisitions of the Muhammadan arms; the decisive
202. He wrote a Kr-nmah or journal of his victory of Kdissia, in the year 636, throwing this
achievements; and also a work of morality; which mighty empire under the Arabian yoke, as that of
being afterwards improved by Nshirvn the Just, Arbela had formerly subjected it to Alexander.
(who flourished in the sixth century), was sent by The consequences however of the two revolutions
him to all his governors, as the invariable rule of had nothing similar: the Macedonian conquest pro
their conduct. The Zafar-nmah, written by B duced only a change of princes; the Kaynian dy
zr, vizier to Nshirvn, is better known; having nasty of Persian kings giving way to the successors
been modernized by the celebrated physician of their Grecian conqueror: but that of the Ara
and vizier Avicenna, about the beginning of the bians proved a radical subversion of every charac
eleventh century. Those books, could they now teristic circumstance which distinguishes nation
be recovered in their original language, would ap from nation. The ancient government of the
parently be an acquisition far superior to a thousand Persians was overturned; their religion proscribed;
such volumes as M. Anquetil's Zand Avast. Ex their laws trampled upon ; and their civil transac
clusive of their intrinsic value, with regard to Per tions disturbed by the forcible introduction of the
sian history, manners, politics, and morals, they lunar for the solar calendar: whilst their language,
would show the precise distinction between the which the laws of nature preserved from immediate
ancient and modern idioms. If what. Dr. Hyde and absolute annihilation, became almost over
has given us, as the words of Ardeshir, is authen whelmed by an inundation of Arabic words; which,
tic, his language, though called Old Persian by from that period, religion, authority, and faction,
that very learned gentleman, is actually, when de incorporated with their idiom."

D IS SER T A TI O N. vii

The worship of the ancient Persians had unques ligious duty to establish their new faith with fire
tionably been very early corrupted. The reve and sword. To the Christians, Jews, Sabeans, and
rence paid to the Sun and to Fire, which Zoroaster other sects, they paid, however, some show of
appears to have considered merely as representa respect; and permitted them, if averse from Mos
tives of Omnipotence, the fountain of light, seems lemism, to follow their old belief, on paying a cer
to have been an idea too refined for the gross tain extraordinary tribute. But their fury against
capacities of the vulgar: who, without regard to the Magi knew no bounds; destruction or conver
the great invisible Prototype, turned all their sion being the only alternatives they deigned to
thoughts to the adoration of those ostensible deities. offer. The body of the nation chose the last;
Much absurd and barbarous superstition must in whilst the small remainder of confirmed enthusiasts
consequence have crept in, and clouded by degrees sheltered themselves in the mountains of Khistn.
the purer faith of their ancestors. Upon other Some retired to the isle of Ormuz; whence they
grounds it will be difficult to account for that afterwards embarked for Diu ; and at length,
singular severity with which Alexander first, and towards the close of the eighth century, they ob
afterwards the Arabian Caliphs, reprobated the tained permission to settle in Surat, and other
tenets of the Magi; destroyed their books; and places in the territory of Guzerat: where their
persecuted, with unrelenting rigour, all who made descendants, under the denomination of Parsees or
profession of their religion. Guebres, by avoiding all intermarriage with the
The Grecians and Romans had enlarged senti aboriginal natives of Hindustan, still maintain them
ments of toleration. They adopted the gods of selves a distinct body of harmless and unpowerful
all the nations they subdued: and, in the belief, people. It may be said, perhaps, that the religion
that every people and every place had their tutelary and learning of the Magi was by no means the
divinities, they were at uncommon pains to please, single object of Muhammadan devastation; the
and were equally careful in avoiding all offence. destruction of the famous library of Alexandria
From Arrian we learn, that Alexander sacrificed being another memorial of the execrable zeal of
to the Babylonish gods and other Asiatic deities, the Caliph Omar. It is true, that this great but
though then unknown in Greece: and we are told bigoted prince, considering all books which coin
by Pliny, that the first endeavour of the Romans, cided with the Kur'n to be superfluous, and all that
when besieging a city, was to discover the name opposed its doctrines to be pernicious, issued his
of the guardian divinity (without which, it seems, barbarian mandate to destroy that noble monument
they could make no invocation); when, by pro of ancient learning and magnificence: but still
mises of greater honours than he had hitherto en there was nothing striking in the persecution ofthe
joyed, they endeavoured to bribe him to betray Egyptians ; the general mode of an advanced
his former votaries. Such having been the ex tribute being all that was exacted, for permission
tended ideas of the old Polytheists, we are forced to follow the various religious systems, which pre
to conclude, That some singular circumstances of vailed in that country previous to the conquest.13
intolerance and horror had marked the Magian These singular events, which marked the fate
ites, which peculiarly provoked the vengeance of of the Persian religion, joined to the unsuccessful
their Macedonian conqueror. researches which have hitherto been made, seem
A similar reason must account for that uncom to furnish strong collateral evidence in support of
mon severity with which they were crushed by the foregoing arguments, and lead us to conclude,
their Moslem masters. These enthusiasts, it must with every circumstance of probability, that the
be confessed, knew little of the tolerant principles original works of the Persian lawgiver have long
of the ancient Greeks; and considered it as a re ago fallen a sacrifice to the ravages of time and of
viii z

conquest; that the publications of M. Anquetil bered by the Caliphs only to be despised, plunder
have no pretensions to authenticity; and that ed, and oppressed. The revolutions of the empire
nothing now remains, bearing the names of those changed at length the scene; and the accession
once celebrated books, but the absurd ceremonials of the Bilyah princes to the Persian throne marked,
of the modern Guebres; which preserve, apparently, in the tenth century, the great epoch of the revival
no nearer resemblance to the ancient worship of of Persian learning.
Persia, than the corrupted tenets of the Mingre The Caliphat had now lost much of its pristine
lians or Georgians have to the Christian religion. vigour; the finest kingdoms and provinces of the
The Parsees of Guzerat even acknowledge, that, empire having been usurped by various adven
so far from now possessing the ancient books of turers, who paid only a tributary obedience to the
Zoroaster, they have not so much as one single successors of their prophet. Of those feudatory
copy saved by their ancestors from the general chiefs, the most powerful were the princes of the
wreck in the seventh century: the formularies house of Bilyah, otherwise called the Daylamites;
which they now use being only transcripts of a who added to their high rank of Kings of Persia
translation by Ardeshir, one of their Dastrs, who the dignity of Amiru'l umar to the Caliphs of
lived about 400 years ago. In Europe we have Bagdad; an office nearly resembling the Maire
had many instances of the forgery of books, in du palais to the Rois fainants of the Merovingian
matters of mere curiosity; and we have found their race of France. An outward show of respect and
detection difficult: but how much more powerful pomp was all that the head of the Muhammadan
must have been the temptation to the Guebre religion now enjoyed; whilst the solid power
priests on the loss of the writings of their lawgiver. was completely engrossed by the Amiru'l umar :
Rule was their object; and they ruled with des which high station, about the year 977, was filled
potism. Absurd ceremony seems to have usurped by the great Azadu'd'dawla, who first assumed the
the place of common sense; and the barbarous title of Sultan, afterwards so generally adopted by
dialect of the Zand may possibly have been in Eastern princes. He was born at Ispahn, and
vented to throw a more impenetrable veil over their had a strong attachment to his native kingdom.
mysterious nothings. A Parsee cannot even pare He was not only an able general and an accom
his nails, or cut his hair, without hundreds of un plished statesman, but munificent and learned.
meaning prayers, and the most tedious and ridicu His court, whether at Bagdad or in the capital
lous observances. But every omission is gainful of Persia, was the standard of taste, and the fa
to the priest: absolution must be purchased; and vourite residence of genius. The native dialect
a fine is the indispensible consequence of the most of the prince was particularly distinguished ; and
minute and involuntary failure." became soon the general language of composition,
From the seventh till the tenth century, the in almost every branch of polite learning, after
Persian tongue appears to have laboured under having been almost wholly neglected by literary
much discouragement and neglect. Bagdad, built men for above three hundred years." -

by Almansr, became, soon after the year 762, From the end of the tenth, till the fifteenth
the chief residence of the Caliphs, and the general century, may be considered as the most flourish
resort of the learned and the ambitious from ing period of Persian learning. The epic poet
every quarter of the empire: but the Arabic lam Firdawsi, in his romantic history of the Persian
guage, in a literary as well as in a religious light, kings and heroes, displays an imagination and
was long the only object of attention and patron smoothness of numbers hardly inferor to Homer.
age : whilst the Persians, ruled with the iron hand The whole fanciful range of Persian enchantment
of religious tyranny, seem to have been remem he has interwoven in his poems, which abound
D IS S E R T A T I O N. ix

with the noblest efforts of genius: and he has stamp caparisoned, and a retinue in proportion, which
ed a dignity on the monsters and fabling of the attended him wherever he went. The Khkn
East, equal to that which the prince of epic poetry used often to preside at their exercises of genius:
has given to the mythology of ancient Greece. on which occasions, by the side of his throne, were
His language may, at the same time, be consider always placed four large basons filled with gold and
ed as the most refined dialect of the older Persian silver, which he distributed with a liberal hand to
or Dari, the Arabic being introduced with a very those who principally excelled.
sparing hand: whilst Sdi, Jmi, Hfiz, and other But the invasions of Changiz Khn and Tamer
succeeding writers, in prose as well as verse, have lane, in the beginning of the thirteenth and end
blended in their works the Arabic without re of the fourteenth centuries, gave violent checks to
serve; gaining, perhaps, in the nervous luxuriance all the arts of peace. The Caliphat and all its
of the one language, what may seem to have been feudatory princes were overwhelmed: and although
lost in the softer delicacy of the other. Tamerlane, in a variety of instances, was a liberal
From the above period, a literary rivalship seems patron of learned men; that was but a feeble com
to have subsisted amongst the Muhammadan pensation for the general desolation which he
princes who had dismembered the Caliphat; every spread around; and the destruction of a number
Sultan considering it as an object of the first con of magnificent patrons of the arts, who sunk under
sequence, to number amongst his friends the most the torrent of his irresistible power.The Turks
celebrated poets or philosophers of their age; no soon after stretched their government, unfavourable
expense was therefore spared to allure them to to liberty and science, from Europe to the banks
their courts, and no respect was wanting to fix a of the Tigris: whilst, in Persia, the bloody reigns
continuance of their attachment. of the detested house of Safi concurred effectually
Amongst the most magnificent of those royal in plunging those noble countries into that melan
patrons of Persian literature were three contem choly barbarism from which Europe, during that
porary princes, who reigned towards the end of the period, had been gradually emerging.
eleventh century; and were remarkable not only For near three hundred years, the literary fire
for their abilities and liberality, but for the singular of the Persians and Arabians seems indeed to
and uninterrupted harmony which distinguished have been almost extinguished; nothing hardly,
their correspondence. These were Malikshh during that time, which deserves attention, being
Jalld'din, king of Persia; Kadar bin Ibrahim, known, at least in Europe: yet enough exists, to
Sultan of the Ghaznavides; and Kadar Khn, the give us a very high opinion of the genius of the
Khkn, or king of Turkistn, beyond the Jihn. East. In taste they are undoubtedly inferior to
The Khkn was uncommonly splendid: when he the Greeks, to the Romans, and to the best writers
appeared abroad he was preceded by 700 horsemen of modern Europe; but, in invention, they are
with silver battle-axes, and was followed by an excelled, perhaps equalled by none. The Arabians
equal number bearing maces of gold. He sup are distinguished by a conciseness of diction which
Ported, with most magnificent appointments, a borders sometimes upon obscurity. The Persians
literary academy in his palace, consisting of a hun affect, on the contrary, a rhetorical luxuriance;
died men of the highest reputation in the East: which, to a European, wears the air of unnecessary
Amak, called also Abnnajib Al Bukhri, who redundance. If, to these leading distinctions we
Was the Ustadu'sh'shuar, or chief of the Poets, ex add a peculiarity of imagery, of metaphor, of
clusive of a great pension, having, amongst other allusion; derived from the difference of govern
*ticles of Eastern luxury, a vast number of male ment, of manners, of temperament; and of such
and female slaves; with thirty horses of state richly natural objects as characterize Asia from Europe;

we shall see, at one view, the great points of circumstance which will require a very nice ex
variation between the writers of the East and West. planation : for, upon general principles, we must,
Amongst the Oriental historians, philosophers, on that ground, question the antiquity of those
rhetoricians, and poets, many will be found, who laws; having at present no foundation to believe,
would do honour to any age or people: whilst their that the Arabic was introduced into Hindstn
romances, their tales, and their fables, stand upon earlier than the Muhammadan invasion A.D. 708,
a ground, which Europeans have hardly yet found during the Caliphat of the first Al Walid. But if
powers to reach. they are not in the original Sanskrit, and only
In various other lights, the usefulness of the occur in the Persian translation by the Pundits;
Persian and Arabic languages will appear evident, there appears to be the same impropriety in their
on the slightest examination. The high political modernizing or translating those ancient law-words,
consequence of the Persian, in the affairs of India, as there would have been, had Sir William Black
is too obvious and too generally acknowledged to stone given only the English of such terms as Cer
require arguments to enforce it; whilst the Arabic, tiorari or Fieri facias, and omitted the original
totally neglected, or studied with inattention, has names of the writs.
never been viewed, in Hindstn, by Europeans, Having now traced the progress of the Arabic
in the important light it merits. Yet the inter and Persian languages as far as is consistent with
course which the Arabians have maintained with reason, or conducive to utility; I shall proceed to
that country is ancient and intimate. For many observations on other points, which will be chiefly
centuries previous to the discovery of the Cape of comprehended under two heads: First, Lights
Good Hope, they were the chief traders in the which Eastern language and literature may throw
East; and the commodities of India flowed into upon ancient history and mythology. Secondly,
Europe, by the way of Egypt and Syria, almost Customs apparently originating in Asia, which,
solely through their hands. Their commercial since the downfall of the Roman power, seem to
settlements skirted the Indian coasts: their trans have influenced the manners of modern Europe.
actions with the Gentiis were extensive; and their In the investigation of those subjects, I am un
language found its way where even their arms and avoidably led to question the opinions of some of
their religion had made no impression. The trans the most eminent men in the literary world; who,
actions, sometimes amicable, but oftener hostile, little acquainted with the languages of the East,
in which the Hind rjhs were engaged with the and entangled in the labyrinths of ideal system,
Muhammadan princes, long before the accession have built upon a basis of no solidity, and ex
of the house of Timr, opened likewise numberless tended error instead of discovering truth. Yet,
channels for the introduction and incorporation of wherever I venture, on any ground, to differ from
this great Muhammadan lauguage; and gave it, exalted characters, I wish it may be understood,
in time, such an universal currency in Hindstn, that I lose nothing of that respect to which they
that not only two-thirds of the Persian, now in are so justly entitled. It is the lot of humanity to
general use there, is pure Arabic; but a half, per err. We may venerate a Herodotus or a Newton,
haps, of the Hindstn or Moor is Arabic and without enslaving the mind by an acquiescence
Persian: in the Malay they also both abound; and in their failings: we may admire the noblest
they appear even to have found a place in the efforts of human wisdom, without equally re
vulgar Ngri and Bengal. But that which has
* The Code of Gent Laws having been translated through
chiefly astonished me, is to find Arabic technically the medium of the Persian language will account for the number
used, even in the Code of Gentil Laws. If such of Arabic terms used in that work, and which certainly were not
words are actually in the original Sanskrit, it is a in the original Sanskrit. Editor's note to the second Edition.)

vering the unavoidable weaknesses of human The information we have hitherto received of
failty. the ancient history, mythology, and manners of
Systematic writers upon the actions of mankind, Eastern nations, has been almost entirely derived
however ingenious and learned, are ever to be through the medium of the Grecian writers; whose
read with caution. Man, in the aggregate, is too elegance of taste, harmony of language, and fine
irregular to be reduced to invariable laws. A arrangement of ideas, have captivated the imagina
slave to passion and to momentary views, the tions, misled the judgment, and stamped with the
weakest springs have found force sufficient to shake dignified title of history, the amusing excursions
the mightiest states; and events of the deepest of fanciful romance. Too proud to consider sur
consequence have originated from causes which rounding nations (if the Egyptians may be ex
shunned all public view. But a framer of systems cepted) in any light but that of barbarians; they
thinks not like other men: he forms nations, and despised their records, they altered their language,
he annihilates them; he establishes empires, and and framed too often their details, more to the
he destroys them; he assigns reasons for each for prejudices of their fellow-citizens, than to the
tuitous event; and defines, with mathematical standard of truth or probability. We have names
precision, the motives of actions, which were of Persian kings, which a Persian could not pro
grounded only on caprice, accident, or error. As nounce; we have facts related they apparently
his fabric is not founded in nature, he is perplexed never knew ; and we have customs ascribed to
by contradictions, which he finds irreconcileable them, which contradict every distinguishing cha
with the principles of truth. Impelled, however, racteristic of an Eastern people. The story of Ly
by a warm imagination, he bends every fact to his simachus and one Greek historian, may indeed,
system, since he cannot rear his system upon facts. with justice, be applied to many others. This
He descends from the character of judge: he be prince, in the partition of Alexander's empire,
comes counsel for a party; and, like the ancient became King of Thrace: he had been one of the
tyrant, tortures every circumstance to adapt it to most active of that conqueror's commanders; and
his iron bed: where defective, he stretches it on was present at every event which deserved the at
the rack; and lops the superfluities, where it tention of history. A Grecian had written an
threatens to prove too much. Does a dynasty of account of the Persian conquest, and he wished
kings stand in the way of a favourite hypothesis, to read it before the king; the monarch listened
he cuts them off at once: is there an unlucky with equal attention and wonder: All this is very
chasm in the annals of a people, he makes a fresh fine, says he, when the historian had finished,
creation: does an era gravel his new positions, he but where was I when those things were per
removes it back a thousand years; and mangles formed 225 -

the chronology of half the world, to support a I mean not to assert, that the historians of the
system of heterogeneous figments. Yet writers of East have not their failings as well as those of the
ability will make even error respectable. Though West; but their facts, though clothed often in a
their systems are visionary, they are ingenious and luxuriance of diction, display little of that national
informing. The researches after the philosopher's vanity so conspicuous in the most distinguished of
stone, and judicial astrology, which engaged the the Grecian writers, which leads to the invention
learning and attention of the middle ages, were and the embellishment of fiction. Whence they
Wild in themselves, as the objects were beyond the had their materials it is difficult to determine; but
pwer of man: yet chemistry, astronomy, and even the rudest of people, where they contradictnot
"gation, owe much of their improvement to probability, are entitled to respect in the annals of
*al discoveries in those chimerical pursuits. their own country. In a few circumstances they
* c 2
xii D ISS E R T A TI O N.

coincide with the writers of Greece and Rome; in the countries most eminently interested; where
this strengthens history: there are many upon sober truth and rational evidence are sacrificed to
which they are silent; this naturally leads to doubt vanity, fiction, or exaggeration; such narrations
and inquiry: there are numbers in which the op should acquire no authority, because transmitted
position is pointed: whom are we to believe? the by the most celebrated of the ancient writers, and
natives, or the native enemies of a country? those copied by compilers of modern times; we should
who might have had access to genuine records, or look upon them as fables of mere amusement, and
those who probably never could 2* proportion our admiration to their secondary merits
It may undoubtedly be objected to the principal alone, elegance of taste, ingenuity of invention,
historians of Persia, now known in Europe, that and excellence of style.
they are all subsequent to the Muhammadan era: When we reflect on the uncertainty of almost
that Persian literature was almost entirely annihi every thing merely human : when we observe the
lated in the consequences of the Arabian conquest: obscurity with which all history is involved in its
that the Grecians wrote nearer to the events which beginnings: when we consider how few writers
they have recorded; and therefore, though foreign record the facts of their own observation; and the
ers, have a superior claim to our credence than the suspicious mediums through which they derive
natives of after-ages, who must have compiled their knowledge : when we view the partiality
their annals under many circumstances of dis of mankind for their country, their party, their
couraging obscurity. These considerations are opinions; with the necessity which even the most
undoubtedly of weight; and, in all relations where enlightened and most unbiassed minds have found
consistency is not hurt, we should certainly allow of swimming with the stream of popular prejudice;
them every degree of force. It is error alone we we must candidly confess, that no particular class
should wish to reprobate: it is the path of truth of historians have any solid claim to possess them
we should wish to clear. selves exclusively of our belief; in opposition to
The chief object of History is to improve the others, whose narratives, though rational, are re
great system of social life, by instructing mankind pugnant to those which we have been accustomed
in the experience of former ages. To answer this to receive. Audi alteram partem is an old and an
important end, it is by no means necessary that excellent maxim; and impartiality ought ever to
every fact we read should be strictly true in all its impress it on our minds, where opportunity fur
parts. The Cyropaedia of Xenophon, or the Tl nishes the means. With channels of information,
maque of Fenelon, may convey lessons, on a to which the ancients were completely strangers,
variety of points, with an efficacy not inferior to how difficult is it even now to arrive at the true
the most unquestioned truths. Where no proba history of the simplest fact? and how wide of all
bility is therefore destroyed; no chronology ob resemblance does not the same tale appear, as told
viously injured; no superior authority evidently by people under the opposite impressions of vanity,
opposed: where the great lines are consistent with prejudice, or interest? How justly may we there
the situation of the principal agents; and the con fore suspect the historians of every darker age,
sequences arise naturally from the events: such facts whose materials were defective, and whose ima
are entitled to our belief; and to question them must ginations were strong : who lived at periods
only display a very unnecessary and a very unpro when imposition was gainful, and credulity un
fitable scepticism. But where the annals of one bounded : where the necessary measures to se
nation are tortured into coincidence with the cure the adoration of the million to a calf, a
imaginary eras of another; where mighty details cat, or a beetle, furnished priests (the great
are given, the trace sof which cannot be discovered Sources of Egyptian and other ancient annals)
D IS S E R T A T I O N. xiii

with such powerful incentives to the invention the Kaynians, the Ashknians, and the Sassinians.
of the wildest and the most improbable of fictions. The Persians, like other people, have assumed the
Take many points of modern history, and all privilege of romancing on the early periods of
the information we receive is merely what each society. The first dynasty is, in consequence,
nation or party has written relative to public affairs: embarrassed by fabling. Their most ancient
whilst the events themselves are still surrounded princes are chiefly celebrated for their victories
with obscurity and doubt. Read the Protestant over the demons or genii, called Dives ; and some
writers of France, and every circumstance of have reigns assigned to them of eight hundred, or
horror marks the massacre of St. Bartholomew's a thousand years. Amidst such fictions, however,
day: but turn to the Catholic page, and it be there is apparently some truth. Those monarchs
comes a necessary, a prudent, and a lawful act; probably did reign; though poetic fancy may have
the mere preventive of a similar tragedy, meditated ascribed to them ages and adventures which the
by the Admiral de Chatillon against the adherents laws of nature reject. We dispute not the exis
of the House of Guise. Take two foreign writers tence of our English Arthur, though we believe
of Our English history, over whom country and not in the giants and magic of Geoffrey of Mon
party prejudices ought to have had no influence; mouth : and Charlemagne was undoubtedly a great
and how different is the colouring of the same tale? prince, though we subscribe not to the wonderful
With Rapin, the Caligulas and the Neros fall short adventures of Turpin's Twelve Peers. The Dives
of the inhuman James, on the suppression of Mon may have been savage neighbours, conquered by
mouth's insurrection: whilst the mild, the just, the Pshddian kings; and magnified by tradition
the forgiving prince is the portrait of the Pre as beings of a supernatural species. The gods, the
d'Orleans. Contrast the Mmoires de Sully with Titans, and the heroes of the Greeks; the giants,
the Libels of the League against Henry IV. or the the savages, and the monsters of Gothic romance,
Sicle de Louis Quatorze with the invectives of the seem all to have originated from similar principles:
Protestant Refugees; and the Glorious Monarch, from that wild irregularity of fancy, and that ad
or the Savage Tyrant, appear before you in miration of the marvellous, which, in various
successive review. To enlarge upon the various degrees, runs through the legends of every darker
Opinions of our own writers, on the great events period of the history of mankind. The longevity,
of English history, would be endless and unneces at the same time, ascribed to this race of monarchs,
sary: the circumstances I have mentioned being may either have been founded on some imperfect
merely intended to inculcate this simple position, antediluvian idea; or may be resolved by sup
That few facts, either of ancient or modern times, posing families instead of individuals : and that the
are so fully authenticated as to render farther Kayiimars, the Jamshds, and the Faridins of the
inquiry improper. East, were merely successions of princes, bearing
The Romans have read us many a lesson on one common surname ; like the Pharaohs, the
Punic faith: had we Punic writers, merciless jea Ptolemies, or the Casars of the West.
lousy, and perfidious ambition, might, and per With the second dynasty, a more probable
haps with justice, have been retorted on the system of history seems to commence: yet still the
Romans. The Grecians have told us many a sur era of Kaykubd, the founder of this house, cannot
prising tale of Eastern nations; there can be no be precisely fixed. Though historians differ, how
impropriety in listening to what those nations say. ever, with regard to the chronology of this prince;
The reigning families of Persia, previous to the in one point, which may lead us to ascertain it with
Arabian conquest, are comprehended, by their tolerable accuracy, they appear, in general, to be
historians, under four dynasties; the Pshddians, unanimous. Drb the Younger, dethroned by
xiv D IS S E R T AT I O N.

Alexander, is called the ninth sovereign of this of our Lord, this brings us to the reign of that
line. He was assasinated about 330 B. C. If king of the Medo-Persians, called by the Greeks
thirty years are allowed therefore as the medium Cyaarares; which, according to Sir Isaac Newton's
of each reign, or 270 for the nine kings, Kaykubds conjecture, is supposed to have begun in the year
sovereignty may probably have commenced about of Nabomassar 137 (about 610 B.C.) From this
600 years before our era; which will comprehend period till the Macedonian conquest, we have con
the whole of that period of Persian history for sequently the history of the Persians, as given us
which we are indebted to the Greeks. Sir Isaac by the Greeks, and the history of the Persians, as
Newton, it may be objected, with other chronolo written by themselves. Between those classes of
gists, have allowed but twenty years to a reign, writers we might naturally expect some difference
and made that the universal standard for all na of facts; but we should as naturally look for a few
tions : but, with submission to those learned men, great lines, which might mark some similarity of
nothing carries with it a stronger tendency to un story: yet, from every research which I have had
hinge all chronology than such an unmodified an opportunity to make, there seems to be nearly
system. For if no collateral circumstances of as much resemblance between the annals of Eng
situation, manners, and government, are taken into land and Japan, as between the European and
the scale, much confusion must apparently rise. Asiatic relations of the same empire. The names
From Zeno till the taking of Constantinople by the and numbers of their kings have no analogy; and
Turks, the Emperors of Greece reigned hardly in respect to the most splendid facts of the Greek
fifteen years; and the Caliphs, from the death of historians the Persians are entirely silent. We
Muhammad till the sacking of Bagdad by the have no mentioned of the Great Cyrus, nor of any
Moguls, little more than ten years each. But, in king of Persia, who, in the events of his reign, can
those and other countries, which have been re apparently be forced into a similitude. We have
marked for a quick succession of princes, revolu no Crasus, king of Lydia; not a syllable of Cam
tions, and assassinations, it will always be observed, byses, or of his frantic expedition against the
have ever disturbed the course of nature : whilst, Ethiopians. Smerdis Magus, and the succession of
in regular governments, the medium of reigns has Darius, the son of Hystaspes, by the neighing of
been often lengthened to periods equal or even his horse, are to the Persians circumstances equally
beyond what is above proposed. From the murder unknown as the numerous assassinations recorded
of Henry IV. till the death of Louis XV. only three by the Greeks. Not a vestige is, at the same time,
princes have filled the throne of France; making to be discovered of the famous battles of Marathon,
about fifty-five years to a reign: whilst, in the dis Thermopylae, Salamis, Plata'a, or Mycale; nor of
tracted state of that country, previous to Louis that prodigious force which Xerxes led out of the
XIII. five kings scarcely completed twelve years Persian empire to overwhelm the states of Greece.
each.-As the Persian historians mention therefore Minutely attentive as the Persian historians are to
no assassinations, nor uncommon convulsions of their numerous wars with the kings of Trn or
government; and as the administration of public Scythia; and recording, with the same impartiality,
affairs appears in general to have been fortunate whatever might tarnish as well as aggrandize the
and steady; thirty years, in those ages, when, at reputation of their country, we can, with little pre
the same time, a greater simplicity of life perhaps tence to reason, suppose, that they should have
prevailed, seems to be a calculation by no means been silent on events of such magnitude, had any
stretched beyond the probable line of nature. records remained of their existence, or the faint
The Kaynian dynasty being supposed then to est tradition commemorated their consequences.
commence nearly about 600 years before the birth Xerxes, according to Herodotus, crossed the Hel

lespont, attended by no fewer than 5,288,220 souls, of the governors of Asia Minor, to regulate or en
and escaped back alone in a fishing-boat; the force a tribute which the Greeks might frequently
whole almost of this mighty host perishing by the be willing to neglect. Marathon, Salamis, and
sword, by famine, or by disease. The destruc other celebrated battles, may indeed have been real
tion of such a number would have convulsed the events; but numerous as the sands on the shore,
whole of Asia, had it been united under one is an idea which, in all times, has been annexed to
empire: could it possibly have been unfelt in Per defeated armies: and the Grecian writers, to dig
sia? Can any man who has made the least obser nify their country, may have turned the hyperbole
vation, at the same time, on history, suppose, for into historic fact; and swelled the thousands of the
a moment, that such myriads could by any means Persian Satrap into the millions of the Persian King.
have been maintained in one collected body; even Some of those famed events, it is not impossible
in the present times, when the art of war, in that too, might have been the mere descents of pirates
particular department, has arrived at a degree of or private adventurers; either with the view to
perfection unknown in those ruder ages. The plunder, or to retaliate some similar expedition of
greatest armies, of which we have any rational in the Greeks; who appear very early to have been a
formation, are those of Changiz Khn and Tamer race of freebooters extremely troublesome to the
lane, the most despotic and the most powerful surrounding coasts. The Argonauts, if such heroes
conquerors on record: yet these princes, in all their ever did exist, are not entitled to a more reputable
mighty achievements, were seldom followed by appellation : and indeed the practice seems to have
400,000 men. We are told, indeed, that the army been too universal to carry with the Greeks the
of Tamerlane, on his return from the conquest of remotest imputation of dishonour. If we look into
India, when he meditated the destruction of Bajazet, Homer, Thucydides, Diodorus, and others, we
and of the sultans of Egypt and Bagdad, amounted shall discover piracy to have been considered as a
to near 800,000 men, previous to the battles of profession; but without connecting with it the
Damascus and Ancyra. Yet those troops were least opprobrious idea. Strangers are carelessly
dispersed in different divisions; they were besieg asked whether they are traders or pirates; and the
ing many distant places at the same period of time; discovery of either character does not seem to
and were not, after all, a sixth part of the reputed heighten or diminish that respect or degree of hos
army of Xerxes: though Tamerlane possessed then pitality which the manners of the times had an
an empire and an authority incomparably superior nexed to the rank of those roving guests: Are
to that of the Persian monarchs in the highest you merchants bound to any port (says Nestor,
Zenith of their power; and was then marching at Pylos, to Telemachus and Mentor)? or are
against potentates ofinfinitely greater political con you pirates, who roam the seas, without a des.
sequence than the Grecians, at the supposed period tined place, and live by plunder and desolation?
of this tremendous invasion.* In this honourable profession of pirates there
But the states of Greece appear, in reality, with may have been many subjects of the Persian empire.
regard to the Persians, to have been too far re Greece, as well as other countries, may have been
moved from that degree of importance which could often the theatre of their rapine and devastation;
hld them up as objects of such high ambition or whilst their success or discomfiture must have been
f such mighty resentment. Till the reign of events of too little moment to reach the ears or
Philip of Macedon, they are hardly mentioned by engage the attention of the Shhinshh, or King
the Persian writers, but as tributaries to the Per of Kings, at the remote cities of Persepolis and
sian empire. Those famous invasions have there Balkh. Suppose, if such an illustration may be
fore an appearance of being simply the movements allowed, an English pirate to have landed in former
xvi D ISS E R T A TI O N.

times on Madagascar; suppose him to have called clared heiress of the empire, if not delivered of a
himself King of England; and suppose, after put son, and regent, in that event, till he was of age to
ting that island into a dreadful alarm, he had been reign. Averse even from the distant prospect of
at length defeated; the Madagascar historians, if resigning sovereign power, the queen ordered the
any they had, to raise the glory of their nation, birth of her son to be concealed ; and sent him
might compose a pompous detail of their Mara privately to be exposed in a casket on the banks of
thons and Plataeas: they might repulse the English the Jihn; the rising of the waters soon swept him
monarch at the head of any myriads the victors away, and threw him on a dyer's bleaching-ground.
should vauntingly give out, or tradition magnify : The rich stuffs and valuable jewels, which the poor
and this might undoubtedly gain credit in Mada man found in the casket, convinced him that he
gascar and in the adjacent isles; whilst the splendid was a child of elevated birth ; he educated him
event, unfelt, and even unknown, to the British however as his own son, and wished him to follow
nation, found not a single line in their historic his profession; but the prince, unwilling to believe
page. himself the son of a dyer, urged his reputed father
This celebrated expedition, amongst many Gre so strongly, that the good man discovered at length
cian narratives, equally suspicious, I have parti all he knew; and delivered to him the jewels, which
cularly selected; as the uncommon greatness of the he had carefully preserved. Young Drb deter
enterprise, had it borne the least resemblance to mined immediately on the profession of arms; and
truth, must have been too well known in Persia, set out for the army, which was then marching
and made too deep an impression upon the minds against the Greeks. He arrived on the eve of a
of each successive generation, ever to have been battle; in which he distinguished himself with such
totally eradicated. I shall now proceed to trace heroism, that his fame reached the queen. The
the great lines of the only single fact of conse prince was sent for : Humy was struck with his
quence, in which there appears even an irregular presence : she discovered him by the jewels and
coincidence; I mean the Macedonian conquest. the old man's testimony, and resigned the diadem *

The king who, according to Eastern writers, reign to him, after having reigned with great reputation
ed in Persia immediately before the Darius Codo about thirty years. This Drb is represented as
mannus of the Greeks, is called Dr or Drb; an accomplished prince, and a successful warrior.
the first is synonymous with Shh, and signifies, Philip of Macedon, amongst others, according to
in Persian, a king. The other, in the same lan Khondemir, drew upon him his resentment, by re
guage, implies possessed by or found on water; fusing to acknowledge his authority. He marched
which name, they say, he obtained from the fol against him ; and, forcing him to take refuge in
lowing circumstance: The kings of Persia appear a fortress, Philip sued for peace, which was granted,
to have assumed the privilege of marrying whom on condition of giving his daughter in marriage to
they pleased, and sometimes made choice even of the Persian king, and paying an annual tribute of
their own daughters. The Greek writers confirm a thousand bayzats, or eggs of gold. The young
the prevalence of this custom ; and observe, in queen did not please her royal consort ; though
particular, that Artaxerxes Mnemon espoused two pregnant, he returned her to her father's court,
of his daughters, whom he had successively pro where she was afterwards delivered of the famous
mised to Tiribazus, one of his Satraps. Bahaman, Alexander, whom Philip educated as his son ; and
the sixth king of the Kaynian dynasty, had mar left him his kingdom, with the secret of his birth.
ried his daughter Humy, whom he left pregnant Drb having, in the mean time, espoused another
at his death; disinheriting his son Sassn, in favour lady, she brought him Drb the Younger; who
of this lady and her offspring. Humy was de mounted the throne on the demise of his father.

This prince is represented by the historians of the is impossible ever to eradicate; and we are dragged
East in very different colours from the gentle and with difficulty to give a candid review to accounts,
amiable Darius Codomannus. His cruelties and which, though fully within the line of probability,
oppressions rendered him detested in Persia; and contradict ideas which we have so long fostered
the great lords exhorted Alexander to assert his with care. Yet were relations so widely distinct
right to the empire. Encouraged by those general equally new : were China and Tartary substituted
discontents, he resolved upon the attempt: and, for Persia and Greece ; were histories of their wars
as a leading step, informed the ambassadors of presented to our perusal by the respective his
Drb, when demanding the annual tribute of the torians of those people ; and did we perceive no
golden eggs, That the bird who laid them had thing in the name, in the achievements, or in the
flown to the other world. This refusal, with chronology of the principal actors, which could
the raillery which accompanied it, enraged the king possibly be forced into a consistency, or persuade
of Persia. He marched immediately, to reduce us that we were reading the same events in which
the Macedonian to obedience. The monarchs both countries were so importantly interested; what
met: a bloody battle ensued; and Drb was perplexity must accompany our opinion ? Should
worsted. He retired to his tent, to take some re we not naturally conclude, that both had related
pose before renewing the engagement; but was many fictions, and perhaps some truths 2 Should
stabbed by two of his attendants, who fled imme we not weigh the apparent authority of their ma
diately to the Grecian camp. Alexander, inform terials; consider who approached nearest to na
ed of the murder, hastened to Drb's pavilion; tional vanity, prejudice, and pride ; and decide at
he found him in the agonies of death: he threw length for those writers, who, though liable to
himself on his knees, wept, and protested his much mistake, appeared not, in so high a degree,
ignorance of the treason. The dying prince be to have the same inducements to the commemora
lieved him; named him his successor; gave him tion of wilful error * This I mean, however, in
his daughter Rshna in marriage; requested him respect to the general idea: for, in many circum
to revenge his assassination; to govern Persia by stances of the above relation, I should certainly
Persian nobles; and expired in his arms. Alexan incline to the Greeks: but more from a strong col
der, they add, chiefly by the counsels of Aristotle, lateral presumptive evidence, than any superior
whom they call his vizier, punctually fulfilled these dependence upon their historians : I allude to
last injunctions of the dying king; the great men Demosthenes. Philip appears, from the orations
of Persia being appointed to the government of the of this great man, to have been too much engaged
provinces and dependent kingdoms; which they in the uniting or enslaving of the Greeks not to
were permitted to hold on the feudal principles of have shunned, till that great object was accom
homage, subsidies, and military service, to their plished, every circumstance which might embroil
conqueror, as paramount sovereign of the empire. him with Persia; whilst, had he ever been defeat
Here is a detail which corresponds with the ed by that nation, and obliged, in consequence, to
writers of Greece and Rome in nothing but the submit to tribute, it must have not only too much
catastrophe; and yet, in the whole annals of Per weakened that power, with which he at length sub
sia, there is not, perhaps, a single passage which jected the states of Greece, but furnished facts too
boasts a more intimate agreement. A singular important to have been omitted in the Philippics.
incongruity! How shall we reconcile it? And to There is one circumstance, amongst many
whom must we lean * The Grecians are already others, which, in the course of my reflections on
in full possession of our imaginations: we imbibe the disagreement of the Persian and Greek his
* reverence for them in our early years, which it torians, has ever struck me with much force. The
xviii D ISS E R TAT I O N.

language of Greece was early cultivated in the ever unrelenting severity a vanquished prince
East: the connection of the Persians and Arabians might, by Eastern custom, experience from his
with the successors of Alexander in Syria and more fortunate competitor, his books appear ever
Egypt, was long and intimate. Before the era of to have been an object of uncommon care.
Muhammad, it was considered as a branch of polite, Exclusive of such Persian authors as escaped
and even of mercantile education. Greek slaves the Arabian proscription, with other records, of
were common in Arabia; the receipts and dis which our imperfect knowledge of their language,
bursements of the treasury of the Caliphs were and slender intercourse with their country, has
written in that tongue for several generations after hitherto deprived us of any positive intelligence,
the Prophet's death; and the coins of the Caliphat one ground of presumptive information ought not
were invariably struck with Greek inscriptions, till to be wholly disregarded; I mean tradition. What
the reign of Abdu'l malik in 695. Many of the are the relations of ancient Egypt? What are the
Muhammadan princes gave also great encourage early annals of Babylonia, of Greece, of Rome?
ment to translations from the Greeks; particularly Except the sacred writings, what, in a word, is
of the prose-writers. That the Grecian histories every species of history a little way beyond 2000
must have consequently been known, especially years? Mere tradition and much of it of the
to their learned subjects, cannot, I think, with most doubtful and improbable complexion : the
reason, be called in question. Shall we suppose, traditions of Pagan priests, whose importance
then, that Oriental annalists would not have made rested on the invention and propagation of error.
great use of those writers, had their narratives If any dependence then is placed on those Western
been in the least degree consistent with the his tales, in the absence of more convincing evi
tories and traditions which the Persians themselves dence, candour ought to allow a proportionable
considered as authentic? That all Persian books degree of weight to those of the East. In all
were not destroyed by the Arabians, is certain. countries where any difficulty, from whatever
Some, which concerned not the religion of the cause, has been found in the registering of public
Magi, fell into the hands of those who admired and events, tradition has ever been observed to flourish
preserved them. The Zafar-nmah, a dialogue on with superior strength; and, through the medium
government and morality between Nshirvn the of marvellous embellishment, presents us often with
Just, King of Persia, and his vizier Bzr, has been the great lines of the achievements of former times.
already mentioned. In the preface to a copy of Where the written memorials of a people are few,
Firdawsis Shh-nmah we are informed, that a and where fewer still can read them, he who re
book of history was discovered, during the general hearses a rude poem, or a romantic tale, is looked
havoc, by Saad, one of the Muhammadan generals, up to with respect. Whatever exalts men above
and carefully preserved by him, as containing their peers will ever be cultivated with care; and
nothing repugnant to the tenets of the Kurn; and sons will often endeavour to excel in what had rais
and M. D'Herbelot observes, that it was from a ed their fathers to distinction. The prevalence of
collection of ancient Persian historians, in the older tradition, in the darker ages of Europe, is unques
dialect, that Firdawsi drew materials for his im tioned. The bards, the scalds, and the minstrels,
mortal work. The kings and great men of the were caressed by the rudest warriors of those bar
East, it may also be observed, have long rivalled barian times. Their older compositions are gene
one another in nothing more than in the excellence rally considered as the real actions of ancient
of their libraries. With incredible attention and chiefs: fiction prevailed not so much till later
expense, they stored them with every valuable ages: it was the offspring of refinement; and re
manuscript they could possibly procure; and what finement led the way to the downfall of oral re

cord. For when learning became more diffused; into oblivion, if not strongly and repeatedly im
when feudal lords considered it as no disgrace to pressed upon the memories of the rising generation.
sign their names; when written language became That many events may have been in this manner
disseminated through various orders, and many preserved in poems and legendary tales, like the
could read the history of those deeds which for Runic fragments of the North, the Romanzes of
merly had been confined to the knowledge of a Spain, or the Heroic Ballads of our own country,
particular order of men; their songs wanted no seems to be highly probable; as well as that such
velty; they were no longer sought after ; their materials may have originally suggested to Fir
profession fell into contempt; and at length was dawsi many of the adventures in his Shh-nmah ;
gradually extinguished. which, like Homer, when stript of the machinery
A variety of circumstances peculiar to Asia jus of supernatural beings, is supposed to contain much
tifies us in supposing, that tradition was more true history, and a most undoubted picture of the
vigorous in the East than even in the West. In superstition and manners of the times. Professed
Persia, India, Tartary, Arabia, from the earliest story-tellers, it may also be observed, are of early
times, it has been one of their favourite amuse date in the East. Even at this day, men of rank
ments to assemble, in the serene evenings, around have generally one or more, male or female,
their tents; on the platforms with which their amongst their attendants, who amuse them and
houses are in general roofed; or in large halls their women, when melancholy, vexed, or indis
erected for the purpose; in order to amuse them posed; and are generally employed to lull them
selves in various exercises of genius, and fre asleep. Many of their tales are highly amusing,
quently in traditional narratives of the most distin especially those of Persian origin. They were
guished actions of their remoter ancestors. Ori even thought so dangerous by Muhammad, that
ental imagery might often indeed embellish their he expressly prohibited them in the Kurn. The
tales; but, like the Gieurusalemme of Tasso, or following is given as the reason : An Arabian mer
the Lusiade of Camoens, the embroidery of the chant, called Nasar ben Hrith, having resided
imagination would not entirely conceal the ground long in Persia, returned to his own country whilst
work of truth. Much rational information will the Prophet was publishing his Kurn. Nasar
therefore be discovered, not only in their more having, perhaps, paid constant attendance at the
serious traditions, but also amidst the amusing meetings above alluded to, had treasured up a
wildness of their romantic fables. Even in the number of stories relative to the famous Asfan
Arabian Nights Entertainments, and other Eastern diyr, Rustam, and other ancient heroes of Persia.
tales, though we may find no necessity to believe These he related to his countrymen; they thought
in Aladdin's lamp, in the Genie Danhash, or the them excellent: the legends of the Kur'n were
Fairy Paribn; we shall, nevertheless, discover even neglected: and they plainly told Muham
a truer picture of Eastern manners and beliefs, mad, when rehearsing some verses he pretended
than in all the Grecian writers; or in hundreds of to have just received from heaven, that the Per
other books, more generally resorted to as autho sian tales were far superior to his. This alarmed
rities. The very havoc made amongst the Persian him : and he immediately produced part of a
records, with the oppression under which they chapter, as sent by the Angel Gabriel, declaring
groaned, during the three first centuries of Ara them impious and pernicious fables, hateful to
bian subjection, might have united more intimately God and to his prophet; a censure which in
their men of knowledge; rendered their meetings stantly and long checked their currency with all
more frequent, and their traditions more interest true believers in the new religion.
"g from an apprehension that they would drop Another circumstance, which must have greatly
d 2

contributed to the preservation of written and tra 932), traced the family to Bahrm Gr, who reign
ditional history in the East, is pride of blood, upon ed in the middle of the fourth century. Seljk,
which their great men value themselves far beyond the founder of the Seljukian dynasty of Turks,
the proudest European grandee. Genealogy has claimed kindred to Afrsib, an ancient king of
consequently long been cultivated with singular Trn, or Scythia, who makes a conspicuous figure
attention; and the following, amongst other rea in the early periods of Persian history. One of the
sons, may be assigned for it. The desultory form first cares of Tamerlane was to ascertain his rela
of government, which has in general prevailed in tionship to Changiz Khn; farther it was unne
Asia, has seldom left any security but the sword cessary to go, for that conqueror, in the meridian
for the possession of power. Reverses of fortune of his greatness, had carried up a regular pedigree
have, in consequence, been frequent and sudden ; to Turk, the son of Japhet. Ismael Sf, the first
and it has been no uncommon object to behold a king of the late reigning family of Persia, who,
man rising to sovereignty, whose father had been after defeating the princes of the White Ram,
in the meanest condition of mankind. Yet this mounted the throne about the year 1502, traced
abject creature might possibly have been descend immediately his genealogy to the Caliph Ali, and
ed from some ancient dynasty of kings, whom a Ftima, the daughter of the Prophet. It must be
similar revolution had driven from their throne. unnecessary to multiply examples: inferior men
The most powerful and most favoured nobles were equally ambitious of high descent: whilst it
would naturally, at the same time, share the fate may not be unworthy of remark, that the whole
of their prince. Some obscure corner or distant idea appears to have originated more from fashion
country might give them refuge; where a regard or a natural impulse of the mind, than any consi
for personal safety, and the prospect of a new re deration of state-policy: for we by no means find
volution, would induce them to conceal, under a that the people of Asia have ever distinguished
mean disguise, the royalty or nobleness of their themselves for attachment to royal blood; having
origin. This gave an extensive range to claims of submitted, in general, with equal facility to so
superior birth; and whether real or imaginary, vereign power, whether administered by the son
they were considered as points of too much con of a prince or the son of a peasant.
sequence to be neglected by a new monarch, a Such having been the ruling passion in the East
successful general, or a rising statesman. Every for illustrious descent, it is hardly necessary to
species of evidence was therefore anxiously sought observe, that genealogy is a study so intimately
for; and the skilful in genealogy were encouraged connected with historical knowledge, that it is im
with a liberality that had nothing European in it. possible to arrive at any proficiency in the one,
Innumerable proofs might be brought: I shall without being minutely versed in the other : but
mention a few. Ardeshir, surnamed Bbegn, who particularly on the present ground, where appeals to
(A. D.202) wrested the sceptre from Ardabn, the the eras and actions of distinguished men, through
last king of the Ashknian dynasty, was the son whom it would be necessary to connect the chain
of a shepherd, who kept the sheep of one Bbak, of evidence, must have required a very critical ac
and married his daughter. No sooner however quaintance with chronology and public facts; to
was he fixed upon the throne, than, with the assist avoid obvious contradictions, and give an air of
ance of genealogists, he proved his descent from plausible accuracy to pedigrees, which, in many
Sassn, the disinherited son of Bahaman. Bgah, cases, must have been more specious than solid.
the father of Amadu'd'dawlah, the first Persian The same elevation of sentiment, we may also
monarch of the Daylamite race, was a fisherman; observe, which inspired those high ideas of supe
but his son, when he assumed the diadem (A.D. rior birth, led naturally to a wish for future fame.
D IS S E R TAT I O N. - xxi

To add to the glory of a family-line was a favourite From the foregoing observations, which might
object. Historians and poets were, of consequence, be swelled by many authorities, I apprehend it will
often in the train of a successful conqueror; they appear sufficiently evident, that the Persians and
were witnesses of the events they were to deliver other Asiatics have been remarkably attentive to
down to future times; and they were neither ex the annals of their country; that their materials
pected to exaggerate nor invent. The riches and for ancient history are upon a footing of respect
honours conferred therefore on men of genius, has not inferior to those of more Western nations; that
nothing similar in our Western world: whilst the their traditions are upon a ground fully as substan
freedom of their strictures, and the manliness of tial as those of the Greeks, the Egyptians, and
their moral lessons, will hardly be conceived by other people of high antiquity: and that the am
those who have been accustomed to annex to bition of royal and noble descent, more conspicu
Eastern minds the feelings alone of servility and ous in Asia than even in the more western regions,
terror. We have, in consequence, particular his must have been productive of much research, and
tories, not only of almost every Eastern dynasty, opened uncommon channels for genealogical and
and of every distinguished prince, but of the prin historical investigation.When we strengthen this
cipal countries and cities of Asia; most of them chain of facts and probabilities, by considering how
written with such an apparent adherence to truth high in favour physicians and other learned Greeks
and impartiality, that they are almost constantly were at the courts of almost every Muhammadan
preferred to European writers by our modern his prince; when we consider the number of mer
torians of the Crusades and other Eastern events chants and other travellers in perpetual motion
of the middle ages. The royal and noble authors between the East and West; when we consider the
of Asia are, at the same time, numberless: a cata frequent embassies, the alliances by marriage, the
logue alone would fill a volume. I shall here only familiarity of conversation, which appears to have
take notice of the vizier Nizmul mulk, as a small been supported with an ease wherein interpreters
manuscript of that great man's will furnish me with had evidently no concern; and when we add to
several curious facts relative to Eastern manners. the whole, the singular attachment of the princes
Nizm rose from a private station in the eleventh of the East to almost every species of learning,
century, to be vizier to the Sultan Alp Arsln, and whilst Constantinople was the theatre of every
his son Malikshh Jallu'ddin; which high office barbarity that could degrade human nature; the
he held till near ninety years of age, when he was presumption is much stronger that the Asiatics
stabbed by a Batanist, one of the subjects of the spoke Greek, than that the Grecians spoke Arabic
Old Man of the Mountain, whilst he was reading or Persian. As every ground of reason seems to
a petition which the assassin had presented. This lead us therefore to conclude, that the Greek
vizier was one of the most extraordinary men of tongue was, for many centuries, known in the
any age or country. He was a complete statesman East, nearly as well perhaps as it now is in Europe,
and a consummate general; he was learned, and we must extinguish all curiosity in man, and con
a most munificent patron of learning; he founded tradict every characteristic disposition of human
and endowed many seminaries of science, but par nature, if we suppose that the Grecian accounts of
ticularly a noble college at Bagdad; his palace was Ancient Asia should have remained, for so many
ever open to men of genius, many of whom enjoyed ages, wholly unknown to the men of erudition who
great pensions from his privy purse; they looked wrote ; or the men of rank, who patronized them.
upon themselves as his subjects and children, and History is one of the first objects which engages
usually attended their benefactor, on great solem the attention, when dipping into a foreign tongue.
"ties from every quarter of the empire. Sovereigns and ministers of state must ever, above

all men, be interested in knowing what strangers adorned with all the eloquence of Greece or
say relative to their own or neighbouring kingdoms. Rome.*
The Caliph Almamiin, in particular, was a prince It will not be conceived, however, that P wish
of extensive erudition, and unbounded curiosity. any ancient story exploded but upon grounds of
He could not well be indifferent with regard to obvious propriety. A free and candid investiga
what the ancients might say relative to Babylonia, tion is all that is proposed. Even the most impos
his royal residence and seat of government. He sible and most absurd of the Grecian and Roman
had ordered, without restriction, a general collec fables may keep their ground, till more rational and
tion of Greek authors to be made for the purpose well supported facts appear to fill their room. Any
of translation; and it is impossible to suppose that thing is better than a vacuum. Geographers of
historians could be excepted; they must have been unknown regions, according to the poet, place in
submitted, amongst the rest, to the review of the their maps elephants instead of towns: and
learned; their subject would naturally be reported there can be no harm in allowing the elephantine
to the Caliph ; and if not translated, it could ap legends of old Greece still to amuse our leisure
parently arise only from the consideration, that hours; but if a town is at length discovered, the
their history of those countries seemed merely the elephant should surely change his station. Se
Tale of a Tub seriously told ; and by no means miramis, the Argonauts, Sesostris, and half the
agreeable to the belief either of the aborigines of marvellous tales of early times, are all elephants:
the country, or of the ingenious men of all nations, but as they would leave a mighty blank in those
who, from every quarter of the empire, flocked high ages of able, they may still continue to fill
to Bagdad, as the centre of magnificence and their respective nitches; like Bacchus, and Venus,
science. When we reflect, then, that the Muham and Hercules, and Ceres: but I cannot help think
madan writers have paid no regard to the Grecian ing that it is refining rather too much upon the
histories; that they have given us facts of a very credulity of man, to fix, like the great Newton,
different complexion; that no historian will ever the precise epochas of those Pagan gods and heroes,
presume to publish annals of his own country, to by introducing even eclipses, and other astrono
tally dissimilar to the great lines of ancestorial mical observations, to demonstrate the eras and
achievement, which must ever remain strongly adventures of beings, whose existence stands upon
impressed upon the minds of a people; and that a ground by no means more substantial than the
those histories of Persia are considered as genuine Garagantua of Rabelais, or the Brobdignaggs of
by the Asiatics in general ; no observation on Lemuel Gulliver. I do not pretend says Sir
the manners of mankind can justify a total dis Isaac, (in the eighth page of his Chronology), to
regard to them, though dissonant to the relations be exact to a year: there may be errors of five
which we have hitherto been accustomed to re or ten years, and sometimes twenty, and not
ceive. Modern compilers of ancient history may much above. This publication, indeed, bearing
wish indeed to conceal their ignorance of the the name of the immortal Newton, though highly
languages and literature of the East, under one built upon by subsequent chronologers, is so un
general unsupported assertion, that they are speakably inferior to that great man's other works,
wild, uninteresting, and obscure ; but such a that I am almost unwilling to believe its authenti
mode of indiscriminate censure can tend only to city; and can hardly be persuaded he ever would
perpetuate error. Truth ought to be searched have published it himself. The materials of which
for wherever it can be found ; and a well authen it is composed were probably mere memoranda,
ticated fact, if told by a Persian, an Arab, or a committed to paper in the intervals of relaxation
Chinese, should remove an improbability, though from more abstracted studies. He could not but

perceive contradictions and impossibilities in the was invented by two of the Argonauts, Chiron and
ancient historians, and in the systems of those who Musaeus, who delineated the expedition, under the
had framed chronologies from their data. Some name of the Argo, amongst the asterisms. But
thing he might have meditated, and something we this seems to be a fundamental error into which
might have had, of authority similar to his higher this great man has fallen, even in his own line.
demonstrations, had he lived to have sent it into Canopus, the chief star of Argo, is only 37 degrees
the world, completely considered, and finished from the south pole : the greatest part of the con
with that penetrating discernment, which so re stellation is still nearer to it. The course of the
markably distinguished his philosophical investiga supposed voyage from Greece to Colchis lies be
tions. But this remains to be regretted. Posthu tween 39 and 45 degrees of north latitude. A few
mous publications are always to be suspected; and only of the lesser stars can possibly be seen in the
many a great man's fame has felt most cruel stabs whole track: whilst those of the first magnitude,
from the avidity of the public for even the glean and which alone are deserving of notice in every
ings of superior genius, and the undiscerning zeal astronomical observation, are, in those parts, to
of some surviving friends. tally invisible. But had this sphere been con
Let us now take a slight view of the consistency structed by the Argonauts, and had they wished
of the Greek writers, and the more modern chro to commemorate the enterprise by placing their
nologers, with regard to a few of the famous per ship amongst the stars, they must apparently have
sonages and events of antiquity, and then candidly chosen a constellation which was conspicuous in
determine the justice of their claim to unlimited Greece, and not one, the visible stars of which were
behef and authority. Queen Semiramis, according too minute to attract attention, or to be of the least
to Ctesias, lived about 2280 before Christ : Hel use in the direction of their navigation. But in
vicus says 2248: Syncellus 2177: Petavius 2000: fact the very foundation of this astronomical ques
Eusebius 1984: Dr. Jackson 1964: Archbishop tion has no basis: we have no demonstration of the
Usher 1215: Philobiblius (from Sanconiathon) era of Chiron and Musus, or even of their ex
1200: Sir Isaac Newton 760 : Herodotus 713 : istence. The invention of the sphere, rude as it
and D'Herbelot, supposing her to have been the confessedly was, and by no means a solid ground
Persian queen Humy, grandmother to Drb II. for exact calculation, is at the same time assigned to
(Darius Codomannus), brings her down within four many who where not Argonauts; and their preten
hundred years of our era, Diodorus, Strabo, Sui sions seem equally substantial. Diodorus ascribes
das, Arrian, and others, differ also in various de it to Atlas; some attribute it to Palamedes; others
grees, whilst the actions they ascribe to her are as to Nausicaa, the daughter of king Alcinous; and
monstrous and impossible, as the disagreement of many deny it to have been even of Grecian origin,
their respective eras. * but to have come from Egypt. Granting therefore
The Argonautic Expedition has, by many learn that the equinoctial colure actually passed through
ed men, been considered as a fact so unquestion the middle of Aries, when that sphere was con
able, that it has become a kind of grand era for structed, no argument can possibly be drawn from
ascertaining the more doubtful dates of many sub thence to fix the Argonautic expedition, any more
sequent events. Sir Isaac Newton, by calculations than the building of the pyramids, till it has been
f the retrograde motion of the equinoctial and previously shown that the Argonauts were the
solstitial points, called the Colures, from their inventors.
supposed place then, till the year 1690, fixes this Let us next consider the Argonauts in point of
expedition about the year 937 B. C. grounded number, their course, their achievements, and the
thiefly upon a supposition, that the Greek sphere time employed in the expedition. Fifty-one is the
xxiv. x D ISS E R T ATION.

highest amount: some make them only forty-four; part of one, part of another, threw in conjecture
yet these heroes, besides many other important with a liberal hand, and formed from the whole an
feats, attack Laomedon and take Troy; they build hypothesis, which might give an author some slight
cities and temples in various distant countries, air at least of consistency with himself. Their
which half a million could neither have erected nor tales are more plausible; yet still they are but tales;
peopled, and returned to Greece in four months, we cannot call them facts. Such, however, has
or, according to some, in two. The course they been the system apparently adopted by every sub
steer is equally full of contradiction. On their re sequent choronologer and compiler. Diodorus
turn from Colchis, they found, it is said, AEtes, the appears to have been the model. We have, in con
king of that country, whose fleece and daughter sequence, ancient events, not as they really hap
they had stolen, prepared with a fleet to dispute pened, but as it was thought they should have
their passage through the Bosphorus of Thrace. happened. In their hands early history has ac
Declining an engagement, they struck across the quired, in some respects, the superficial appearance
Euxine, and sailed up the Danube, the Don, or of probability; but as much may be said for Pha
some other river, through Northern Europe, into ramond or Cassandra ; and Oroondates, Arsaces,
the Baltic ; and thence returned, by the Mediter and the Fair Barsina, may throw in their claims to
ranean, to Greece. Some conduct them from the be realized, with equal pretensions to reason as
Danube to the Po or the Rhone; and others, by Hercules, Jason, or Medea.
the southern ocean, through Lybia. Another class To launch upon the ocean of chronology would
traces them over the great continent of Asia into require a separate and an extensive treatise. It
the Indian ocean, the Red Sea, and the Nile ; may only be proper here to observe, that all the
dragging their Argo all the way over mountains, or eminent men in this line have split upon the rock
carrying it on their shoulders, where they could of system. A favourite hypothesis being once
not conveniently sail. It is unnecessary to dwell adopted, they bend every thing to a coincidence.
upon the more minute deviations. Some make Sir John Marsham and Sir Isaac Newton, for ex
Hercules the commander, others insist for Jason; ample, fancy a similitude between Shishacking of
and even the place of destination is varied from Egypt and Sesostris, whose being and period of
Colchis on the Euxine, to the extremity of the existence is as doubtful as Semiramis. The fabu
Indian coast. Diodorus, to give the whole an air lous Sesostris conquered half the world; but the
of probability, contradicts, in many respects, every Shishac of Scripture only plundered Jerusalem and
prior account, and makes them return through the returned. All the resemblance that can be dis
Hellespont; leaving all their famous buildings, to cerned is, that they are both said to have been kings
which he himself, nevertheless, frequently alludes, of Egypt, and that they had both great armies; yet
to be reconciled to an agreement with this route by to force them into a point of contact, Sesostris is
the reader, or any subsequent historian. It would brought down some hundreds of years from the
be endless to enlarge upon the various impossibi station where ancient historians had placed him;
lities of this celebrated enterprise; and indeed the and circumstances totally dissimilar are racked
accounts given by Diodorus, Strabo, and other later into a most unsatisfactory proof of their similitude.
writers, were there no other inconsistency, seem But, with less violence, Charlemagne and Louis
at once to be a complete refutation of the whole. XIV. might be made the same person. They were
They saw the contradictions of their predecessors: both kings of France; both were powerful princes;
absurdities and incongruities in almost every line and both possessed, to a very high degree, the
could not well escape their penetration. They thirst of extensive conquest, and the consequent
went therefore upon a different plan ; they took luxury of making mankind wretched.

But the endeavours of commentators to reconcile ings we find, that Jaddua was the fifth in succes
all the events of ancient times to the history of the sion from Jeshua, who, together with Zorobabel,
Greeks, have by no means been confined to pagan conducted home the captive Jews. This event, if
annals. The chronology of the Sacred Writings connected with the Grecian Cyrus, must have been
has, in many points, without the appearance of ne in the year 586, or 204 years before the above
cessity, been forced into an analogy with their mentioned meeting, which happened in the seventh
imaginary eras: in consequence of which, a variety year of Jadduas priesthood. As Jeshua was pro
of anachronisms have been introduced, which are bably advanced in age, when commissioned with
in direct opposition to the Historical Books of Scrip Zorobabel to lead the captive people home, seven
ture, to the Jewish Chronicles, to Josephus, and to teen years may be a full allowance for his dignity,
all observation on the longevity of man. I shall subsequent to that period; which leaves forty-five
attempt to clear up one event, submitting, with years each to the other four; a term far beyond
much deference, the solidity of my conjectures to all calculation and probability: especially as the
men of deeper research and superior abilities. Jewish high priesthood was remarkable for a very
The Grecians have given us the history of a Per quick succession. The opinion and records of the
sian king, called Kg, which we translate Cyrus. Jews, when fixing the chronology of the building
Isaiah prophecies, that a prince named wh Cresh of this temple, an event which must have made so
will release the Jews from captivity, and order the powerful an impression upon the minds of the
rebuilding of the temple. To reconcile these two whole nation, ought indeed to have been decisive,
princes, has been considered as an object of high where no opposition especially was found to the
importance, and much learning has been employed Canonical Books. But for no reason that can ap
to embarrass a much more simple and satisfactory parently be discovered, excepting to force the
chronology. The Jewish larger chronicle, and Cresh of Isaiah to be the Cyrus of the Greeks,
Josephus, finish the building of the temple only have our commentators laboured to involve a plain
about thirty-four years before the fall of the Persian narrative in darkness; and to create with many a
empire: the Samaritan interruptions had protract doubt of the whole, because there appeared irre
ed the completion of the work near twenty years: concileable contradictions in the parts.
the Macedonian conquest took place about the year As an attachment to the chronology of Greece
331; to which, if we add the fifty-four years above seems to have led therefore to many unnecessary
mentioned, the proclamation of Cresh must have liberties with Scripture, it cannot be improper to
been issued about the year 385. But the death of observe how far the historians of Asia correspond
Cyrus is placed by the concurrence of our chrono with the Sacred Writings. Those kingdoms known
lgers, in 529, or 144 years before this period: he to us by the names of the Assyrians, Medes, and
therefore could not be the prince alluded to by Babylonians, appear, from the Eastern writers, to
Isaiah. As a confirmation of the probability of the have formed early one great empire, subject to the
Jewish dates, Josephus mentions expressly, that kings of Persia, on a tenure nearly resembling the
Suballat, the Samaritan governor, who had given feudal system. The principal of those dependent
so much interruption to the building of the temple, principalities seems to have been Babylon; which,
was alive in the time of Alexander; which is ex during the reign of Lohorsb, was governed by a
tremely possible by the above chronology: but by prince called Nabocodnassar, Nakhtunassar, or
the common system, he must then have exceeded Bakhtunassar; who is described as having pushed
*Years of age. Jaddua was the high priest who his conquests far into the West: and particularly
met Alexander on his return from the siege of to have over-run Judea, and made captives of the
"y, in the year 332. Now by the Sacred Writ inhabitants. His son and successor is painted as a


brutal tyrant, whose oppression of the Jews drew can offer a more unsubstantial basis. It has been
upon him the resentment of Ardeshir Dirzdast, long a custom in the East for the reigning sove
king of Persia, who removed him from the govern reign to give his son some important government,
ment, and appointed in his room Cresh, a prince with the title of king; and this name he generally
of the blood, grandson of Lohorsb. The mother changed when he succeeded to his father. The
of this prince, they add, was a Jewess; and this son and successor of Shpr II. in the fourth
they give as one reason for the warmth with which century, was called Karmnshh, and by our writers
he espoused the cause of the Israelites; to whom Carmasat ; but when he mounted the throne of
he gave permission to return to Jerusalem, with Persia he assumed the name of Bahrm. Changiz
every encouragement towards the rebuilding of the Khn, in the early part of life, was called Temujin.
temple. Now let us observe the chronology, and Many of the Great Moguls have bore different
we shall find a remarkable concurrence. Drb names before their accession. Similar instances are
II. is said, by the Persian historians, to have innumerable. It was even common in Greece :
reigned fourteen years; Drb I. twelve; and queen Plato was originally named Aristo. That an al
Humy thirty; whose immediate predecessor, as teration of names prevailed greatly in old times,
before observed, was Ardeshir. If we place then we have remarkable proofs in the Paralipomena
the issuing of the proclamation two years before books of Scripture. When Esther was selected
Ardeshirs death, this brings it to the year 388 amongst other virgins for the royal choice, her
B. C., a difference of only three years from the former name Hadassah was dropt; and a new one
Jewish dates; and of small consequence in such given to her, signifying, in Persian, a star. When
remote transactions. Ardeshir reigned long ; let Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, were
us suppose thirty-eight years before the proclama chosen to attend the king, their names were
tion of Cresh ; add about thirty more for the reign changed to Belleshazzar, Shadrach, Meshach, and
of Kishtsb; and the commencement of the seventy Abednego. All nations, we may also observe, have
gears captivity will be placed in the end of the reign had a greater or less partiality for metonymical and
of Lohorsb, by whose orders Nabocodnassar, as metaphorical allusions; and many personages have
before observed, conquered Syria, Palestine, and been often described by some peculiar attribute, or
other Western districts. title, which was perfectly well understood by those
The great lines coinciding thus, in a manner so to whom the speech or writing was addressed,
singular, I shall proceed to observations on the though by no means obvious to others without a
seeming disagreement of some inferior points. It key. In the Sacred Writings, a history of the Per
appears evident both from Daniel and the Persian sian empire is not intended : such points only are
historians, that Cresh or Cyrus acted a subor touched upon as are connected with the annals of
dinate part in the taking of Babylon; the name the Jews: to be intelligible to the chosen people
of his superior being, according to the Sacred is all that was proposed : the name, the title, or
Writers, Darius the Mede ; but, according to the the epithet of the sovereign of Persia, which was
Persians, Ardeshir or Bahaman. No etymological most familiar to them, was consequently chosen;
ingenuity, it is certain, can discover a resemblance and whether it was the King, the Great King,
between those names; but that does not seem to be Darius, or any corresponding denomination, it was
of the smallest consequence. The great rock, as certainly a point of no importance, whilst they all
observed above, upon which our chronologers were perfectly understood. Dr, as observed
have uniformly split, is an attention to the fancied before, signifies, in Persian, a Great King ; and
similitude of names; and to this they have often the addition of Median might simply denote that
sacrificed every consistency of fact. But nothing his chief residence was in that country. The dif.
D ISS E R TAT I O N. xxvii

ferent Persian monarchs of the Kaynian dynasty sian monarchs, like Casar or Czar in Europe.
had a partiality for different cities in their exten Ahasuerus or Achasuerus has, in particular, been
sive empire. Lohorsb was so remarkably fond of the subject of much etymological investigation.
Balkh in Khursn, that he is often called Balkhi. Sir Isaac Newton, by inadvertency, makes him, in
His successor Kishtsb gave the preference to one place, to be Cyawares, and, in another, Xerates.
Islakhar or Persepolis. Bahaman might have lived Archbishop Usher supposes him to be Darius
occasionally in Media; and possibly have marched Hystaspes ; Scaliger, Xerxes; Josephus, the Sep
from thence, attended by Cresh, on the expedition tuagint, and Dr. Hyde, Artaverales Longimanus.
against Babylon. Queen Humy was particularly Now each of these conjectures contradicts the
attached to Persepolis, where the Asiatic historians other; and none of them coincide with the common
say she built the celebrated palace which they name chronology of the Bible, excepting Usher. Four
Chihalminr, afterwards destroyed by Alexander; different princes are named ; and a range is taken
and, as this became the favourite abode of her suc of 187 years: the reign of the first, according to
cessors till the Macedonian conquest, we accord Newton, commencing 611 years, and the last dying
ingly find that every subsequent event, mentioned 424, B. C. As such disagreements amongst our
in the Sacred Writings, is referred to the time of most learned men show clearly that the basis must
Darius the Persian ; though comprehending a pe be wrong, there can be no impropriety in adding
riod far beyond the reign of that prince ; a circum one conjecture more, which is, that Ahasuerus,
stance which has induced Sir Isaac Newton to sup like Darius, is not the name of any individual
pose Darius the Persian to include Darius Nothus prince, but a title; and probably derived, by a very
as well as Darius Codomannus; a theory by no simple Persian etymology, from Khusraw ; which
means satisfactory, as it will not account for the signifies a Great King. Khusraw, or Kay Khusraw,
silence of Scripture with regard to the intermediate was the third prince of the Kaynian dynasty:
princes, Artaveraes Mnemon, Artaveraes Ochus, whose successful wars against the Trnians or
and Arogus. The whole endeavours of the learned, Scythians, the old hereditary enemies of Persia,
indeed, to reconcile the Persian kings of Scripture had greatly extended and firmly established the
to the Persian kings of the Greeks, appear only to be empire. His reputation was high in Asia: he was
productive of embarrassment; but if the theory almost adored by his subjects, and by after genera
now proposed is found to be just, of considering tions. The names of distinguished men in the East
many of the Scripture names as mere royal titles, have frequently been assumed as titles by succeed
it will correspond perfectly with the sublime figu ing princes; and they have been often given to
rative language of the Sacred Writers, and pave the them by foreign nations, whether they assumed
way for removing several perplexing difficulties. them or not. Many kings of the Ashknian and
The only Babylonish and Persian princes found in Sassnian dynasties bore the name of this ancient
the Bible are Nebuchadnezzar, Evil Merodach, Persian monarch, by way of adjunct or surname,
Belshazzar, Ahasuerus, Darius the Mede, COresh, as Khusraw Parviz, or Khusraw Nshirvn ; and
and Darius the Persian : Artarerwes is also men the Romans gave the name of Cosroes to almost
tioned in Nehemiah. The first Babylonish prince every sovereign of the Sassnian race. That
corresponds exactly in name, era, and actions with foreigners might, in older times, have done the
the Persian historians. The next two are not same with respect to the Kaynian princes, is en
named by them; being only in general considered tirely consistent with probability; and upon this
as governors or feudatory princes under the Great ground we shall obviate another difficulty, with
King; and the others, I apprehend, are simply regard to Ahasuerus, which seems difficult to be
pithets, given indiscriminately to any of the Per reconciled on other principles; and furnishes, at
e 2
xxviii D IS S E R TAT I O N.

the same time, a strong presumptive argument in point to a fundamental error. That modern chro.
support of the present theory. We find an Aha nologers, commentators, and compilers of ancient
suerus in Esther, and an Ahasuerus in Ezra. Now history, differ likewise greatly in opinion; support
according to the common Scripture and Greek ing frequently their systems by points of a most
chronology, these cannot be the same individual doubtful complexion, and rejecting others of a far
prince. The marriage of the first with Esther is more probable appearance : that a resemblance of
placed about the year 515 B. C. Cyrus, as before names is often preferred to a consistency in facts:
observed, died in 529, and Darius Hystaspes, suc that the inventions of superstition, or the fictions
ceeding Smerdis Magus in 521, reigned till 485. of poets, are often viewed as real events; and the
But in Ezra we find the succession to be Cyrus, same critical accuracy employed in fixing the early
Darius, and Ahasuerus. This last prince must epochs of imaginary beings, as in resolving the
have reigned therefore after Darius, not earlier most rational truths of more authentic times.
than 485; and could not reign likewise, cotem That such being the uncertain basis of ancient
porary with him, in 515. Should the advocate for story, no materials ought to be despised: that the
Archbishop Usher's idea even insist, that, notwith Persian and Arabian historians are entitled to at
standing this passage, there was still but one tention, in whatever regards their own countries;
Ahasuerus : and that Ahasuerus was Darius ; for their relations being grounded at least on national
the sake of argument it might be granted, without belief; and national beliefnever originating without
weakening the hypothesis; as it would then de some foundation : that the mere priority in time of
monstrate, that the same prince is called in the the Western to the Eastern writers, when unsup
Bible both Darius and Ahasuerus ; and that they ported by circumstances of higher evidence, should
were consequently both royal titles, and indiscri give no preference, in regard to authority; as,
minately used. It may perhaps be said, that if upon the same principles, we might rank a Ctesis
these were royal titles, the prefixing of Malik, or before Plutarch ; a Roger de Hoveden before
any similar word implying a sovereign, as King Hume ; or a Gregory of Tours before De Thou :
Darius, or King Ahasuerus, would be a tautologi that we may perceive some strong lines of truth in
cal redundancy. But that would be an objection the Eastern historians, from their concurrence
of no weight, nothing being more common in the with the Bible, in the few facts mentioned above ;
East : a famous prince in the eleventh century, whilst even their silence on some heads, with their
amongst many instances, being called Sultn Malik slight variation in others, furnish high presumption
Shh, which literally signifies king king king. of their authenticity; for had they been exactly
The apparent conclusions to be drawn from the in conformity with the Scripture, we should na
preceding observations are, That the Greeks and turally have concluded that their materials had
Romans, in their ancient histories, especially of been borrowed from thence; and considered them
distant countries, are often wrong; and, in general, merely in the light of translations. But the man
liable to suspicion : that their accounts of the East, ner in which they are told shows that the great
as well with regard to manners, as historic facts, lines were independently known in Persia ; and
are inconsistent with the Asiatic authors; irrecon that the difference is simply what might have been
cileable with Scripture; contradictory in them expected between sacred writers, who had every
selves; and often impossible in nature: that as the opportunity of information, and the annalists of
later writers, Diodorus, Strabo, Plutarch, are often another country, who neither had such advantages,
in complete opposition to the earlier historians, and nor were so deeply interested in the events.
complain of the repugnances with which they are The usefulness of the Arabic language, in the
every where perplexed, nothing can more strongly illustration of Scripture, has indeed long been

generally acknowledged; whilst the Persian, little this learned gentleman has attacked a province
studied by the learned, has hardly ever been con which I conceive it to be my duty to defend ; I
sidered as an auxiliary in this important point. Yet shall endeavour to remove some of the prejudices
when we reflect upon the intimate connection of which he may have created: as the errors of a
a great part of the history of the Jews with that of writer of uncommon abilities, who has laid down
Persia, it is difficult to account for this singular canons for future history, may have a more dan
inattention upon any ground, but the supposition, gerous tendency than the mistakes of inferior men,
that the old dialect of Persia is lost; and that the whom few read, and still fewer follow.
modern can give no assistance in remote inquiries. The chief points which Mr. Bryant means to
But this, as I have before observed, seems to be a establish, are, First, The universality of the deluge
surmise, unsupported by the slightest authority; from Gentile authorities. Secondly, The migration,
the pure Persian now in use being evidently of after the Babel dispersion, of a people whom he
very high antiquity; and apparently the chief lan calls Cuthites or Amonians, the descendants of Chus
guage in which any thing Persian, worth preserva the son of Ham. Thirdly, The Arkite ceremonials,
tion or recovery, has been written by the ancient with the general worship of the Sun and Fire, as
natives: however it may have been disguised under introduced by those people into the different
a variety of perplexing characters, which few have countries where they established colonies.
given themselves the trouble to consider with at Two great lines, our learned author observes,
tention. Should the Arabic and Persian languages marked, in particular, the Amonian character; the
ever become therefore, like the Greek and Latin, monuments and rites which they every where insti
objects of general education; and learned men, tuted, as memorials of the universal deluge; and
freed from the fetters of prejudice, be once brought the proofs they every where left of their idolatrous
to suppose, that Grecian and Roman information worship of the Sun and Fire. With regard to the
may sometimes be assisted or corrected by a judi first great event, I shall only observe, in general,
cious study of Eastern authors, many discoveries that the departing from the Sacred Writings, to
must evidently be expected; which may furnish a prove the destruction of mankind by Pagan autho
variety of useful clues to the dark labyrinths of rities, however laudable the intention, seems first
ancient mythology, history, and manners. to shake to the foundations the venerable fabric,
Amongst other learned men who, apparently and then to prop it with a bulrush. For, where
from an idea of their modern date,have disputed the recourse is had to feeble and imperfect evidence,
utility of the Arabic and Persian languages, in the a cause must ever be hurt in proportion to its
investigation of remote antiquity, is the ingenious failure. Yet, as if truth wanted the aid of fiction,
author of A new System or Analysis of Ancient My innumerable have been the attempts of the learned
thology; a work in which the novel ingenuity of to establish, by forced and unnatural construction,
the analytic system, the penetration and judgment a conformity between the early history of the
displayed in the refutation of vulgar errors, with Hebrews and the later fables of Greece, Egypt,
the new and informing light in which he has placed and other ancient nations. From the fragments of
a variety of ancient facts, leaves the learned world Berosus, Abydenus, Sanconiathon, Manetho, and
only to regret, that this classical writer had not, to other remote fablers, any thing, and every thing,
his singular knowledge in Greek and Roman litera may indeed be drawn, which a lively imagination
ture, added some tincture of the languages and can suggest ; but the working up of such strange
learning of the East. As there appears, however, materials into any circumstance descriptive of
to be an impropriety in any person's condemning Noah's deluge, shews a warmth of fancy highly
what he confessedly does not understand; and as prepared for the reception of every thing marvel.

lous; whilst, giving them all their utmost force, the subsequent observations more intelligible, it
they prove, at last, precisely nothing: for inge will be proper to give two extracts from the learn
nious men, if resolved to apply to profane materials ed author's preface, which will fully shew the
in support of Scripture, ought to go to mountain groundwork of his ingenious hypothesis. It is
ous districts, and to countries far removed from necessary for me to acquaint the reader that the
the possibility of natural inundations; they ought wonderful people to whom I allude were the
to consider Hindstn, and other quarters of the descendants of Chus, and called Cuthites and
world, where they positively refuse to believe this Cuscans: they stood their ground at the general
important era. Testimonies from such regions migration of families, but were at last scattered
would be far more conclusive than hundreds of over the face of the earth ; they were the first
volumes from Egypt and Chaldea. The periodical apostates from the truth, yet great in worldly
overflowings of the Nile, it is easy to imagine, wisdom; they introduced, wherever they came,
might have proved fatal to the first inhabitants of many useful arts, and were looked up to as a
Egypt, till experience had taught them to guard superior order of beings; hence they were stiled
against inundations; whilst the terror naturally Heroes, Daemons, Heliadae, Macarians; they
filling the minds of rude men, who, with difficulty, were joined in their expeditions by other nations,
had escaped a deluge in which their dearest friends especially by the collateral branches of their
had perished, might easily give rise to ten times family, the Mizraim, Caphtorim, and the sons of
more superstitious rites than ever investigation has Canaan. These were all of the line of Ham,
discovered in ancient Egypt. The same argu who was held by his posterity in the highest
ments will hold with equal force in regard to the veneration: they called him Amon; and having,
still darker glimmerings from Babylonia, where in process of time, raised him to a divinity, they
mounds, canals, and all the efforts of the ruling worshipped him as the sun ; and from this wor
powers for thousands of years, have not been able ship they were stiled Amonians.Most
to prevent the sudden desolation which the Eu ancient names, not only of places but of persons,
phrates and Tigris have often spread around. To have a manifest analogy; there is likewise a
advance, in short, as proofs of an universal deluge, great correspondence to be observed in terms of
such ceremonies as the processions of Egyptian science, and in the titles which were of old be
priests, with a boat and a strange figure, appears stowed upon magistrates and rulers. The same
to be equally unsatisfactory, as the demonstration observation may be extended even to plants and
of a general destruction by fire would have been, minerals, as well as to animals, especially to
from observations on the environs of Mounts those which were esteemed at all sacred ; their
Vesuvius or AEtna. names seem to be composed of the same or simi
The next point, in relation to the Cuthite or lar elements, and bear a manifest relation to the
Amonian worship of the Sun and Fire, I shall religion in use among the Amonians, and to the
consider with more attention; as the strongest deity whom they adored. This deity was the
arguments seem naturally to spring from the sub sun; and most of the ancient names will be
ject, to demonstrate the usefulness of the Arabic found to be an assemblage of titles bestowed
and the Persian languages, in relation to the his upon that luminary. In consequence of this, I
tory and mythology of ancient times; and show have ventured to give a list of some Amonian
convincingly, at the same time, that the most inti terms, which occur in the mythology of Greece
mate acquaintance with the literature of Greece and in the histories of other nations. Most an
and Rome will lead the greatest critical acumen cient names seem to have been composed out of
but a little way without such assistance. To make these elements; and into the same principles

they may be again resolved by an easy and fair doubts naturally arise. To the sun, as a mere as
evolution. I subjoin to these a short interpre tronomical body, or to the fire, as a simple element,
tation, and, at the same time, produce different few of them appear to bear the most remote rela
examples of names and titles, which are thus tion; and, in any other sense, descriptive of them
compounded. From hence the reader will see as objects of adoration, they might, with equal
plainly my method of analysis, and the basis of propriety, be adduced to authenticate the worship
my etymological enquiries. -
of the Egyptian onion, the Druid's oak, or the great
Thus has this learned gentleman created a people Arabian stone devil in the valley of Mina. For
to fill up every chasm of high antiquity, and to how far they may have been figuratively applied,
account for all the phenomena of early population, will prove only the traces of general superstition,
history, and superstition. As the Sacred Writings, without pointing either to the nature, origin, or
however, afford no lights to trace the wanderings votaries of any particular mode of worship; be
of this extraordinary family; and as all his glean cause great, glorious, and such epithets, which
ings from profane tradition might with equal force, some of those words imply, may have been indis
in the same ingenious hands, prove Confucius to criminately bestowed upon every stock or stone
be William the Conqueror, his proofs, d priori, which the folly of man has, at any time, thought
seem to amount to nothing ; the great weight of proper to treat with respect.
his evidence resting chiefly on the ground of ety The first of those particles which I shall take
mological deduction. Such being the station he notice of, is il or al. In Hebrew, Arabic, and Per
has chosen to controvert the systems of all preced sian, this word has many different meanings; and,
ing writers, and to fix the principles of all suc amongst others, signifies a god: but without the
ceeding history, it could have been wished, that least authority to suppose that it ever had any par
the most unquestioned strength had marked his ticular affinity to the sun. In a variety of instances,
fundamental axioms; that the definitions of his however, it is merely the Arabic article the ; as al
elementary particles had been precisely fixed; that ain, the fountain; al aur, the fire; Ain al shm,
the languages, whence he has drawn the meanings the fountain of Syria (not, the fountain of the sun);
he has annexed, had been distinctly specified ; al sayyid, the prince, &c. (and not the Saite prince).
and that not a doubt should have been left upon The deity El, Mr. Bryant says, was particu
the reader's mind with regard to the great basis larly invoked by the Eastern nations, when they
upon which this fabric stands. But on this leading made an attack in battle: at such time they used
point, assertion seems too often to have usurped to cry out El-el and Al-al. This Mohammed
the province of proof: of above forty radicals, a could not bring his proselytes to leave off, and
half at least do not appear to approach the senses therefore changed it to Allh. But this appears
he has given them; whilst misled by his ear and to have no foundation, and the learned gentleman
his eye, he has fancied analogies which the lan produces no proof. I have not been able to dis
guages will not bear, and drawn conclusions to cover that the Arabians ever entertained the least
which the premises seem completely foreign. partiality for El, as a divinity: nor is the name
One great endeavour of our learned author is to even to be found amongst the numerous idols
trace to his Cuthites the origin of solar and igneous worshipped by the different tribes; a circumstance
Worship ; and, in order to fix this theorem, he extremely improbable, had it ever been remark
brings forward a number of particles, which, he able as an object of their invocation. Allh, on
*YS, in ancient times signified the Sun or Fire, the contrary, is a word of much antiquity, and was
As he seldom mentions, however, in what parti certainly in use among the Arabians long before
cular idiom they were received in those senses, the era of Muhammad. I shall mention one un

questionable authority. The prince Amru'l Kays, ment necessary to prove that this was no introduc
a cotemporary of Muhammad, was one of the most tion of the Arabian lawgiver, the silence of the
celebrated of the Arabian poets, and the author Kur'n would alone, perhaps, be sufficient; for
of one of the famous poems formerly mentioned, had this cry ever prevailed, and had it ever been
called Muallakt ; which, on account of their su considered as an object of alteration by Muham
perior excellence, were hung up in the temple of mad, it must have been mentioned in that book;
Mecca. In this poem Allh occurs; where it never there being no point to which the prophet was
could have appeared, had it been an innovation of more strictly attentive than to introduce into it, by
Muhammad. Two reasons seem to be conclusive ; the pretended ministry of the angel Gabriel, every
first, The rooted aversion and contempt that prince innovation, however trifling, which he judged
ever entertained for the prophet and his religion, proper to make, in the religion, laws, and manners
which would have made him despise the idea of of his countrymen; in order to gain respect, and
adopting any thing originating from him ; and, secure obedience to his mandates, which, by this
secondly, The certainty that this poem must have device, he persuaded his followers were the imme
been written, and suspended in the Kaaba, before diate dictates of Heaven.
Muhammad's public appearance; or at least before On, or Eon, is said to be an Egyptian name of
he had obtained influence sufficient with the Ara the sun; and for this we have the authority of the
bians to make them depart from established usages; priest Manetho, as quoted by Eusebius and Theo
for after he had got that temple into his power, philus. I shall not dispute it, but only observe,
we find no more poems hung up there. To have that every thing relative to the old Egyptians is
admitted any thing indeed into that sacred fabric, so strangely involved in hieroglyphic darkness and
which supported not the new religion, would have absurdity, that we know little which bears the sem
been considered as a high profanation; and we blance of probability, with regard to their history,
cannot surely suppose that the productions of a their religion, or their language. The khins, or
professed pagan, a personal enemy to the prophet, priests, it appears, had a mysterious character of
and an open scoffer at the Moslem faith, should their own ; and as every expression of common
have met with that favour which was denied from sense seems to have been considered by them as
this period to all the world. Another proof that dangerous to their power, by removing the barrier
Allh was of old used for Omnipotence amongst of superstition from between them and the people,
the Arabians, may be drawn from the following symbols, which meant any thing and nothing, were
circumstances. The chief religion that prevailed used as the only medium of religious communica
in this country before the Muhammadan, was the tion. The rude and hideous hieroglyphics on their
Sabean ; which inculcated a belief in one Supreme obelisks have no analogy to those of any people in
Deity; in the stars and angels as his subordinates; the world; nor has inquiry fixed the most remote
and in idols, as their representatives. Of those resemblance between their sacred dialect and that
idols the principal was Allt, or Alihat (the femi of any adjacent state. To build therefore Syrian,
nine of Allh), whom they considered as the eldest Chaldean, or Phrygian rites, dignities, and cities,
daughter of God, and worshipped, in that charac on Egyptian foundations, appears, at best, a most
ter, with the highest degree of devotion. If the suspicious ground, and certainly very unfit to bear
Arabians had therefore any species of war-cry a superstructure of any magnitude."
before their prophet's era, it was probably either The etymological combinations and derivatives
Allh, which they still use, or Allt, their favourite from Ham, the son of the patriarch Noah, and the
goddess ; both of which are derived from a root supposed progenitor of the Cuthite family, are in
totally dissimilar to E!. Was any further argu troduced, in a variety of lights, as great authorities
D IS S E R TAT I O N. xxxiii

in support of the existence of this uncommon peo duces from Ham, seem, if possible, to be still
ple; and of the adoration of the Sun and Fire, more vague. The Hebrew and the Arabic differ
which they are said to have so universally propa remarkably in their formation from most other
gated. But on this head I have many doubts. tongues. In these the alphabets are divided into
Ham, in the Hebrew, as well as in the Arabic, is certain letters, which they call radicals, and ser.
spelt with a letter, the true pronunciation of viles. The first are as essential to the texture of a
which is a strong aspiration, resembling h in hound. word, as the head is to the human body; and,
Wherever Europeans have therefore written it excepting in position, must ever remain unal
Cham, it must apparently have proceeded either tered; conjugation, declension, with every species
from inadvertency, or to accommodate it to a of inflexion, derivation, and composition, being
similar sound in their own languages. The Ger performed by the intermediation of the serviles.
mans and Dutch, in particular, will ever adopt As these are placed not only at the beginning and
this mode, because they universally give ch a end of words, but also in the middle, the radicals
strong guttural pronunciation: but in English are consequently often separated, and they are
and other languages it seems to be wrong; as this sometimes transposed; but to omit any of those
Eastern word can never, with propriety, be pro indispensable letters, or to add a radical to a root
nounced like character, but precisely as hound already complete, is absolutely inconsistent with
above mentioned, or as Ham, the manner in which the genius of the tongues, and wholly destructive
it has been uniformly and judiciously expressed of the words: as either depriving them altogether
by the translators of our English Bible. The com of sense, or giving them meanings incompatible
binations in which hard ch or c is introduced, ap with the intrinsic significations of their themes.
pear, for these reasons, to have no natural concern Now the initial h in Ham is a radical letter : to
with the name of the patriarch; and must, if they remove it, is precisely removing the whole word:
have any meaning, be looked for in various and Amon, on those principles, can apparently have no
very distinct roots; though chance and corrup reference to the son of Noah; and every conclu
tion may possibly, after all, lay a stronger claim to sion drawn from the Amonian appellative of the
the far greater number, than the most ingenious Cuthite people, seems to be a foundation by far
analysis can trace to a more legitimate origin. It too slight to support the edifice which the learned
may be said, indeed, and with truth, that some gentleman has erected."
nations have universally given the hard sound of Ait, we are next told, is the Sun ; but still with
ch to this letter; the Italians in particular writing out mentioning in what dialect. Ait, in Hebrew
and pronouncing Muhammad Machomete. But and Arabic, signifies a sign, wonder, miracle, &c.
this is evidently a corruption: corruptions are and in this sense Ait-el (which, according to Mr.
not uniform; Persians, Syrians, Greeks, indeed Bryant, implies Deus Sol) may be rendered, the
all nations, corrupt differently. Yet Mr. Bryant wonderful God; and Ait-ur, the miraculous fire,
brings names from China to Rome, beginning with instead of the fire or heat of the sun. Athyr, one
hard c and ch, and all of them, he says, derived of the old Egyptian months, of Chaldean extrac
hom Ham but till it can be demonstrated that tion, which he derives from this combination,
See InS however to come from a different origin,
these various nations, dissimilar in almost every
Pint of view, are, nevertheless, uniform in their and to be the same with the Persian xir or sar,
"ole of corrupting foreign words, we shall hardly which signifies fire, lightning, the angel of fire; and
* induced to believe that those names challenge also a month, which corresponded anciently with
*" origin from one common radical word.Amon, March, and now with November. That the Chal
"Omanus, and similar names which he also de deans and Persians had many words in common,
xxxiv D ISS E R TAT I O N.

is unquestionable; whilst the difference of pro fied a lord, or san the sun or light. Ador may be
nunciation is nothing but what is usual in every translated in Arabic, the power of fire : but I
word where such letters are found; the Jews, the would rather suppose it to be the same as the Per
Arabians, and probably the Egyptians, giving sian car (fire) mentioned above; for, by the dif.
uniformly the hard sound th, dh, ds, &c. to those ference of pointing, or provincial pronunciation, it
characters which the Persians have ever softened may be sounded azor, azer, azyr, ador, &c. Sn,
into 2 or s. when subjoined to nouns in the Persian language,
As, is, or ees, is also said to be the sun. In implies similitude; adorsn or azersn signifies,
Hebrew, as undoubtedly denotes fire; and may, therefore, resembling fire, splendid, bright ; and
possibly, have been figuratively applied to the star consequently, it may, with propriety, have been
of day: I shall here confine my observations there applied as an epithet or attribute to a deity. Br
fore to some mistakes into which Mr. Bryant has snes, an ancient king of Armenia, is also said to
been apparently led by a similarity of sounds. denote brsn, or offspring of the Sun; yet still as
As, he says, is sometimes compounded with we dispute san's relation to the sun, it is impossible
itself, and rendered asas and azaz, and thence to admit it. Br, as an adjunct, denotes a country,
he draws a variety of conclusions, as if the combi as Malabar, Tranquebar, &c. it also implies great,
nations from asas or asis, and azaz or aziz, were elevated; and, in that sense, is often joined with
deducible from the same original: but Cicero and the name of God: sn signifies dignity, grandeur,
Scanderbeg are not more distinct than the roots honour, &c. A combination of such terms may
from whence they spring; the first implying, in naturally furnish good etymological grounds for
Hebrew, as before observed, fire ; and in Arabic, religious or royal titles, without any relation to the
a foundation, origin, first principle ; the other de sun : but I will go a little farther, and just hint,
noting glory, dignity, power, &c. whilst the initial that brsn may be corrupted from barzan or bar
letters are, at the same time, not only quite dif. zin, which in Persian denotes fire, a temple offire,
ferent, but s and 2, however interchangeable some a chief priest of fire; and absolutely the name of
times in other languages (as patronize, patronise; the reputed founder of the first temple of fire in
authorize, authorise, in English), are equally re Armenia; in which country, by Grecian as well
mote, in the Eastern dialects, from promiscuous as Eastern tradition, this mode of worship is said
use, as the most opposite sounding characters in to have originally commenced ; and to have been
the alphabet. Atish, fire, it may also be remarked, carried from thence by Zoroaster into Persia. As
can never possibly be derived from ad-is, the the king was often, at the same time, high priest,
radicals being totally irreconcileable; an objection the proposed etymology may not, perhaps, be al
that indeed may be made to the names of almost together ideal.
all the countries, temples, lakes, and fountains, Ast, asta, esta, hestia, signified, our learned
which, by combination, transposition, and fancied author says, the fire, or the deity of that element ;
analogy, he lays down, as originating from as or but still we are left in the dark with regard to the
ag.63 tongue. On this supposition, however, he disputes
San, son, zan, zaan, Mr. Bryant says, was the an etymology of Dr. Hyde with respect to Ista
most common name for the sun; but in what khar or Persepolis ; and I must venture to differ
Eastern dialect we are not informed. Upon this not only from both, but even from the Farhang
ground, he observes, however, that the Indian Jahngiri. The learned Doctor imagines this city
Hercules, or the Greek Dorsanes, was an abridg to have been named from a palace or temple hewn
ment of Adorsn ; which he interprets Lord of out of a rock; and derives it, in consequence,
light : but we have no proof that ador ever signi from the eighth conjugation of an Arabic verb,

which has a reference to stones. The derivation apparently in the Persian, to which alone we ought
is sufficiently vague in any point of view; but the to look for the etymon of a Persian metropolis: and
tracing it to an Arabic origin seems to destroy it this idea has accordingly been followed by the
at once. It is not till the seventh century of the author of the Farhang, who deduces it from a word,
Christian era, as before observed, that we are to which in that language signifies a large cistern or
look for the introduction of Arabic words into the tank hollowed out of the rock : but this derivation
Persian language; whilst Istakhar is a city of such appears also to be exceptionable; as every cir
high antiquity, that the origin is lost in uncer cumstance of likelihood will lead us rather to
tainty and fiction, King Jamshd is the historical imagine that the cistern, instead of bestowing a
founder of it: Romance carries it beyond Adam, name, received its own d posteriori from the
and ascribes it to Jn ben Jn, the king of the temple; to which it was not only inferior in impor
Genii: the one indeed may be as fabulous as the tance, but subsequent probably in point of time,
other, but they both incontestibly prove its extreme whilst the sacred application of its waters, to some
antiquity. To suppose, then, that the Persians, of the higher mysteries of their religion, might
who appear, in all ages, to have been remarkably soon cause the name universally to prevail, and to
attentive to give every place a name, in their own denote, in general, any similar reservoir of water.
tongue, expressive of some peculiar quality, or Having thus dissented from such respectable au
commemorative of some great event, should, on thorities, I shall now proceed to hazard two ety
the foundation of their metropolis, their chief mologies, which have at least the appearance of
temple, or their royal palace, have recourse to a standing upon a broader and more simple basis.
language they apparently knew nothing of, and Ist denotes a place, station, dwelling (from the
spoken by a people whose political consequence Persian verb istdan, to stand, remain, dwell); khur
could then entitle them to no superior respect, ap or kh'ar signifies the Sun : whence Istakhar will
pears equally visionary as hunting for the etymolo naturally imply, the place or temple of the sun.
gies of London or Paris in the dialects of China Ist, est, or ast, means also praise (from the verb
or Japan. Mr. Bryant is led to question this sutildan); and, in this sense, the combination of
derivation, but upon grounds, I am afraid, more these words will express praise of the sun : both of
refined than solid. I am entirely a stranger which interpretations seem to be unforced, and
(says he) to the Persic and Arabic languages: highly characteristic of the capital and chief temple
yet I cannot acquiesce in his opinion The of an empire, where, from time immemorial, the Sun
place, to be sure, is built of stone taken from a had been the great ostensible object of adoration.65
quarry or rock: but what temple or palace is Shem, shamen, and shemesh, we are next told,
not? This reasoning does not seem conclu are terms relative to the heavens and to the sun;
sive; for, were there not, even in England, number and here we have Hebrew authority: but every
less palaces and churches built of materials very conclusion the learned gentleman has formed, from
different from stone, the caprice of founders cannot the premises, is another demonstrative proof, how
always be accounted for; and he might, with the much in the dark the best judgment must wander,
same force of argument. dispute the existence of when building upon etymological definitions, with
Child tecchia, or Newcastle, because all cities must, out a knowledge of the languages whence the infor
in time, grow old, and every castle must have once mation should be drawn. Samos, Samothrace, Sa
been new. But the interpretation which this ob mora, and such like names, if they are of Eastern
jection is meant to introduce, stands upon a bottom extraction, must flow from very different roots,
" no means more substantial; for where does esta whilst the chief point he endeavours to fix, that
gily fire, and char a palace or a temple? Not Syria, from its name, was particularly devoted to
f 2

solar worship, falls to the ground; neither of the person may take when considering this temple. If
names, Shm nor Syria, having any reference to you view it towards the north, these countries are
the sun. Shm, by which that country is most undoubtedly found in the above positions; but
generally known to the Asiatics, is a root so little turning towards the south, they are reversed; and
connected with the Hebrew shemesh or the Arabic in the eastern and westerm directions they are
shams, that no inflexions of those languages can neither right nor left.With regard to Syria, I
ever possibly produce the most remote analogy. shall here hazard an etymology, which, whether
Shm, shmat, or Shmah, (and with the article ash it may be esteemed just or not, flows at least from
shm or ashshmah, implies black, a black mole upon the simple untortured meaning of the word. This
the face; the left hand, &c. and this last signification country has been ever famed for roses; the Damasc
is that which is in general received by the Ara rose is celebrated even by our English poets. Siiri,
bians and Syrians themselves; a name, they say, in Persian, denotes a species of this flower, beauti
this country obtained, at the same time that Ara ful in colour and delicate in smell: Sristn, or the
bia Felix was called Yaman, which implies the right land of roses, might consequently, with much pro
hand, the one lying to the right and the other to priety, have been given, by the Persians, to a
the left of the Kaaba, or temple of Mecca. This country which produced them in such perfection
is the derivation adopted, in particular, yet with and abundance. Stn or istn, the adjunct, is, like
some doubt, by the celebrated Sultan Abd, our shire, sometimes added, sometimes dropt; Frs
who reigned in Syria about the middle of the four or Frsistn, Siiri or Sristn being indifferently
teenth century; and wrote, in Arabic, an Univer used, as we say Wills or Wiltshire. Sgo is there
sal History, and a System of Geography. Upon fore pure Persian, with the Greek termination ;
this etymology, Mr. Bryant observes, Abulfeda and through this medium comes our Syria, substi
supposes, that Syria is called Sham quasi sinistra. tuting only y for the Greek v upon the same
* It was called Sham for the same reason that principles with other similar words adopted from
it was called Syria. Xvgo; yog Auog the same that tongue (as system from a 'gauz), the English
as Xilolog. Persae Xuan Deum vocant.Syria, pronunciation having no sound precisely corres
is called at this day Souristan. Souris, from ponding with the Greek ypsilon. Having had oc
* Sehor, Sol, Xsiglog of Greece. Buthere, instead casion to mention stn or istin above, it may not
of correcting one error, our learned author has be improper to point out some mistaken conclusions
made two ; because were there even such a word which Mr. Bryant has drawn from this termination.
in Persian, as above asserted, denoting the sun, Tin, he observes, signified a kind of high
the Asiatics would hardly write Sri or Sristn, altar; that it prevailed amongst the ancient
from the root Sehor; as h is a radical, and cannot Hetrurians; that it formed the compounds Nu
be dispensed with. Abulfeda's etymology ob mantinus, Palatinus, Aventinus; and that it ap
viously rejects the Sun: as a man of his learning pears to be the same with tin in the East, which
and penetration could not possibly have been per occurs occasionally in Mogulis-tn, Indos-tn,
plexed about the origin of his kingdom's name, had Pharsis-tn, Chusis-tn. In regard to the Roman
he seen any rational ground of derivation from that examples, it seems to be straining, to the utmost,
luminary; yet it must be confessed that the idea etymological refinement, to make any thing more
which he has followed, unless more exactly de of them than mere possessive adjectives; as these
fined, is by no means convincing; for neither names appear to have no more title to any mean
Yaman nor Shm appear to have any positive ing of mystery, than Alexandrine from Alexander,
relation in point of right or left to the Kaaba; legatine from legat; but with respect to the Asiatic
which must depend entirely upon the position a illustrations, which he has produced in support of
D ISS E R TAT I O N. xxxvii

this ingenious theory, they have positively not the artists admired it; and domes arose in distant
least foundation; neither tin nor lin, in this sense, countries consecrated to anything but gods. What
being even known in any Eastern dialect, as will be a noble field of critical investigation might not the
more fully explained in the notes." Pantheons of the Escurial and of London furnish,
As I apprehend enough will appear, in the therefore, to antiquaries, two thousand years hence;
foregoing observations, to point out the compre could we suppose, for a moment, the Pantheon of
hensive utility of the Arabic and Persian languages Agrippa to be forgotten, and the languages and
in every discussion of high antiquity ; and as this history of Greece and Rome to be then as com
preliminary dissertation is merely designed to pletely involved in darkness, as those of high
touch generally upon such topics as may have a antiquity are to the researches of modern times.
tendency to throw light upon the subject at large; Upon the whole, an able general will make ad
the bounds and intention of this sketch will not mirable dispositions even on bad grounds. Mr.
permit me to enter into a more minute investiga Bryant's arguments will ever command respect;
tion of Mr. Bryant's very learned and valuable but the stations he has chosen must, in my humble
work. Some slight observations on other particles opinion, baffle all his skill to defend. Without
will be found in the notes; and with them I shall, an acquaintance with those Eastern tongues, all
for the present, close my philological remarks. I analysis of Eastern names must be completely
wish, however, it may not be understood that I fanciful; for whilst numbers of words, which may
place any uncommon weight on the definitions be expressed perfectly alike in European charac
which I have any where offered, by supposing them ters, have roots and meanings totally different,
to be the positive origin of the proper names to others, which, in the eye of a stranger to the dia
which they are applied. My chief purpose has been lects, may bear no resemblance, will claim the
simply to show, that the significations brought from same radical origin, and possess little variation of
the Arabic and Persian languages are expressive ; sense. Widely differing, therefore, as those Eastern
and may easily, without violence, justify a possibi inflexions are from the genius of European tongues,
lity of their having been so employed. But I am it must be evident, even to those who have never
too sensible of the uncertainty which must always made them an object of study, that the same prin
accompany every similar conjecture, to consider ciples which might guide an inquirer through the
them on higher ground than points of mere etymologies of the one class, must, in general,
curiosity, and incentives to deeper investigation. palpably mislead his researches in the other. It
How many obscure circumstances, known only to will hardly be considered, at the same time, as a
the founders, have concurred in giving names to substantial ground of defence, for this ingenious
places? How difficult it is to determine whether gentleman, to advance arguments, similar to those
they were denominated from chiefs, from events, he has already used in respect to the Hebrew:
or from peculiar qualities of situation ; and how I do not, say she, deduce them (i. e. etymo
many have derived names from more ancient logies) from the Hebrew. And though there
structures, to which they bore a resemblance may have been, of old, a great similitude be
merely in some subordinate circumstance, that left tween that language and those of Egypt, Cutha,
not a ray to trace the great original meaning 2 and Canaan; yet they were all different tongues.
Innumerable examples might be brought; but I There was once but one language among the
shall confine myself to one obvious instance. The sons of men.Let it be admitted, that there
Pantheon of Rome was dedicated to all the Gods ; was one great original language, whence the
and its Grecian name was perfectly descriptive of Hebrew, the Arabic, and all the lost and living
the design. Its architecture was pleasing; future dialects of antiquity were descended; is it not
xxxviii D ISS E R TATION.

rational to conclude, that a considerable part of deriving every resemblance of customs, in one
those tongues, which still exist, did actually pre country, from the apparent counterpartin another.
exist in that aboriginal language; and that the In different quarters of the world, a similarity of
variety of lost idioms, which, in early times, habit has been discovered amongst people, in other
prevailed in Lower Asia and Egypt, were either respects wholly dissimilar; and mankind, in parallel
the immediate derivatives from that language, or situations, will often think alike, without the least
dialects of its most diffusive branches 2 Those communication of sentiment. We may not, at the
tongues in particular which Mr. Bryant mentions, same time, reason always justly, in looking only
if they ever did live, have certainly long since ex to the era of great events for the influx of novel
pired; where then shall we search for a discovery customs. We are stunned by the rolling of a tor
of their characteristic traces 2 where but in the rent, whilst the humbler stream glides unnoticed
Hebrew, in the Arabic, in the Syriac, in the Per by; and many circumstances may have been placed
sic 2 which were unquestionably spoken in the to the account of revolution and conquest, which
same or in the surrounding countries; and either possibly originated from simpler causes, and flowed
gave them birth, were derived from them, or in by less perceptible channels. How far the fol
claimed one common source. Can any stronger lowing theory may be found just, will depend
presumption be furnished of the truth or proba therefore upon its probable coincidence with the
bility of this position, with regard especially to the history and habits of mankind : in such remote
Arabic and the Persian, than the unconstrained inquiries we can hardly hope for more.
meanings, which have been brought from those Romantic fiction has long been considered as of
languages, for almost every radical particle, chosen Eastern origin; and, to fix the period of its intro
by this learned gentleman, as the basis of his duction into Europe, has given rise to many sys
system 2 Could this be the effect of chance? Is tems. The Saracen conquest of Spain, and the
it not a striking proof of their antiquity and utility? Crusades, have been chiefly built upon ; and the
And do not such etymons carry far more forcible hypothesis of Oden's flight from the Euarine to Scan
conviction to our understanding, than dark and dinavia, has of late been adopted, by an intelligent
unsatisfactory derivation from unknown tongues 2 and pleasing writer, to account for its early pre
A system of evidence, which proves either too valence amongst our Gothic ancestors. It is cer
much or nothing at all; for if one writer is allowed tainly evident that not only romance, but many
to roam through the regions of fancy, and fix customs and modes of thinking, apparently Asiatic,
arbitrary interpretations to a favourite class of were found amongst those fierce invaders, before
words, another and another have an equal right; their irruption into the Roman empire; yet, as
and every ingenious critic may then, like Archi there is no probability in the tale of Oden, I shall,
medes of old, require only some transmundane after assigning a few reasons for refusing my assent
station on which to rear his engines; in order to to this wonderful expedition, hazard some conjec
shake to pieces the reason of man, as that famous tures on the channels through which those charac
Syracusan boasted he could have dome our globe, teristic Eastern manners may possibly have flowed
had another world been found on which to fix his into our Western regions.
great mechanic powers. - Many learned northern antiquaries, from tradi
To touch slightly on the extensive subject of tions in old Runic poems, and other suspicious
Eastern manners, and to trace, in a few instances, materials, have framed a historical system with
their probable influence on those of modern Eu regard to their great hero Oden; which though
rope, will now be the subject of a short inquiry. evidently intended to heighten the character of
I am sensible that we may refine too much, by |
that famous Scandinavian lawgiver, proves the
, DISS E R TAT I O N. xxxix

most severe of satires. Oden, they say, was the known ; barren, bleak, and of a severity of climate,
chief of a Sarmatian tribe, inhabiting the banks of which, even now, with all the advantage of culti
the Lake Meotis ; or, according to others, the vation, must chill to inaction the constitution of a
country between the Euxine and Caspian Seas, Southern Asiatic * Would it not have been flying,
now called Gurjisln or Georgia ; who, terrified at at the same time, from the mere echo of war, to
the progress of the Roman arms, after the defeat encounter difficulties almost insurmountable 2 To
of Mithridates by Pompey, abandoned his country, have pierced to the frozen latitude of Scandinavia,
at the head of a great body of his people, and over mountains, and rivers, and seas; through
settled in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other woods, and marshes, and hardy savages; implies
Scandinavian districts; where he laid the founda a degree of persevering intrepidity, widely differing
tions of that power, which, in after ages, over from that abject timidness which first induced
whelmed the Roman empire. But if the Palus them to fly. There is a striking difference, let it
MeOtis is fixed as the dominions of Oden, even the be remembered, between emigration and flight;
din of war could hardly have reached his ear; between the enthusiasm and animation which must
whilst the impression made upon the countries possess a body of adventurers departing in quest
between the seas was too slight to have alarmed of plunder and new discoveries, and the trembling
the most effeminate of nations. Pompey was but fugitives from imaginary alarms. A fearlessness
a short time at Colchis: Mithridates had fled before of danger will distinguish the first ; a wretched
his arrival. The conquest of that country was not despondency will mark the others. Yet in this
his object: he had more important views. He tale, those opposite characters must have been
left it almost immediately, and marched against found in the same people; and Oden and his tribe,
Tigranes into Armenia. The Iberians and Al from despicable cowards, must suddenly have been
banians, the old inhabitants of Georgia, instead of transformed to paragons of heroism. But Nature
flying, laid many ambuscades to harass him. On rejects the idea, and History should reject it too.
the defeat of Tigranes, he returned to chastise those We err when we take it from the province of
people for daring to insult the Roman arms. They romance. We ought to consider it in the light of
again opposed him; but afterwards sued for peace; a mere Scaldic fable, invented to trace the origin
which he granted, without any severity of condi of Gothic and Roman enmity; as the far more
tion, Pompey proceeded immediately against the probable fiction of Dido and neas was supposed
Syrians and Medes; and we hear of him no more to account for the irreconcileable antipathy be.
in those parts. The Romans, unlike the barbarian tween Rome and Carthage. The epoch of the
invaders of their empire, who marked their route expedition seems, at the same time, to bring Oden
with desolation, though an ambitious, were by no too far down. He is celebrated as a deity in
means a cruel enemy. A nominal obedience to the Runic odes of very ancient date. The Gods of
Senate was often all they required, from those dis every barbarous country are generally carried up
tricts in particular which skirted their dominions; to the highest periods of society. The era of this
and protection was ever the reward of submission. personage, whether real or imaginary, must ap
Whence then could originate a terror so dreadful, parently be of more remote antiquity. A mere
* to frighten a people not completely pusillani modern would hardly have been the object of such
mous from a country hardly attacked; capable of early and enthusiastic worship.
great natural defence; intersected in various direc The great officina gentium, whence such my.
tions by rugged mountains and extensive forests ; riads of barbarians have at different periods poured
and hurry them from the mild latitude of 42, to into the more cultivated regions of the earth,
the degree of 57 north: a region to them un appears, with every probability, to have been

Tartary; though our greatest writers, following their numerous wars with the Trnians beyond
Jormandez, the Gothic abridger of Cassiodorus, the Jihn. China and Hindstn have often felt
have looked only to Scandinavia, and the northern their fury. Whilst Changiz Khn and Tamerlane,
parts of Germany, for those bodies of fierce war at the head of their bold and hardy subjects, ap
riors, who, in the early ages of Christianity, over proached nearer to universal monarchy than any
turned the government, and changed the manners conquerors of ancient or modern times.
of Europe. The Tartars, Scythians, or Trnians That the West must have been the object of
(under which general names the historians of Tartar invasion, as well as the East and South,
different nations have comprehended the inhabi there can be little ground to question. These
tants of that immense tract, stretching from 53 to people possess, as we may observe, the whole in
180 east long, and from about 39 to 80 north terior almost of the Asiatic and European Conti
lat.), have from the oldest times been remarked ment. In a constant state of action and re-action,
for a roving, irregular, martial life. People, whose history informs us, that they have burst repeatedly
riches centered in cattle, who wandered for pasture upon every adjacent country. Like subterraneous
from district to district, could in consequence vapours, when rarefied beyond a certain degree,
have no attachment to a spot. That amor patria, they have at times acquired a great expansive
so conspicuous in the Hottentot, in the Laplander, force; and the violence of the explosion in one
and in the wild inhabitant of every barren rock, part, would be generally in the ratio of the resist
has never been discovered in men of this descrip ance in others. In the vigour of the Roman and
tion. Attached to his tribe, and glorying in an Persian powers, they were often repulsed from their
extensive line of ancestors, the natale solum is to frontiers; but they would not always return. With
the Tartar an object of the most perfect indif. out success, without plunder, that would have
ference; and to abandon it, in the company of his been an indelible disgrace. They might then have
friends, a circumstance rather of choice than regret. struck to the West or to the North, where, finding
These great outlines have accordingly marked the countries more thinly peopled ; and the few inha
operations of this extraordinary people from the bitants, not only strangers to the art of war, but
most ancient times. Without those restraints on unprotected by fortified towns, the opposition they
matrimony, which are found in more civilized com might encounter would in general be insufficient
munities, their numbers had naturally a prodigious to check their progress. Yet meeting with no rich
increase; and as they despised the idea of cultivat spoils in those countries, which could give a
ing the ground, the same extent of country which splendour to their expedition amongst their coun
could have maintained thousands of husbandmen, trymen, they would often be induced rather to
was found often insufficient for hundreds of roam settle in their conquests than to go back : and as
ing pastors. Emigrations alone could remedy this there would be sufficient territory for the invaders
inconvenience. A celebrated warrior had only and the invaded, enmity would soon give way to
to proclaim, therefore, his intention of invading intermarriages and social intercourse. The old
some neighbouring state or more distant country. inhabitants would adopt by degrees some of the
He was immediately joined by the chiefs of many manners and beliefs of the Eastern strangers: and
hordes. Chance, oftener than design, might shape these, in return, falling in with habits and ideas
their course; to the south, to the north, to the east, peculiar to the aboriginal people, a few generations
to the west: for every quarter of the globe has at would maturally incorporate them, and form in
different times been the theatre of Tartar establish time those various nations, known by the names of
ment or plunder. The ancient annals of the Per Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Pranks; whose roaming,
sians are entirely employed in commemorating rapacious, Tartar genius, became afterwards con


spicuous in the destruction of the Roman empire. similar are grouped together under one indiscrimi
No solid objection, it may be here observed, nate character, merely because they are known in
against those ancient Tartar invasions, can be built Europe by one general name; whilst, among their
upon the silence of history; as this silence is the numerous nations, a difference of character may
natural consequence of the unlettered manners prevail, not inferior perhaps to that which marks
both of the conquerors and the vanquished; and an Englishman from a Frenchman, a Hollander from
whilst the shocks were too remote to be felt in the a Portuguese.
more civilized states of Europe, we cannot hope Nothing in nature can be more opposite than
to find them in their annals. Tartary, China, or the civilized Arabian of Mecca to the ferocious
Tonqueen, may possibly, even in the present plunderer of the Desert ; and the citizen of Samar
times, be the theatre of mighty revolutions un kand has few features in common with the Tartar
known in Europe; and it is a most undoubted fact, wanderer in the Northern wilds: yet even the great
that Changiz Khn, who subdued almost every Montesquieu compares those people without dis
country in the world to the eastward of the Eu tinction; and draws conclusions, which are by no
phrates, was dead many years before the acciden means supported, from their manners, their govern
tal curiosity of Marco Paolo, who visited the court ment, or the geography of their countries. In some
of his grandson Coblai Khn, in the year 1260, parts of Tartary there are large and flourishing cities,
made Europe acquainted either with him or his fertile plains, and noble rivers: in others, deserts,
dominions. mountains, marshes, and forests ; yet, amongst
From the researches and opinions of many other positions, he says, They have no towns;
northern antiquaries, the Scandinavian Goths are they have no forests, and but few marshes:
discovered to have been early composed of two their rivers are almost always frozen, and they
distinct bodies of people: the first aborigenes; the dwell in an immense plain. These are positive
other strangers: who are said to have possessed a assertions; and they are all equally groundless as
degree of refinement, civilization, and science, far positive: but Montesquieu is here endeavouring
superior to the older inhabitants. Frequent allu to support a system ; and system is dangerous even
Sions are made to their Asiatic origin; their dress, to the soundest reasoner. Can a region, contain
their manners, their language, being in general ing above twenty millions of square miles, watered
distinguished by some epithet descriptive of su by such rivers as the Jihn, the Sihn, the Selenge,
perior elegance. It may possibly be objected, that and the Aumur; boasting such cities as Samarkand,
refinement and a Tartar are ideas extremely re Bukhr, Kshgar, and Kara-corum ; clustered
Pugnant, yet everything of this kind is merely com with forests; broken into mountains ; inhabited
parative; and the more savage inhabitant of the by many different nations; distinguished by every
North, who never till then knew a luxury of dress variety of soil, superficies, and climate, be called,
higher than the skin of an animal which he had with propriety, one immense plain ; or correspond,
killed, may easily be supposed to have admired in the most remote degree, with Montesquieu's
Whatever was, even in a small degree, superior to description ? The conclusions drawn, too, are as
his own. But, in fact, the dress and equipage of vague as the premises are unsubstantial. The wild
the Tartar chiefs have ever been, in general, un Arabs are a race of roaming thieves ; the wild
commonly splendid; and few circumstances seem Tartars, in this professional line, bear a pointed
to have been less attended to, by some of our resemblance of character. Between these, to sup
greatest writers, than a proper distinction between port an hypothesis, he wishes to find a political
the ruder and the more polished people who fill contrast. The Arabs are free ; and he derives
the immense extent of Tartary. Men totally dis their freedom from their rocks : the Tartars he
xlii D ISS E R TAT I O N.

chooses to make slaves, and he gives them an im and antiquaries, whose object has been less to
mense plain. Yet if there is a being on earth, who trace its origin than to mark its influence, have
enjoys every species of irregular liberty, it is the uniformly attributed this great foundation of the
wandering Tartar. He is obedient to his chief in jurisprudence of modern Europe to the military
every circumstance of war : but there submission policy of the Northern nations ; and seem in
ends. general rather to have considered it as a conse
Every observation, indeed, on the habits of those quence of their situation, after their conquests,
roving, daring people, strikingly displays their love than as existing previous to their irruptions. It
of liberty, and their similitude of character with the appears not only to have formed, however, their
old Gothic nations. Their aversion to the culture great system of polity before the grand invasion,
of the ground; their pastoral life; their idleness; but to have flourished in the East with much
their eagerness for plunder, and martial excur vigour in very early times.
sion ; with many customs and beliefs, clearly In Persia, Tartary, India, and other Eastern
Eastern : form all together a chain of internal countries, the whole detail of government, from the
proofs, stronger perhaps than direct historical as most ancient accounts down to the present hour,
sertion. By many northern writers, they are ac can hardly be defined by any other description.
tually distinguished from the more ancient inhabi We observe, in general, one great king, to whom
tants of Scandinavia by the epithet of Orientals ; a number of subordinate princes pay homage and
and nothing can surely approach nearer in resem tribute; all deviation from this system seeming
blance than the original northern invaders of the merely temporary and accidental. Possessed of
Roman states, and those inundations, immediately every essential power of royalty, the degree of de
jrom Tartary, who, under the names of Alans and pendence of those secondary kings, we find, has
Huns, led by the famous Attila and other bold ever been proportioned to the vigour or imbecility
chiefs, overwhelmed the empire, towards the close of the paramount sovereign : for where no solid
of the fourth century, and gave a final blow to the code of constitutional laws prevails, the brilliant
chains of Roman servitude.
or disgraceful periods in the history of a people
Should the foregoing observations, with others will generally depend upon the genius of one man.
which will naturally arise in the further discussion A great monarch will give to the component parts
of the subject, furnish arguments of sufficient force the appearance of one despotic whole; whilst the
to support the above hypothesis, we shall easily approaches to disobedience will ever be propor
account for one great channel, through which tioned to the weakness of administration. Con
many circumstances, originally Eastern, penetrated stantly recurring, however, to first principles,
to the Hyperborean regions: where, with such every variation of Oriental rule presents only, to
shades of variation, as might naturally be expected our alternate view, an overgrown empire, feebly
from a difference of climate and temperament, governed, crumbling into independent kingdoms;
they sowed the seeds of that style of manners, which and independent kingdoms again uniting, to form
finds nothing similar to it in the characteristics of . the empire of some more fortunate and enterprising
Greece and Rome.77 sovereign. -

The feudal system, which was introduced and A general view of the histories of Eastern
diffused over Europe by the conquerors of the nations would, perhaps, sufficiently support the
Roman power, produced, in a civil light, an al above positions; but I shall venture to offer a few
teration in laws, government, and habits, no less particular authorities. The more ancient facts, it
important than the dismemberment of the empire may be observed, like every remote event, will not
by their arms. Our greatest lawyers, historians, admit of positive proof; but in tracing manners

or modes of government, absolute historical or a period too remote for human research. With a
chronological precision is by no means requisite. wonderful predilection for their own ancient man
The actions of one prince may be imputed to ners, they have a peculiar and invincible antipathy
another; anachronisms and misnomers may abound; to those of Europe. They are so opposite to their
and the achievements of twenty warriors may swell genius, to their hereditary prejudices, and to every
the renown of one hero ; but no writer will at idea political and religious, that no instance can be
tribute to his nation customs and ideas of govern produced, perhaps, of one single custom originally
ment, to which they or their ancestors were European having ever been adopted by any Asiatic
strangers; and against which the opinions of nation : the Turks even, whose vicinity exposes
his fellow-subjects must instantly and loudly them most to Western innovation, preserving still
revolt. When uncommon and great innovations unchanged that remarkable distinction of character
happen in the customs of a country, writers are which they possessed before they crossed the Bos
careful to trace their origin, to fix their introduc phorus of Thrace. On this ground, therefore, I
tion, and to observe their influence." But when give no anecdotes as unquestioned truths: they
circumstances, however interesting, are simply are mentioned by Asiatic historians; and I offer
mentioned, without particular observation or com them simply as beliefs in original customs. We
mentary, we may rationally conclude, that such may not subscribe to the apparition of Caesar's
customs are of high antiquity: and no more de ghost before the battle of Philippi; but we may
serving of special animadversion than the general rest assured, that it had not been recorded by
complexion, configuration, or temperament of Plutarch, unless consonant to the opinion of the
their countrymen. The rise and progress of the people.
feudal system is marked : it was an exotic plant; About 800 years before the Christian era, an
and it has, of consequence, engaged the attention usurper called Zahhk, we are informed, reigned
of our ablest antiquaries. But in the East it is in Persia. His government was oppressive, and
indigenous, universal, and immemorial : and the became at length insupportable. The citizens of
Eastern historians have never dreamt of investi Ispahn flew to arms, and, headed by a black
gating its source, any more than the origin of regal Smith named Ko, attacked, defeated, and killed
government. Both have long been to them equally the tyrant. Ko, after this victory, discovering
familiar; and the first extensive monarchy gave the retreat of Faridn, the heir to the crown,
probably a beginning to the first dependence of placed him on the throne; and received, in re
feudal chiefs. It may be thought, too, that ex turn, Ispahn, with its dependencies, as a feudal
amples of this, or any other custom, brought from principality. What truth may be in this remote
events, subsequent to their introduction into Eu event it is impossible to determine ; but it is a
rope, can be no corroborative proof of their sub generally recorded fact, that the blacksmith's
sisting in the East, previous to their appearance apron, said to have been displayed by Ko, when
in the West. But the least attention to Oriental marching against Zahhk, as a banner, from the
manners will clearly show, that the characteristic point of a spear, was taken by the Arabians at the
hibits of those people, even at this hour, are, in battle of Kdissia, when they conquered Persia in
Very respect, similar to the most remote accounts: the year 636. It had been laid up in the treasury
"or have we ground to believe, that (the Muham of the Persian kings, and was enriched with jewels
madan religion and fire-arms excepted) there is to a prodigious value. It was considered as the
ne single custom, peculiar to the Persians, the great standard and palladium of the empire; and
Arabians, or the Tartars, of the present day, was never carried to the field but on important
which did not prevail amongst their ancestors at emergencies, or when the king marched in person.
g 2

Rustam is a hero whose prowess is highly cele his great general Thhir; where he soon after
brated. He is equally the favourite of history and became independent, and founded the dynasty of
romance ; he was a successful general under the Thhirians. Similar grants were made or extorted
first kings of the Kaynian dynasty; and received, from succeeding Caliphs ; so that, partly by gift,
in reward for his services, the provinces of Sijistn partly by usurpation, the Caliphat, from the mid
and Zbulistn, as feudal appanages on the crown dle of the ninth century, till its dissolution in the
of Persia, on the condition of marching a body of year 1258, was in fact one immense feudatory
forces, as the exigencies of the state might require; empire; where every Sultan acknowledged the
but particularly to repulse the inroads of the superiority of the Caliph ; but, like the great
Tartars. Babylonia, Syria, Assyria, and Media, feudal chiefs in Europe, paid him just that degree
as formerly observed, seem to have been merely of obedience which each judged consistent with
feudatory kingdoms of the old Persian empire. his own interest. A similar system prevails to the
Alexander the Great divided the Eastern pro present hour in Hindstn, through a regular
vinces of Persia amongst the princes to whose gradation of Sbahs, Nabobs, Fawjdrs, Killadrs,
families they had originally belonged. On this and other subordinate chiefs, who all consider the
occasion they received a banner from the hands of Great Mogul as lord paramount of the empire.
the conqueror, paid homage, and engaged to In the Ottoman government there are many re
maintain a certain number of troops, upon a foot markable traces of the feudal system, especially in
ing (says the author of the Trkh-i Muntakhab) the Khn of the Crim Tartars, in the Wayvodes
somewhat resembling the military vassals of the of Moldavia, Wallakhia, and other European dis
Ottoman empire, called Sanjacs and Timrs. These tricts; in Algiers and other Barbary states; in the
princes are called by the Muhammadan writers Sharf of Mecca; in several Shaykhs or princes of
Mulku'lTawy(kings of the nations); and are by Syria ; as well as in the military fiefs, which,
some considered as a particular dynasty, between under the titles of Sanjacs, Zayms, and Timariots,
the Kaynians and the Ashknians, commonly are bestowed with the express condition of sup
called Arsacides by Europeans. They strictly porting bodies of men, but especially of horse,
performed, it is added, their feudal engagements ready to take the field at the order of the Sultan.
to Alexander; but on his death, as the Grecian In Tartary we see it strong. Temujin, after
commanders seized upon the Western kingdoms, wards distinguished by the more celebrated name
they also assumed an independency in their re of Changiz Khn, was the son of a chief who had
spective provinces. This account seems highly several feudatories; yet he himself held of Tho
probable; as the successors of Alexander, accord grul, the Khn of Kara-cum, better known by the
ing both to the Eastern and Western writers, soon name of Prester John. Thogrul, though a prince
lost all sovereignty to the eastward of the Tigris. of great power, was still subject to the emperor
The Tubba, or king of Arabia Felix, was the of Katha, the paramount of Tartary; who, ac
acknowledged paramount sovereign in very old cordingly, in the true feudal style, summoned him
times of a number of tribes. Most of the provinces with his arrire vassals to assist in quelling a
of Arabia on the Persian gulph, with those stretch dangerous rebellion. Thogrul, attended by young
ing towards Babylonia, held of the Persian kings Temujin, obeyed; a decisive victory was gained
of the Sassnian dynasty; who often appointed, over the insurgents; in which both behaved with so
feudatory princes on the death or misconduct of much gallantry, that the emperor created Thogrul
their predecessors. The Caliph Almamiin gave Vang Khn, which is a high royal title; and gave
Khursn, which he himself held as a feudal Temujin a considerable command in his army.
sovereignty under his father Harn Arrashid, to When Temujin, by his success and abilities, had

risen to a great degree of power, about the year four walls, made of the tragacanth-tree, where he
1205, a grand council of the Tartar nations as lived twelve months. A feudatory prince of
sembled. Nine of the chief Khns appeared at Hart, called Pir Ali, being suspected of a design
the rendezvous, each attended by his vassals; to revolt soon after Tamerlane's inauguration, was
they displayed nine large banners of command; cited to appear before the general assembly: he
they placed Changiz upon an eminence, with a evaded the summons till he had fortified his
piece of black felt-cloth under his feet. The capital; upon which a decree was passed similar
speaker of the assembly addressed him: he recog to the ban of the empire in Germany; and Tamer
nized him as emperor in the name of the whole; lane being desired to reduce him to obedience, he
and told him, if merciful and just, that God would was accordingly put to death in consequence of
prosper his government; if not, his person and this sentence. It is needless to multiply examples:
memory would become black and despicable as the but it may not be improper to observe, that those
felt on which he stood. A prophet called Cokza, general meetings, called Krillay, bear so near a
and surnamed the Image of God, declared that he resemblance to the diets of the Gothic nations, that
had received a revelation from heaven, ordering a strong additional argument may thence be drawn
Temujin to take, from that time, the name of to support the hypothesis of the early Tartar
Changiz, which signifies the most great. The establishments in Germany and Scandinavia.
Khns then advanced and paid him homage, bend Changiz and Tamerlane, powerful and despotic as
ing the knee nine times; the nobles followed; and they were, held many of those diets. The Great
then the body of the people, making the same Khns, though generally chosen from the sons of
number of genuflections, proclaimed him emperor the late sovereign, were elected by them ; and
with loud acclamations. We find some variation primogeniture was of little consequence. Changiz
of ceremony in the inauguration of Tamerlane in Khn, for example, nominated his second surviv
the year 1862: he mounted a magnificent throne; ing son, Octay, as his successor; but though un
he wore a brilliant crown; he girded himself common deference was paid to the will of a man
publicly with his sword; his feudatory princes whom the Tartars almost adored, the new em
acknowledged his sovereignty by a profusion of peror was not acknowledged as such, till the meet
precious stones which they showered over his ing of the great assembly two years afterwards ;
head; whilst a holy man put into his hands a where, upon his expressing some reluctance to
drum, and a standard, as the insignia of imperial accept of the imperial dignity, his elder and
authority. younger brothers, Jagathay and Tli, taking him
Every thing in the histories of those princes is by the hands, installed him on the throne, and
indeed completely feudal. Before their great ex saluted him Khn. Olug Nuvin, the youngest of
peditions, we find them issuing orders for the of Changiz Khn's sons, as master of the house
attendance of their great vassals, with their con hold, presented him with a cup of wine; and all
tingents of troops; and we also observe a constitu the people, making nine genuflections to their
tional parliament, or meeting of estates, who, sovereign, and three to the sun, hailed him em
amongst other privileges, claimed that of trying peror.
great offenders. Artok Buga, one of the grand It may not be unworthy of remark, that the
sons of Changiz Khn, having revolted against his situation of Olug Nuvin is a curious instance of a
brother, the emperor Coblai Khn, was at length singular custom long prevalent in Tartary, as well
defeated; but Coblai did not punish him, till he as among the Northern nations; and even to be
had called an assembly of the states; where he found in our old Saxon tenures, under the des.
Was tried and condemned to be shut up between cription of Borough English; where the youngest

son succeeds to his father in preference to his what was formerly in common, to avoid disputes,
elder brothers. Sir William Blackstone, after would then be portioned off. A wish to defend
mentioning the opinions of Littleton and other this property from new inroads might soon pro
eminent lawyers, in regard to the origin of this duce a more permanent and solid system of subor
strange custom, conjectures, with great judgment, dination ; and the more irregular feudal ideas of
that it might be deduced from the Tartars. the Tartars, improved by territorial possession,
Amongst those people, the elder sons, as they pave thus, by degrees, the way for that more re
grew to man's estate, migrated from their father fined system, so peculiarly adapted to the situa
with a certain portion of cattle; and the youngest tion of settling invaders; which, in the fifth and
son only remaining at home, became in conse following centuries, almost universally took place
quence the heir to his father's house, and all his in Europe.
remaining possessions. Changiz Khn had, agree Next to the feudal system, and other maxims
ably to this idea, given to his four eldest sons of civil government, which regulated the property
great governments and great offices; but Olug and politics of the middle ages, few speculative
always attended his person. During the interval subjects are more worthy of our attention than
of forty days, therefore, from the meeting of the those novel ideas of supernatural beings, which
great Tartar assembly, till the installation of Octay ruled their minds with most resistless force. The
Khn, this youngest brother seems to have been universal belief in various orders of superhuman
acknowledged by him and the other princes as creatures, has prevailed in many parts of Asia long
lord of the family: he was a kind of public ad before the era of authentic history; and such com
ministrator during this interregnum; and presented plete possession have they taken of Eastern ima
the Great Khn with the cup, on his enthrone gination, that the most serious, as well as the most
ment, as the highest token of Eastern hospitality fanciful compositions, are filled with perpetual
which the master of a family can show to a guest. allusions to those imaginary beings. To under
In the above outlines, we can observe several stand Homer, we must have a previous knowledge
strong traces of Gothic government. We can of the dignities and attributes of the Grecian
perceive the ruder draughts of states-general, of deities: to comprehend the writers of the East, we
parliaments, of juries; and, in the circumstances should have an acquaintance with the mythology
of the electors and elected, some striking features and popular beliefs of Eastern nations. For this
of that system which still unites the great Ger purpose, I have thrown into the Dictionary slight
manic body. We can see, in the bent of national sketches of what seemed most peculiarly Asiatic;
genius, the strongest marks of wild freedom, with and shall here bring those remarks under one point
a regular gradation of military vassals; and al of view ; with such additional observations as
though, in their own country, from a general at could not, with propriety, find any alphabetical
tachment to pastoral life, fiefs, or possessions in place, or which may appear necessary to illustrate
land, formed no part of Tartar jurisprudence or and connect the whole.
property; yet when they settled in the West, a The fabulous Asiatic ages stretch far beyond the
difference of situation would naturally suggest creation of man. They suppose the world to have
an alteration adapted to it. The more steady been repeatedly peopled by creatures of different
temper of the native Scandinavians and Germans formation, who were successively annihilated or
would modify the roaming Scythian spirit ; a banished for disobedience to the Supreme Being.
superior attachment to a particular spot would An Eastern romance introduces the hero Kahramn
naturally arise; as the country became more po in conversation with the monstrous bird or griffon
pulous, ground would become more valuable; and Simurgh ; who tells him that she had already lived
D ISS E R TAT I ON, xlvii

to see the earth seven times filled with creatures, and became from that time the friends of mankind.
seven times a perfect void; that the age of Adam Hris, with his chief followers, were cursed by
would be seven thousand years; when the race of God, and doomed to a long period of torment in
man would be extinguished, and their place sup the infernal regions; but the other Dives were al
plied by beings of another form and more perfect lowed to range over the earth, as a security for the
mature, with whom the earth would end; that she future obedience of man. The residence of those
had then seen twelve great periods of seven ideal beings was imagined to be on the mountain
thousand years, but was denied the knowledge of of Kf; which in the East was long supposed to
the duration of her own existence. Those beings, surround the earth, as a ring does the finger; the
who inhabited the globe immediately before the globe being fancied to rest on one great emerald
creation of man, they call Paris and Dives; and or sapphire; the reflection from which gave the
they form a perfect contrast. The Paris are de azure appearance to the sky; whilst its movements
scribed as beautiful and benevolent; and though were productive of volcanoes, earthquakes, and
guilty of errors which had offended Omnipotence, all the convulsive phenomena of nature. The
they are supposed, in consequence of their peni whole of this visionary country is called Jinmistn;
tence, still to enjoy distinguished marks of divine and the respective empires are divided into many
favour. The Dives, on the contrary, are pictured kingdoms and cities. Those of the Paris bear the
as hideous in form, and malignant in mind; dif. names of Shdukm (pleasure and desire), Jawhar
fering only from the infernal demons in not being abd (the city of jewels), Amberbd (the city of
confined to hell ; but roaming for ever around the ambergris): and the metropolis of the Dives is
world to scatter discord and wretchedness among called Ahermnbd (the city of the principle of
the sons of Adam. In the Paris we find a wonder evil); where the enchanted castle, palace, and
ful resemblance to the Faeries of the European gallery of the Dive king Arzshank is the subject
nations; and the Dives or Genies differ little from of much fable. The Paris and Dives are supposed
the Giants and Savages of the middle ages: the to be formed of the element of fire: they live long,
adventures of the Eastern heroes breathe all the but are subject to death ; and though possessed of
wildness of achievement recorded of the knights superhuman powers, have in many respects the
in Gothic romance; and the doctrine of enchant sentiments and passions of mankind. They wage
ments, in both, seems to claim one common incessant war; and when the Dives make prisoners
source. The various creatures who preceded of the Paris, they shut them up in iron cages, and
Adam, were supposed to have been governed by a hang them on the highest trees, to expose them to
succession of seventy-two Sulaymns ; the last of public view, and to every chilling blast. Here
whom is surnamed Jn bin Jn. This monarch they are visited by their companions, who bring
had offended Omnipotence; and the angel Hris them the choicest odours. Perfume is the only
was sent from heaven to chastise him. A war food of the Paris; and whilst it serves as nourish
ensued, which terminated in the defeat of the ment to the captives, it has also the virtue of
pre-adamite king; and Hris governed in his room. keeping at a distance the insulting Dives, whose
But this angel becoming also intoxicated with malignancy of nature can endure nothing fra
Power, Adam was created ; and all the earth grant.
ordered to obey him. Hris, composed of the When the Paris are in danger of being over
element of fire, scorned submission to a clay-form powered by their foes, they always solicit the
d creature: he rebelled against the divine will, assistance of some mortal hero; which furnishes a
and wasjoined in his revolt by the Dives; but the wonderful fund of fanciful machinery for Eastern
*is acquiescing in the mandates of Heaven, poetry and romance. To put the knight on a
xlviii D ISS E R TATION.

footing of prowess with those gigantic Dives, he sidered as the Hercules of Persia, among many
is in general armed with enchanted talismans, and other Dives, dragons, and enchanters, whom he
mounted on some tremendous monster. One of destroys, kills a demon called the Dive Sapid; and
the most famous adventurers in Faery-land is Father Angelo mentions having seen a stupendous
Tahmras, an ancient Persian king. The Paris monument in the midst of a plain, near the city of
honour him with a splendid embassy; and the Fehelion, between Shustar and Shirz, cut into a
Dives, who dread him, send also another. He quadrangular fortification, with such regularity,
consults the griffon Simurgh; she speaks all lan that it has the appearance of being formed of one
guages, and knows future events; she councils entire stone.
him to aid the Paris, informs him of the dangers This Dissertation would swell, however, to a
he will encounter, and gives him instructions how disproportioned bulk, were I to enter into a detail
to proceed; she offers her assistance to conduct of the various wonderful adventures with which
him to Jinnistn; and, as a token of friendship, the Eastern poems and romances abound. I give
pulls some feathers from her breast, with which he these few outlines, merely to show the general
ornaments his helmet. He then mounts the prevalence of romantic ideas in Asia: but especially
Simurgh; and, armed with the buckler of Jn bin in Persia, the great classic ground of Eastern fic
Jn, crosses the dark abyss, which mortals cannot tion, and the centre whence it seems to have spread
pass without supernatural assistance. He arrives to almost every surrounding and distant country.
at Kf; he defeats Arzshank, and also another So singular indeed is the resemblance, in number
Dive, still more fierce, called Damrush, whose less instances, between the wild imagery of this
residence is described as a gloomy cavern, where style of fabling, with that which prevailed in
he is surrounded by vast piles of wealth, amassed after-times in Europe, that we must either suppose,
by plunder. Here Tahmras, amongst other rich in the writers, a wonderful coincidence of luxuriant
spoils, finds a fair captive, the Pari Marjn, whom imagination, or conclude that the West must have
the Dive had carried off, and her brothers had borrowed from the East. I shall not insist upon
long searched for in vain. He chains the vanquish Turpin's Twelve Peers, upon the Armorican,
ed demons in the centre of the mountain, sets Mar Spanish, and other European romances, where the
jn at liberty, and then, in the true spirit of knight similarity of features is irregularly striking; but
errantry, flies, at the Pari's request, to the attack even in the nobler works of Ariosto, Tasso, and
of another powerful Dive, called Hdkunz; but Spenser, we can discover the counterpart of all
here Tahmras falls. In the Shh-nmah the cele their fanciful machinery in the fictions of Persia.
brated Rustam, many ages afterwards, engages the The Ipogriffo, on which Astolo flies to heaven;
Dive Arzshank, who had escaped from the chains and the magic ring of Bradamant in Orlando
of Tahmras, and kills him, after a fierce battle. Furioso ; the many-headed monster of Duessa, and
Arzshank is there painted with a body somewhat the shield of Prince Arthur, in the Faery Queen ;
human, and the head of a bull, which Rustam with the various enchantments of Armida and
strikes off at a blow. The Dive Munheras is Ismeno in Gierusalemme Liberata ; may all be
wounded with an arrow in the mouth by Gershb, traced to Oriental origin; whilst the Pari Marjn
the last king of the Pshddian dynasty; and he is has much the air of being the Faery Morgain, who
afterwards put to death by Suhrb the son of conveyed away our King Arthur, after the battle of
Rustam. In the first encounter he has the head Camelon; and with whom, according to the old
of a hog; but in the next he is pictured as a British romances, he now resides in Faery land
bifrons; one resembling the head of a lion, the with great happiness and splendour.
other that of a wild boar. Rustam, who is con Some ingenious writers have considered this
- D IS S E R TATION, xlix

species of fiction as originating among the Ara we must conclude, upon the best grounds, where
bians; but there are many reasons for believing such words are not to be found, and metaphorical,
that it was absolutely unknown to them before the or exotic expressions, appear to be the only sub
era of the Hijra, and that they did not adopt that stitutes, that the ideas described by those words
mode of writing till long after the Persian conquest. are not indigenous, but adopted from foreign
Muhammad, as before observed, was uncommonly nations; and as the Arabians have no terms, in
alarmed at the first romantic glimmerings, which their tongue, radically expressive of any thing
were brought from Persia by the merchant Nasar, superhuman, excepting angels and devils, romance,
He was afraid lest the minds of his countrymen whose characteristic genius rolls entirely on a
should be more strongly impressed with those peculiar and distinct species of machinery, could
wildly pleasing tales, than with the doctrines of the not apparently have originated in Arabia.
Kurn; and he accordingly reprobates those Exclusive of the universal belief in the fanciful
foreign figments, as abhorred by God and the Pari system, which may be called the mythology of
prophet. The warriors, who figure in Faery-land, romance, the ancient Persians appear in general to
are all ancient Persian kings and heroes. The have acknowledged one Supreme Being, and to
Arabians have not even a word in their language have paid a high degree of veneration to angels, as
expressive of the greatest beauty of Eastern subordinate deities. This, with a respect for the
romance, the Pari; and although Jin is now used stars, was the great doctrine of the Sabean religion,
synonimously with Dive, yet its proper and original which prevailed of old in Persia, Arabia, and other
meaning was merely an infernal fiend, a being very Eastern countries. As these angels are not only
distinct from the romantic inhabitant of Kf. The frequently alluded to in Eastern authors, but
same observation will hold with regard to the most throw considerable light on the detail of private
uncommon monsters, who seem all to be natives life, a few observations upon them may not be
of Persian fancy; the words used by the Arabians, unuseful.9%

to express the Persian Simurgh, Ouranabd, or When Ormuzd, or Omnipotence, created man
Ralshah, as well their dragons and other machinery kind, the Persians suppose that he gave, at the
of romance, having in general simple radical signi same time, the superintendency of the world, and
fications, expressive of creatures which really exist, of every thing animate or inanimate, to certain
and seem only to have been figuratively applied to guardian angels. Though man was the peculiar
those imaginary monsters in later times. A large charge of the Supreme Being, yet all his actions,
serpent, for example, is transformed into a dragon; and every accident to which he was liable, were
an eagle, or a long-necked animal, represents the still imagined to be, in a great measure, dependent
imurgh; a dangerous or inhuman villain is turned on the influence of the presiding angel. Every
into a giant, a demon, or any terrifying appear circumstance of public or family-concern had, in
ance; and a word, expressive of a dreadful consequence, their favourite times; established
Calamity, or sudden horror, which deprives people ceremonies were observed with anxious attention;
of their senses, is metaphorically converted into a and various public festivals were appointed, to
Species of monster, supposed to haunt woods, conciliate the benevolence of those ministers of
church-yards, and other lonely places; and not heaven.

nly to tear the living to pieces, but to dig up and To procure the favour, or command the service
devour the bodies of the dead. As the language of beings, who were supposed to be the cause of
tin of every people will always be observed to the felicity or misery of man, was a natural wish;
abound in radical words, expressive of every kind and some there were who pretended to possess this
f imagery which has been long familiar to them, power. Hence the origin of charms, of talismans,

and of all the armour offensive and defensive, of en children, or animals, is performed with much pre
chantment. In the rudest times, there will ever be cision and solemnity. Yet real knowledge might
found men, who are better versed in the arcana of originally have given rise to what the views of the
nature than the uninformed multitude. A love of artful, and the superstition of the ignorant, after.
ease, and an aversion to pain, are the great laws of wards perverted to the purposes of folly. An in
nature, and the mind is perpetually fluctuating be telligent observer might discover, that certain
tween a wish for the one, and a dread of the other. plants had their juices in high perfection at parti
To pretend boldly therefore to a power of bestowing cular seasons; that some should be gathered at
happiness, or removing misery, hardly ever failed, sun-rise, when moist with dew; others at the
in the days of ignorance, to gain a man believers; meridian, when under the influence of mid-day
and he seldom found difficulty in interesting the heat. He might imagine that the external appli
passions of the people, provided he could by any cation of medical herbs, of mineral substances, of
means impose upon their senses. An attention to tufts of hair or wool, whilst impregnated with the
the principles of mechanism, to the operations of effluvia or perspiration of the animal, might have a
chymistry, to the virtues of plants, and the various salutary effect in various ailments; and experience
laws of nature, might produce discoveries incom would confirm the justness of his conjecture. But
prehensible by simple men; and a few remarkable the million, ever unable or unwilling to investigate
instances of the efficacy of mere natural causes, natural causes (especially when impressed with a
would easily gain the possessors of those secrets conviction that every distemper and every mis
the reputation of inflicting torment or command fortune proceeded from the operations of male
ing pleasure at a wish. To enjoy the reputation volent spirits, or the fascination of malignant eyes),
and advantages of those fancied supernatural would impute the cures which such applications
powers, was not enough. Some pretended to have performed, not to the essential qualities of their
the art of communicating them to others: necro compounds, but to supernatural agency and un
mancy became of course a regular study; and the essential ceremony. They applied them, in con
people at large, who could not aim at such occult sequence, without distinction, not only to the old
sciences, were happy to supply their want of and to the young, to the sick and to the healthy,
knowledge by the purchase of talismans, amulets, to the brute creation as well as rational beings; but
or charms, in whose virtues they placed a perfect placed even things inanimate under their protec
and most wonderful confidence.94 tion. An ass's head, cabalistically prepared, and
Talismans and amulets have long engaged the erected on a pole in a garden or field, was sup
attention of Eastern nations, and accurate rules posed to be an effectual defence against fascination,
have been laid down for their construction. The and a consequent scarcity of produce; whilst a
gem, the chrystal, the metal, or other substance, talisman, buried along with hidden treasure, was
is ordered to be dug, or searched for, when some imagined to put it in perfect safety, by rendering
particular angel rules the day. It must be pre it invisible to every eye but those of the owner.
pared or engraved under the influence of another; Nothing is indeed more common in the East than
and the zamzamah, or prayer of a third must be pro the burying of treasure; and it took its rise from
nounced over it, to give it that mysterious virtue that unsteady system of government which has in
for which it is esteemed. Different ceremonies general prevailed in those countries. Ever ap
are necessary in gathering the herbs and flowers; prehensive of revolution and ruin, a rich man
in cropping the hairs of camels, sea-cows, or other generally divides his estate into three parts: one
animals of which the amulets are formed; and the he employs in trade, or the necessary purposes of
suspending them round the necks of men, women, life; another he invests in jewels, which he may

easily carry off, if forced to fly; and the third he Muhammadans, the lunar computation was in
buries. As he entrusts nobody with the secret of troduced, and it is still attended to in matters of
this deposit, which he guards with his talisman, if religion; but about the year 1072, the Persian
he dies before he returns to the spot, it is then lost calendar was again reformed by the great Sultan
to the world; till accident throws it in the way, Malikshh Jalluddin, and continues now to be
perhaps, of some fortunate peasant, when turning adhered to in several parts of Persia. This prince,
up his ground. Those discoveries of hidden whilst he removed the sun from Pisces to Aries,
treasure, and sudden transitions from poverty to made also an alteration in the position of the months
riches, of which we read in Oriental tales, are by under the idea of restoring the ancient mode
no means therefore quite ideal; but a natural con fixed by Jamshd. From those changes, however,
sequence of the manners of the people. there has arisen a disagreement amongst the dif.
To understand the machinery of angels, it will ferent writers, with regard to the seasons and days,
be proper to make some previous observations on when several festivals were celebrated; which,
the ancient Persian era, with which they are were it of consequence, it would be difficult to re
intimately connected. This was supposed to have concile; it being probable that, in later times,
been established by king Jamshd, one of the different provinces solemnized them upon the days
Pshddian princes, the date of whose reign seems which corresponded with the respective eras they
too uncertain even for conjecture; though some had adopted; and that some ceremonies were
judicious writers place him about 800 years before perhaps introduced by the Muhammadan princes
Christ. On the day when the sun entered Aries, which were unknown in ancient Persia.9%

he is said to have made his first public entry into Every month was supposed to be under the
Istakhar, or Persepolis, which he had just finished; guardianship of an angel, from whom it received
and to have ordered the era to commence from its name. The subdivision by weeks was not
that time, in honour of the sun, and to com known till later times; but every day had also a
memorate the building of his capital city. He ruling angel of a subordinate degree: the superior
divided the year into twelve months, of thirty angels having each a day, in their respective
days each, to the last of which they afterwards months, which was observed with more than
added five supplementary days, to make up the ordinary attention. Their festivals were, in con
whole 865. No attention was, for some time, sequence, numerous, and many of them uncom
paid to any intercalation similar to our leap-year; monly splendid. I shall slightly touch upon such
till astronomers, observing, at length, that the as seem most worthy of notice. The chief were
sun, at the beginning of the year, had made a those about the equinoxes; the next were those
retrograde motion from Aries to Pisces, inserted of water at Midsummer, and of fire at the winter
one month at the end of every 120 years, which solstice. The first was the Naw rz, which com
they celebrated with one continued festival. menced with their year in March, and lasted six
Yazdajird, the last king of the Sassnian dynasty, days, during which all ranks seem to have parti
reformed the calendar; and his era is adopted at cipated in one general joy. The rich sent presents
this hour in many parts of Persia, particularly by to the poor: all were dressed in their holiday
the Parsees of Kirmn, and by those of Guzerat in clothes; all kept open house : and religious pro
Hindstn. But all do not agree in the epoch of cessions, music, dancing, a species of theatrical
commencement; some dating it from the beginning exhibition, rustic sports, and other pastimes, pre
of Yazdajird's reign, A.D. 632 : some from his sented a continued round of varied amusement.
defeat at Kdissia in 636; and others from his Even the dead, and the ideal things, were not
death in 651. On the conquest of Persia by the forgotten ; rich viands being placed on the tops of
h 2
lii D ISS E R TAT I O N.

houses and high towers, on the flavour of which seem whimsical, though others had apparently an
the Paris and spirits of their departed heroes and excellent political tendency. One of the most
friends were supposed to feast. The Parsees of ludicrous appears to have been that which they
Guzerat still celebrate the last ten days of the year celebrated about the vernal equinox, called Ksah
as a festival to departed spirits. The first five mishin. This was an old beardless one-eyed figure,
days they suppose the souls of the blessed to hover representing winter on his departure, mounted on
three bow-shots above the earth; and during the an ass or a mule, with a crow in ohe hand, and a
five last they imagine, that not only they, but the scourge and fan in the other. In this manner he
damned also, visit their surviving friends; on paraded the streets, followed by all ranks of people,
which account, to give them the best reception, from the royal family to the beggar. Amongst
their houses are purified and decked out to the many frolics which the populace played with the old
greatest advantage. During these ten days they man, they sprinkled him alternately with hot and
never go from home.The festival of Mihrgn cold water; whilst he, crying out garm, garm,
lasted also six days: it began about the middle of (heat! heat!) sometimes fanned himself, and some.
September, and was celebrated with some unessen times lashed histormentors. He had the privilege
tial difference of ceremony, both being in honour of going into every shop, and into every house;
of their great ostensible deity, the sun.In June where the least delay in presenting him with a
they solemnized the Abrzgn, in honour of the piece of money, gave him a right to seize the
element of water; to which, as well as fire, they effects of every trader, and to bespatter the clothes
paid a high degree of respect. It lasted only one even of the greatest nobles with a mixture of ink,
day; during which all degrees of people sprinkled red earth, and water, which he carried in a pot by
one another with pure water, or with distillations his side. But all were prepared for Ksah at their
from roses, orange-flowers, and other odoriferous doors; and their offsprings were made the moment
herbs.In December, on the shortest night of the of his approach. What he thus received, from the
year, was the great festival of fire, called Shab beginning of the cavalcade to the first hour of
sadah ; when their temples were illuminated, and prayer, was paid to the king, or to the gover
large piles of fire blazed all over the kingdom, nors of those cities where the sovereign did not
round which the people entertained themselves all reside ; a circumstance which seems evidently
night with choral dances, and various amusements to point to a superstitious origin ; for, upon any
peculiar to the season. Amongst other ceremonies other ground, the whole of the poor creature's
common on this occasion, there was one which, collections could be no object to men of their
whether it originated in superstition or caprice, elevated rank. From the first to the second
seems to have been singularly cruel and pernicious. hour of prayer, the amount of the receipts was
The kings and the great men used to set fire to the property of the old man ; and here his pa
large bunches of dry combustibles, fastened round geant ended. He then suddenly disappeared:
wild beasts and birds; which being then let loose, for after this time, the first person he met in the
the air and earth appeared one great illumination; streets might severely beat him with impunity.
and as those terrified creatures naturally fled to the The next festival, solemnized in April, called
woods for shelter, it is easy to conceive that con Khurram r2, is in a different style, and appears to
flagrations, which would often happen, must have have been founded upon the rational principles of
been peculiarly destructive, where a people con good government, as it tended to give dignity to
sidered the extinguishing of fire, by water, as one a most useful and respectable body of men. The
of the highest acts of impiety. king dined in public, and the chiefs of the farmers
There were many other festivals; some of which had the honour of sitting at table with him; when
D ISS E R TAT I O N. liii

their sovereign addressed them in words to the guardian of the fair sex, who, on this occasion,
following effect: I am one of you; my sub enjoyed very singular privileges. They were
sistence, and that of my people, rests on the vested with almost absolute power. The husbands
t labour of your hands: the succession of the race complied, to the utmost of their ability, with all
of man depends upon the plough ; and without the commands of their wives; and the virgins,
you we cannot exist. But your dependence without offence to delicacy, might pay their ad
upon me is reciprocal : we ought therefore to dresses to whom they pleased; and they seldom
be brothers, and to live in perpetual harmony. sued in vain. Numberless marriages were in con
In the month of December they held a festival in sequence solemnized, and many engagements
honour of deceased friends, images of whom they made ; the angel being supposed to shew remark
formed in paste, which they placed where many able favour, not only to the nuptials then cele
streets or roads met: they made offerings to them, brated, but to all the contracts entered into during
treated them with great respect, and then burnt his gay festival. An institution which seems to
them with much solemnity.In the same month bear some resemblance to the ancient gallantry of
was the ceremony of driving the Dives from their Valentine's day in Europe.
houses. For this purpose the Magi wrote certain An attention to those observances, as well as to
words with saffron on parchment or paper, and fortunate days, fortunate names, and every cir
then smoked it over a fire, into which they put the cumstance of supernatural influence, we find, in
horn of an animal killed on the 16th of September, deed, was by no means confined in the East to the
cotton, garlick, grapes, and wild rue. The spell, lower orders of men; the greatest, and the most
thus prepared, was glued or nailed to the inside of learned, appearing to have been impressed with a
the door, which was painted red. The priest then belief equally strong with that of the meanest and
took sand, which he spread with a knife, whilst he the most ignorant. An Asiatic setting out on im
muttered over it certain prayers; and then strew portant business, would return if he met a person
ing it on the floor, the enchantment was complete; whom he supposed to have a shm kadam (a black
and the Dives were supposed immediately to or unlucky foot); or if he saw a deer descending
vanish, or at least to be deprived of all malignant a mountain, or appearing at his back. When a
influenceThe 5th of February was considered married man took a long journey, it was common
as the proper day for clearing their dwellings of for him to twist, in a particular manner, two
Scorpions, a much more serious evil than the Dives. branches of the broom called ratam : if on his re
With this view, they pasted on three of the walls turn he found them as he left them, he was per
of the house small slips of paper, called Nawishta-i fectly satisfied of the fidelity of his wife; but if
Kazshdum, inscribed with magic characters, none any accident had unloosed or discomposed them,
being struck upon that in which was the gate-way. nothing could induce him to believe her inno
After various ceremonies, the door was opened, cent.-As in those countries the crops were often
when those noxious animals generally disappeared; destroyed for want of rain, amongst other cere
which they attributed entirely to the virtue of the monies which they supposed had virtue to procure
spells; whilst the sprinkling of their habitations it, they tied some combustibles to the tail of a
with compounds offensive to those creatures, and bullock, especially of the wild breed, to which
other preparatory steps, were only considered as they set fire; and if he then ran up the hill, they
secondary causes. But the most romantic of all looked upon it as a certain prognostic of rain.
their festivals seems to have been the Mard-girn, When a Persian peasant thought his corn was too
telebrated in February, in honour of the presiding long in winnowing, he took a kind of bastard saffron,
Angel Isfandarmuz. He was considered as the called bd-angz, which he rubbed; and throwing

it in the air, the wind was expected immediately to of Changiz Khn, having been surrounded by the
spring up. Kathay or Chinese army, would have been cut to
Astrology, divination, and the interpretation of pieces, had he not ordered one of his magicians to
dreams, were fashionable studies with men of rank; turn summer into winter. The conjurer accord
and they in general carried with them, wherever ingly began his operations, and continued them
they went, pocket astronomical tables, which they for three days, when he brought down such a
consulted, as well as astrologers, on every affair storm of hail and snow, that the Khn of Kathay's
of moment.Amru, one of the greatest and most army, clothed in silken garments and thin stuffs,
penetrating of the Arabian generals, after having being unable to move, were slaughtered without
subdued part of Egypt, and other countries, sat resistance."
down before Jerusalem ; and had almost reduced Chivalry, or knight-errantry, has ever been so
it to a surrender, when he was told by an astrolo intimately connected with enchantment, that be
ger, that the predicted conqueror of the Holy City fore we leave this subject, it may not be improper
had only three letters in his name. Struck with to make a few remarks on such traces of it as may
this, Amru, suspended his operations, and sent a be discovered in the East. The peculiar ideas
messenger immediately to his master, the Caliph and habits of a people, as I have often had occa
Omar, whose name in Arabic consists only of three sion to observe, may be seen in their poems and
letters; and upon his arrival in the camp, the town romances, with a precision not inferior to their more
instantly capitulated. Tamerlane seldom marched serious and moral writings; as a poet of true genius,
till the astrologers fixed the lucky hour; and an though he may ascribe to his heroes more virtues
idiot having once thrown a breast of mutton at and fewer faults than are to be found in the im
him, precisely at the time he was meditating the perfect nature of man, will, at the same time,
conquest of Khrazm, sometimes called the breast ever copy the living manners of the present or
of the world, he interpreted it, before all his army, former times.Single combats in the Shh nmah,
as an infallible omen of his success. Much good and other Eastern works of fancy, are innumera
policy, as well as superstition, may possibly, in ble.Asfandiyr was one of the most famous war
deed, have been at the bottom of Tamerlane's con riors in ancient Persia: he challenges, fights, and
duct; as it must have highly animated his troops, kills Arjasb, the son of Afrsib, king of Trn;
who were constitutionally impressed with the most but being sent by his father against the famous
powerful ideas of omens, spells, and every species Rustam, after a single combat, which lasts two
of supernatural belief; a most cruel proof of days, he is killed by the blow of a mace; Rustam
which their ancestors had given, when they over having discovered that he had a charm which ren
ran the Caliphat in the thirteenth century: for dered him invulnerable to spear, sword, or arrow.
many of the Muhammadans having a custom of Rustam has several duels with his own son Suh
carrying about them verses or chapters of the rb, whom he did not know : in the last of which he
Kurn, by way of preservatives or charms, the unfortunately kills him.Those heroes are armed
Tartars considered all they met, with such papers, with complete coats of mail, plumed helmets,
as enchanters, and put them to death without spears, swords, maces, and shields, with daggers,
mercy. The Tartars have ever, indeed, been so bows, and arrows. Their armour, and the trap
strongly impressed with the idea of enchantments, pings of their horses, are uncommonly splendid;
that we meet with strange details in some of their and their mode of attack seems in every shape to
most authentic writers. Abi'lghz, king of Kh have been exactly similar to the tiltings of knight
razm, who writes a genealogical history of the Tar errantry; excepting in the circumstance of the
tars, very gravely tells us, that Tli, one of the sons bow and arrow, which appears to have been chiefly

confined to the infantry, after chivalry became a about the year 1228 against the Georgians: when
regular institution in Europe.A famous combat a truce having been agreed upon, in order to ad
is mentioned by all the Persian writers, and seems just, if possible, terms of accommodation, the great
to be founded on historical fact, between twelve men of both armies sent mutual defiances, and
chosen warriors of Persia, and twelve of Tartary. many combats were fought. Jallud'din, dis
The armies of Kay Khusraw and Afrsib were guising himself like a private knight, entered the
drawn up in battle array. To save the effusion of lists; when a well-mounted Georgian appeared
blood, this combat was proposed; the success of against him ; but, at the first career, he unhorsed
which was to fix the boundaries of the hostile em him, and successively three of his sons who wished
pires. The Persians gained the victory, chiefly to retrieve the family honour. A champion of
by the prowess of Rustam; and the Tartar king uncommon size then approached : he was sur
immediately abandoned all the territory to the named Pil-afgun (overthrower of elephants); his
southward of the Oxus. Kwun, one of the Per blows fell with such force and rapidity, that Jal
sian champions, seems to have been a knight lu'd'din, apprehensive lest his horse should fly off,
errant; for he was surnamed Razm-khh, one who or sink under him, sprung to the ground, and
goes in search of adventures.Among the Ara aimed his lance with such address, that he pierced
bians, nothing was more common than challeng the Georgians forehead, and extended him lifeless
ing to single combat. The Caliph Ali, and others, on the ground.
furnish many examples.Mention is also made of Many other circumstances which accompanied
two famous Arabian knights-errant, one called Ab the institution of chivalry in Europe appear to have
Muhammad Albatal, who wandered every where in been long familiar in the East. Tournaments,
quest of adventures, and redressing of grievances. throwing the javelin, armorial bearings, and, above
He was killed in the year 788. The other was a all, that respectful attention to women which
great grandson of the Caliph Abbakar, named formed no part of the national character of the
Jaffar al Sadik, who died in the reign of Almansr, Greeks or Romans. The exercises of the jaridah
in the year 764.In an imperfect manuscript, and the kan were favourite amusements with the
which has neither beginning nor end, I met, by young warriors: they darted them at the ring
chance, with the following anecdote of Jaffar al dariat, and they tilted or threw them at one
Sadik. This warrior, who was equally eminent another. The Arabian conquerors of Spain carried
for his piety and extensive knowledge as for his re the custom into that country; where, under the
nown in arms, was invited to court by the Caliph description of festas de las canas, it is celebrated in
Almansr, that he might profit by his counsel. the Romanzes, as one of the highest public enter
Jaffar returned for answer, Whoever has a view tainments which the gallant Moors gave in honour
Only to this world will not give you sincere ad of the ladies. One cavalier was the public chal
vice; and he who regards the next, will not lenger or Mantenedor; he run at the, ring, or
keep you company. tilted with all who entered the lists. Gold chains,
That mode, which prevailed in Europe, of the jewels, and other rich ornaments, were the prizes:
knights of hostile armies challenging one another but the most valuable of all was, the picture of the
to single combat, during a truce, was very com Mantenedor's mistress, which was placed in a con
mon in the East. I shall give one remarkable in spicuous part of the field, and surrounded by the
stance. The gallant Sultan Jallu'ddin, whose fa portraits of those of the vanquished knights. The
ther Muhammad, king of Khrazm, was driven ladies, in galleries which surrounded the lists, were
from his dominions by Changiz Khn, having af. generally witnesses of the address, strength, and
terwards recovered part of his kingdom, marched fortune of their admirers.

...The attention of the Arabians and Tartars to the ful, they retired; if unprepared, they surprised
fair, sex seems indeed to have been conducted them; if of equal or inferior force, they attacked
upon such principles of delicate sensibility, as them : and one battle was for the most part deci
would hardly be expected from that fierceness of sive. A young warrior returning after a short
temper for which they have been characterized; absence, and laying his laurels, his captives, and
yet the great lines in the manners of those people his spoils, at the feet of his mistress, would, in
may nevertheless, in some measure, account for general, woo with success; and he whose gallant
it: their attachment to pastoral life, ever favour intrepidity had saved his tribe from rapine and
able to love, with many circumstances peculiar to captivity, would ever be a favourite of the fair.
their roving habits, would frequently produce such When the flower of any tribe were absent upon a
situations, as might greatly heighten that elegant distant enterprise, some hostile neighbours would
regard for the sex, which distinguishes refined af. often attack those they had left behind ; and hence
ection from brutal impulse. Many tribes are often arose perhaps the custom of the Arabian women,
encamped together; and the young men of one even the highest rank, attending their husbands,
fall naturally in love with the damsels of another. fathers, and brothers, in their military expeditions;
In the midst of their courtship, the heads of the and of fighting often with a degree of heroism not
tribes suddenly order the tents to be struck : one inferior to the fabled achievements of the ancient
goes to the right hand, the other takes the left. Amazons. We have many instances of the fortune
The lovers are separated, perhaps never more to of the day having been restored by them after the
meet; and if we can draw any conclusions from men had fled; but none more remarkable than the
their elegies or their language, those separations famous battle of Yamk, fought in the year 636,
have been often fatal. Dying for love is con which proved decisive of the fate of Syria, and of
sidered amongst us as a mere poetic figure; and the Greek empire in the East. The Grecians
we certainly can support the reality by few ex greatly out-numbered the Arabians, and their
amples; but in Eastern countries it seems to be onset was so impetuous, that they drove them to
something more ; many words, in the Arabic and their tents: there the fugitives were stopt by the
Persian languages, which express love, implying women, who alternately encouraged and reproach
also melancholy, madness, and death." ed them : they threatened even to join the Greeks;
The military ideas, which prevailed in old and one of their bravest officers appearing disposed
Arabia, seem also to have been peculiarly calcu for flight, a lady knocked him down with a tent
lated to promote a romantic attention to the fair pole, saying, Advance, Paradise is before your
sex. A long cessation of hostilities was painful to face; fly, and the fire of hell is at your back!
the Arabs: their arms were often turned against The chief women then took the command, and
the neighbouring countries, and caravans of tra made head till night parted the combatants. The
vellers, but oftener against each other. Captives next day they led them again to the attack, a
and plunder were the chief objects; and the women young lady named Khawl, sister to one of the
were considered as most valuable spoils. To pro principal commanders, acting as general. In
tect them became in consequence a great point of leading the van she was beat to the ground by a
honour. Those predal wars, in whatever light we Greek; when Wafayr, one of her female friends,
may view them, were considered as highly honour striking off his head at a blow, brought the heroine
able in Arabia; and no man was thought in any off. Animated by the noble behaviour of the
shape accomplished, who could not boast, in them, women, the Arabs soon became irresistible, and
some feat of arms. Their expeditions were in ge routed at length the Grecian army, with the loss,
neral short. If they found the enemy too power it is said, of 150,000 killed, and about 50,000

prisonersThe Arabian women were, in general, took pains to encourage their ruling passions. No
excellent archers; and they watched every op prince was ever more generous to those who
portunity of revenging the death of their husbands, served him well: yet he knew the secret of keeping
their fathers, their brothers, or their lovers. The even the richest dependent on his bounty; and
governor of Damascus, a man of uncommon abili luxury was the master-key. War and the ladies
ties and courage, killed with his own hand, in a he knew were the great objects of their adoration:
sally, an Arabian of distinction, named Aban, in they fought and they plundered, only to be gallant
the sight of his wife, who fought by his side: she and magnificent.
immediately let fly an arrow, which, missing the The marriage of a prince among the Tartars
governor, killed the great standard-bearer: with was attended with singular splendour and cere
the second she was more successful; she wounded mony. I shall not dwell upon numberless in
him in the eye, and forced him to retreat to Da stances which might be brought from the Histo
mascus." ries of Changiz Khn, Tamerlane, Ab'l Ghz,
The Tartars, as we are informed in the History and other Tartar annals, but shall only remark a
of Abi'l Ghz Khn, used, in the same manner, pompous custom, mentioned by the Vazir Nizm,
to carry with them, when they went even upon which I have met with in no other author. It is
short expeditions, their wives and families, for the introduced when occasionally mentioning some
reasons mentioned above; as that weaker sex particulars of the marriage of his sovereign, the
must otherwise have remained, in the absence of Sultan Malikshh, with the daughter of the Caliph.
the warriors, a prey to invading neighbours.- The Sultan was encamped on the west side of
Tamerlane, in the intervals between his expedi the Tigris, and the Caliph's palace was on the
tions, used to assemble all the young females of east. On the day chosen for the ceremony, the
the army, and order a general marriage, which he Sultan gave orders that all the great men who
solemnized with uncommon magnificence. After were present should go to the palace of the
the defeat of the Kipjks about the year 1389, Caliph to solicit his consent: for according to
that prince gave a most pompous feast in the de the custom of the Turkomns, at the time of the
lightful plains near Samarcand, on the marriage of courtship the bridegroom's people go to the father
his amirs, his inferior officers, and his soldiers, of the future bride, and in a supplicating manner
which was introduced by a grand piece of music request him to give his consent to the match. In
composed on the occasion, called the Triumph of like manner the great men, then assembled from
Kinjik. He was seated on a throne of gold : rich most parts of the earth, went in procession to
carpets and brocades overspread the ground; and supplicate the Caliph ; and, to show the regard
tables in various dispositions were ranged around due to his palace, directions were given that
to an immense distance; those of the great amirs they should all go thither on foot. When they
being placed next to the throne, and the subordi began to march, the Caliph, who had notice of
nate officers and soldiers seated according to their their motion, immediately sent a messenger, who
respective ranks, marshalled in battle-array, the said, that the Commander of the Faithful had
bridegrooms on one side, and the brides on the ordered Nizm ul Mulk to come on horseback.
other. Those gallant entertainments, which were So I alone mounted, and all the great men of
accompanied with tournaments, huntings, and the world accompanied me on foot. On our ar
Various hardy sports, coincided perfectly with the rival at the palace, I was introduced into a most
genius of his people, They often continued many magnificent hall, and seated on an eminent
days; for all the great Khns were ambitious of place, and all the rest on my right and left.
*italing the splendour of their sovereign; and he Then robes of honour were brought for all of

us; and on that for me was curiously wrought pointment and disgrace on the heads of those who
the following words, For the wise and just Vazir wished to rise upon their ruin.
Nizm ul Mulk, Amiru'l milminin. And from the But this preliminary dissertation has already
beginning of Muhammadanism to this day no swelled to an uncommon size, and might easily
vazir has been dignified with the title of Prince equal the volume to which it is prefixed, were
of the Faithful.The high respect paid by the every custom, singular in itself, or similar to those .
Tartars to the sex might indeed be supported of Europe, touched upon and supported by all the
upon many grounds.--If a Tartar chief married authorities which might be brought: but that I
several wives, the sons of the lady, who was most must leave to men of higher abilities, with greater
nobly born, took precedence of their brothers, leisure, who may choose to pursue the subject,
whose mothers were of inferior rank. It is par and conclude with a few miscellaneous observa
ticularly remarked, as a general Mogul custom, tions on some points which have not found a place
by Abi'l Faraj, when mentioning the sons of in the preceding sheets.
Changiz Khn, by his principal queen Owisunjin I have mentioned above a musical composition
Bgi, and seems to be a stretch of complaisance performed before Tamerlane, called the Triumph
unknown even in our European laws.The Vazir of Kipjk; but I have had no opportunity of dis
Nizm advises his son, if he accepts the vazirship, covering any thing satisfactory of the genius of
to pay uncommon attention to the ladies of the the Tartar, Persian, or Arabian music. They have,
court, for the following reason : Although, however, three principal pardas, or modes: called
in old times, especially during the reigns of the Ispahni, which appears to be the original Per
the ancient Kings of Persia, no great regard sian melody; the Irki, or the Babylonish; and the
was paid to the opinion of the queens in mat Hijz, or the Arabian ; which have probably an
ters of state; yet the Khns of Turkistn had analogy and a difference, similar to that which is
always a custom of consulting the women on all found between the aboriginal music of England,
emergencies, and preferred their opinions to Scotland, and Ireland. Their style is apparently
that of all their counsellors; and as the Turko not very remote from that which prevailed in Eu
mn princes were originally educated among rope before the eleventh century, when Guido and
them, they likewise follow this custom, and others began to improve the Italian taste. Simple
trust to their prudent advice on all occasions. melody seems to be their only object, without any
It is therefore absolutely necessary that you take idea of composition in score, or of harmonic ac
shelter under their protection. As Nizm al companiment, excepting what may be produced by
ways illustrates his advice by some anecdote from the concord of a deep-toned instrument playing
history, or his own observation, he, upon this oc the same piece along with another tuned a sin
casion, gives some instances of the great influence gle or double octave higher : but this approaches
and address of a lady called Jamila Kandahri, the so near to unison, as hardly to suggest any idea
favourite attendant on the young Tartar queen of of that variety introduced by thirds, fifths, and
Sultan Mahmd; who appears, from the account the other less perfect chords, which so remarkably
of this penetrating statesman, to have been the distinguishes the present European system from
chief though secret spring of every ministerial that of the ancients.The Asiatics have a great
movement: she was handsome, and endowed with number of instruments; and many of those now
uncommon parts; she was a steady friend, and a in use amongst us, though considerably improved,
determined, but not a cruel enemy : she protected appear to have been originally of Eastern inven
her favourites in the most dangerous situations, tion. One of their most favourite instruments is
and hurled, with a sure but invisible arm, disap called the barbut, a species of lute, which is said to

have been invented by a famous musician of that tion, and they have them of many sorts. Tabl is
time, who was master to Khusraw Parviz, king of a drum, tablak a small drum, tabor, or tambourin;
Persia, about the end of the sixth century: but it also one made of two kettles, joined bottom to
is probable that he only improved it, and was, bottom, and covered with skins. Riyin khum,
perhaps, so surnamed from his excellent perform sitm, kubah, are other kinds of kettle-drums.
ance on the instrument; for the barbiton, which Duff, dubdab, tambal, darab, shandaf, shada, with
in name and description seems to have borne a many more, are drums, tabors, and other similar
great resemblance to it, was known to the Greeks, instruments. Ks is a large royal military drum, ge
though it might possibly have been originally nerally beat in the palace, or in the camp when the
brought from Persia, Strabo observing that it was king is present. They have likewise a vast number
so named as being borrowed from barbarians. of wind-instruments, especially for war and the
Among the Eastern nations we find a variety of chace; as the gwdum, a trumpet, with which they
instruments of this species, which bear a propor sound the charge to battle; the bilk or biiri, a kind
tion, in point of size, similar to that of the violin, of clarion, or cor de chasse. The shabir, the nafir,
tenor, and violoncello, in Europe. The abar seems the nkir, the karn or karrany, are trumpets of
to be a common lute; the sili is described with a different kinds: the last was that used by Tamer.
large swelling belly, and a deep tone. The shah lane, the sound of which is described as uncom
shah is a four-stringed instrument, somewhat like monly dreadful, and so loud as to be heard at the
a violoncello. The yanam is another large instru distance of several miles. The ny, the zarn, the
ment strung with brass wires, and struck with a kaysabas, the shhny, the nydil, the nychah, the
short plectrum; the yashkardah being somewhat kawwal, and the sany, are all of the hautboy,
similar, but played with a long bow. The shasht pipe, or flute-species, though apparently not so
has six strings, and is of the same species with the melodious in general as those of Europe. As the
litr; whence our guitar, from the Spanish gui last mentioned instrument, from the number of
tara, seems to have been borrowed, as it was a holes, seems to require some art to perform upon
favourite instrument with the Arabian conquerors it with propriety, I shall conclude with a short
of Spain, who seem not only to have introduced description of it. It is shaped somewhat like a
it, but also the gallant custom of serenading their hautboy, without keys ; it has a brass mouth
mistresses, on which occasion, not only the words piece and fifteen holes; seven in a right line,
of their songs, but the airs, and even the colour ranged nearly like those of that instrument; three
of their habits, were expressive of the triumph smaller ones towards the lower extremity; two
of the fortunate, or the despair of the rejected on each side, and one of a larger dimension near
lover,199 the bottom. The sany is of different sizes; some
Besides the above instruments, they have the are of wood, and others of metal ; but that which
hirin, the mizhar, the knin or kinnin, the kamn is least offensive to a stranger's ear, has the upper
chah the kanrat, the artab, the tambr, the part of wood, and the lower of thin brass: it has
anlir, the kandalash, and several others, which a shrill piercing sound.
are different kinds of the lute, harp, dulcimer, The Persians appear to have been the most
Psalter, viola d'amore, and other instruments of musical of the Eastern nations : the Arabians
the stringed species. The kunjbd appears to be themselves, who have written many treatises on
the Eolian or wind-harp; the tulimbah is a hy the subject, acknowledging that they had borrow
draulic instrument, or water-organ ; miskal, a ed from them the greatest part of their knowledge,
*pecies of organ, or Pan's reed-pipe of unequal and many of their terms of art. Father Angelo
"gths. Drums are apparently an Arabian inven mentions having seen several beautiful musical
i 2

manuscripts at Ispahn, some of which were gained strength sufficient, to substitute the laws
brought into Europe, and placed in the library of of reason for the practices of barbarity, they found
Louis XIV. by his Oriental interpreter, M. Petit it not prudent to overturn at once this pernicious
Le Croix.-The great men in the East have been offspring of uncultivated minds; but, by loading
always fond of music. Though prohibited by the it with expensive compositions, they endeavour to
Muhammadan religion, it in general makes part make its ravages hurtful to society. Similar but
of every public or private entertainment. Female more savage principles appear to have regulated
slaves are generally kept to amuse them, and the those Eastern nations. If an Arabian had lost a
ladies of their harams. Female strolling musicians near relation, a wife, or even a slave, he singled
are also very common ; and the Persian khany out from among the captives, when victorious, a
garah seems nearly to have resembled our old freeman for each, and sacrificed them in cold
English minstrel; as he generally accompanied blood. This was not considered as barbarous: it
his barbut or lute with heroic songs. Their was rather a point of honour, which avarice alone
musicians appear, like old Timotheus, to have appears to have mitigated; the husband, relations,
known the art of moving the passions, and to have or master of the deceased, being permitted to dis
generally directed their music to the heart; I shall pense with their sanguinary vengeance, in consi.
mention one instance. Alfrbi, who died about deration of a mulct. We accordingly find, about
the middle of the tenth century, was a philosopher the birth of Muhammad, that ten camels were the
of uncommon genius, and, amongst other accom compensation for a slaughtered man, without any
plishments, he excelled in music. On his return apparent distinction between the freeman and the
from the pilgrimage to Mecca, he introduced slave. Muhammad, powerful as he was, durst
himself, though a stranger, at the court of Say not, any more than the lawgivers of Europe, SO
fu'd'dawla, Sultan of Syria. Musicians were ac far oppose the general genius of the people, as
cidentally performing, and he joined them. The entirely to abolish this brutal custom ; but he
prince admired him, and wished to hear something endeavoured to mitigate or regulate it by several
of his own ; he pulled a composition from his passages in the Kurn, in which, among other
pocket, and distributing the parts amongst the circumstances, a distinction is made of rank and
band, the first movement threw the prince and sex. In after times, the composition of ten camels
his courtiers into violent and incessant laughter, was found inadequate to check the prevalence of
the next melted all into tears, and the last lulled private vengeance; and, in the Sunna, it was ac
even the performers asleep." cordingly raised to a hundred; probably for the
A variety of customs, we may here observe, same reasons which dictated an increase of the
prevailed amongst the independent tribes of Pagan sanguinary fines among the Lombards and other
Arabians and Tartars, which were either abolished European nations; because those fines having been
or modified, when they became united under originally fixed when the people were poor, they
princes of ability and power. One of these was the were found too trifling, when, by the extent of
destructive system of private war. In every state their conquests, they had become powerful and
where the arm of the civil magistrate has been too rich. It does not, however, appear that any thing
feebletocheck or chastise the crimes of men, private similar to the European fredum, or proportion paid
revenge seems naturally to have usurped the place to the public treasury, subsisted among the East
of legal punishment. We find it in full vigour in ern nations, the whole of the compensation being
the middle ages, and universally adopted in every received by the relations or masters of the slaugh
European state. And so forcible is the prejudice tered person. In the East, as well as in Europe,
of ancient habit, that even where sovereigns the relations of the principals in a quarrel seem to

have been bound by honour and custom to espouse who had embraced the Muhammadan religion;
their party, and to revenge their death, one of the but Jonas, from a principle of honour, returned
highest reproaches with which one Arabian could her, with all her jewels, unransomed, to her father.
upbraid another, being an accusation of having When the Arabians conquered Persia, Shirin
left the blood of his friend unrevenged. The bn, the daughter of king Yazdajird, was one of
sacred months of the Arabians appear to have the captives, and was publicly exposed to sale in
been far superior to the Treuga Deior the Paa the city of Madina; but the liberal-minded Ali
Regis of Europe. Three following months in thought differently from his countrymen on this
every year, with another one intermediate, must occasion: he declared that the offspring of princes
have tended far more effectually to soften ex ought not to be sold ; and married her immediately
asperated minds, than the interval of three days to his son Husayn. This anecdote I met with in
in a week, which would, in general, only give them the mutilated manuscript formerly mentioned, the
a breathing-time to prepare for fresh hostilities. author of which I have not been able to discover.
Those European ordinances were, at the same time, Ismael Safi, who mounted the throne of Persia in
too often disregarded; whilst in Arabia they took the year 1502, derived his descent, as was observed
the heads from their spears, and observed this before (p. xx), from the Caliph Ali; and as he
great salutary law so religiously, that from the also claimed relationship to the ancient royal
earliest periods of record or tradition they furnish family of Persia, it was probably in consequence
ed but four or five instances where it had been of this marriage. What may serve to confirm this
infringed, and these were stamped with the epithet anecdote, is a story related of the Caliph Al
of impiety, and the universal execration of the Walid, and the Imm Zaynul, son of Abidin,
people. whom he suspected of a design upon the Caliphat:
One circumstance, however, appears strongly You are unworthy to reign, said Al Walid, as
to have distinguished the private wars in the East being the son of a slave : your mother was one
from those of the West. The manners of Asia of the Persian captives. The Imm answered:
seem, in all ages, to have pointed to domestic The mother of Ismael, the son of Abraham, was
slavery; Muhammad, in Arabia, made that an the slave Hagar; yet Muhammad was des
article of religion, which had anciently been only cended from her. The Caliph blushed, and
a custom. The captives were, in consequence, was silent. -

with few exceptions, constantly reduced to a state The Tartars, in the circumstance of private war,
of servitude; and little distinction seems in general resembled, in many particulars, the old Arabians;
to have been made between a princess and her in some they differed. The whole history of
female slave, excepting what she derived from a Ab'lghz Khn is filled with the incessant wars of
superiority of personal accomplishments. Those the various tribes. The domestic slavery of the
ideas the Arabians retained amidst their extensive men was, indeed, seldom adopted : they either
conquests. Many instances might be given; I massacred them, or sent them into distant exile;
shall confine myself to two, as they regard the but the women were made captives. Abghz
daughters of the two greatest princes then in the mentions particularly, when the princes of the
world,In an action after the siege of Damascus, tribe of Amunak, about the year 1504, defeated
in 635, amongst other prisoners was the daughter the posterity of Burga Sultan, one of the descen
of Heraclius, Emperor of Greece, and widow of dants of Changiz Khn, that they put to death all
the governor of that city. Rafi, the Arabian com the males of that house, but their wives and
mander, to whose lot she fell, presented her daughters they kept as slaves. When they spared
without ceremony, as a slave, to Jonas, a Grecian, their prisoners, and either set them at liberty, or
removed them to another country, they divided monies, when dividing property among partners,
them into small troops of ten or twelve ; each of or the heirs of a person deceased.
which furnishes one, as a hostage for the good Amongst other laws and usages, similar to those
behaviour of the rest. A similar custom prevailed of the Northern nations, we find that the trial by
of old among the Germans. ordeal was anciently known in Persia, and it ori
Amidst all the vices and dangerous qualities of ginated, perhaps, from their superstitious venera
the Arabians, Persians, and Tartars, they have tion for fire. After exalting that element to the
been ever distinguished for generosity and hospi rank of a divinity, we cannot wonder that they
tality. Particular details would be endless; they should resort to it, for evidence, in points which
are to be found in almost every author who has could not admit of positive proof. In the Shh
touched upon the history of those people. I shall nmah we find the description of an illustrious
only observe, in addition to those accounts, that trial, by the ordeal, above five hundred years
there is hardly a word in the Arabic and Persian before the Christian era. Siwakhsh, son of the
languages which signifies avarice, that does not reigning king Kay Kwus, had been educated in
also imply cowardice, baseness, slavery, or villainy. Sijistn by the great Rustam. His father, hear
The Arabians have even a proverb, that no miser ing much of his accomplishments, sent for him to
was ever brave, but the Caliph Abdalla bin court, where Sawdbah, his mother-in-law, fell in
Zubayr. So high is their idea of the rights of love with him : she soon made a declaration; but
hospitality, that if the murderer of their dearest the prince discouraging her advances, she flew in
friends had, even by chance, eaten or drunk under a rage to the king, and accused him of an attempt
their roof, that alone cancelled every former upon her honour. The prince protested his inno
crime; and they were bound not only to forgive, cence; but the queen persisted, and demanded
but to protect him. The wretch who had betray justice. The king knew not how to decide; the
ed the man whose bread he had eaten, was justly nature of the case could not admit of proof: he
stamped with the deepest infamy; a bread and ordered, therefore, a large fire to be kindled, and
salt-traitor being one of the most opprobrious the parties to pass through it. The prince, without
epithets by which one Asiatic would express his hesitation, boldly entered it on horseback, and
detestation of another.Their veneration for salt passed unhurt; but Sawdbah trembled, and durst
is indeed extraordinary. A robber having one not venture : she fell on her knees, confessed the
night broke into the palace of the king of Sijistn; truth, and was pardoned on the generous interces
and happening, whilst he was making off with his sion of the man she meant to destroy.The trial
rich booty, to tread upon a stone, which he con by ordeal, where satisfactory evidence cannot be
ceived to be a jewel that had escaped his observa obtained, is still in practice among the Gentiis in
tion in the dark, he picked it up; and putting it Hindstn, and is of high antiquity. It is men
to his mouth, to be satisfied of the truth, he found tioned several times in the Code of Gentil Laws, as
it to be salt. This accidental circumstance a common mode of proof, under the title of Pa
operated so forcibly, even with this loose-prin rik'hy: but I have not been able to discover the
cipled man, that he then considered his robbery as particular species which they adopt."
a violation of the rights of hospitality, and retired The administration of justice in Pagan Arabia
immediately home without his plunder. This appears to have been very simple ; the heads of
famous robber became afterwards king of Sijistn, the tribes being, in general, the umpires of every
and founder of the dynasty of the Soffarides.A difference. Solemn oaths used to be taken over a
custom subsists to this day in India among the fire called hawlat; into which, if they suspected a
Gentiis, of tasting salt, together with other cere witness of perjury, they privately threw a species

of salt; which, making a sudden explosion, terri commonly severe. Formerly, says a poet, the
fied them often into a sudden discovery of the truth. judges were naked swords, and the guilty only .
Over a fire they used also to make treaties and trembled; now they are empty sheaths, and
other solemn agreements.-After Muhammad had gorge themselves with the plunder of their
established his prophetic character, causes appear suitors.Are you indigent, says another;
to have been determined only by him and his and have you the misfortune to be at law with
chief companions; and their decrees were some the rich 2 withdraw your suit, go to your pow
times strikingly decisive. A Muhammadan being erful oppressor, and humble yourself in the
castin a suit with a Jew before the tribunal of the dust: there you may, perhaps, meet with jus
prophet, appealed to Omar, who happened to be tice and mercy: with the czi you can have
standing at his door when the parties appeared. none. And, in fact, no censure appears ever
After listening to the merits with great composure, to have been more justly grounded; for in the
he bid him wait a little, and he would soon settle Eastern languages, there are not only words signi
the whole affair. He then went into his house, fying bribes to judges; but others, which denote
and returning instantly with a sword, struck off the men whose public and professed employment was,
Muhammadan's head: Thus, says he, ought the corrupting of magistrates, to procure decisions
all to be punished, who acquiesce not in the contrary to equity and law. We may form indeed
sentence of the prophet of God. a judgment of the general administration, or ra
I found a decision of Ali in the imperfect ma ther perversion of justice, under some of the Ca
muscript formerly mentioned, which seems inge liphs, from an appointment of Muktadir, who,
mious, and shows, at the same time, something of about the beginning of the tenth century, pro
the manners of the people in those times. Two moted a young damsel, named Yamik, to be pre
Arabians sat down to dinner: one had five loaves, sident of the Dwnu'l mazlim, one of the prin
the other three. A stranger passing by, desired cipal tribunals of the empire, which took cogni
permission to eat with them, which they agreed to. zance of the tyranny and oppression of governors
The stranger dined, laid down eight pieces of and other great men.
money, and departed. The proprietor of the five The following curious anecdote is told, in the
loaves took up five pieces, and left three for the Nigristn, of a famous lawyer of Bagdd, called
other; who objected, and insisted for one-half. Ab Ysuf. It marks several peculiarities in the
The cause came before Ali, who gave the follow Muhammadan law, and displays some casuistical
ing judgment: Let the owner of the five loaves ingenuity in adapting them to the views of his
have seven pieces of money, and the owner of clients. The Caliph Harn Arrashid had taken a
the three loaves, one: for if we divide the eight fancy for a female slave belonging to his brother
loaves by three, they make twenty-four parts; Ibrahim ; he offered to purchase her, but Ibra
of which he who laid down five loaves, had him, though willing to oblige his sovereign, had
fifteen; whilst he who laid down three, had sworn that he would neither sell nor give her
Only nine; as all fared alike, and eight shares away. As all parties wished to remove this diffi
was each man's proportion, the stranger ate culty, Ab Ysuf was consulted, who advised
seven parts of the first man's property, and Ibrahim to give his brother one half of the slave,
only one belonging to the other: the money, in and to sell him the other. Happy to be relieved
justice, must be divided accordingly.In after from this embarrassment, the Caliph ordered
times, in the various Muhammadan states, the 80,000 dinars for the moiety of the slave; which
law appears, however, to have been strangely per Ibrahim, as a mark of his acknowledgment, im
Verted, and the satirists are, in consequence, un mediately presented to the lawyer. But a second

difficulty now arose. The Moslem law prohibits him with 10,000 more; so that Ab Ysuf, in a
all commerce between a man and the wife or con few hours, found his fees amount to 50,000 dinars,
cubine of his brother, till she has been re-married or nearly 25,000.
and divorced by a third person. Ab Ysuf ad To those strictures many might be added: but
vised the Caliph to marry her to one of his slaves; I am already led too far; and time obliges me to
who, for a proper consideration, would be easily conclude. The subjects touched upon in this
induced to repudiate her on the spot. The cere Dissertation are various, and some of them may
mony was instantly performed ; but the slave, fall be discovered, perhaps, to have been too slightly
ing in love with his handsome spouse, could not considered. I have differed freely from very high
be prevailed upon to consent to a separation. authorities; but sensible how much easier it is to
Here was a strange and unexpected dilemma; point out errors than to avoid them, I submit
for all despotic as the Caliph was, he durst not myself as freely to the decision of every intelligent
compel him. But Ab Ysuf soon discovered reader. Be it delivered with the temper of the
an expedient; he desired the Caliph to make a gentleman and the scholar, I shall be proud of
present to the lady of her new husband, which every ingenious criticism; and endeavour to im
virtually dissolved the marriage, as no woman, by prove by a discovery of my faults. I am not
the Muhammadan law, can be the wife of her own attached to a single idea that may be found in
slave. Overjoyed that the Gordian knot was thus consistent with truth or propriety; and should,
so ingeniously unloosed, the Caliph gave him with far less pain, see the most favourite theory
10,000 dinars; and the fair slave receiving a con fall before a judicious investigation, than be justly
siderable present from her royal lover, presented censured for a failure in candour or politeness,

Amongst other proofs which I propose to offer in the course P. iii. 3 D'Herbelot, p. 513 and 514. Sale's Preliminary
of his disquisition, one appears to me to be of high authority; I Discourse, p. 37, &c. The seven principal Muallakt Poems
mean radical words in the Eastern tongues, expressive of pecu are in Pocock's collection, in the Bodleian Library of Oxford,
har habits or inventions; the existence of the terms being positive No. 64. And in another volume, No. 174, are above forty
evidence of the pre-existence of the objects which they describe. more, which had been also honoured by being hung up in the
Inthis mode of proof I shall advance no words which appear to Kaaba.

have been adopted from the Grecian or other foreign languages, P. iii. Pocock, in his preface to the Carmen Tograi, men
as these could demonstrate no originality; and I shall avoid all tions a circumstance which may give some idea of the pains
circumlocutory description, as that can prove no antiquity. which the Arabians have taken with their language. A king
Whatever is expressed by a number of words, we shall, for the having sent to a grammarian for the books in his possession
most part, find is neither perfectly nor generally known; it is relative to that tongue, he desired the messenger to inform the
only when the idea has become familiar that the superfluity of monarch, that, if he wished to have them, he must send sixty
phrase is dropt, and the principal word becomes sufficient to camels to carry the dictionaries alone.
make the whole completely understood. P. iv. 'Sale's Preliminary Discourse, p. 34. D'Herbelot,
87, 589, and 705. Trkhul muslimin, i.e. Historia Saracenica
Page ii. 'St. Ephraim and St. Basil insist strongly that the Thomas Erpenii, p. 193, &c. Preface to Carmen Tograi by
Aramean or Mesopotamian dialect of the Syriac was that in Pocock. Arabic Grammar by the author of this Dictionary, p. 4.
which God delivered his commands to Adam; the Maronites, or P. v. " By Pliny, Zoroaster is called a Proconnesian; by
Eastern Christians, contend for the Chaldaic; James Bishop of Suidas, an Assyrian and Medo-Persian; by others he is styled a
Roha, Bochart, and others, give the precedence to the Hebrew ; Pamphylian, an Armenian, a Bactrian, an Indian, and a Chinese.
Futychius supports the Greek; Mr. Webb the Chinese; Goro His era is still more wide of possibility than his birth-place: Pliny
Pius, Becanus, and Pezron are warm for the Teutonic; whilst (l. 30, c. 1) places him thousands of years before Moses: Her
Gregory Nyssaeus declares his antagonist Eunomius an impious madorus Platonicus, Hermippus, and Plutarch, 5000 years before
heretic for supposing man to have received any language what the siege of Troy: Suidas only 500 years before that period:
ever from God. See also D'Herbelot, Bibliothque Orientale, Eudoxas, 6000 years before the death of Plato (which happened
P. 514. Sharpe on the Origin of Languages, p. 2, 6, &c. about 350 B.C.) : Xanthus Lydius, 600 years before Darius
The learned Bochart has given us a list of about twenty lan Hystaspes: Justin 1300 years before Sardanapalus: whilst others
guages, supposed to have been in use in very early ages, and fix him in the days of Ninus and Semiramis, who seem to be
has arranged them, with regard to antiquity, in the following equally undefined with himself. Some Eastern writers place
order: The Hebrew, the Chaldaic or Syriac, the Arabic, Phoe Zardusht 1300 years after the flood; some make him the dis
nician, Egyptian, the Azotian or Philistine, the Persian, Par ciple of Elija or Elisha, others of Ozair, Ezra, or Esdras: some
"dan, Median, Elamite, Cappadocian, Pontic, Asiatic, Phrygian, consider him as Abraham ; others as the usurper Zahhk; and
Pamphilian, Libyan, Cretan, and Lycoanic, together with the M. D'Herbelot (from the name Mikhush, which occurs in the
Greek and Latin; all of which (the three first, the Persian, and Trkh Muntakhab) conceives him, by a stretch of fancy, to
two last excepted) were, probably, only dialects of the principal have been Smerdus Magus. But the greater number make him
"gues. See Bochart Phaleg, p. 57, &c. cotemporary with Kishtsb, king of Persia; and, consequently,
P. i. See Preface to Arabic Lexicon of Golius, p. 1. Sale's suppose him to have lived about 500 years before the Christian
"eliminary Discourse to his Translation of the Kurn, p. 33 era. See also D'Herbelot, p. 932. Hyde, Religio Vet. Pers.
et seq. 312, 423, 443, et passim. Bryant's Mythology, Vol. II. p. 106,
lxvi P R O OF S AND I L L U S T R AT I O N S.

Mr. Jones's History of the Persian Language, subjoined to his him, in the shape of a fly, to have taken possession of the crown
Life of Ndir Shh, p. 157. Chardin, Tom. V. chap. iii. of his head. Ormuzd directs him to wash the part, which would
P. v. ' The Arabic words Dunya, the world; Min din, from drive the fiend between the eye-brows; from thence he is to be
religion; 3amn, time ; Sanat, a year; Malik, a king ; Gha forced, by another ablution, to the back of the head; from that
nam, cattle; Layla, night; Ab, a father; Umm, a mother; Ta to the ear, then to the nose, the mouth, the chin; till at length,
mm, completed; and a variety more occur repeatedly in dif fighting every inch of ground, the poor devil is successively
ferent parts of M. Anquetil's Zend Avesta. The following and driven over every part of the body, till we find him stationed on
similar words could hardly ever have been articulated by a Per the left foot; when Zoroaster thus proceeds in his catechism
sian: Rethvanmtch, Khschetriao, Iarienmfch, Thworeschtara, (what is between parentheses being M. Anquetil's explanatory
Weretregnhetch. For the satisfaction of those who are con interpolations, and not in the original):
versant with the modern Persian, I shall here insert the begin Lorscue l'eau a atteint le dessus du pied gauche oil se retire
ning of the Vendidad Sad, with the Latin translation which M. le Daroudj Nesosch; Ormusd repondit: (le Daroudj Nesosch)
Anquetil has annexed, and leave them to determine whether sous la forme d'une mouche se place dessous le pied ; il faut
(one or two modern words excepted) there subsists the least affini le lever, laissant les doigts poser a terre, et laver ainsi le
ty between them. dessous du pied droit. Lorsgue lon a lav le dessous du pied
Penamm Iezdann : Pavan schamh dadar Anhouma: frestoi droit, le Daroudj Nesosch se retire sous le pied gauche.
setnm setm eschem vhou s frorn mezdiesn Zer Lorsgue lon a lav le dessous du pied gauche le Daroudj
thoschtresch videoo Ehor dekescho dt hed dat vi Nesosch, sous la forme d'une mouche, se place dessous les
deo Zerthoschtr eschon eschhrethv iesntch veh doigts. Laissant donc (poser a terre) le dessous du pied, on
maetch kheschnothrtch fresestietch rethvanm ire leve les doigts, et on lave ceux (du pied) droit. Lors']ue l'on
nammtch asnienanmtch mahinanmich iaerienanmtch ser a lav les doigts du pied droit, le Daroudj Nesosch se retire
dnanmtch i.v. kh. f. dj khoschnoumen betha hot pari Sreos sous ceux (du pied) gauche; et lorsqu'on a lav les doigts
chh eschih tokmh tenomanthrh dreschid resch. du pled
pied g
gauche,2 le Daroudi
J Nesosch est renvers (vaincu et
In nomine Dei. in nomine justi judicis Ormusd. effuse precor s'en retourne) du ct du nord, lui qui, sous la forme d'une
animam, effuse precor. puro abundantia 3 ire facio t Ormusd mouche, se place sur (l'homme impur) et le frappe comme le
cultor Zoroastrianus cui adversatur Dew t Ormusd responsum Djodje (chien) des deserts, detruit les productions des Dews
dato huic dad vendi Zoroastri puro sancto magno izeschn (ago) et leurs demeures, &c.
naesch (ago) placere cupio, vota facio. temporibus diebus roi; When the water has reached the top of the left foot, where
gahan, mensibus, roi, gahanbar, annis i. n. p. v. quodcumque does the Daroudj Nesosch retire? Ormusd replied: (the Daroudj
khoschnoumensedens sit lege. T Serosch puro valido corpori Nesosch) under the form of a fly, places himself under the foot;
obedienti gloria (t Ormusd fulgenti). Zend Avesta, Vol. I. it must be raised, letting the toes rest on the ground, and thus
part ii. p. 77. wash the under part of the right foot. When the under part of
The Persian, in point of regularity, is perhaps not to be ex the right foot is washed, the Daroudj Nesosch, retires under the
celled by any language in the world. As one general rule, the left foot. When the under part of the left foot is washed, the
the third person of the present tense ends in 3 d, the only excep Daroudj Nesosch, in the form of a fly, places himself under the
tions, which I can at present recollect, being c-) ast, and toes. Allowing the sole of the foot (to rest upon the ground)
--> hast, he is. In the Zand, on the contrary, the termina the toes must be raised, and those of the right (foot) washed.
tions of this person are irregular to the last degree. I shall men When the toes of the right foot are washed, the Daroudj Nesosch
tion a few examples. Aschti, Enghem, Eoiled, Heet, Beouad, retires under those of the left (foot); and when the toes of the
Il est. Eeneted, Eemetesch, Apeouetee, Il connoit. Djemad, left foot are washed, the Daroudj Nesosch is overthrown (con
Gueteen, Il vient. Djemeet, Il arrive. Djeto, Ghnad, Ilfrappe. quered, and returns) towards the north, he who under the shape
Snes, il frappe; il brle. Veiozoschtao, Il fait. Eschto, Il of a fly places himself upon (the impure man) and strikes him
s'applique. Reso, Il arrange. Guethad, Il saute. Mostemes cho, like the Djodje (dog) of the desert, destroys the productions of
Il meurt.-In which few words, exclusive of the want of simi the Dews and their dwellings, &c. Zend Avesta par M. Anquetil
larity in the penults and antepenults, there are no less than eight du Perron, Vol. I. part ii. p. 341. Can human credulity sup
variations in the final letters. Were it of consequence, many pose this to be the composition of Zoroaster, or of any man who
more could be brought. had pretensions to common sense :
P. vi. " Ormuzd, (Omnipotence) and zoroaster are intro P. vi. " In the preface to the Farhang Jahngiri we are
duced in dialogue. The lawgiver wishes to know how a man informed, that it was not reckoned elegant in the Dari to use
should get rid of a demon called Daroud; Nesosch, supposing syncopes; the following or similar words never being ad

milled, as;s, (speak thou), 29 raw, (go thou), Jj uzudan, aquella malvada supersticion fue Mahoma Arabe de nacion:
(to increase), &c. they being always written ;: bag, 22 ba raw, el qual por la mucha prosperidad que tuvo en las guerras, y
and w a:udan. The softness of this language, in the opinion por descuydo del emperador Heraclio, se llamo y coron rey
of the Asiatics, may be learnt from a popular saying, reported de su nacion, en Damasco, nobilissima ciudad de la Syria, &c.
by Ibn Fakhru'ddin Anj, author of the above Dictionary, Wid. Tomo primero, p. 311. The founder of this accursed su
* That the Dari and the Arabic idioms were the languages of perstition was Muhammad, an Arabian by birth; who, in con
heaven; God coinmunicating to the angels his milder man sequence of his great success in war, and the negligence of
dates in the delicate accents of the first, whilst his stern com the Emperor Heraclius, declared himself king of his nation,
mands were delivered in the rapid utterance of the other. and was crowned in Damascus, the most noble city of Syria.
Bahaman, or Ardeshir Dirzdast, is generally supposed to be In an event of some importance to the history of Spain, a Spanish
Artaxerxes Macrocheir, or Longimanus. Ardeshir Dirzdast historian should have been better informed : but Muhammad
implies, the strong lion with the long hands; an epithet sup never assumed the dignity of king, and never was at Damascus,
posed to have been given him on account of the greatness of his nor out of Arabia from the period of his appearance in his pro
power and the extent of his empire. Bahrm was contemporary phetic character, excepting in the ninth year of the Hijra (A.D.
with Theodosius II. emperor of Greece, and is known in Europe 630), when he advanced no farther than Tabk, half way be
by the name of Varanes or Vararanes. tween Madna and Damascus, and returned after a residence of
P. vi. "Ardeshir Bbegn having entertained some doubts only three weeks. Dr. Hyde erroneously places the Persian con
relative to the national religion, ordered the chief priests of the quest under the reign of Othman, A.D. 646. See Religio Vet.
Magito attend, in order to have them explained; when the king, Pers. p. 23. See also Dictionary J sal.
on proposing his doubts, delivered himself as follows: P. vii. *The Prsis of Surat, in their Raavats, or collections
of traditions, have doomed Alexander to the infernal regions;
J & Se Jaz not for ravaging the country of their ancestors, but for having
J J c- committed to the flames the Nusks or sections of the 3and avasta.
** J ej : *** J
2 --
Arrian de Exped. lib. iii. and vii. Pliny, lib. xxviii. cap. 2.
* J *** A G-H For the form of invocation, see Macrobius, in the Secret Things
Namayand an baman ta shak zigayhn of Sammonicus Serenus.

Kunam dur wa hadiram dini yazdn P. vii. * See Kurn, chap. ix. The number of manuscripts
Humi kh'aham ki z'an burhn namyand supposed to have been burnt exceeded 500,000. They were
Hakikat bar hamah gayhn namyand. distributed as fuel to the keepers of 4,000 public baths. Some,
Let them shew it to me, that doubt from the world however, are supposed to have been privately saved.
P. viii. See Hyde's Religio Vet. Pers. p. 458. Porta xiv.
I may drive far off, and embrace the religion of God.
t Sadder. Anquetil du Perron, Vol. I. P. 2, p. 401. Vol. II.
I wish that by this decision they would shew
117, 118.
The truth; to all the world shew it.
The pretended Latin original of Milton's Paradise Lost, and
N.B. *A* hadiram in the second line is either an old word, the History of Formosa by the Jew Psalmanazar, amongst other
now obsolete, or an error; if the last, it may be corrected by literary forgeries, are well known. Psalmanazar invented even
substituting : paziram or : giram, or some such synoni a language, sufficiently original, copious, and regular, to impose
luous word. See Hyde's Religio Veterum Persarum, p. 18. It upon men of very extensive learning.
nay be proper to observe, that in the old Persian mode of P. viii. * See Dictionary elex Baghdad.
writing, every vowel, whether short or long, has a distinct cha P. viii. "The Caliph Al Tawi revived in favour of Azadu'd'
racter. dawla the title of sl, Shhinshah, which was borne by the
All the other passages scattered through the Religio, as Old ancient kings of Persia. See Erpenius's edition of Trkhu'l
Persian, are, like the above, simply the modern language in
muslimin, or Historia Saracenica, p. 237. See also Dictionary,
ancient characters. under am?r.
P. vii. " It is astonishing to consider the number of mistakes P. ix. " See Dictionary 4.9 ut. Shh-nmah. Father
into which, in the various lines of literature, the best of our Euro Angelo, author of the Gazophylacium Lingute Persarum, who
Pean authors are led, by their inattention to the languages and went a missionary to the East in 1663, says (p. 199), that the lan
writings of the East. Mariana, the chief historian of Spain, guage of the Shh-nmah is considered, in Persia, as the idiom
when introducing the Arabian conquest of that country, with an of their ancient kings and heroes; and that it is still spoken in the
count of the Muhammadan religion, says, Fundador de province of Shirvn, near the Caspian Sea, by a people who live
k 2

in tents. This, if authentic, furnishes another strong argument, author of an Arabic Dictionary, with five thousand pieces of
that all the difference between the ancient and modern dialects gold, as a reward for his industry and learning. See Dic
consists entirely in a diversity of character, and in the present tionary r. Kamus.
intermixture of the Arabic. P. x. 21 Many valuable books, of the composition of the last
P. ix. *The Eastern princes seem to have carried their at centuries, may nevertheless be scattered over the East; which
ingenious and learned travellers may in time discover. e

tachment to men of genius to a very singular excess; imprisoning

P. x. * Mahmd, Sultan of Ghaznah, invaded Hindstn
them even when they suspected them of an intention to retire. If
they happened to escape, an embassy with presents and apologies twelve times; the first was in the year 1000. The Ghawrid
sometimes followed the men of learning; S 3 and peremptory de dynasty commenced in 1157, and gave way to the Patans about
mands were often made, where gentler methods had not the the beginning of the thirteenth century. Baber, the great grand
desired effect: a demand, however, seldom complied with, if the son of Tamerlane, after four invasions, defeated Ibrahim Lodi,
power of the sovereigns with whom they had taken refuge bore the last emperor of this race, and mounted the throne in the year
any proportion to that of their competitors. I shall mention two 1525. The present Great Mogul is his lineal descendant.With
examples. Khkn, a celebrated Persian poet of the twelfth regard to the prevalence of the Arabic and Persian in the Hin
century, was a great favourite with the Sultan of Shirvn; but dustni or Moorish, any person conversant with those languages
becoming at last disgusted with the world, he desired leave to may be convinced, by running his eye over the vocabularies of
retire into the religious order of the Dervishes. The Sultan re the vulgar dialect, which have been published by Messrs. Hadley
fusing him permission, he fled; but was pursued, brought back, | and Ferguson. In the Sanskrit and Bengali, nothing has indeed
and imprisoned for several months. Here he composed one of hitherto appeared;* my opinion, in respect to them, is founded,
his finest elegies: but he was at length set at liberty, and soon therefore, upon the number of words which I have occasionally
after obtained leave to put his design in execution.Mahmud, heard mentioned, as belonging to these idioms, which were, in
Sultan of Ghaznah, having invited some men of genius from the fact, Arabic. I shall confine myself to one strong example. In
court of his son-in-law, the king of Khrazm, the celebrated the trial of the Mahrjah Nuncomar for forgery, before the
Avicenna, who was of the number, refused to go, and retired to supreme court of judicature at Bengal, one of the interpreters,
the capital of the Sultan of Jurjn. Mahmud ordered imme whose practical knowledge of the Persian and Hindstn lan
diately a number of portraits of this great physician to be copied; guages appears to be uncommonly extensive, being asked by the
and sent them all around, in order to discover his retreat. The court, what word the witness, then examined, made use of to ex
fame of his cures had, in the mean time, reached the Sultan of press bond 2 he answers tamassook, which is a Persian word; it
Jurjn; who sent for him to visit a favourite nephew, whose ma is khat in the Nagree language. But neither -J ta
> cy c

lady had perplexed the faculty. A vicenna supposed it to be massuk nor las khat are of Persian or Nagree original, being
concealed love; and, in the idea that the fair object might be both adopted from the Arabic. [N. B. in the printed trial im
one of the ladies of the king's haram, he desired the chamber masook is the word used, which is an error.] It may also be
lain to describe the curiosities of the palace, whilst he felt the observed, that many of the witnesses who are examined in the
prince's pulse. On the mention of a particular apartment, he Moors, in the Nagree, and in the Bengal dialects, use a variety
perceived an uncommon emotion in his patient; but the naming of Arabic words; 3), 2 & sikkah dawt, a silver ink-standish ;
of the lady who lived in it entirely removed his doubts. The J- ";-jawab suwal, question and answer, or conversation
sequel is a perfect counterpart of the famous story of Antiochus (see Trial, p. 53, 54), with many other words which occur in
and Stratonice : the prince was made happy. The king con different parts of the trial. For the manner in which the Ara
ceiving a great desire to see a physician of such penetrating ge bic and Persian are incorporated in the Malay, see Maleisch
nius, sent for him; and discovered him the moment he appeared Spraakunst (a Dutch grammar of that dialect) by George Hen
by one of the portraits which he had received from Sultan Mah rik Werndly. The language of the Turks, it may be here ob
md; but no menaces could induce the king of Jurjn to deliver served, is called t:- muwalla, which literally implies a horse, a
him up : he rewarded him, on the contrary, with riches and ho bull, or other animal, of different colours, their dialect being a
nours; and protected him, as long as he choosed to continue at Imixture of Turkish, Arabic, and Persian. This name, for the
his court, against the all-powerful resentment of that formidable same reason, seems to be also applicable to the languages of
monarch. India. Amongst other Arabic and Persian words which I find
P. ix. * D'Herbelot, Bibliothque Orientale, p. 105, 812, technically used in the Code of Gentoo Laws, are (p. 41, 44, 53,
983. See also the Nigristn. * Several works have appeared, since the first edition of this Dictionary was
P. ix. * Amongst many instances of Tamerlane's attention published, from both the Sanskrit and Bengal languages.Editor's note to the
to the encouragement of literature, he presented Firzabd, second edition,

&c.) .* ayyni shadi, days of marriage. f! ayym is Kings of Persia according to the Persians.
the plural of the Arabic * /awn, a day; and sell, shd is a Kay Kubd, ante Chr, about Ardeshir or Bahaman.
Persian word signifying gladness. Fakir, a religious mendi 600, Queen Humay.
cant (p. 40, &c.), is derived from the Arabic root fakar, Kay Kus. Drb.
Poverly, &c. Haram, a seraglio (p. 79), comes from the root Kay Khusraw. Darb II.

haram, Forbidden, unlawful, &c. Vakeel, (p. 105), an Lohorsb. Iskandar or Alexander, ante
agent, administrator, &c. is from the root J% wakal, Commit Kishtsb. Chr. 330.

ting to another the management of one's affairs. There are The tm5 Coresh of Isaiah, Daniel, &c. will not correspond
many more, as Masnad, rayats, Ihtimmdr, Shabi trkhi, with Cyrus, as will be observed hereafter.
&c, it is unnecessary to swell this note with a multitude of ex See Homer, Od. T. v. 69.
amples. These furnish a sufficient ground for inquiry; which, P. xvii. "We dar, a king. --) drb (from J'e dar,
I am persuaded, the ingenious Mr. Halhed, to whom we are in the participle ofele dshtan, to have, possess, &c. and -
debted for the English translation of this Code, will be able fully ab, water); or perhaps ~99 ye Dr Drb, king Drb;
to investigate, together with many points of more importance; as dara appears rather to have been a general epithet, like
as we are with pleasure informed (pref. xxxvii), that he had king, sultan, &c. than the peculiar name of any individual

been happy enough to become acquainted with a Bramin of prince. Any argument drawn thence by Sir Isaac Newton and
extensive knowledge, who had undertaken to teach him the |
others, therefore, that the Persian coins called Darics, current
Sanskrit language. in Greece and Asia Minor, were coined by Darius the Mede,
P, xi, *and * Though I have taken the liberty of pointing after the defeat of Cra'sus ; or, according to some, by Darius
out what I conceive to be mistakes in some very eminent men; the son of Ilystaspes, seems by no means conclusive, either as to
yet I should be very uncandid, if I did not acknowledge that I the date of the coinage, or even the existence of those princes:
have, at the same time, derived from them much information; as Darics might have been struck by any Dr or king of Per
and from none more than Mr. Bryant's Mythology; D'Herbelot's sia, as the Sultanines might have been coined by any or all of
Bibliothque Orientale, and Dr. Hyde's Religio Veterum Per the Sultns of Egypt. s humy signifies a bird of Para
sarum. I have often taken the benefit of the researches and dise,&c.y Rshana, in Persian, signifies splendour, &c.
opinions of those and other learned men; and make this general and is evidently the Rorana of the Greeks.
acknowledgment, where, through haste or inadvertency, I may P. xvii. * M. D'Herbelot, from this event, and the word
have omitted to mention my authorities. bayzat, derives the bezant or bezantine wedge of gold; and not
P, xi. * Bryant's Mythology, Vol. I. p. 130, 145, &c.
from the town of Byzantium, as generally imagined. But this
P. xii. ** and *see this Dissertation, p. xviii, &c. seems a conjecture too refined to be just. The whole of this
P. xiii. *and "See this Dissertation, p. vii, viii, xxii, xxiii, &c. story, as far as relates to Philip, it must be acknowledged, is to
P. xiii, * and * See Dictionary **) at jam.
the last degree doubtful; being diametrically in opposition to the
Pis. See Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology, p. 52 et pas most probable and best supported period of the History of Greece.
il. Also Preface to Hist, of Ndir Shh, by W. Jones, Esq. Besides, had there ever been a tribute of golden eggs imposed
P. xv. *Ibid. by the Persians on Philip or any other prince, &\- khyah,
P. xvi. 35 Kings of Persia according to the Greeks. **** murghanah, or some word originally Persian, would have
Cyaxares the son of Astyages, Artaxerxes Longimanus. been used; and not a_i: bayzat, which being Arabic, must only
ante Chr. 610. Xerxes II. have been introduced into Persian writings subsequent to the
Darius the Mede. Sogdianus. Arabian conquest. Bibliothque Orient. p. 286 and 318.
Cyrus. Darius the Bastard. P. xviii. * Many of the silver coins of the Ashkniyan kings,
Cambyses. Artaxerxes Mnemon. commonly called Parthanians, bore Greek legends. See Father
Smerdis Magus. Artaxerxes Ochus.
Erasmus Froelich, in his Elementa Numismata, Tab. xiv. &c.
Darius, the son of Hystaspes. Arses or Arogus. also Mr. Foster on the Parthian epocha, in the Archaelogia of
Xerxes, Darius Codomamnus. the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. III. p. 159. N. B. Arsakus,
Alexander, ante Chr. 330. this learned gentleman (p. 164) interprets glory of war; but he
The above list I have given, as the most authentic, from Sir produces no authority; and it does not even appear to be a Per
Isaac Newton; Herodotus, Xenophon, Pausanias, Justin, and sian word. The name of the founder of this dynasty is named
other historians, differing so remarkably, especially with regard t Ashak by the Asiatics.
* names, eras, and acts of the early kings, that, if it was of P. xix. * D'Herbelot says (p. 867), from the authority of
*** importance to reconcile them, it would be impossible. Massd, in a book called Muruju'ddhahab, that those old Per
lxx P R O OF S A N D I L L U S T R AT I O N S.

sian historians had been translated into Arabic by an author with Azadu'd'dawlah, king of Persia, and Amiru'l Umar to the
named Ebn Mocanna. Caliph Al Tay. This prince is also represented as conversing
The celebrated Khondemir observes, in the Preface to his familiarly with the ambassadors of Nicephorus Phocas. And
Universal History, That since the age of reason and discern an Arabian merchant, whom he had sent to Constantinople as a
ment, he had employed his time incessantly in the reading and private agent, appears to have been so excellent a Grecian, that
research after history, collecting every thing useful and agree he forged in that tongue, and buried, to be dug up at a proper
able from the works of the best writers, when having been in time, a prophecy of an alliance between the emperor of Greece,
vited by the Amir Ali Shir, to superintend a valuable library, and his master, as king of Persia. A conversation is much ce
filled particularly with historians, carefully collected at a great lebrated, both by the Greek and Muhammadan writers, between
expence, he had there resolved to digest the labours of his life. Sultan Alp Arsln (Amiru'l Umar to the Caliph Al Kim) and
This learned and magnificent prince was governor of Khursn the emperor Diogenes Romanus, whom he defeated and took
about the end of the fifteenth century. His noble library was prisoner in the eleventh century. The Muhammadan prince
deposited in the city of Hart. treated his royal captive with uncommon politeness; and set him
P. xix. " Nasser, who is also called Al Nodah, brought, at liberty on the promise of about 700,000 of ransom, an an
among other things, from Persia, a written romance of the ad nual tribute to the Caliphat of 140,000, and his daughter in
ventures of Rustam and Asfandiyr, See D'Herbelot, p. 664. marriage to the Sultan's son. As the Vazir Nazm was present
See also Kurn, chap. 31. A teller of tales, or reciter of histo at this interview between Alp Arsln and Romanus, the follow
ries, is called in Persian c- miranj. ing account of it may be considered as more authentic than that
P. xx. * No people in the world are greater genealogists of any historian, European or Asiatic. After some discourse,
& 4.
than the Arabians, Persians, and Tartars. One book of Arabian the Sultan asked the Emperor of Greece, what he should do
genealogies alone, called ~x" allubub, (i. e. the hearts, or with him. The Emperor replied, If you are a butcher,
the purity of the noblesse), exceeds one hundred volumes. See kill me; if a merchant, sell me; and if a prince, set me at li
Dict, c-" ansb. See also --93) afrasiyab, % turk, berty, The Sultan had compassion on him, and treated him
and Je saf; and this Dissertation, p. viii. ix. xvi. and xvii. with great kindness. Some time after, the army beginning to
See D'Herbelot under the different articles mentioned in the march back, the Emperor said to the Sultan, I am here a
text. See likewise Abu'lghz Khn's Genealogical History of prisoner; and it is certain the empire will not be long without
the Tartars, chap. 11. a head; for doubtless some other will usurp the government,
Mahmd Sabuktigin, Sultan of Ghazn, the most powerful and you will then be put to the trouble of marching back to
prince of the eleventh century, was the son of a Turkish slave. reduce him. Now that all the passes and strong-holds are as
Though a patron of learned men, he seems to have been an ex yet in the hands of my dependants, if you send me home, I
ception to the general rule; at least I have not discovered that will be one of your tributaries. The Sultan then returned him
he aimed at a superior origin, or considered the meanness of his in a royal manner; and he yearly paid the stipulated tribute;
birth as any inconveniency in the government of his empire. and sent besides a quantity of fine cloths of that country as a
P. xx. * P. xxi. A writer called Hj Khala has given present. The misfortunes and death of Romanus, it must be
us a catalogue of Oriental historians, to the amount of above observed, prevented his paying the whole of his ransom; but Alp
1300. Even private noblemen have been ambitious of being Arsln having afterwards twice defeated the generals of Michael
known to posterity; and the memoirs of their houses have been Ducas, who succeeded Romanus, the tribute agreed to by Ro
carefully treasured with their archives; a practice which, there manus was continued to be paid by the emperors of Greece for
is reason to believe, is still universally continued; as we may many years. See also Trikhul Muslim in or Historia Sarace
even observe in the discussions relative to the late disputes at nica, p. 277. See likewise Newton's Chronology, p. 375. Ge
Madras: where frequent reference is made to various public and neral History by Guthry and Gray, Vol. II. p. 195.
private records, in the possession of the great men of Hindustn; P. xxiii. * Nee Newton's Chronology, passim.
but particularly to a manuscript-history of the family of the pre P. xxiii. See Mr. Bryant's Mythology, Vol. II. p. 57, &c.
sent Nabob of Arcot, compiled by order of his ancestors when D'Herbelot, p. 455.
only simple Tartar noblemen. See Letter from Muhammad Ali P. xxiii. * See Mr. Bryant's Mythology, Vol. II. p. 478 et
Khn, Nabob of Arcot, to the Court of Directors of the East seq. Dr. Rutherforth's System of Natural Philosophy, Vol. II.
India Company, p. 17, 20, &c. p. 846. Newton's Chron. p. 84, &c.
P. xxii. Selerus, a Greek general, who assumed the purple Strabo builds for the Argonauts cities in Colchis, Iberia, Ar
during the reign of the emperor Basilius II. in the tenth century, menia, Media, along the coast of Sinope on the Euxine; in Crete;
took refuge at Bagdad, where he had many private conferences in Italy, on the Adriatic, on the Gulph of Poseidonium, and the

Hetrurian isles; on the Propontis, the Hellespont, Lemnos, on Ahasuerus is winnuns, which, by the difference of pointing (a
the Ceraunian mountains of Epirus; besides other structures, of mere arbitrary modern innovation, and not in use till many cen
which he speaks with less confidence, on the Celtic coast, at turies after those sacred books were written), may be pronounced
Cadiz, and even as far as India. Archbishop Usher, Bishop Ahasuerus, Achasuerus, A chosurus, Achasurus, &c. as, es, os,
Cumberland, Dr. Jackson, among other moderns, have consi us, or s, being only Western terminations added to Eastern
dered their expedition as historical truth. names; as Darius from Dr, Sapores from Shapur, Hormisdas
P.xxiv. * 1 Kings, c. xiv. 25, 26. 2 Chron. c. xii. 2, 3, from Hurmuzd, &c. The difference, therefore, between Khus
Newton's Chron. p. 17, et seq. and p. 193, 217, &c. Bryant's raw and Ahasuerus appears so simple, and so much in confor
Mythology, Vol. II. p. 86. mity with the idiom of the language, that it may rather be called
P. xv. * Isaiah, c. xliv. 28. c. xlv. 1, &c. Nehemiah, a provincial variation than a corruption; there being many words
c. xii. 10, 11. Jeshua, Joaikim, Eliashib, Joaida, Jonathan, Jad in Scripture, which undeniably mean the same place, written
dua; who are expressly said, in v. 22, to be the priests till the with a much greater disagreement: the sacred writers, in mat
reign of Darius the Persian. Cyrus being never questioned, ters of such trifling import as proper names, appearing always to
uncommon difficulties are found in making the eras coincide. have followed the general rule of spelling such words after the
Darius the Persian, says Sir Isaac, must be Darius Nothus ; manner in which the Jews then pronounced them. The follow
for Darius Nothus we should read Darius Hystaspes; Ar ing is given as one example: Ararat, the mountain where the
turerres Mnemon should be Artaxerxes Longimanus ; and Si ark rested after the flood, is called by Jeremiah Ararat Minni;
meon Justus should be the high priest who met Alexander, and by Amos, Harmunah; the Chaldee paraphrast makes it Armini;
not Jaddua. See Newton's Chron. p. 358, et seq. By this mode the Samaritan, Hararat; the Vulgate, Armon; and the Sep
of alienation and substitution, we may make any thing of anything. tuagint, Remnon. In other places it is written Monah, Mona,
P. xxviii. * Eastern authors sav,
y; that Ardeshir's mother was Mini, Miniyas, &c.
of the tribe of Benjamin, and a descendant of Saul; also, that one See Ezra, chap. iv. 5, 6.
of his favourite wives was of the tribe of Judah, and of the line P. xxviii. * Many circumstances in our own times, it may be
of Solomon. here observed, create no wonder, because they are familiar; but
The first was the father of Darius, that is, Achsuerus, As a little attention to them will often save us much trouble. What
suerus, Arares, Areres, or Cy-averes, &c. Newton's Chron. different shapes does not the same Christian name assume in the
p. 308. Merres, Achschirosch, Achs weros, or Oryares, suc different nations of Europe; and if we allow such liberties to the
ceeded his father Darius, &c. See. p. 353. Josephus, the Sep ancients, which unquestionably they took, we shall be no more
tuagint, and Dr. Hyde, are apparently right with regard to the surprised at finding the same word differently pronounced by a
prince who married Esther; yet notwithstanding Dr. Hyde's Hebrew, a Persian, a Syrian, or a Greek; than by an English
opinion (Relig, Wet. Pers. p. 43), it is not from the names that man, a Frenchman, a Spaniard, or an Italian. Could any thing
any analogy can be discovered. The king, in the Persian his but positive information induce an Asiatic to believe that the fol
torians, supposed to correspond with Artaxerxes Longimanus, is lowing were the same names: John, Joannes, Jean, Juan (pro
Ardeshir Dirzdast, or Bahaman, so often mentioned; but ex nounced also Huan), Ivan, and GiovanniJames, Jacobus,
cepting the initials, there is not a corresponding letter in the Jaques, Jago, and GiacomoJoseph and GiuseppGeorge and
words; nor any circumstance in sound or sense that can justify Jorje (pronounced also Horhe) William, Gulielmus, Guil
such corruption. Ardeshir, as before observed (p. xxvi), was laume, and GuillermoIValter, Gualterus, Gautier, &c.
a great friend to the Jews; his favourite wife, according to the P. xxix. *See the Dissertation, p. viii, ix, x, and their notes.
Persians, was of that nation; his era and marriage will agree There are many names in Esther, Ezra, and Nehemiah, which
therefore perfectly well with the Ahasuerus of Scripture; who are undoubtedly Persian; and others which are probably so,
must, however, as well as the Jewish captivity, if this conjecture though under Chaldaic and Hebrew disguise; as Esther from
is found to be rational, be brought down about a century lower J- as fatr or *A*- sitrah, a star; es mihman, a stranger or
than the present chronology. guest; ** mishakh, a vine-branch; y_1. mal-r, a vine
Many words in Persian are written either with or without the yard; J vasht?, a beautiful or excellent woman; 'tji ginzi
a; 24. Askandar or J*- Sikandar, Alex
initial alif or Or gansi, (Esth. c. iii. 9.) seems to be the Persian J*gunji
*der. J Afridun or ey Faridun. ex-3 afshn or ginji, a treasury; and here the learned Bochart (Phaleg. p.
*" or ex~ fishindan, to scatter. 5) agar or 5 gar, if. 2) 69) seems to have made a mistake; for he says, Persa hodie
abar or A bar, upon. J ashkl or J shakal, a fetter, a but js kaniz or canz, in Persian, signifies,
dicunt "JD ceni: ;
shackle. ashkam or * shikam, the belly, &c. If Khus a girl; and the word denoting a treasury, as above observed, is
*is written with an initial a, it forms Akhusraw. In Hebrew exactly the same with that in the Bible : the difference of vowels

being of no consequence; and nothing being more common in sham, A.V. sayid, and xxx satid. See also Mythology, Vol. I.
the East, even to this hour, than pronouncing many words writ p. 15 and 16.
ten with zj, as if spelt with 2; as AA-53 fawjdar or fawzdr; See Muallakt Amru'l Kaysi, dist. 87.
, Gujari, or Guzarat ; e-j- Jangiz Khn or an - t V. 4) s e-J
giz Khn. Indeed almost every observation which this learned Faklat yaminallahi ma lika hilatun,
man has made, with regard to the Persian, evidently shews that And she said, By the right hand of God, you shall not be
he did not understand it; and there are even some circumstances deceived.

which render his knowledge of the Arabic questionable. Ne El (properly al) implies likewise, a race, family, &c. in which
hemiae, ii. 8. Din (pardus) paradisus creditur esse Persi sense, as a prefix or an adjunct to the name of the founder, it
cum. C-29; fardus is, however, an Arabic word, as well may denote any people descended from one common ancestor;
as Hebrew: it is likewise found in the Greek rapa?v;9-; but it but without marking any particular mode of worship: and we
is foreign to the Persian. N.B. The Arabians having no c p, find it accordingly used often by historians, to distinguish the
use <- or -3 instead of it. Bochart's conjectures, with regard families of Eastern princes; as Al Othmn, the house of Oth
to Pasergarda (which, without necessity, he transposes to man; Al Saljuk, the Seljukian dynasty; Al Changiz, the family
Parasgada, and translates Persian army), Chorsakas, Shatranj, of Changiz. See Dictionary JT -As the Persians generally
&c. p. 69 and 253, are also obviously wrong. add, in pronunciation, a short i to the noun which governs the
P. xxix. * See New System of Ancient Mythology, by Mr. genitive, they may be also written in our characters, Al-i Osmn,
Bryant. Vol. I. p. 226. I am entirely a stranger to the Persic &c. N.B. Othmn is the Arabian, and Osman the Persian pro
nunciation of Je usmn. See also Dict. <!!! allh.
& and Arabic languages. See Vol. III. p. 34. In our pro
gress to obtain this knowledge, we must have recourse to the P. xxxii. " Aon, in Arabic, it may be observed, signifies
.. writers of Greece. It is in vain to talk about the Arabian assistance, defender, &c. Elaon might denote, therefore, the
or Persic literature of modern date, &c. defender ; Ab-el-aon, the father-defender; which, whatever
P. xxix. * See Preface to Vol. I. may have been the true origin, seems a more simple and
P. xxx. "Mr. Bryant says, Vol. III. p. 582. It is said, unforced etymology, at least, than the interpretations of Sum

that in the Shaster of this people (Gentoos) a like history is mus Sol, and Pater Deus Sol, for which no solid bottom can
given of the earth being overwhelmed by a deluge, in which apparently be discovered. See Dict. c.32 taven. See Wood
g How shall we reconcile this with the ward on the Wisdom of the Egyptians, in the Archaeologia of
mankind perished.
following extract from the Preface to the Code of Gentoo laws, the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. IV. p. 212.
P. xxxiii. " Ham, Mr. Bryant says, Vol. I. p. 3, on the
(p. xxxix). For then we at once come to the immediate era
of the Flood, which calamity is never once mentioned in information of Gale's Court of the Gentiles, signifies the sun in
those Shasters; and which yet we must think infinitely too Persic. The authority is suspicious : I have been able to dis
remarkable to have been even but slightly spoken of, much cover nothing similar to it in that language, and must withhold
less to have been totally omitted, had it even been known in my belief. 's him, or hanah, signifies in Arabic, inter
that part of the world. The Bramins, indeed, remove this alia, a prince, or chief of a family; and in that sense may
objection by two assertions: one, that all their Scriptures explain the origin of many names: - hammah, implying a
were written before the time by us allotted to Noah; the warm bath, or spring, might naturally give appellations to hot
other, that the Deluge really never took place in Hindostan. bituminous fountains, without forcing their etymological origin
See also Observations on the Apamean Medal, by the Hon. to the sun, or to the patriarch Ham.
Daines Barrington, in the Archaeologia of the Society of Anti A transposition of radicals is to be found, though it occurs but
quaries, Vol. IV. p. 315. seldom ; as z:-- madlj or *** dumluj, bracelets; 3-x."
P. xxxi. " Bryant's Mythology, Vol. I. p. vii. and xv. maghriasat or *** marghusat, confusion, &c.
P. xxxi. * * The principal of these are, Aur, our, or ; el; P. xxxiv. * Mythology, Vol. I. p. 18. See also Dictionary
on, a on or e on ; cham, ham, or hama; ait or aith, as, ees, or &T ayat, Hebrew n's ait; J37 sar, and s mah. The Ara
is ; san, son, zan, or zaan ; sem-on ; arez; kur, or cur; bel, bal, bians, &c. pronounce 3 dh, ds, or th; J and \; dh, dd, d, ds,
or baal; ast, asta, esta, or hestia ; shem, shamen, or shemesh ; dth, all which the Persians sound z. See also Arabic Gram
er; tal, &c. Bryant's Mythology, Vol. I. from p. 1 to 127. mar, p. 99.
Vol. II. 190 and 535. Vol. III. Pref, p. vii. et passim. See P. xxxiv. Mythology, Vol. I. p. 26. See also Dictionary
also Dict, xy rujan. J-1 as, J-L asis, and L-- asis-- tas, jja tazs, Jj
P, xxxii. 59 c) altayn, J}) al aur, cre tainu'sh' taxis. See likewise J tish, and C-1 clad as.

P. xxxiv. *Mythology, Vol. I. p. 24. Vol. II. p. 122, 3, with a number of small hillocks, resembling those excrescences
&c. vjsin, in Arabic, it may not be improper to observe, sig on the human face. Black moles on the face have ever been
nifies an idol in general. See also Dictionary J&T zar, Js considered in the East as extremely beautiful; and circumstances
azarsan or e-Ji adarsn, and c, barzin. full as whimsical have often given names to places. See also
P. xxv, "Mythology, Vol. I. p. 62 and 225,226. Vol. II. Dictionary r surf.
p.461. Hestia must be from a different root: in Persian J-8 See Mythology, Vol. I. p. 6 and 94. The Oriental adjunct
hasti signifies a being, substance, existence, essence ; and in this is J- stn or e-listn, the participle of eye-listdan,
sense may have perhaps been used as the name, title, or attribute c- istadan, ex- istandan or ex-.' istandan, To
of a divinity. stand, reside, dwell, place, fix, &c. whence e- J Moghul
Islakhar ought properly to be speltAst, but by the Arabians Istan or e-l- Moghulistn (part of Tartary). e-j

it is in general written j l; whence Dr. Hyde has conceived Hindustan or e--- Hindustn (India). J-y Frs

the derivation to have been from A* sakhr, Rocks. See Dict, istn (Persia), c-j}<- Khz-istn (Susiana). This last coun
- ist, c. ist, c-" istdan, e- istdan, and j+ try Mr. Bryant, as well as Bochart, supposes to have been so
khur and 94 kh'ur, named from Chus; but z and s, as before observed, being dis
It may be observed, as a general rule, that the Persians, Ara tinct radicals, and never confounded but by error or vulgarism,
bians, and Indians, writing without the short vowels, and seldom it has a very suspicious bottom: whilst 35+ khz in Persian sig
in their manuscripts affixing the vowel-points, it is impossible to nifies a nation; and is particularly applied to denote the inha
reduce them to any fixed standard; the pronunciation of different bitants of this very district.
kingdoms or districts being, in many respects, distinct from one P. xxxvii. " " P. xxxviii. ** Azer (Vol. I. p. 13) seems
another. Where a word is spelt therefore in our characters to be the Arabic ) irr; .5) ira'; ), utcar (pl. 2) uewar),
ast, est, ist, ost, or usta, it makes, in general, no alteration Heb. his awr, which denote, amongst other significations, fire,
in the sense. Eastern nations have indeed not only a variation in a fire-place, kindling a fire, heat (of the sun, of fire, of thirst,
pronouncing; but much of the apparent discrepance has arisen &c.)Ab (Myth. Vol. I. p. 2) is 38 in Heb. and - ab in
from the different powers, which the different nations and indi Arab. Father.Ad (p. 23) Mr. Bryant conceives to be a chief,
viduals of Europe have given to those vowels; and the arbitrary king, lord; and supposes, when doubled, that adad should im
modes which translators and travellers have laid down for ex ply something superlative, as a king of kings; but superlatives
pressing Oriental words in the characters of Europe; there be are not so formed in the Eastern dialects; and 9 ad is perfectly
inghardly, for example, two gentlemen from India, who, although synonymous with ele) add; both, in Arabic, implying victory,
sounding the words precisely in the same manner, will not, when strength, superior power, &c. neither is adda fem. of ad, |..}}
expressing those sounds upon paper, differ remarkably in the ada or ada' being a different root, signifying assisting, also
compass of a very few lines. See Arabic Grammar, p. 5, and increasing in strength, &c. None of those words, at the same
Preface to Specimen of Persian Poetry, p. xiii. time, appear to signify one, according to Macrobius; not first,
It maybe objected to those etymologies, perhaps, that the word agreeable to Mr. Bryant's conjecture. &c tad and exe tadad,
is most commonly written,*; but whilst the authority of the from another root, denote number in general; and c & aduw
author of the Farhang Jahngiri, who spells it in the true Per (pl. |Ac" aeda) signifies an enemy : in all which senses we can
sian manner Ki-1, appears to be unquestionable on this ground; see sufficient presumption for the formation of proper names and
when we consider, at the same time, that the character now in for their being figuratively applied to chiefs or conquerors, to
use amongst those Oriental nations had no existence (as observed friends as well as foes.Our learned author next objects (p.25)
above, p. vi.) till the tenth century of our era; and that Istakhar the derivation of Adam, adama, adamana, and other similar
was founded perhaps two thousand years before that period; names, &c. from the Hebrew DTN or the Arabic **) Adam,
those particular letters, which the Arabians have since chosen to wishing to support the Cuthites, by tracing such places to Ad
express that name, can have no more weight in a discussion of dam, which he translates Lord Ham : but whilst ad does not
this nature, than advancing the French manner of writing Lon appear to signify a lord; whilst the veneration paid to Ham is
"re, as an argument that London was an error. by no means proved; and whilst the texture of the Oriental
See Mythology, Wol. I. p. 65, 66. Wol. III. Pref. xxviii.
languages, as above observed (p. xxxvi), will not allow the
- Hebrew upw. Arabic L--: shams, The sun; ** sham, dropping of the medial h, we can see no ground for departing
Syria; with the article, **) ash'shm or 4!" ash'shamah. from the above roots; which not only denote the father of man
D'Herbelot says, p. 772, that some Eastern geographers derive kind, but man in general, a chief, a concord, society, &c. which
the name shim from a wart; because the country is studded over are, unquestionably, etymological grounds of superior strength

to that which he proposesSemon, he says (p. 38), signifies taini or phi-tainin may imply, the mouth of a fountain. I
calestis sol; but it appears to be simply the Arabic V. sam, should much doubt, however, if Pharaoh can have any relation
or the Persian J- samn or c-f asman, Heaven, without
to this particle. exer; Phirawn, in Arabic, signifies a croco
any particular reference to the sun. Di or dio, a deity (p. 38), dile; and the people of Egypt are called by them z exe;
appears to have some analogy to the Persian 23 pronounced Phirawn-Kawmi, The people of the crocodile. it signifies
dio, diu, div, or diw, which implies supernatural being, a de also, metaphorically, a tyrant; but whether this meaning took
mon, a genie, &c.Kur (p. 39) appears to be the Persian A its origin from the voraciousness of the animal, or the animal
or j := - kh'ur, the sun.-Cohen or Kahen, he says (p. 40), ap was so named from the brutality of the prince, it may be difficult
pear to have been pronounced Cahen and Chan, to have signified to determine. Some learned men, it may be observed, however,
a priest, and also lord or princee kohn, kohan or kohun, have doubted whether this word was ever adopted by the Egyp
in Persian, and c's kahin Arab. (pl. & kahanat or kahanah, tian kings, or applied by their subjects; considering it merely
and J' kuhhn) signify a priest, soothsayer, augur, &c. But as a name of contempt, bestowed on them by neighbouring na
the word which denotes a prince is from a different root, being tions. Phial seems to be the Persian <! piylah (it being
written e- khan, the name by which emperors of Tartary and common with the Arabians and other nations to change the Per
other Eastern princes have been generally known. As for Ko sian p into ph, as C-y phars for c'. prs, Persia; J; phil
nah, the title of Moses, it differs from both, being the Hebrew for Jr. pil, An elephant, &c. Piyalah signifies a phial, a cup,
TpBel, Bal, Baal (p. 45); J batl in Arabic signifies a and also a large vessel; and hence may imply any subterraneous
lord, a master, &c. which appears to be the true meaning of bason into which a river might discharge itselfAi, and aia (p.
this Babylonish idol's name; and no proof is brought of its being 90), may perhaps be the Arabic s' aya and s, awa, which
in any shape the particular representative of the sun.T.A. aran denotes a mansion, dicelling, place of rest, settlement, or resi
or karn (p. 46) signifies, in Arabic, a horn; ey karan denotes
dence ; and, in that sense, may apply to the combination of
also junction in general; and ey kirn, a happy conjunction
Aigupt, the dwelling of the Copts or Egyptians. With regard
of the planets : it is also an epithet synonymous to Felic or to Athenai, Thebai, &c. I should hardly suppose that these had
Augustus : hence JA --~~~ sahib-kiran has been a royal any connexion with the East, being mere Greek inflections. In
title adopted by many Oriental princes, especially by Tamerlane which light I should likewise view Roma, Etna (which he in
and by Shh Jahn the Great Mogul (see Dict, p. 840).- terprets the country of Rom, of Etn, &c.), as I think it rather
s 2 'l Karnayn was also a title given to the two Alex refining too much upon derivation to search for occult Asiatic
anders, or Kay Kubd and Alexander the Great (see Dict. meanings from mere Grecian and Roman terminations; which
J*- Sikandar). Craneus or Carneus, which Mr. Bryant are so perfectly consonant to the texture of the Greek and Latin
mentions as titles of the sun, may possibly be merely the Greek tongues. As to India, which upon this etymology he would
termination added to JA karan or giran, &\; karanah or gi translate the country of Ind, it certainly was never known in
ranah, which, in Persian, mean great, grand, eralted, excel that quarter of the world, the original word being & hind, an
lent; epithets naturally applicable by the Persians to that splen Indian, or the Indian nation; six-s hindi, or 2.xls hindu, Indian,
did body, which was so long the chief ostensible object of their belonging to India, &c. e---> II industan or J-y
worship.Oph, a serpent (p. 49), may perhaps be analogous to Hindustan, the country of the Indians.Macar, which (p. 67)
the Arabic J affa or aaki, A viper; whilst awb signi he says is a sacred Amonian title, and gives names in consequence
fies, in Persian, a large serpent, or the Python ; and abadir, to many places, appears to be simply the Arabic Ji makurr,
which he interprets the serpent deity, may possibly be the Per which denotes a place of residence, a habitation, &c. Makarrun
sian Je ~ awb adar, signifying a fiery serpent.Ain, a foun is the same word, either in the plural, or pronounced with the
tain (p. 51), is the Arabic cc &aynUnder this article a note nunnation. (In reading the Kurn and other books in the so
occurs (p. 56) relative to Damascus, which is a further proof lemn style, un is often the termination of the nominative case,
how much a resemblance of sounds may mislead where there is in of the genitive or dative, and an of the accusative; which, in
no radical knowledge. He says, Damasec is the city of the common reading or conversation, is generally dropt: this is what
prince; but whilst it is impossible to make a city of Dam or Ad Arabic grammarians call nunnation. (See Arab. Gramm, p.
ham, ** shaykh, A prince, &c. is a root widely differing from 33, &c.) The ancient Gedrosia is now named Mocran. Me
the terminating syllable of C-c Damshak, the common way lech (p. 70) is Hebrew and Arabic for a king, and also an
of writing Damascus (see Dict.)Phi or fi (p. 89), 3 fi, in angel ; as Tp and -- malak or clur malak; and 34.
Arabic, signifies the mouth ; it is the genitive of 33 fu or s malakah or malakat, a queen.Anak (p. 72) seems to be ana
phh; but it is also used in the nominative; whence c- .# phi logous to the Arabic c-c tunak (pl. Ju- atnk), which

denote princes, chiefs, tall men, &c.Sar or zar (p. 73), sir tradition, and long after Muhammad, to surround the world. It
or sar, in Persian, signifies the head, summit, chief, principal, became therefore the subject of much fable, and of perpetual
&c, and is one of the most common compounds in the language; allusion; every hill or promontory, which their writers meant to
as Jr- sar-dr, a general, or chief; J.-- sar-khayl, the distinguish (like Alps or Alpine with us), being called Kf or
commander of a troop , Ji-y- sar-kh'ur, the master of the Kph. Caph-el, Caph-ar, and Caph-arez, may therefore be
horse, &c. Placed after nounsj. sr denotes magnitude, mul interpreted the mount of God, the volcano or mountain of fire,
titude, and similitude ; as M-95 kh-sr, a large mountain, or the hill of the world, &c. J, arz, amongst many significa
mountainous country; M-4 bargsar, full of leaves; J- s tions, denoting the world; without having seemingly any refe
rence to the sun; which, in a variety of places, Mr. Bryant lays
shh-sr, royal, like a king. U- sr, means pure, excellent,
&c. !- sar is a palace ; ); zar is an adjunct expressive of
down as an undisputed fact, but without supporting it by the
least satisfactory authority.Beth is the Hebrew n'H, the Arabic
place, especially where there is a great quantity of any thing, as being c-w bayt : they both signify a house, temple, &c. cu
j, lilah-zr, a bed of tulips; JJ guksr, a rose-garden. abad is Persian, and implies a place of residence. 25 kaw (p.
ar signifies gold; Jj zar-sn, golden. A variety of other 98), in Persian, means a hollow low ground, or any ercava
meanings may be given of those words; which, in their natural, tion ; whence it might be applied to a house in a bottom, a ca
unforced senses, will denote dignity, quality, or situation, with vern, or any thing similar; it also denotes magnificent, venera
out having recourse to the figurative signification of a rock, ble, great, strong, warlike, powerful. Gaw signifies likewise
which is doubtful and unconvincing. It may also be observed the sun, with a variety of other meanings; see Dictionary.
in general, that all Persian nouns (with very few exceptions), Thaman, which (Vol. III. p. 10) he says signified eight, in the
when applied to any thing having life, form their plurals in an ; ancient language of the country round Mount Ararat, where the
so that combinations of titles, such as sar-n, sar-on, &c. are ark is supposed to have rested, is merely the Arabic es tha
easily deducible from the same roots, without any compound, or man; and caman or saman seems to be only that variation of
adjunct.Air (p. 92). J.' ayr, in Arabic, denotes the north and sound, given by the Persians and other nations to the initial
the east; also a scorching wind; it signifies likewise a hard Arabic - t'h, which they cannot pronounce: this renders it
stone, cotton, &c. From another root, Je tayr means a ca quite unnecessary, therefore, to alter Cemainum or Shemainum,
ravan, a chief, a prince, &c. !, ara implies honey, sweet, as he proposes in the following page. There appears likewise
dew, manna, (and, as well as ar, ir, or) fire, heat, &c. Ara in a mistaken conjecture (p. 12) relative to the city of Tabriz or
Persian expresses adorning, beautifying, ornament, &c. all Tauris (the capital of the country called Adherbijan or Aser
which senses may easily be supposed to have entered into the bijan), part of the Armenia and Media of the Greeks, which,
composition of many names of places; as the accident of situa he says, is named likewise Albors or Albaris. This he imagines
tion, elegance of buildings, the produce of the soil, or a respect to be a contraction of Tabaris or Tavaris ; but the first is ap
for their chiefs, might suggest. The same idea may be like parently Arabic, the other Persian: C-2 birs and J2, baras
wise adopted with regard to 25 kir, G kr, 253 kir, &c. which, in Arabic have a great variety of meanings; the last, inter alia,
in Arabic, signify bitumen, pitch, camels, &c. Kar, kr, krat, signifying leprosy ; and with the Arabic article prefixed, Jer"
kirat, &c. a hill, a large stone, a tract of stony country, cotton, al burs, implies the moon, from the spotted appearance of her
&c. J kar, in Persian, denotes art, commerce, &c. whence disk. Jr Tabrzz or A29 Tabriz, is the name by which this

we may easily suppose the country of bitumen, cotton, or camels, place is generally known; and is conjectured to have been given
the castle on the hill, the city of commerce, the rocky region, on account of that healthiness of situation, for which it has been
&c. &c.Col, cal, caleb, &c. (p. 93) may be different modes of much remarked; the first word implying dispersing a fever, or
pronouncing the Arabic t kalat or &xi; kalaat, (pl. 3 ki resisting an infection : though it is not impossible, as this coun
"t) which imply castles, towers, &c. especially on the tops of try was anciently famous for the adoration of fire, that the name
"ountains or high grounds- kullat, (pl. J kulal) Arab. should have an allusion to that circumstance; for ju tab-ruz
is a hill---- gib (p. 94) in Arabic denotes a mountainous
may be interpreted scattering heat, diffusing splendour, &c.
"ntry, which is also expressed by U-- gibl; whence comes *:S c) alburs kh (the mountain Albors) is celebrated by
Gibraltar.ju tr, in Persian, is the summit or ridge of a Firdawsi : and it is mentioned, by Ali Yazdi, 1.3, c. 57, of his
mountain, &c. and J tur, in Arabic, is generally used to ex life of Tamerlane; but that is evidently Caucasus, and not the
P"*Mount Sinai.-Caph, &c. (p. 95) which is interpreted a place here referred to.
rock, promontory, &c. has every appearance of being that fa The difficulty, if unacquainted with the languages, of discover
bulous mountain -j Kf (see Dictionary), which the Arabians, ing the analogy of Eastern words by the eye or the ear, will evi
***, and other Eastern nations have supposed, beyond all dently appear from a few examples. 3) (Arz or urz) in Arabic
l 2
signifies a pine, or any cone-bearing tree; a chief; robust; of the Decline of the Roman Empire, by Edw. Gibbon, Pq.
cold, &c.; (in Persian) price, value, quantity, esteem, honour. p. 246.
J (arz, araz, or aradh, Arab.) signifies the earth; Jye (tar, P. xxxix. 7 Olaus Wormius Liter. Runic, cap. 20. Bar
&c.) apresent; an accident; desire ; plunder; an army; mer tholin Antiq. Dania, lib. ii. cap. 8. lib. 2. cap. 2. Lazius de
chandize, &c.C-ye (taris) astonished; a spouse; wedlock. Gent. Migrat. 1. x, fol. 573 and 1600.-Olaus Rudbeck, cap. v.
Jere (taris) cheerfulJ (arish) a quarrel, a mulct for man sect. 2. Crymogaea Arngrim. Jon, lib. i. cap. 4. Mallet In
slaughter. Cye (earsh) a throne-J (batal) cutting, sepa troduction lHistoire de Dannemarc, Tom. ii. p. 9, &c. The
rating-J (batal) a champion; heroic ; with numbers of Venerable Bede. And Johann. Ihre, Glossarium Suiogothicum,
others which might be easily adducedWhilst Jla as (Mus voce Oden, &c.
tafa') excellent, selected, is derived from the root C- (safi) of See preface to Alfred's Saxon Orosius.
the same signification.--~~" (Muhammad) deserving great P. xli. 7 74-Mallet. Hist. Dannem. c. ii. Preface to Alfred's
praise; 34-" (Ahmad) more praiseworthy. cs (Mumad
Saxon Orosius, by Spelman. Wit. Alfredi Spelm. Append. vi.
dah) or t." (Mamduh) praised, celebrated; and 2-,-,-,
(Mamduht) celebrated things, are all brought from A^- Among the Tartar, or more properly Tatar nations, who,
with some similar features, have, at the same time, in many
(hamd) praiseMa) (ansr) defenders (i. e. the citizens of
Madina, who supported Muhammad). Ja (Almansur) points, a diversity of character, are the Moguls, Calmaks or
Aluths, the Atracks or Turks, the Turkmans, the Usbecs, the
assisted, defended, celebrated for victories, august, ra.--
(Mustansir) Who implores or receives assistance, (names of two Canghelis or Kanklis, Cazelaks, Tamgages, Kipchaks, Crims,
Sartes, the inhabitants of Bokhara, Khata or Khoten, Toncat
Caliphs) come from the radical raj (nasr) Victory, defence, as
sistance. or Tangut, and Thibet, the Telanguts, Tumats, Virats, Cata
Since writing the above, I have seen a Review of Mr. Bryant's guns, &c.
Mythology, printed at Amsterdam: in which the authors appear P. xlii. 7 7 77 Les Arabes et les Tartares sont des peuples
to have greatly mistaken that learned gentleman's system; and pasteurs. Les Arabes se trouvent dans les cas gnraux dont
to have expressed themselves, at the same time, with an indecent nous avons parl, et sont libres; au lieu que les Tartares (peuple
petulance, which, for the honour of learning, it were to be wished le plus singulier de la terre) se trouvent dans l'esclavage poli
might never accompany a difference of opinion. If they will tique.-Ils n'ont point de villes, ils n'ont point de forts, ils ont
turn to his Preface to Vol. I. of the Mythology, p. xiv. they will peu de marais, leurs rivires sont presque toujours glaces, ils
read, The mistakes of the Greeks in respect to ancient terms, habitent une immense plaine, &c. LEsprit des Lois, liv. xviii.
ch. 19.
which they strangely perverted, will be exhibited in many in
stances; and much true history will be ascertained from a de P. xlii. P. xliii. See Sir W. Blackstone's Commentaries,
tection of this peculiar misapplication. Many other passages Book ii. ch. iv. LEsprit des Lois, lib. xxx. ch. i. Dr. Robert
clearly explain his plan; and one of his chief objects is thence to son's Charles V. Vol. i. p. 15, 255, et seq. Millar on the Distinc
develope ancient mythology from the obscurity in which the tion of Ranks in Society, ch. iv. Voltaire Essai sur lHistoire G
Greeks had involved it, by corrupting the channels of derivation. nrale, ch. xxiii. Sir John Dalrymple's Feudal System. Spelman
He endeavours to penetrate, therefore, to the fountain-head of lan on Feuds. Wright on Tenures. Gravina Orig. lib. i. 139.

guage, of which he considers the Greek to be only a remote Crag. Du Caange, voce Feudum, &c.
stream. His ideas, on this ground, are judicious; and he wanted P. xliv, * A fief in Persian is called % Balk, being
only a knowledge of Eastern learning, to have made many curious described as a tract of country which a subject obtains by gift
and interesting discoveries. With what propriety, then, can from the prince, by purchase, or by succession, and holds for
those gentlemen triumph, and question Mr. Bryant's knowledge military service. J- Siyurghal, signifies also a feudal
of the Greek, when he professedly goes to a higher origin tenure. A feudatory chief or military tenant is called J
for his etymologies : Where is the justice of the following sipahi.-In Arabic $3's Vakhzat and isla; katitat are gene
among many similar criticisms, Apntw Apollo falso sit ex Apha, rally understood as fiefs: the first implying the receiving of lands
ignis, et torturris; cum secundum certissimas linguae rationes from a chief; and the other expressing the cutting off a certain
ab apinal oriatur? Where is the decency of Cum ubique in district from a greater, and giving it to a subject on certain
Bryantio temeritatis novitatem miraremur, excogitare tamen conditions. As these words may, however, refer also to
non potuimus quis eum stupor tenuerit, cum haec scriberet? copyholds or farms, nothing conclusive can be drawn from
(p. 68.) them alone. &le; zigmat in Arabic denotes also a fief be
P. xxxviii. 70 See I. Dissertation prefixed to History of Eng stowed for military services; and **) zatim from the same root,
lish Poetry, by the Rev. Mr. Warton-See also The History a feudal chief, or military tenant. ^\e r nafir-i tam implies,

a general summons of nobles to take the field with their military sufficient for her sustenance, notwithstanding her immeasurable
vassals, size. See Dictionary *** Simurgh, i.e. tank, and -3G
See Dictionary 3's Kw, ex, Faridun, **) Rustam, Kf:

--); Afrsyb, j-i-Asfandyr, A. Sikandar. See In many parts of the East they strongly perfume the bodies of
also Khondemir, Tarikh muntakhab, Shh-nmah, &c. the dead, that the demons may not approach them.
See Pocock Specimen Hist. Arab. p. 65,66, 74. Novairi's Hist. P. xlvii. *See Dict. : Pari; :- Dire; e- Sulay
of the Himyarit Kings, &c. man; r Shadukan ; s cl bdiytul jinn; el
s-ca, Trikhul muslimin, or the History of the Sa e- c Jn bin Jan. Angelo says, that the Sabians make a
racens, p. 135. D'Herbelot, p. 1017. creation 370, 340 years before the Christian era. See Gazophy
P. liv, * See Khondemir, Sharfu'd'din Ali Yazdi's Life of lacium Lingua Persarum, p. 361.---> Haris, signifies a
Tamerlane; Abu'l Pharaje Dyn. 10. D'Herbelot passim, &c. guardian, governor, or protector; but on his fall his name was
P. xlv. *The number nine has been long in great venera changed to \" Ib, the refractory; U-4) Iblis, the desperate;
and Ja Shaytan, the proud.-Many of the ideas relative to
tion among the Tartars. All presents made to their princes con
sist, in general, of nine of each article. At all their feasts this Kafare even adopted in the Kurn; they were the general
number and its combinations are always attended to in their belief in the days of Muhammad; and it was not till geography
dishes of meat, and in their skins of wine or other liquors. At became better understood in the East, that they discovered the
one entertainment, mentioned by the Tartar king, Abu'l ghz several divisions of Kf to be Caucasus, Imaus, Atlas, and other
Khn, there were nine thousand sheep, nine hundred horses, mountains in Asia and Africa.-The Paris are by some writers
and ninety-nine vessels of brandy, &c. Even the roving Tar supposed to be all females, and the Diws males: but without
tars rob the caravans by this rule; and will rather take nine of having any communication; each having the separate power of
anything than a greater number. Abu'l ghz Khn, in the pre continuing their species: yet, in the Tahmras-nmah, we find
face to his history, says, I have divided it into nine parts, the brothers of the Pari-marjn; and the Kaharman-nmah
to conform myself to the custom of other writers, who all mentions often the kings of Shadakam.
have this number in particular esteem. It appears to have P. xlviii. *The most famous talismans, which rendered them
been likewise a favourite mysterious number amongst the Goths. proof againt the arms and magic of the Dives, were the J-A-
We are told, that every nine years there was a solemn festival, muhr-i Sulayman, or the seal of Sulayman Jarad, the fifth mo
when nine animals of every species were sacrificed to their narch of the world; which gave to its possessor the command of
gods. Oden, they say, resolving to die as a warrior before elements, demons, and of every created thing. The x- Sipar,
the approach of age and infirmity, called a general assembly or buckler of Jan bin Jan, more famous in the East than
of the Goths, and wounded himself in nine mortal places. See the shield of Achilles among the Greeks. The 4- Jabah, or
Adam of Bremen in Grotii Prolegomenis, p. 104. Mallet, In the impenetrable cuirass; and the U-7 t tgh-i atish, or
troduction lHistoire de Dannemarc. the flaming sword. Among the dreadful creatures of the ima
P. xlv. The resemblance of the Tartar and European diets gination, which winged the heroes of Persia from region to
seems, indeed, to have struck Voltaire: Il parait que les Kans region, were the Rakshah, whose ordinary food was serpents
" Tartares taient en usage dassembler des Dites wers le prin and dragons. He had long rendered the Dry Island inacces
tems: ces Dites s'appelaient Courilt. Eh! qui sait si ces sible, till subdued by Hoshang, king of Persia, or by his
" assembles et nos Cours Plnieres, au mois de Mars et de Mai, father Saymak Shh, who tamed, and mounted him in all their
n'ont pas une origine commune " Essai sur lHistoire Gn wars with the Dws. The Suham had the head of a horse
rle, ch. xlviii-Ab'l Pharaje, p. 466, calls this Great Council with four eyes, and the body of a flame-coloured dragon; he
s Kurillay or ** Katriltiy. Ali Yazdi, in his was conquered by a famous Persian warrior called Sam Na
Life of Tamerlane, writes it v; krltay. See a magnifi rimn. The Awrnbd is described as a fierce flying hydra.
cent description of one, chap. 3. In the Khrasmian dialect it is The Ajdar, ajdar, or ajdah, are dragons of different kinds.
w krillan. The Sil appears to be the basilisk, having a face somewhat
P. lvi, * Blackstone's Commentaries, Vol. II. p. 83. human, the sight of which makes every creature to fly; the
P. lvi. 867 P. xlvii. 88 Sdi, a Persian moral writer of near approach being certain death. See Dictionary als suham,
preface to his Bostn, making an eulogium
the first class, in the Jyj) awrnbd, , rakshah, J- ajdar, J ajdar, \s
* Providence, says, with much seriousness, that Omnipotence ajdah, Je sil.
had provided so liberally for the nourishment of all his crea The present made by the Simurgh of her feathers to Tah
tures, that even the Simurgh finds on the mountain of Kf mras, according to Eastern writers, gave rise to the fashion
lxxviii P R O OF S AND I L L U S T R AT I O N S.

of plumed helmetsThis prince was surnamed Banivand, necromancers pretend to reconcile enemies; ;= ghajghw or
armed at all points; and Diw-band, chainer of Dives. Marjan >\xs ghajghw, tufts made of the hair of sea-cows, and hung
signifies a pearl. round the necks of horses, to defend them from fascination. J.
See Shh-nmahe c-, -e-...}} ~~~~);-Khn-i shabrik, a tree of which they make amulets for the same pur
shashum, wa kushtani Rustam Arjang Diw, the sixth adventure, pose. *je aximat, an amulet, incantation, or spell against
and the slaughter of the Diw Arjang by Rustam. In the next serpents, disease, or other evil. &\}- sulwanat, shells, rings, or
is his combat with the Az-, .329 Dw-i Saped (white Dew). Fir beads used as amulets. e':- sulwn, denotes water poured from
daws7, who may be called the Homer of Persia, employed thirty a kind of shell or upon earth taken from the grave of a dead man,
years in the composition of this work. He died at an advanced which they drink to the health of a person, as a cure for love, or
age, in the year 1018. See also Gazophylacium Ling. Pers. any severe affliction. &la= &alfat, small beads hung by women
p. 127. round their necks, as a charm to gain the affections of their lovers.
P. xlviii. P. xlix. * See Dissertations prefixed to the 3,5- takurat, a spherical amulet, worn by some women round
Rev. Mr. Warton's History of English Poetry; and Observations their waists, to prevent pregnancy; and by others to favour a
on the Faery Queen, p. 63.-In the Persian Romances, we find conception. $3- ukhsat, an amulet in form of a knot, which
nations with the heads of fish, dragons, &c. as Js 2- sar-i women wear to keep their husbands faithful. c- mirang,
mhi, Syl J. sar-i ajdah. We have also the 2. *: nim-sar,
e - nirak, J-hamil, x taewis, r mi-kd,
the half-heads; and * Je duwal-pay, the leather-strap legs. mutammim,j ghaz, j = kharas, Js kahal, &- wajihat,
But one of the most singular creatures is the j- nim-jurah
-- rath, &l=5A kirzahlat, S matwis, signify amulets
or j- * nim-chihr ; which is supposed to be the human figure
made of shells, beads, tufts of wool or hair, dead men's bones,
split in two; the male being the right half, and the female the
left: they have, of consequence, half a face, one eye, one arm,
* naju, c-s farhast, Jy raki, *, * shuh, &lax, luetat,

and one foot, on which they run with incredible swiftness; and 3A masrat, &c. imply fascination, or malignant eyes. 9->
are imagined to be very dangerous and cruel-J tinnin, kharchrah, is an ass's head placed upon a pole in a garden, &c.
e sutbn, and other Arabic words used to denote dragons, to guard it against fascination.
are only, radically, large serpents. \e tanka, signifies an
The following account of the discovery of hidden treasure is
eagle, length of neck, &c. from the root c-c tunk, a neck. given by the vazir Nazm.A prince, named Amir Ismael, in
3, a gifrit, a cruel or dangerous man, from the root Jc the beginning of the tenth century, having defeated another
afr; hence a giant, genie, demon, &c.-J: Ghul, any thing chief, called Amr Lays, who was supposed to be very rich,
terrifying, which suddenly deprives people of their senses. search was made for his treasure, but in vain. One of the Amir's
g-Jinn, a demon, a spirit. This root signifies, inter alia, female slaves accidentally undressing to bathe on the terrace of
covering, being concealed, interior, dark. See ea jn and the palace, having laid down her girdle, set with large rubies,
cy---Junin. on a white cloth; a hungry kite observing it, and supposing the
P. xlix. * See Dictionary sle mh. red stones to be bits of meat, pounced upon the girdle and
P. xlix. * P. l. * Father Angelo observes that magic is carried it off. The damsel instantly gave the alarm to the guard;
an art publicly taught by the Persians and Arabians. He knew and a number of horsemen were despatched to keep the kite in
a rich enchanter of Bassora, a man much respected; whose view, who dropt it after a long pursuit, when it fell into a well.
scholars were so numerous, that they possessed one entire quarter A man was immediately let down, who discovered in the side of
of the city. At the sound of a certain drum, accompanied by a it a large cavity, where a vast number of chests had been
kind of chant, they became, like demoniacs, suddenly inspired lodged, which proved to have been the very treasure the Amir
with a real or affected phrenzy; during which they devoured had been so long in quest of, to the amount of about 4,000,000 l.
fire publicly in the streets. This is a trick not uncommon with sterling.Burying treasure is also common among the Tartars;
European jugglers. These magicians, by way of distinction, and sheets of gold, jewels, and rich moveables, are often interred
wore their hair very long. See Gazophylacium Lingua Persa along with the chiefs and their wives. See Ab'l ghazi Khn's
rum, p. 155. Angelo went missionary to the East in 1663. See History; also Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. II.
also Hyde's Religio Veterum Persarum, cap. 18 and 19. p. 222.
P. li. *The words expressive of talismans, amulets, fascina P. li. "The ancient Persians durst not, by their religion,
tion, and spells, are very numerous both in Persian and Arabic. extinguish fire with water, but endeavoured to smother it with
I shall mention a few; 3,23 nushrat, an amulet for preventing or earth, stones, or any thing similar. This method would not soon
curing insanity, or other malady; 4.5 kabalah, a philtre by which extinguish a blazing forest.-The Parsis of Guzerat are still
PRO OF S AND I L I, U S T R A TI O N S. lxxix

guided by the same hurtful superstition. See Anquetil's Zend ordinary course of nature. All which were anciently punished
Avesta, Vol. I. p. 567. -
as heretics by sentence of the Ecclesiastical courts, and burnt
P. ii. * See Dictionary 2\,, mh. by the writ De heretico comburendo. See lib. 1. p. 5. By the
P. iii. * J 4-5 ksah-nishin signifies the beardless Common Law, they could only be pilloried, 3 Inst. 44. H. P. C.
old man sitting or mounted. During the time of the Muham 38. But by Stat. 1 James I, c. 12, these offenders are divided
madan Sultans of Persia, this ceremony was called in Arabic into two degrees: those of the first degree, with their acces
& ~}} rukubu'l kawsaj, the procession of Kawsaj, which saries before the fact, suffering as felons without benefit of
is synonymousD'Herbelot observes, that a burlesque farce clergy. These are of four kinds: 1. Such as shall use any
somewhat resembling this was anciently customary in Italy invocation or conjuration of any evil spirit. 2. That consult,
about the middle of Lent.-September in Persia is named Mihr, covenant with, entertain, employ, or reward any evil spirit,
the angel supposed to superintend the orb of the sun; and the to any intent. 3. As take up any dead person's body, or any
16th day of every month is also called Mihr : in consequence of part thereof, to be used in any manner of witchcraft, 4. Or
which, they imagined, that the horn of an ox (a creature sacred that exercise any manner of witchcraft, enchantment, charm,
to the sun) killed on that day must be impregnated with extra or sorcery, whereby any person shall be killed, destroyed,
ordinary anti-demoniacal virtues.-M. Anquetil says, that the consumed, or lamed in his body or any part thereof. And
Parsis always carry about them papers so prepared, as a defence though a spirit doth not actually appear upon invocation, &c.
against the Diws, and a preservative from every distemper of or though a dead person, or part of it, be taken up to be used,
body and mind. Zend Avesta, Vol. II. p. 113. and not actually used ; they are still within the statute.This
*}} <y nawishta-i kajdum or ^*}} 3x3) rukta-i kajdum, law, which would disgrace the most stupid of nations in the
scorpion-spells. - most barbarous state of ignorance, was not repealed till the
JA r mard-girn, taking or commanding men. The 9th Geo. II. If we keep such circumstances in view, and
author of the Farhang Jahngiri makes this festival to have pay a proper attention to chronology, when we read, we shall
continued during the five last days of this month; but others not, with any regard to justice, look down with contempt
confine it to the fifth. At different periods, and in different upon the manners and beliefs of distant times and distant coun
provinces, both customs might have been respectively adopt tries.

ed. See also llyde's Religio Veterum Persarum, cap. 19 P. lv. "Some combats with the Diws have been slightly
and 20. mentioned (p. xlvii.); previous to which, great preparations
P. liv. * See Dictionary &- musallaaat, and 33 c bad were made by the heroes to arm themselves with spells, as a
anges. See D'Herbelot Bibliothque Orientale, p. 87; also defence against their enchantments; accompanied with cere
under e tamri, jc tumar, pronounced by us Omar. monies differing little from those afterwards practised by our
P. iv. "It is not an hundred years since the conjuration of European knights, when setting out to engage with necroman
witches, demons, and fairies, was commonly practised and cers or giants. See Dictionary es' ahiraman.-A duel in
taught in London by Lilly and others. Even men of learning Arabic is called er &#, wakzaatu'l isnayn, the combat of

and sound judgment in other respects, were strongly impressed two.-See Dictionary jx~) Asfandyr; he was son to Kish

with a belief in those supernatural beings, and of the power of tsb, the fifth king of the Kayniyan dynastya, and father of
pells in commanding their service. In the Ashmolean Museum Ardeshir Dirzdast, the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks.
at Oxford are various formularies of invocation and incantations, See Shh-nmah for a great variety of those single combats;
collected by the very learned and sensible founder, who was also the Hoshang-nmah, Iskandar-nmah, Tahmuras-nmah,
"rongly tinctured with those prejudices. See Ashmole's Collect. and other Eastern books of poetry and romance.See Khon
f MSS. No. 8259. 1046. 2. See also the Lives of John Lilly demir; the Lab Trkh, in the Life of Kay Khusraw ; D'Her
and Elias Ashmole, Esq.; likewise Dr. Percy's Relicts of Ancient belot Bibliothque Orient. p. 716; and Dictionary &J s
ngh Poetry, Vol. III. p. 213, 214Conjurers, witches, and Duwzdah rukh, the twelve heroes. This is a combat pre
*rcerers, are accurately described in our law-books. Haw cisely similar to that of the Horatii and Curiatii of Rome and
kins (in his Pleas of the Crown) says, Conjurers are those who, Alba.

" by force of certain magic words, endeavour to raise the devil, Ja' Albatal, signifies the knight. He was also named *~
" and oblige him to execute their commands. Witches are Jay Sayyid batal, the lord knight. He was killed in the year
"*h who, by way of conference, bargain with an evil spirit of the Hijra 121 (A.D. 738). J-4) Jia- Jaafaru's' sadik,
do what they desire of him; and Sorcerers are those who, Jaffer the Just, was born at Madina, in the year 83 of the
" by the use of certain superstitious words, or by the means of Hijra 121 (A.D. 699), and died in the year 148 (A.D. 764).
" *ges, &c. are said to produce strange effects, above the M. D'Herbelot seems to think that those two were the same per

son: but an attention to their dates, in which the Eastern P. lvi. " " See ch. 24, 25, and other passages of Ali
writers are very particular, does not seem to justify the surmise. Yazdi's History of Tamerlane, for many grand festivals given
This learned Orientalist says, that in the French king's library by that prince, especially on the marriages of his grandchildren
there is an Arabian manuscript, called Siratu'l mujahidin (the |
in 1404. The palace which he then built, on a plain called
lives of warriors), in which there is an abridgment of Albatal's Kanigul (the mine of flowers), was a square of 1509 cubits,
life : also that there is another larger work filled with most won chiefly of marble, incrusted on the outside of the principal
derful feats of arms. Bibl. Orient. p. 163, 399. apartments with porcelain; and in the inside with ivory, ebony,
P. lv. *See Bin Shuhnah, Khondemir, D'Herbelot, p. 371. gold, and precious stones.A trifling observation which occurs
P. lv. 193 s- jaridah, is a branch of a palm-tree stript in this place shows, that the contempt with which Europeans
of the leaves.-U.3 kan, are canes, the hollow parts of which honour the Tartars and other Eastern people is perfectly re
are filled with some solid body. Of these they generally make ciprocalThe European ambassadors were also invited to
the Arabian spears-3.5je dari-at, is a ring at which they dart the great banquet, and partook of the diversions: for even
a javelin, or endeavour to carry it off on the point of a lance. the Kasses (a very minute animal) have their place in the
-See also Historia de las Guerras Civiles de Grenada.-The ocean.

Jerid Oin, D'Herbelot says, was a common exercise among P. lviii. * Mahmd's queen, mentioned in the text, was
the Turkish cavaliers in the Atmeidan or Hippodrome at Con the daughter of the Khn of Turkistn, x; al-- Jami
stantinople. Bibl. Orient. p. 383. The word caiti, which in lah Kandahari may be interpreted the Beauty of Kandahar.
times of chivalry was often given by one knight as a term of Mahmd was the Great Sultan of Ghizna, who conquered
reproach to another, has been supposed to be derived from the Hindstn, and many other kingdoms in the East, at the end of
Italian cattivo, or the Spanish cautivo, a captive, &c. It is pos the tenth and beginning of the eleventh centuries. See Notes
sible, however, that it may be only a slight alteration of the to p. ix. x. and xi. of this Dissertation. See also Abu'lpharaje,
Arabian word suasi khattf; a ravisher. As one of the great p. 429.
ends of the institution of chivalry was to protect the sex, a viola Sultn Malikshh, surnamed c) 2 -->4) Ja- Jalalud

tion of this important point was justly marked with every dawlat wa'ddin, The glory of the state and of religion, of
circumstance of infamy. It was chiefly applied to those giants whom mention has been so often made in this Dissertation, was
or governors of castles who made a practice of carrying off and the third Sultan of the Seljukian dynasty; and great grandson of
imprisoning the undefended fair; and seems, in consequence, Seljuk, a Turkomn or Tartar nobleman, who was the founder
to be much more applicable to them than captive, which car of the family. The magnificent solemnity mentioned by the
ried along with it no such disgraceful idea.I have sometimes vazir Nazm happened about the year 1076; though historians
been also induced to think, that there is some affinity be have hitherto fixed it some years earlier, on the coronation of
tween the word knight and lag nikht, which signifies those Malikshh; but the vazir's own account is undoubtedly superior
who tilt with or throw spears, in order to show strength and authority. See D'Herbelot, p. 544, &c.
dexterity. P. lix. "See Las Guerras Civiles de Granada. As it is
P. lvi. See Essay on the Poetry of Eastern Nations, by several years since I saw this book, and now quote from memory,
William Jones, Esq. subjoined to the Life of Nadir Shah, 8vo. I cannot refer to the particular passages.
p. 133. For various specimens of their elegies and other com P. lix. " P. lx. "The Arabians and Persians, it may be
positions, see Poeseos Asiatica Commentarii, auctore Gulielmo here observed, have a gamut or musical scale, which they call
Jones, 8vo. See also Supplement lHistoire de Nader Shah, Durri mufassal (Separate pearls); whence the old mode of
4to. Tom. II. p. 231 et seq. by the same learned and ingenious teaching vocal music in Europe, by what is vulgarly called Sol
author.See Dict. al), wlah, 'A mudallah, C-54c muhaw wis, fa-ing, seems to have been borrowed; their notes being named
* him, "A: shd, & shuftah, *** sharidah, &T A la mi r, Bfa p m, C solfa ut, &c. See Dictionary 299
luftah, &c. signify, distracted, insane, desperate, furious, fran Ja durr-i mufassal.
tic, melancholy, mad with love. C- Majnun, is the surname See Gazophylacium Lingua, Persarum, p. 175. D'Herbelot,
of one of the most celebrated Eastern lovers, and it implies , 357.
furious, frantic, mad; see c-s" 2 J. the loves of Layla' and P. lxi. O true believer, the law of retaliation is allowed
Majnun, by the celebrated Persian Poet Jmi. W-e tashw you for the slain; the free shall die for the free; and the ser
denotes, blind with the madness of love. Je euluk signifies vant for the servant; and a woman for a woman; but he whom
love and death. A-c matim, the captive of love; one who sub his brother shall forgive, may be prosecuted and obliged to
mits to slavery, or the meanest employment, to have an oppor make satisfaction, according to what is just, and a fine shall be
tunity of serving or admiring his mistress. set on him with humanity. This is indulgence from your

Lord, and mercy. And when the slayer shall be pardoned mention above six transgressions of this law; and these are
(in consequence of making satisfaction), he who hereafter styled impious wars. As three of those sacred months, how
shall transgress (by killing the slayer), shall suffer a most ever, followed close together, they used sometimes to dispense
grievous punishment. And in this retaliation ye have life. with the observation of Muharram, keeping the next month
In another part he says, Whoever shall take a vengeance (Safar) sacred in its room. Muhammad adopted these ob
equal to the injury which hath been done, and shall be after servances, with an exception to the mode of transferring a
wards unjustly treated, verily God will assist him. See Al month, which he declared to be a profane innovation; but he
coran, chap. ii. iv. and xxii. M. D'Herbelot, after the pas gave his followers permission to attack, at all times, infidels, or
sage marked above with the asterism, * inserts these words: those who did not pay a proper regard to the institution. See
Mais celui qui pardonnera au meurtrier obtiendra la mise Prelim. Disc. to Sale's Alcoran, p. 196.
ricorde de Dieu, &c. but I can discover nothing correspond The Treuga Dei, or Truce of God, was adopted about the
ing to it in this part of the Kurn. See Bibliothque Orientale, year 1032, in consequence of a pretended revelation of a bishop
p.294, of Aquitaine. It was published in the time of a general ca
The Sonna is a collection of the sayings of Muhammad, or lamity; and it made so deep an impression on the minds of men,
the traditions of his widows and companions. By the Turks and that a general cessation of private hostilities was observed, we
other followers of the sect of Omar, they are considered with a are told, for seven years; and a resolution formed, that no man
respect little inferior to the Kurn; but they are rejected by the should, in time to come, molest his adversary from Thursday
Persians and the other adherents of Ali. See Dictionary &- evening till Monday morning. The Pax Regis, or Royal
sunnat and #9 diyat. Truce, was an ordinance of Louis VIII. King of France,
P. lxi." P. lxii." The Fredum was a late introduction A, D, 1245, by which the friends or vassals of a murdered or
into the European code, being unknown in the older capitularies; injured person were prohibited from commencing hostilities till
and seems to have been intended by the magistrates as an ad forty days after the commission of the offence. Dr. Robertson's
ditional check to private revenge. It was a sum paid by a Charles W. vol. I. p. 336-8.
criminal to the king, or to his feudal superior, for protection P. lxii. * See D'Herbelot, p. 7, 333. Sale's Prelim.
against the relations of the deceased, after they had accepted a Disc. p. 38, &c. Code of Gentoo Laws, p. 88. See also Dic
composition. It was in general equal to a third part of this tionary; *} lu-m, &: law8, &\s he, J.K. mukarraz, la-im,
composition; but varied often, in proportion to the difficulty of J" la-man, c, s hijris, U-59 nkas, j wazagh, signify,
protecting the person who had committed the violence. See A miser, avaricious, covetousness, cowardice, baseness, worth
Montesquieu de lEsprit des Loix, liv. 30, chap. xx. Dr. Robert lessness, and every villainous property of man. << 2 J
son's Charles W. vol. I. p. 361. us-- man wa namak khyini, A bread and salt traitor; he
Ja; kits, kawad, s ib-at, ; bar, Cle'; pi who betrays his patron, master, host, or benefactor. See also
dish, c tawn, j tr, Lazi muktiss, j sr, signify the Abu'l ghz Khn's History of the Tartars.
law of retaliation, or punishment by that law; killing one for P. lxii. lxiii. 116 117 11 3" atto, J birtil, y rashw,
the murder of another. Ja iks as and Jel imsl, are Bribing a judge, or great man, to obtain any thing contrary
nearly synonymous, but more strictly denote eye for eye, limb to justice. S rishwat, se', ydah or 33 ysah, **
for limb, &c. -i \, :alf, Shedding blood with impunity. "ri. badgand, yu brah, J irsh, A bribe to a judge. Jy
ri, bizran mizran, Blood shed unrevenged. JAS hadar, Per rayish, A broker employed to bribe a judge. J- mulli,
mitting blood to be shed unrevenged : this word also implies a Offering money to a judge in order to corrupt him. Sj
worthless fellow. Jr. mawtr, One who does not revenge
nazrat, denotes the technical language of the Arabian law
the death of his friend (from cowardice or other base motive). yers. &;s hulat, A sacred fire, over which witnesses used
*** multadt, Receiving money, &c. as an expiation for mur to SWear.

der. Ji ghiwar, Expiating murder by a mulct. J irsh, A See the Shh-nmah, under the title of U--->|- Js
fine for the shedding of blood. J *: ; guzashtani Siywakhsh az khi tash, The passing of
The first month Muharram, the seventh Rajab, the eleventh Siywakhsh through the flaming pile. Though the whole of
Dhul kaadah, and the twelfth Dhul hijjah, were esteemed sa this anecdote may be fiction, as part of it undoubtedly is, still
ted in Arabia from the oldest times; and, excepting by one or I must repeat, that Firdawsi would not have mentioned this
"9tribes, were so religiously observed, that if a man met during mode of trial, had it been unknown in Persia. See also Code
*time the murderer of his father, he durst not offer him any of Gentoo laws, p. lviii, &c.
violence, The history or traditions of the old Arabs do not P. lxiv, * J-y nigristn, The Gallery of Pictures, a
lxxxii P R O OF S AND I LLU S T R A TI O N S.

work somewhat resembling the Gulistn; being an agreeable the Dictionary as Dissertation, which a personal observation of
miscellany in prose and verse. The anecdotes in it are in ge the manners and languages of the people could alone have
neral considered as founded on real history. enabled me to avoid. The candid will correct, and perhaps
The subjects which fill the preceding sheets are by no means pardon such mistakes. Lexicons of high authority are not free
exhausted; and I had originally intended to have introduced a from faults; and I presume not to be more perfect. The pain
much greater variety of the customs, inventions, and ideas of ful difficulties of such labours might plead indeed a general
the East; but too incessant employment has prevented the ac apology; for, as Scaliger justly observes, Omnes panarum facies
complishment of my design. I never was in those countries, hic labor unus habet.

and I may have fallen, of consequence, into errors, as well in

N. B. Some little variation will be found between the Dictionary and the Dissertation, especially with regard to the old Kings
of Persia; which, upon respectable authorities, I endeavoured to reconcile with those mentioned by the Greeks. (See J. kay, &c.)
But I have considered the subject with more attention in the Dissertation, to which I at present adhere. I have assigned my rea
sons, and the public will judge.


The mode of denoting the pronunciation in Roman letters, adopted in the last edition, has been retained in the present,
omitting merely the dots used with these characters, to mark their peculiarities, as such discriminative marks did not seem
absolutely requisite in a work, in which the words are also printed in the original character. .* 2

A, i, u, short (as sounded in America, fit, bush,) are used as initials to express the powers of
C.. C. 2 C. 2
respectively; and,
as medials or finals, of T . Examples, agar, If; Js) ishkil, Imposture; 2 ' ushtur, A camel.
a long (as sounded in father, and in Persian words somewhat broader, approaching to the sound of a in water")
of 7, and as a medial or final of \ preceded by its homogeneal character , the two
is used as an initial to express the power
.* v,

coalescing forming one long vowel. Example, cusi tb, The sun.
ilong (as sounded in field) is used as an initial to express the power of a silent s preceded by "; and, as a medial or
final, of a silent f following ~ C.
where, in both cases, the two characters, being homogeneal, coalesce, and form one long
.* v,

vowel. Examples, |si. inja, Here ; e gardidan, To turn.

.* p

along (as sounded in rude") is used as an initial to express the power of a silent, after \; and, as a medial and final, of a 2 2
silent, following its homogeneal character , in both instances the two uniting form one long vowel. Example, * ulu, Lords,


7 long (as sounded in note) and a long (as sounded in there") are used for 2 and s when distinguished by the term
J. parsi, Persian, or J:s majhul, Unknown; which terms are used in contraditinction, tazz, Arabic, Or x

matri, Known, applied to , and s when pronounced in the common way. Examples, 2) G, He; j}_y roz, Day; e-)
eshn, They; shr, A lion.*
o short and eshort are used when and 2 are directed to be so pronounced by the term J parsi Or Jse majhul. Examples,
c. * -

* beh, Good; 23-2 dokhtar, Daughter. As initials they are seldom found.
wslands for a quiescent, preceded by a heterogeneal vowel; and also for the
** ~ C. p.
same letter opening upon a vowel. Examples,
t; law.h, A table, plank; A. walad, A son; c-, wilyat, A country; ~% wuknat, A nest.
& stands for a quiescent s preceded by a heterogeneal vowel, and for an open s followed by a vowel. Examples,
"J'. A house; J Yaman, Arabia Felix; r-, yusr, Prosperity. ... (,

a'stands for f final, when to be pronounced as , as is often the case in Arabic words. Example, zikra', Remembrance.
'is used to shew, that a letter, though written, is not pronounced. Examples, c-s- khstan, To wish ; C- kh'ush,
Pleasant; vs- khsh, Self.
b is used for ~ .

* . . . . . . c. 8 and 9.
* * * * * * * * v- an -

* . . . . . ~.
h . . . . . . c and s. s as the final of Persian words is mostly silent, as the h in Messiah.
kh. . . . . . & -

"In the earlier stages of this work, the former edition was looked up to as sufficient authority for retaining the majhill sound of 5 in the words3 r and y
ry; but, after some progress had been made, it was perceived that the lexicographers of India, who alone appear to use the majhil in other words, have, in
these two instances, invariably retained the matri. It would have considerably retarded the appearance of a book much wanted, if the first sheets had
*tancelled in order to correct the oversight; the student is therefore requested to substitute the matriif for the majhil in these words, wherever they
*in the commencement of this work.
m 2

d is used for J .
2 - - - - - - Sj J* and 9.
r e e - e a J

j .. .... j .
sh . . . . . . Q- -

8 in imitation of Meninski, is used among our letters to prevent the hiatus and confusion that would be the consequence of
dropping such an essential character.
gh is used for *:
f * * * * * 3.



. . . . . . . when in a state to be considered as a consonant.
3/ . . . . . . ; when considered as a consonant.
The Editor has found himself compelled to omit the orthographical sign tashdid "; also those of hamza - and madda ~, in
-- C- -, * ~ * ~< *
the feminines : U x3, in the irregular plurals : U x; and Uxi", and in the verbal nouns of the increased conjugations formed
from defective verbs. But as these are rarely, if ever, expressed in Persian, their loss will not be much felt, while such
omissions cannot be an impediment in the way of the Arabic student.


. Ja; fatl, as , a nasr (from ra nasara), Helping; aid, assistance.

Jiel, as fthm (from fahima), Understanding ; knowledge, comprehension.
- Jue, as K*. shukr (from K. shakara), Thanking; gratitude for favours.
Ja fatal, as ej- hazan (from ej- hazina), Grieving; grief, sadness.
- Ja eal, aS *** shibat (from s shabita), Being satiated; satiety, repletion.
. J.; fugal, as ss huda' (from f As hada'), Directing (in the way of salvation); guidance.
. Ja; atil, as -35 kasib (from ~3 kazaba), Lying; a lie, a falshood.
- J fatal, as cls halk (from t halaka), Perishing; ruin, perdition.
- Jial, c nikah (from * nakaha), Marrying ; matrimony.

: Jfukl, as eli, rukd (from 23, rakada), Sleeping; sleep, slumber.

11. &las fatlat, as &# ghalat (from J ghaula), Doing (any thing) inconsiderately; negligence.
19. 3.33 lat, as khidmat (from *** khadama), Serving; service, ministry.
13. &\x; futlat, as 3, is khuzrat (from , is khazira), Being green; greenness, verdure.
14. &las fatalat, &s; karamat (from karuma), Being liberal, beneficent; generosity, munificence.

1 5. 3.x: fatilat, - sarikat (from Jr. saraka), Stealing ; theft, larceny.


16. la; fatalat, as sol shahdat (from ** shahida), Bearing witness, testifying ; martyrdom.
17. &\s; fisilat, aS Jus- khijlat (from J khajila), Blushing; shame, modesty, bashfulness.
18. Juealat, as jj subtat (from *-ij sabuta), Possessing strength of mind and prudence.
19. Jula', shakwa" (from \ shak, for 33. shakawa), Complaining; a complaint,
aS lamentation.
20. Jla', - zikra' (from zakara), Remembering; recollection.

21. Jula', J- sukna' (from c- sakana), Resting ; quiet, repose.


22. lugi-a, as ...t raghb-a (from C-39 raghiba), Supplicating, beseeching.

23. eXa; fatln, e- taeniin (from e tatana), Cursing, reproaching, reviling.

24. cs faln, as J kitmn (from katama), Concealing, hiding, keeping in.


25. Jai fueln, as J kufrn (from A kafara), Being ungrateful; ingratitude.

26. Ja; fataln, as J* nazarn (from A. nazara), Seeing ; sight, vision.
27. J. filln, as w- tiriffin (from 3, arafa), Knowing, discerning; knowledge.
28. J futulln, as J% jurukkan (from +% farika), Hating (as man and wife); conjugal hatred.
29, Jfutil, as J: kabul (from J.5 kabila), Accepting ; approbation, concession.
30, Jfutil, as s juhd (from As jahada), Denying, disowning, disavowing.

31. J facil, as c, ranin (from j ranna), Twanging (as a bow-string); groaning.

32, 3.x: fatiilat, as *lw rajulat (from Jy rajula), Being of a manly spirit; manliness.
33. *futilat, as -yas- khusumat (from -as- khasama), Trying to overcome at law; litigation.

34, 3.4 futilat, as **** khaditat (from t khadata), Deceiving; fraud, fallacy.
35. Jfutila', J-i- haziza' (from Ud-hazza), Exciting, instigating.

36. Jattila', as Jara-khassisa' (from Las khassa), Doing (any thing) in particular.
37. J-fittila', Jhs. khittiba' (from a- khataba), Betrothing (a woman).

38. Juil, as J}. kayll (from JG kla, for J.3 kayala), Sleeping in the afternoon.
39. 3.}x} atlalat, as &#14 shaykhukhat (from t shkha, for * shayakha), Growing old.
40. as fuellat, aS $3.3 luknunat (from e lakina), Stammering, stuttering.
41. &\ fataliyat, 88 *]; karahiyat (from * kariha), Detesting; horror, aversion.
42 & 4 fataliyat, as -(a nasahiyat (from a- nasaha), Advising; advice, counsel.
43. &le; tilat, as als khlisat (from Las- khalasa), Being pure, choice, excellent.
44. &=9 fzlat, as&;$1. sktat (from ~K. sakata), Being silent; silence.
45, * futiyat, as*A* sukhriyat (from A^ sakhira), Laughing at, deriding; a laughing-stock.
46. & futuliyat, &x~ humuwiyat (from J-hamiya), Being hot.

47. **atliyat, &era- khasuszyat (from J- khassa), Being peculiar to.


48. & futiliyat, & rujlyat (from Jy rajula), Being manly-minded; manliness.

49. & fuelniyat, - sulwaniyat (from J- saliya), Being eased of pain.


50, Jualal, as Jex- sizdad (from e- sada, for ex- sawada), Being lord, head, or chief.

51, fusalt, raghabt (from -, raghiba), Supplicating, beseeching.


52. Jualata, r, raghabuta' (from -3) raghiba), Supplicating, beseeching.


53. Ji mafal, as ~f~ mahrab (from ~A haraba), Running away, fleeing.

54. Jai. matil, as s-r marjit (from S--) rajata), Repeating, reiterating.
55, Jais matul, as z makbur (from 25 kabira), Being of an advanced age.
56, Jai- mial, as G3, mirfak (from G, rafuka), Being benign, gentle.
57. Jai. maalat, as s." mahkarat (from Ji- hakara), Being vile and despicable.
58. Ja mafilat, as &A. matrifat (from 32 &arafa), Knowing; knowledge, acquaintance.
50 &ls matulat, as 3: mashnu-at (from t shana-a), Ilating.
50 &lai. mialat, as 3,< mighfarat (from s ghaara), Forgiving; pardon, forgiveness.
61. J&s miil, as M:- mishwr (from shara, for J shawara), Offering cattle for sale.
62 &ls mutalat, as 3,4- musmrat (from 24-samara), Holding evening-conversations by moon-light.
3. Ji. matill, as t mate:is (from 8-3, wazata), Placing, depositing.
54. *** matulat, as & s mahlufat (from - halia), Swearing.
65. **** matula-a, as 3- mashtr-a (from J shazara), Knowing, perceiving.
66, Jaj tatal, as ~';* tajwab (from -\-jba, for ~5-jawaba), Traversing a country.
67. J tisal, as ~A- tishrb (from ~, shariba), Drinking; a draught.
68. J tiffital, as *** tikitt (from t katata), Cutting, amputating.
09, x tafalat,
70. Als tatilat,
71, as tatulat,
| as &#

(from e Qs halaka), Perishing; ruin, perdition.

II. 1. J tatil, as 5 tarkb (from 9 rakkaba), Composing ; composition, mixture.
2. &\xi tatilat, as *-i tasmiyat (from Ji- samma'), Giving a name; nomination.

. J tatal, as Jj tamsl (from J. massala) Propounding a parable.

J tiftal, as ~e? tiraib (from C-5, rateaba), Terrifying, inspiring with fear.
- Jegl, ~& kiczab (from ~& kaszaba),
aS Accusing (any one) of falsehood.
III. &l=\ic muffialat, as &Jeu-, mubdalat (from Jeu bdala), Exchanging; exchange, barter.
Jl, as 3]+ khilf (from -- khalaa), Opposing, contradicting; contrariety, rebellion.

Jiel, as J; kital (from J ktala), Fighting one another; mutual slaughter.


. Jfutal, as 93 kuyuz (from kyasa), Agreeing (with any one) for the summer.

IV. 1. J'' ial, as J irsal (from J- arsala), Sending, despatching ; an embassy, a mission.
Js mual, as J.--&c mudkhal (from J-2) adkhala), Causing (any one) to enter.
V. J taatul, as --- tabassum (from *-j tabassama), Smiling ; a smile, a simper.

i J tifi tal, as Js tihimml (from J- tahammala), Enduring patiently; patience.

J mutaataal, as J}< mutaarrak (from J33 taarraka), Being divided ; separation, dispersion.
VI. J-3 taazul, as U-s tajalus (from J tajalasa), Sitting together ; a session.
VII. 1. Cx inical, as A-3) inkisar (from P-3' inkasara), Being broken; rout, defeat; contrition ; despair.
Je munfatal, as 3ra-c munsaraf (from ra, insarafa), Turning one's self, receding.

J iftital, as A-3) iktidar (from j iktadara), Being powerful; power, authority.

&x~ mutafalat, as & s mukhtalafat (from --- ikhtalaa), Disagreeing.

J ifilal, as J}}- ihwill (from J.- ihwalla), Being blind of an eye.
X. J-Wisti-il, as jst-listikhbr (from si- istakhbara), Asking news.
XI. Cx;" ilal, as y- ihmarar (from ju- ihmarra), Being exceedingly red.
XII. Cxx;" iftizal, as "A-" ihddb (from --~~! ihdawdaba), Being hump-backed.
XIII. J);x;" i&iwwal, as ,3- ikhriwwat (from *5,3- ikhrawwata), Being long and tedious (a journey).


I. 1. & fielalat, as&sj, zamzamat (from rs; samsama), Whispering, muttering, murmuring.
2. Jll. as zy-9 dihraj (from z_-9 dahraja), Turning, rolling, revolving.
II. Jx, tafazlul, as 2.3-3 tabakhtur (from 2 s tabakhtara), Walking pompously.
III. J if inlal, as c--iklinsis (from L-3 kalsasa), Putting on a high cap.
IV. Cls' i illl, as Js is mihll (from Js izmahalla), Vanishing, disappearing.

A stands for Arabic. S stands for Sanskrit. T stands for Turkish.

P . . . . . . Persian. G . . . . . . Greek. SY. . . . . Syriac.
4 . . . . . . corrupt Arabic. G. . . . . . . corrupt Greek. L . . . . . . Latin.
P . . . . . . corrupt Persian. H . . . . . . Hindee. U . . . . . . Unknown.

To the liberality and kindness of GRAves C. HAUGHToN, Esq., M.A. F.R. S., late Professor
of Hind literature in this college, the Editor is indebted for the use of several scarce and
valuable books of reference, but principally for the loan of a manuscript Persian Dictionary
in two volumes, compiled under Mr. Haughtons immediate inspection by learned natives
of the East, from the works of twenty-four of the most celebrated Persian writers. This
MS, contains about twenty-five thousand words, and possesses the advantage of an exact
reference to the authors from which they are drawn. In addition to this, the Editor has to
acknowledge his obligation to the same gentleman for important counsels and suggestions
during the prosecution of this work. From these various and authentic sources, the Editor
has been enabled to enrich the present work by the addition of more than thirty-eight
thousand words, Arabic and Persian; also to arrange and supply numerous important
meanings that had been overlooked or purposely omitted in more than half the words
contained in the second edition.

In a book intended chiefly for those connected with India, it might have afforded some
interest to have uniformly pointed out the analogies existing between the Persian and
Sanskrit languages; for the slightest acquaintance with these tongues will afford the
student convincing evidence of their common origin. This, however, has been done in a
few instances only, as the increasing bulk of the volume prevented the Editor from
yielding to his own wishes on the subject.
The Editor has still the pleasing duty of expressing the obligations he is under to CHARLEs
WILKINs, Esq., who has had the kindness to inspect each sheet of the book before it was
finally printed off-conferring an advantage which every scholar will duly estimate.

East-India College, Herts,

8th October 1829.



ALIF is the first letter of the Arabic and Persian alphabets. with thee; 4th. It is the substitute of the interjection 7 fil, Alas!
In Persian, when it is the initial letter of a word, it may be It represents also Sunday and Taurus, in astronomical books, and
accompanied by either of the vowels a, i, u, though they the number one in arithmetic; having besides a variety of other
are seldom expressed; as, 2 abr, A cloud, jr" imrz, To uses in the forming of plurals, the feminine gender, the compa
day, Jki-lustukh'in, A bone. As a medial or final letter, it rative and superlative degrees, with many of the inflexions of the
should have the sound we give to a in the word father; as, A Arabic conjugations, moods, and tenses; for all which see the
chikar, A servant, \J kahrub, Amber; though occasionally Grammar.
before a e) the sound of u is given to it; as, ex'}- khndan, pT , (alif with madda) being equal to two alifs | \, has a long
or khundan, To read. This manner, however, of pronouncing broad sound (like a in the English word all), and is one of the
the letter al, is considered local, and generally deemed incor imperatives and the contracted participle of e amadan, To
rect. It is frequently found between two words to imply con come. In Arabic it is not sounded quite so broad, but approaches
tinuation or proximity; as, 2-y- sar-a-sar, From beginning to very near to the sound of a in father, and is then (singly) either
end; vl dsh-a-dsh, Shoulder to shoulder (arm in the remote vocative, Ho! hark ye! or the interjection of con
arm). When added to a noun, it forms a poetic vocative; as \ tempt, Fy! pho!
shah, O king, for & * ay shah; when annexed to some ad
A - ab, The month of August. Ab in the Syriac language is
jectives it forms an abstract noun, as t garm, Warmth, from the name of the last summer month; and as the Persians, Ara
garm, Warm; and it is often affixed redundantly to a word
bians, and Turks, whose common year is lunar, make use never
by the poets, without making any alteration in the sense; as theless of the solar year in their astronomical calculations, they are
gufta for -sft, He said. In Arabic this letter is also called
obliged to have recourse to the Syriac calendar for the names of
hanza, and differs entirely from alif of prolongation, being con their months; so that succ Ab-mh in Persian, Lt. Shahr
sidered a radical, and is decidedly a consonant, partaking in a
b in Arabic, and l-'l Ab-y in Turkish, signify the month of
slight degree of the sound of the guttural letter 8 tyn 3 it ought August, which they sometimes also name Agustiis.
never to be written without the orthographical character hamza,
r 7 ib, Water, quicksilver, any thing liquid. Lustre, dig
and may take either of the vowels; as, Ju-3 yas-alu, He inquires, nity, honour, excellence. Bounty, beneficence. The water or

Fre. Of a wild ass, Uas khata-u, Sin. As an inseparable Justre of a diamond, polished steel, &c. Constant motion, custom,
habit, mode, rule. This word is much used in forming com
particle, it denotes, 1st. The vocative, when addressing a person pounds, and metaphorical expressions, asrea ,-7A lover's
near at hand (the remoter vocatives being expressed by !). tears. Wine, blood. e-le J-7.- To fertilize the ground.
d. It marks an interrogation, as left- er e Shall we
J-7| ~7. or s J .--T Wine. Tears of grief or
believe as fools believe? 3d. It serves as a disjunctive particle, anger. A. L! --> The water boiled: (met.) A tumult was
as, ** e *** Whether thou admonish then or admo raised. zy. J.-I Red wine. J .-7 Wine. Tears

mish them not; 2,4- '-t- *ji Is it Zayd or Amr who is of grief crl .-l or -l rt-l Wine, Tears of blood,
-) 2 -)

\,-7 Wine made from dates or grapes. The Red Sea. Usage, custom. J,J.--" Oil, butter, fat of broth, liquid grease.
\-JST.e." Wine. Tears of grief. :9) ,-7 or 3% *-T xy ~" Water of the face, lustre, brightness of countenance,
Red wine. Tears of sorrow. J * ***} - To dismiss gracefulness, dignity of mien. Reputation, renown, glory, ho
uneasiness of mind. *.x-\,-- A pool, ditch, stagnant water. nour, estimation. Rank, office, station. 3, 21 Wine made of
39-3) 2-7 Cold or congealed water, ice, jelly of meat, fish, &c. grapes. Jy f To disgrace. ej ~7 To extinguish, to
2% ,-7 Wine. J" " To bring tears, to be ashamed. To quell, to appease. To sprinkle the house in honour of guests.
have a swelling about the hoof (a horse). ey's ,--T Rain-water. J) ,-7 Liquid gold; white wine. J} ,-7 Pure, limpid water.
& 29,--Tor <&'L) *29,-7 Blood. Tears of grief. U-72 J ~ Living water, the water of eternity or youth, a fa
co; To quench, to allay. J-! To cheat, to deceive. bulous fountain so called. **j ,-7 Wine. Morning light, heat,
&- ,-7 Ice, hail, hoar frost; glass, crystal. \s ,-7 See -7 splendour. r- ,--T Red wine. J - To melt. To be
--, es ,-7 To be dyed red. J.--" A gummy sub come ashamed, divested of honour, to grow obsolete. ,<--"
stance which exudes from the root of decayed walnut-trees. C. Wine. Blood. 32- ,-7 Red wine. Tears of grief.
Jy- c 7 or J- * To be independent, and J ,-7 Brackish water, tears of grief e i.e.- To
subject to no controul. &; ,<--! Broth, jelly, boiled water. be humble. To promote the interests of another. J-y ,-7
--, ,-7 Water of the back, spinal marrow. The five Name of a fountain on a mountain in Tabaristn, which, it is
waters. The country bordering the five rivers which form the said, ceases to flow when a noise is made, and flows immediately
river Indus; which river is sometimes called Je ~7. ,-7 when it is over. ** ,-7 Name of a fountain which flows and
J: The stars. c- To urine. # ,-] Wine. The becomes dry alternately for the space of seven years. ~} ,-7
tears of a rejected lover. c- ,-7 Tears of grief. ,-7 Wine. U, c ,--> Rose water. Cr-c ,c-rl Wine. *= ,-l
--- Tears. ^\,- ,-7 Wine. Love. <--> ,-7 Water of The water of vapours; the river Oxus, or Gihon. *** -
desire, wish, appetite, longing, tears of desperation. --,-] Rain-water. by: ,--! The juice of sour grapes, or other unripe
or ex- ,-7 The water of life, immortality. (met.) Pure, spi fruit. se-,--" Glass, crystal. A sword, dagger, &c. ,-]
ritual discourse; divine love. The converse of a beloved friend. JS Beauty, elegance, splendour, dignity. Usage, custom. ,-7
As- ,-7 Purity of thought. Brilliancy of imagination. ,-7 * Blue water, the Persian sea. The Arabians call this gulph
~\,\,-- Wine. ey- ,--I Autumnal rains. << ,-7 Glass, the Green Sea. The sea of China. es -T To let out the
crystal, a decanter. , is- ,-7 See --,-7. & ,-7 water formed about a horse's foot, set-5,-7 Weak, poor wine.
Snow, ice; glass, crystal; a sword in the sheath. L-,-] Ji ,-7 The river Kawsar in Paradise, flowing with milk or
J-To live at ease. e-le -7 To give water, to steep. nectar. swe; ,-7 The revolving heavens. ,-7 Warm
To sharpen, to add brilliancy, to harden steel; to enliven. --> water, a hot bath. ea-s- To become dissolved. ,-7
w-ye Water in the river; (met.) Prosperity, victory, honour, ~y Gravy, broth. *" The heavens. Ja! ,-7
authority. ex *55-J To become opulent, prosperous, Wine. Tears of blood. ex~ ,-7 Name of a place of recrea
vested with authority. 2.j --" Intoxication, Greatness. tion in the environs of Shirz, frequented every Tuesday during
e;--> --> To become intoxicated; to be opulent. --> 7 the month of Rajab. Name of a fountain in Kohistn, the waters
e-'- To be modest, shamefaced. e 45-ye ~7 To adul of which, wherever carried, are followed by a kind of birds
derate, to cheat. &T JseJ " His mouth watered. which devour locusts. r. A-7 The purity of a pearl. A
cle s Je To possess a delicate sense of honour. J pearl, or white speck in the eye, r ,-7 Probity, honour, chas
cl s To work in the dark. e-sex bye - To be in tity. New wine. Mvc,c-l or Aix-c,c->! Snow, ice, sleet.
a weak and declining state. Jex- esJ-9 - To bray water Crystal, glass. A scymitar, a poniard. eye- ,-7 Tears of
in a mortar, (met.) To act foolishly. else ,-7 Water of the grief. j9,-7 Red wine. e' ,-7 A lover's tears. Wine,
teeth, spittle, whiteness or cleanness of teeth. Ji,y-else.--" blood. t-T Red wine. <-- ,-7 The juice or sap of
Jy," To make one's enemy's mouth to water; needlessly to ex any vegetable. J Cl To allow of no delay, to lose no
cite hostility against one's self. G---> 3. ,<rl Any one who time. -- ,-7 Semen genitale. i J The black water, the
graces the chief seat. An epithet of Muhammad. Je ,-7 river Nile. &le; Means of subsistence. s Fresh
Water of the mouth, spittle. A longing desire. 33.9 ,-7 Water ness and moisture. J -T Water and clay, i. e. the human
of the eyes; tears, --- *** - A draught of wine. --T frame. \;"2 -T Water and air; climate, atmosphere. ~ * ,-7
j, Wine made from grapes. Jy c To lose one's dignity. see -7 t: ** ,--T Red wine. *~" Iced water.
*, ,--T Name of a fountain near Shirz. c, ,--T Water A -lab, A father, a master, a possessor. An inventor of any
colour, coloured water, paint. e),L) ,-7 Running water. A thing. This word enters into the composition of a great number
sort of very fine muslin. Ly ,-7 Beauty, elegance, splendour. of Arabic names, varying its termination according to its case,
\\ 3 \\
having 3.ab in the nominative, \,\ ab in the accusative, and illustrating. Appearing evident. Permitting, giving liberty.
| abi in the other cases, as K Abubakar, ev Abadun, Liberty, licence, licentiousness. Being fatigued.
J- J Abi Ismatil, &c. A 3-\"Abhyat, Name of an antinomian sect.
:: A - abba, (fut. -: 3ya-ubbu, or ~. ya-ibbu) He A slibkhat, (1v of **) Extinguishing. -

made ready. A cu bd, (pl. of Alabad) Ages.

A -- abb, (from ~ abba) Preparation for a journey, vigorous rel abd, A city, building, habitation. Cultivated, peopled,
application to anything, earnestness, exertion. Extension. A re pleasant, full of buildings and inhabitants. An open plain.
Good, elegant, convenient. A created thing. Always. The
turn, a wish to return to one's country. Purpose, intention. Fruit,
Fane Kaaba, or the square temple at Mecca. Well done! bravo!
grass, pasturage, verdure. Name of a town, and also of a village
in Arabia Felix. s J' You are welcome. 3', when added to a noun,
Ali ibi (pl. of -- ab) Fathers, ancestors. = J aba-i- denotes a city or other place of abode. J Jr su Shh

{ulwiy, The sublime fathers, i. e. The nine heavens, or the Jahnbd, The city of Shh Jahn, Delhi, the Great Mogul's
seven planets. 5-a- Ji b-i-kunsury, Bodily fathers. -su capital. Al, Murshidbd, The capital of Bengal. -
t aba-i-matnawiy, Intellectual fathers, i. e. preceptors. UT J' Ahmadbd, the city of Ahmad, the capital of Guzerat, 244
***", b wa ajdd, Ancestors. -
measured coss from Delhi, each coss about 4000 English yards.
e' e.V." Imnbd, The residence of religion. 2' ,3- Khur
A\| ab, Father (in the accusative). Ab or ib (from ')
Refusing, rejecting, abominating. Aversion, disgust. Disobe rambd, An agreeable champaign. eli23 Khayrbd, The
habitation of goodness. JUT & Allahbd, The city of God.
dience, stubbornness. A strangury. Ab, Reeds, flags, canes;
also the places where they grow. A kind of disease contracted TJ Faizbd, The abode of plenty; all names of cities in
different parts of India. eli A-" asadbd, A desert of lions.
by goals from the smell of their urine. Ubii, A loathing of
one's food. e' **) anduwah-bd, The house of mourning, a melancholy
place. J' A- kharbbd, The habitation of ruin, totally
rl abi, (for (M) Strange, wonderful. (for U) With. Spoon ruined. el <2,-- *ishratbd, The mansion of delight, a
meat, soup, bread. Ib, A pair, two oxen in a yoke.
palace. ele); fulnbd, The place where any one dwells.
All Ibbi, The devil (as being disobedient).
3' <-2,-- 2\, bilad-i-masarrat-bd, A city the abode of de
A slabi-at, Areed, a flag, a cane. An epidemical distemper,
light, a flourishing pleasant country. c c To cultivate,
the plague. Ib-at (1v of A), Retaliation (by killing a homicide, render delightful, improve, recreate, refresh.
&c.), being equal. Leading camels to the place where they kneel P ele' Abdn, Name of a city in the Arabian Irk, situated
anddrink. Receiving hospitably. Abiding in any place. Tan on the gulph of Persia, at the mouth of the river Tigris, distant
ning a hide. Flight. from Basrah about one and a half day'sjourney.
A-labiboribib, (from - abba) Preparation for a journey, P ele' bdn is nearly synonimous with e', but never used
readiness. A tending towards. Stretching, striving. Water,
in forming compound words. - -

drink, Ubb, A surge, a wave. P J ele' abadan shudan, To be inhabited. To abound.

p J Abbn, Name of a mountain.

A 3'," abbat, (from ~ abba) Preparation for any under resele' abdn kardan, To build, cultivate, make habita
ble. P J Jo, -) To revive, refresh, exhilarate.
taking. An institution, regulation, mode of living or acting. P jle' bdani, A habitation; a cultivated, populous, pleasant
A.J'abbl, A kind of bird, an owl, a bustard. A herd of place; population, cultivation, abundance. Name of a man cele
camels. A flight of birds. Abbla, In herds, or flights. brated among the Arabians for his learning and piety, and a
A cl abbn, (pl. ofuj" ibbn) Convenient times.
native ofele'. -

A "ibit, (the same as ib) Abhorrence, refusal. P Jel' bdndan, To cause to inhabit, cultivate, &c.
A. ~!" abati, Poetically for " abati my father! (vocat.)
p e-le' abdydan, To praise.
A&'ilitat, (iv of c-) Passing the night, doing anything A sew" ibidat, (1v of Az) Putting to death, exterminating.
in the night; being overtaken by, or perishing in, the night. P eve' Abdn, Name of an Arabian poet,
AF' Abtir, Name of a place. Ubtir, A solitary retired man. P se' Abd, Name of an author, who treats of the different
A slibsa, (1v of ) Enquiry, examination, search. punishments with which sinners are threatened in the Kurn.
A J absa', (pl. of J absn) Camels satiated with pas
r &S self abd; kghis, A kind of silky paper,
ture, and reclining on the ground. .
Je' abdyn, Fit to be inhabited.
P * --

P -- b-jm, A place abounding in reeds. A self abdd, as **L*, Scattered birds.

A2-, abjir, (pl. of j abjr) Misfortunes, calamities. p_\ br, Lead, especially when melted. A register, an ac
A 3-l ibhat, (1v of c) Publishing, disclosing, revealing, count of daily expenses, AA' An accountant, a clerk.
B 3
\\ 4 \\
Aj' abar, for ab-r (pl. of, bir) Wells. (pl. of 5," ibrat) | A cs-G' Abkkhn, name of the eighth Mogul emperor of
Needles. The pointed extremities of any thing. j ibr, The the race of e-j- Chingiz-Khn. This prince was the son
seed or flowers of the palm-tree. J abbr, Fleas. J" ibbr, and successor of s-s Hulgir-Khn, who took Bagdad, and
A needle-dealer. put a period to the empire of the Khalifs. He began to reign in the
A G->2,\! ibarat, (from2') Fecundity, applied to palm-trees. year 1264 and died 1281.
Destruction, ruin, loss. j s. A collyrium or eye-salve. *A* aba-galubar, (or z) Drawing food up from the
A Jy' abarik, (pl. of J2) abrak) Miry, dirty places.
throat into the nose. Joy, pleasure; especially that excited by
A &\" Abrimat, (3S)\! or y"), The Abrahams; also the di the death of an enemy.
minutive, the little Abrahams. A Ji abl, (pl. of J." ibl) Camels.
A cy Ubriyt, Name of a place belonging to 3- J. A Jl abbl, A camel-pastor, owner, or driver. Ubbl, (pl. of
A Gj abark, (pl. of c, ibrik) Water-pots, ewers. Very J." abil) Camels supplying the absence of water by fresh grass.
bright and sharp swords. Flames, lightnings, glitterings. A J" ablat, (from J") Abstaining from cohabitation with a
Aj' abbs, Bounding as a deer in the chase; leaping, spring wife. Iblat, Having a number of camels; hence, the use or
ing. Stopping short whilst running, and then rushing forward management of wealth (the chief riches of the Arabians consist
with greater rapidity. Making an attack, rushing upon. Dying ing of camels). A herd or flock of camels, sheep, oxen, horses,
suddenly. Injuring or insulting any one. A e--j Abbaz &c. A tribe, a society. A bundle of grass, wood, &c. Discipline,
Hussayn, The author of a book reconciling the contradictions regimen, government. The parapet of a well.
of the Kuran. He died 1573. A l) iblat, (iv of J) Causing to urine.
a 2.j%) aba:7r, (pl. of y" abzr) Aromatics, spices, sweet A J" ibblat, A large bundle of wood. " ---: A
herbs or roots for seasoning meat. Grains, seeds. bundle of grass on a bundle of wood, i. e. Misfortune upon mis
A j" abazim, (pl. of *} ibzim) The buckles, buttons or fortune.

clasps of belts, girths, girdles, &c. r &W) iblah, A privy.

A J-4 ubas, A woman of a bad disposition; a shrew, a scold. A L-" ablis, (pl. of J-' iblis) Devils.
P \-T-7 ab-asiya, A water-mill. P 27 bm (for *' or '''), Debt. A tower, a fortress, a
P Ut ubash, (or ubasha), A crowd, a mob. pigeon-house. A sign of the Zodiac.
A c-! ubshat, A body of men, a crowd, mob. Offscour
P e' aban or J abn, The tenth day of the Persian month.
ings, filth. The humours of the body. The eighth month of the Persian year, whilst the sun continues in
A J bt, (pl. of J" ub-) Ages. Scorpio. Name of certain spirits, whom the Pagan Persians sup
A U2'' ibs, A rope with which the foot of a camel is tied. posed to preside over iron, and over the actions performed on the
Ubs, Name of a town and of a valley in Arabia Felix. day or during the month above-mentioned. Iban, A pair, a brace.
Uban, Name of a mountain.
A U2\,\ Ibbs, A man's name.
A 3-2\} al-ibsyat, A sect of Muhammadan schismatics. A J Abn, Name of Pe e!" Ibn fumar and *~e?" Ibn

A \,\! abt, The armpits, the interior parts beneath the wings. Satid, companions of Muhammad.
A e" abni, (dual) Parents, father and mother.
A plibt, Anything put under the armpits, applied to, or girt
A J ibbn, A convenient time, a proper season.
round, the sides.
A &\! Abatih, (pl. of & Abtah) The marshes of Nabatha. A Jb" Abnni, Name of two mountains in Arabia, opposite
each other, one called Jiz J", the other ex-) J - -

A Ju" abtil, (pl. ofJ btil) Trifles, vanities. A c-3\" ibinat, (1v of e) Publishing, declaring, disclosing.
A 3.2%) ibtat, (1v of 8-) Exposing to sale; purchase, con Division, distinction, removal. Disposal of a daughter in mar
tract, stipulation, bargain, either of sale or purchase. riage; (for 'u') Friends, companions, followers.
A Me" abtid, (pl. of **) abad) Inhabiting a remote country. P **) 7 ab-andm, Of a fair complexion, of a graceful

P {\" abgh, A mark made by burning. Name of a place in figure.

Syria. A &\" or &\" Jr. Name of a fountain between Kufa and A st' bngh, The tenth day of the month Farward".
Racca in Arabia. $ : A day celebrated among the Arabians Name of an angel said to preside over water.
by the death of Al-Mundir, killed in battle near that place. r J) ibni, Broth. A large dish.
r L*2," Abgharus, Name of a philosopher. P J abndan, To praise. - -

P J-49) abghulus, Name of a medicinal plant.

AA." abahir, (pl. of AE) abhar) The feathers or quills of a

P -37 bft, A kind of coarse soft cloth. -

bird; the shortest feathers in a bird's wing.
A J ibk, (from G') The flight of a slave, a withdrawing,
A , s abhim, (pl. of **) ibhm) Thumbs.
an absconding. J ubbk, (pl. of c abik) Fugitive slaves. , A f bay, Velvet, broad cloth, silk.
) 5 *)
A J'abay or ..s by (in construction, for l ab) Fathers. A C ibtizl, (v111 of J&) Carelessness in the preservation
J .ibyn, Name of a mountain whose heighth is said to of any thing. The employing a garment for daily or common
use. Baseness, abjectness.
be forty parasangs.
AAl abtar, Mutilated, docked. A defective oration, an in
A, 3' aby, Paternal, ancestral.
p J f Ab-brn, Name of an agreeable place in the de
complete speech. Having no offspring. Destitute of all good
qualities, worthless. A serpent with a short train. A basket with
pendencies of Kbul. out a handle. J al-abtarni, A slave and an ass (as being
p J b-bz, A sporting in the water, swimming.
destitute of good qualities).
* vy' J b-barin, The bank of a river undermined by its
A 32) ibtird, (viii of 92) Bathing in, or drinking, cold
water. Coolness.
p J, f ab-pshi, A sprinkling of water.
A. *A ibtir, (v111 of &A) Filling.

#A - abata or abita, (fut. <! ya-butu, or ya-bitu) The

A. * abtarah, A camel weak or disabled by age, or work.

day was hot. Ajj-" ibtizz, (v111 of j-, bazza,) Seizure, spoliation, rapine.
A c-labt, (from c-") Warmth, sultriness, tumefaction from A --" ibtisam, (v11.1 of *) Cheerfulness. A smile.
drinking. The lumbago. Abt, abit or bit, Hot, sultry, (day or A \l ibtizz, (v11.1 of a bassa,) Abounding in a river
night). ,<!" abati, My father. (water).
*- ibtb, Splendour. A **) abtat, All, whole, universal.
r abtabah, An ewer, a water-pot, a kettle. A \" ibtigha, (v111 of \ for Us) Wishing, coveting.
A clibtt, (1v of ~ batta) Breaking, or chopping off. AJ ibtikar, (v11.1 of K.) Early rising; arriving in the morn
p Lsl Abtakhsh, Name of the first of Alexander's succes
ing. Receiving the first fruits of any thing. Maturation of
sors (according to the Persians and Arabians), who reigned in fruits. Bearing a male at the first birth. Deflowering a virgin.
Persia. This was Antiochus the son of Seleucus, so that it is pro
Attending from the beginning of the Muhammadan form of wor
bable it ought to be written Ls \ Antkhsh, such mistakes ship, hearing even the prefatory oration called *as khutbah, in
in our European proper names happening often in the Oriental which they praise God, bless the prophet, and pray for the king.
authors from the carelessness of transcribers in misplacing the P c abtagan, The master of a family. A Turk.
diacritical points, which distinguish the letters f J ' &c. A \l ibtil, (v111 of \, for j) Temptation, trial, proof, ex
from one another.
periment. An endeavour to force confession. Passion, suffering,
* <-ff ib-takht, Urine. the being affected with any misfortune, becoming indisposed, or
Aj'ibtir, (iv of;) Cutting off the tail, docking; depriving vexed.
of posterity. Curtailment, disinherison. A g." ibtilaj, (v11.1 of) The dawning of the day.
A&|abtat, Warmth, ardour, vehemence, rage. &l abittat,
* & ibtilz, (v11.1 of s) Devouring, swallowing; deglu
(pl. of ea batt) Provisions, garments, necessaries, household tition. Perforation.
A Jlibtilal, (v111 of J. balla) Being moistened. Recovering
Ajlibtitr, (viii of A) Being cutoff. Rescission. health.
A -- abtas, Name of the modern arrangement of the Ara A G" ibtin, (v111 of \ for Ls) Constructing an edifice.
bian alphabet, which formerly was **". Taking a wife. Begetting or obtaining children. Gen. xvi. 2.
A cst." ibtihs, (v111 of -s) Investigation, scrutiny, dis
A rl ibtihj, (v111 of 4) Gladness, joy, exultation.
quisition, examination, enquiry. Question, dispute, wager.
A "&" ibtidia, (v111 of **) A beginning, a commencement, ... ibtihr, (VIII of y) The assumption of merit, when
undeserved. Notoriety arising from attentions paid to a woman.
an exordium. The first time. e **) To begin.
Perseverance in prayer. Not relaxing in one's exertions for, or
***"ibtidi-an, In the beginning, at first, in the first place. against another.
A "*" ibtidid, (viii of Jy badda,) Approaching separately AJ ibtihl, (v11.1 of J) Supplication, deprecation, groan
from different quarters, to attack any man or carry anything off.
ing in prayer. Imprecation. P &Y! ibtihlnah, Humbly,
Als ibtidar, (viii of JA) Running hastily (to arms), pre
submissively, in a supplicating manner.
Paring for a sudden attack.
- A {* ibtidit, (viii of **) Invention, contrivance, altera a Jelibtiys, (viii of Jim) Putting on a helmet.
A. t' ibtiyt, (viii of 87) Purchase. Sale. -

"oh, innovation (in matters of religion). P J Abtin, Name of the father of Faridin the seventh king
4 '' ibtiday?, An initial letter. of Persia of the Peshddian dynasty.
A Sl ibtizz, (viii of 3 bazzu,) A receiving of what is due. A " abas, A camel having the belly swollen through drink
C utting, breaking off.
| ing too much milk. Abis and bis, Nimble, swift. IIot.
t 6 e)
A cl ibss, (viii of -- bassa,) Revealing, divulging, A Jlibkhl, (1v of J) Discovering or considering one
disseminating, propagating, disclosing. to be covetous.
A Jl absn, A camel reclining on the ground, after feeding. r &&T b-khnah, A water-closet, a privy, a sink, a gutter,
A **) absat, Having a kind of red tumour on the lip.
an aqueduct. A place for keeping water.
A g abaj, Eternity. g abaij, Having wide-open staring
- -

AJ<! abkhar, Having a stinking breath.

eyes. A, abkhirah, (pl. of J bukhr) Vapours, exhalations.
A cl injh, (iv of a) Making glad. Abkhurah (pl. of Jbakhr) Perfumes. Gol.
AJ abjar, (pl. of J bujr) Misfortunes, dangers, sorrows.
A Jack" abkhas, Having protuberant flesh round the eyes.
A J ibjl, (1v of J) Contenting, sufficing, satisfying.
A G+: abkhak, One-eyed, blind of an eye.
p& l bjmah, A washing-tub, a bathing-vessel, a wash
A J abkhal, Very covetous.
hand bason, a bowl, a water-glass, or drinking-vessel. p >< b-khu, An uninhabited islet in a river.
A * abjad, The name of an arithmetical verse, the letters of P t;=" abkhukh, Wry-faced, deformed. Spittle. Name of
which have different powers from one to a thousand, as follows.
This was the order of the alphabet among the Jews as far as 400. a country in Khursn. -

The six remaining letters were added by the Arabians. * 2:=" al-khar, (9;&T, SA-7, or, s-T, for -' says.)
A drinker, a carrier, or holder of water; a cistern, an ever, a
a r
t so s
+ r Q) - bathing or watering-place. A cucumber (as being a watery
vegetable). Good fortune. Splendour. Subsistence, fate.
P f ab-khrad, See Josi; also a dwelling, a residence, a
### 333 3353 #zes settlement. Delay, halt.
P --: abkhusa, Melilot, bugloss.
* J *A* ** To abandon all wordly desires and to
devote one's self entirely to God. P <-->< ab-khost, (~<7 or ~~~~*T) A cucumber,
P e;-- **) abjad kh'n, One who is learning his alphabet. a water-melon. An island. A rivulet.

r_< b-jar, Ebb tide. rj ab-khez, A spring of water, springy ground, where
Aja abjar, Having a swelling at the navel. water is found after digging a little way. A wave. A canal.
A Jar" *ial. A vein in the fore-foot of a camel or horse. P A abad, Perpetuity. A wild untractable disposition. Angry,
p ><7 b-j, An island. A rivulet. A water-melon, a cu affrighted, scared. The eye. -

cumber. A domestic, one whom you nourish. - +A A' abada, (fut. ** Ja-bidu) (It) was permanent.
r_<7 b-jr; A water-carrier; used sometimes for >7. A * abad, An age, eternity without end (eternity without be
See also 93-7. ginning being expressed by J}). Eternal. Of one year's age
* L b-jsh, Gravy.
or growth. Ibd, Fruitful, prolific (applied to such animals as
P g abach, A butt or mark for archers. An agricultural bring forth annually). Ibid, A female slave. One born of a
implement. female slave. A run-away she-slave or ass. A wild ass. An
P y' b-chard, A light repast taken before making a regular ass's colt. A." abbad allah, (in prayer) May God prolong
meal, a whet. The food of genii, fairies, &c. (life, happiness, &c.) c" & For ever, to all eternity. In the
* J-- ab-chashi, Giving drink to a child for the first same sense almost are e) ', e &", ****", *
time (when about six months old), preparatory to weaning him. Je", and e-A- A'. r *::: & Eternal, enduring for ever,
P J b-chin, A towel or cloth, with which they wipe the joining eternity. -

bodies of the dead; used also in the bath. -

A \,\ abadd, A big corpulent man. A man or beast that strad
A -- ibh, (iv of *) Recission, disjunction, rupture. dles from corpulency.
A <<! abhs, (pl. of G-s bahs) Questions, disputes. A "&" abad or abadan, Eternally. Never. -

A. c ibhah, (iv of cbahha) Making hoarse, causing to pro A "&" abd, (pl. of *.x bad-a) The prime joints of a slaughtered
camel. Ibdaa, (1v of is) Beginning, invention, innovation, pro
nounce thick without proper intervals in articulation.
Aj abhr, (orJ abhur) (pl. of ,- bahr) Seas. Ibhr, duction, creation. -

A cl alabadt, All kind of animal property that ls ari

(1v of ,<) Navigation. Being as salt as the sea. nually prolific, as female slaves, asses, mares, &c. -

A Jax abhas, Having thick heavy eye-brows or eye-lashes.

A Gls," ibdd, (1v of A badda) Distributing into parts, dividing
e Jl Abhul, Name of a king of Jbuls.
A Jlibkhr, (1v ofA) Making the breath to smell. among many, giving every one his proportion.
* -- - - --
p ele' abddn, Lel" or ele& \,\! sick,2 infirm. See

P}\l Abkhaz, Name of a country in Turkistan, the inhabi

tants of which are said to be very ferocious. else".
&\ 7 _2)
pJa b-dr, Watery, humid, juicy. Having a good water, firm. Fit, congruous. Base, mean, despicable. Rude, igno
as a diamond, &c. A keeper of water, a servant whose office, rant, inexperienced. A gambler. A species of pomegranate,
in India and Persia, is to keep water cool. Keen, sharp; of a a kind of a pear. Any fruit that soon dissolves in the mouth.
good water and temper, as a sword. Glancing, dazzling, re A kind of cake made with honey, &c.
splendent. Flowing verse. A sociable and convivial man. Amy A x!" abadiy, Eternal. (adv.) For ever and ever.
one possessing intellector wealth. A species of plant resembling A c-" abadiyat, Eternity.
the fibres of a palm-tree. p s ab-didah, In tears, weeping.
AAA' ibdr, (iv of y) Having the full moon rising and shin A "&" ibr, (1v of 23.) Obscenity in conversation.
ing upon one. sk A2 abara (fut. 2% gya-biru) He pricked.
r &&.9|A b-dr-khanah, A repository of drinking-water. AA" abr, (from2") Pricking, piercing, stabbing; giving a dog
A 8's abdt, (pl. of ** bid.) Wonderful, incomparable a needle in his food. Destruction, ruin, murder, defamation,
men. Ibdt; (iv of t) The production or publication of reproach. Fructification of the female palm-tree by the sprin
something new. Fiction, device, forgery. Halting, limping, (as kling of the flowers of the male. A puncture, a sting, the point
cattle from fatigue). The heavy dragging of a vehicle. or prominent part of any thing. Ibar, (pl. of 3A) ibrat) Needles,
A J's abdl, (pl. of J badl) Good, just, pious men. points, prickles.
A J's abdl, A hermit, monk, saint, an enthusiast, pretending PA) abr or abar, (s. STH) A cloud. JSTA) Winter-clouds.
to inspiration, furens deo, like the ancient sybils and prophets. A rs2) Morning-clouds. J2% or 392~2) A sponge. 2)
vagabond. Ibdl, (iv of J) Change, exchange, the substi e- Vernal-clouds. .
tution of one thing for another. Revolution. P2 abar, (for 2), On, upon, above, according to. A kind of
P abdm, The body. -

P Je b-dn, A drinking vessel, a cistern, or any reservoir

harp or lute. Sugar, confections, preserved fruits. The curved
part of a bow. An artery. A man. The bosom. (in anc. Pers.)
of water, as a lake, a ditch, or a bath. The urine bladder. A The penis.
melon, a cucumber, as being full of juice. P ele abadan. P Jy" abr-pshn, A cloudy sky. A kind of herb.
See Jel bdn. A 2' abarr, More, or more just.
*Js' abdn, (or J") A family, a great tribe. Worthy. A *!" ibraa, (Iv ofy.) Liberation, discharge, remission, re
AJ's abdn, (pl. of J.A. badan) Bodies. lease, deliverance from danger, restoration of health.
AJW) alabadni (dual), A she slave and a mare.
A y! abr, (pl. of 32 bari-a) Free, discharged, absolved.
"J'ai abdndn (or eMe), Infirm. See ex~7. &S 22' Acquittance. &c.; *!" Freedom from responsibility.
pJAT abadni, (for Jel) Population, cultivation.
A y" ibr, (1v of 22) Putting a ring through a camel's nose.
Aria bidat (or sa), A timorous untamed animal, a wild
beast. A fable, an apologue, a parable; a history, a romance. A 2) abrs, (pl. of ~A bars) Plain, level, and soft grounds.
Any word difficult to pronounce. Any thing strange, or un
A zy" abraj, (pl. of cy! burj) Towers. Signs of the zodiac.
common. An idle talker, a babbler. A great and memorable A cy." ibrh, (iv of c2) Smiling with self-complacency, en
calamity, to be remembered for ages. -
tertaining a good opinion of one's self. Honouring, magnifying.
A 5Alabadat, Prolific (camel). Abaddat, Name of a town Annoying, molesting. -

in Spain, Ibdat, Fear, terror. A e!," ibrd, (iv of 92) Cooling, refreshing, bringing (any
A cw' abiddat, (pl. of elA bidd) The stuffings under wooden thing) cold, drinking cooled liquor; experiencing cold weather.
saddles, to prevent the galling of the camels' backs. Sending a Berid or courier. Inviting to a feast.
p w Indarm, Name of an author, and a reputed saint. AJ2) abrr, Houseleek. (pl. ofj brr) Just, holy, pious;

*** ib-dast, The ablution or washing of the hands, face, dutiful. Ibrr, (iv of 2 barra) Acceptance, justification. Vic.
"ther parts, with certain ceremonies used by the Muhamma tory, superiority. Departure for the desert, and continuance there.
dans before prayer. Devotion. A holy man. Dexterous, nimble *j}) abrs, (for J.J."), Pot-herbs, spices, elej' abrs-dn
handed. Prosperous, successful. An ewer. (for e'2)Al), A pepper-box.
"J-Aib-dastn, (Jel, ex-ff or -), An Ajyl ibrz, (1v ofJA) Producing, publishing. Outstripping.
* Water-bottle, any vessel from whence water is poured upon A proof, a document, an edition, ejl, gi- To ad
* hands. Purification. Custom, manner, institute. Fraud. duce proofs and documents.
pJ-A b-dastn-dr, An ewer-holder.
A Jelibrs, (iv of Jer) Afflicting with the leprosy. Bring
'J" b-dan (for ela b-dn), A pond, a lake, a conflux ing forth a leprous child.
of water. A drinking vessel. A cucumber, a water-melon.
A JA) abrs, (pl. of J bars) Few. Ibrs, (iv of C**)
"JAA abdandan, Weak, impotent, indisposed, sick. Strong, Producing young grass, just sprouting above ground.

_2) 8 - _
A Jy" abrk, (pl. of &A burkat) Stony, sandy grounds. Ibrk, lying between the districts of Fars and Ahwaz. It is situated on a
(iv of J) Flash, glitter, coruscation. Pregnancy of a camel. height, as all the names of towns compounded with the word abar
Pouring a little oil on water. denote.
A ty" abrk, (pl. of $2 burkat) Certain aquatic birds, P *A' Abarkh, Name of a town in Chaldea, or the Arabian
white and small. Ibrk (1v of 2) Making a she-camel kneel Irak. Also of another in the Persian Irak, which is commonly sup
down. posed to be the ancient Persepolis, distant 20 parasangs or 80,000
A ibram, (1v of ) Twisting a rope tight. Doing busi paces from Ispahn. It is situated on the summit of a mountain,
ness well. Wearying, disgusting. Urgency, importunity. Pro as the name implies.
ducing berries (a thorn), and unripe grapes (a vine). r eyelg" abarmdarn, A kind of sweetmeat, made with
P &y ab-ranah, Travelling by water. honey or sugar.
P sy ab-rah, (or <sy) A canal, a conduit, a pipe, an
A & abrumat, (pl. of A baram) The fruits of a prickly
aqueduct, any place through which water flows. dwarf called sic.
A **!" Ibrhim, The patriarch Abraham, surnamed Jr." P 92 aburnk, A young man.
an nabiy, The prophet, or a!!! Js. The friend of God. A ," ibrinta, Disposing or preparing one's self for any thing.
A 5A ibrat, A needle, a sting, the point of any thing, the tip P e- abranjin (or J abranjan), A bracelet. An or
of the elbow. J 32" Crane's bill (a plant). nament worn on the ankle.
A z abraj, Having fine eyes. Abruj, (pl. of z_2 burj) P zl abrandaj, Drest goat's skin.
Towers. The signs of the zodiac. A. J-A ibrinshak, Joyful, flourishing as a tree, expanding
re-2 abrajan (ex-A" or e-A), A bracelet, an orna as a flower.

ulent for the ankle. rf abr (or *A"), Dignity, honour, renown, rank, office,
A c2 abrah, More or most heavy, grievous, troublesome. elegance, gracefulness, glory, reputation. Sweat. Jy f
A &2 abrakh, One whose back bends inwardly. To disgrace. e 2.A To frown. J The chief
A 92 abrad, Colder. Showering hail-stones. Speckled with magistrate of a city. A- Jy.' The commander of an army.
white and black (a bull). J (dual) The two colds, i.e ee>227 To pay respect. e To honour.
the morning and the evening. 92) Ja- The cold fit of an ague. r x2' abru, (s. H) The eye-brow. e'," The eye-brows.
A. Se ibridat, (from 92) A disease creating impotency, oc Morning and evening. e---> To frown, knit the brow. 22
casioned by cold. Chilliness. Jej To nod, wink, beckon, approve by motion of the head or
r 2. abrisir (or -L-2), Clouds, rain. eye.
A J abrash, A dapple-grey or pye-bald horse. A place P abrud, A hyacinth, a water-lily.
variegated with herbage of different kinds. Marked with white rj," Abruz (or corruptly Alborz), Name of a mountain
or coloured spots or points. p ~ J The heavens. near Hamadn in Persia. It is famous for a number of pyrees or
P **2) abrasham, Silk, sewing silk.
temples of the Magi, in which their sacred fires were kept per
PJA) abrasham7, A silk merchant. A silk worm. Silken. petually burning.
r_*2) Abr-shahar, The old Persian name for Nishabur, one P J-A 2!," abr-firkh, Cheerfulness, ingenuousness, gene
of the four chief cities in Khursn. It signifies the high city. rosity.
A Jer" abras, Leprous. Je alabras, The moon, or her P_j J); *2) abruici-zl-sar, The golden eye-brow of Zl,
spotted disk. J -- A species of large lizard. i. e. The new moon.

r 3g' ib-raft, Any thing carried down by the current. P J abru-kan, Tweesers.
Water spilled or dried up. A stone which imbibes water. r exal abrn, Houseleek.
Ab-ruft, A stone made smooth by water flowing over it. Sprin P Jy" abruntan, (in ancient Pers.) To die.
kling water previous to sweeping. Ps:f b-ratei, Going through the water; an oar, or the like.
A J2) abrak, Pye-bald, black and white. A rope of different r- abruzei-sanam (or A abrusanam), The man
coloured hairs. Anything varied, black and white, having also drake, so called by the Persians from the resemblance of its root
a shining appearance, as the eye, &c. A coarse, stony, sandy to the human figure.
P *A abrah (see sy) The outside of a garment. Abarah, A
soil. Lapis specularis. Talk. A medicine.
A. % abrak, Most blessed. PA sponge. Abarak, A little kind of bustard, owl, or swallow. Ibrah, First fruits; early fruit.
cloud. P * abraham, Nature, essence. Name of a prophet.
pJel abrkr, Astonished, confounded, stupefied, amazed. P &y!" abrahah, A kind of bird. Name of a general, called also

p abarkkiya (or ~3%), A spider's web, a cobweb. Js, who made an unsuccessful attempt to take Mecca.
A *" Abarkbd, Name of a city in the province of Arrajn, P &rb ibrahimiyah, A kind of broth,

L-" 9 C-)
p *A abri, Clouded, variegated. &S abri kghiz, A unkind usage. Subjugation, incarceration. Contempt, disdain,
kind of thick and shining paper (clouded from Kashmir). scorn, Rough unequal ground. A male tortoise.
A ibariy, Sharp, pointed like a needle. A needle-dealer. r J-1 Abas, Name of a city.
A&y: ibriyat, The scurf or scales on the head; dandruff. A_\-libsr, (iv of P-) Doing or asking anything premature
A ibrij, A churn. ly or unseasonably. Laying bare an unhealed wound. Mixing
r}}" ib-rz, A water-pipe, a spout, an urn, a bucket. A unripe with ripe dates in order to press the juice from them.
necessary. A pool, a lake. A spade. A place of worship. J%A Being out at sea (a ship). P Absar, A whetstone.
A festival among the Armenians, Chaldeans, or Persians, during A U--" ibss, (1v of L- bassa) Calling to camels to come and
which the people in their visits sprinkle one another with orange drink or to be milked.
flower, rose, or pure water. It falls upon the thirteenth day of A9">" abst, (pl. of "a- bistat) She-camels left at liberty
the month Tir, corresponding nearly to our September. A sort with their colts. Ibst, (1v of a-) Being left at liberty with her
of food. colt (a camel).
A}.2 abriz (or ibriz), Pure gold. A J- ibsk, (1v of G-) Having beestings in her udder,
p sft ab-zirgah, A splinter, a thorn. A hypocrite, a dis just before she brings forth her young (a camel).
sembler. One whose good nature, merit, or skill lie concealed. * J- absl (or J-7 absln), A vineyard, a garden.
A -A abrisam, See *A -
A J-\ibsl, (iv of J-) Forbidding, prohibiting, making
p *F Abrishtawim, Name of a place in Azerbijan. unlawful. Despising. Preserving, defending. Encompassing,
P *y abrsham, Silk. Mute, dumb. 25.2% 22) The stars. surrounding. Killing, murdering.
p *A abrshim, Silk. ex~A) abrshimin, Silken. A *) ibsam, (1v of *~) Blooming, ripening.

A J abrik, A bright, shining sword. An ewer, a urinal. P J-7 absn, A bracelet.

#A}| abaza (fut Ja-bazu), He leaped, he rushed. A e- ibsn, (1v of ex-) Being beautiful.
A}} als, (from jl) A leap, a bound. Abiz, Leaping, bounding p - ab-sabuk, Easy of digestion.
like a deer, Stopping suddenly, and then rushing forward with r abist (J-7, or ~"), Pregnant. A foetus, a new
velocity. Assaulting, insulting, injuring. Dying suddenly. born child. Abast, The pulp of a citron. Orange peel.
Aj. abzr, A kind of carrot or parsnip. Pot-herbs, roots, r " abasta, Name of a book which the Magi of Persia at
spiceries, &c. for seasoning meat. This word is often writteny. tribute to the Patriarch Abraham, whom they suppose to be the
P w abzr-dan, A box for spiceries, a pepper-box. same with Kardusht or Zoroaster. It is an explanation of the two
A t?' abzakh, Having a protuberance on the breast. books called the and and Pazand; comprehending, with these
*} Abzar, Name of a mountain near Hamadn in Persia, volumes, the whole religious system of the Magi or adorers of
about 150 leagues westward from Ispahn. fire; who have a tradition that Abraham repeated them in the
p -' ab-zurqft, A cucumber, a water-melon. An island. midst of a furnace, into which he had been thrown by the order
of Nimrod.
rl Absandarid, Name of a river which runs through
Ispahan from west to east. Our travellers call it Senderut. The r & 7 abistnah, A caldron, a pot, a kettle, a wat.
name implies, The river of living water, being formed from a P J-7 abistagi, Pregnancy.
collection of several springs into one channel. P J-7 abistan, To be pregnant. To lie-in, to bring forth.
rej -san, A particular kind of bathing-vessel, the full P *A J-7 abistan faryad, A kind of harp or lute.
length of the human body, filled with warm water medicinally r s-" abistangh, A lying-in chamber. A privy.
Prepared, in which the patient sits or lies down. The bason of a P J abistani, Pregnancy, conception.
ountain. A brazen vessel in which clothes are washed. Impart r &-\ abastah, Ground prepared for sowing. An examiner,
ing tranquility of mind, consoling. (imp.) Console, appease. a spy. A flatterer. Abistah, A pregnant woman. An animal
p ji b-zah (or *), Water flowing from a fountain. Any with young. The womb. A foetus.
kind of liquid pressed through a cullender or strainer. Pincers. P e- b-sard, Jelly. 9, . A-7 Cold water.
A & abza', Having a protuberance of the breast, and the
P Jy-Lb-sardan, A gonorrhoea.
back bent. p ser" ab-sardi, Water cooled by the wind.
*JAft) abidan, To fill. p J-" ab-safed, A pearl, or white speck upon the eye.
ibzam, A buckle.
A. P ex" Abaskin (or ex" Abkn), Name of an island in

r;| iboj, Sparks of fire. A kind of grass. the Caspian sea ; also of a town near Astarbd.
** v- 'abasa, (fut. J- ya-bisu) He rebuked, terrified. *_\,-7 b-suwar, Floating on the water; a bubble, &c.
* v- abs, (from u-') Rebuking, reproving, reproaching, P J-W ab-siyan, Tears.
frightening; throwing in one's teeth whatever is disagreeable; P *" b-siyh (or s\t- .-W), Black water, tears.
10 G
PU-7 ab-sayr, Moving with an easy pace (a horse). A t' ibtkh, (1v of *) Fruitfulness in melons.
A L bish, One who decorates the court or vestibule of A Jua," abtal (for J'A'), A monk. Abtal, (pl. of Ja batal)
another's house, and places in it meat and drink; a custom which Brave warriors, heroes. Ibtil, (1v of Ja) Making void, abo
prevails in Arabia, especially on the arrival of strangers, when lishing.
every friendly neighbour brings his ornaments, his victuals, and A cal ibtn, (1v of J) Girthing a beast; girding on a
liquor, to the house where they reside, in order to assist in their sword; lining a garment. Admitting one to intimate friendship.
PJ Abish, Abysinnia. A *|Abtah, The marshes of Nabatha between Wasit and

#A U- abasha, (fut. 3ya-bishu) He collected. Basrah. A low-lying place full of mud near Mecca; Mecca itself.
p_\ c ib-shar (or j-T abshar), A waterfall, a cataract. a j) abtar, Having a thick and prominent upper lip.
A s abtat, Having the inner part of the lips whitish, as
A_\-libshr, (iv of A-) Rejoicing at good news. Verdure.
Ak-libsht, (1v of a-) Making haste. Hastening another. among the Ethiopians. Toothless, particularly in the lower jaw.
P ~7 basht, Concealed, hidden, covered up. A Ja) abtal, More or most vain, or fruitless.
P e abishtan (or abashtan), To hide, to conceal, to cover. J abtan, A vein in the lower part of the leg of a horse.

P * bishtagh (<-7, *"), A back yard where

or Abtun, (pl. ofe batn) The inner parts of any thing.
J* ibtiy, Axillary. Ja" alibtiy, The axillary vein.
rubbish is thrown, a privy. A place of worship.
p_3=-T bishkhur, (9,54-7, e, or \,x*-7), A cis A A. abzar, Uncircumcised. Having a protuberance on the
tern, a reservoir. Seej. Abishkhr signifies also, The bed upper lip.
of a river. A draught of water. Fortune, chance. A dwelling, A \ ib, (iv of y) Lending. A loan.
or the vestiges of one. Residence in a place. A s abad, (pl. of Ax, butd) Distances. 3.5.3.x." The three
P absham, The cone of silk in which the worm encloses distances, i. e. The length, depth, and breadth of the universe.
itself. A coarse kind, or the refuse, of silk. Ibtad, (1v of Ax') Placing at a distance.
P J-7 abishan, A bridegroom's shirt. A j" abar, (pl. of a batr) Dung of camels or sheep.
P J-4-7 ab-shins, Skilful in discovering springs, or convey
A J" abaaz, (pl. of J batz) Parts of a thing. Ibais, (iv
ing water by aqueducts. A pilot; the man who heaves the lead. of Lx) Abounding in gnats.
Intelligent, expert. A x ibeat, (1v of law) Removing to a distance (particularly
* <<-7 abshang, See ej. with cattle for the benefit of pasture). Pride. Ignorance, im
P l b-shrah, Water cooled with saltpetre. prudence. An indecent word, a shameful action. Disparity of
P --" ab-shib, Water flowing from high grounds.
sk A Je. abisa, (fut. Je". 3ya-basu) He was nimble. A *) abad, Very remote. Rebellious, injurious.
A.Le' abis (or Je abus), Swift, fleet (as a horse). A \" ibgha, (iv of s) Seeking, enquiring for another. As
A_\al absr, (pl. of ra basar) Eyes, looks. Ibsar, (iv of sisting another in searching for anything.
ra.) Seeing, judging, or thinking. Becoming manifest. A J4%) abghz, (pl. of J& bughs) Hatreds. Ibghz, (iv of
A ta.) absat, All, universal. Foolish. Lik) Bearing hatred.
A J abs, (from J&\) Binding the fore foot of a camel with A Jlibghl, (1v of J) Celerity, dispatch.
a rope, (the knee being bent) to the shoulder or thigh. Hurting A " abghas, Dusty, inclining to a brown or dusky colour.
the nerves or tendons by such ligature. Abz or abaz, A widen A sandy or dusty place.
ing. Motion. Rest. Uba, An age, eternity. Ubaz, The sinewy A & abghisat, (pl. of c baghas, bughas, or bighas) Kites
ligature which joins the leg with the thigh on the back part. and other birds of prey, of the inferior kind of the hawk species.
Ubuz, (pl. of JAW) ibz) Ropes with which they fasten the feet of A J*) abghaz, Hating extremely. Most odious.
camels, as above. r 3) abaft, A kind of coarse cloth.
A Jvi.) ibzz, (1v of Li bazza) Giving little. P **) abarah, A stallion.
A &\d." ibzt (1v of83) Sorting goods for sale. Sending any A cy." alfan, Berries of the wild olive.
one a lot or sample. Quenching thirst. Drinking what is suffi A Jbik, (part.) A run-away slave. Fugitive. Quicksilver.
cient. Satisfying any one with regard to what he asks. *A G" abaka, (fut. G ya-baku, or ya-biku) The slave ab
A 3.3, Ubzat, Name of a well near Madina. sconded.

Ala' ibt, The arm-pit. The smaller particles of sand. Name A G.) abk, (from c) The running away of a slave. Abak,
of a place in Arabia. A kind of bark with which they make ropes.
A *\la) ibtaa, (Iv of a) Delay, slowness. Having a sluggish A \,\ ibk, (1v of J) Confirming, establishing. Keeping.
horse or other beast of burden, that lags behind the rest. Pitying, regarding with compassion.
c 11 JA
A jibkk, (ivofl bakka) Loquacity, prattle. Fecundity, P e-ey b-gun sadaf (or v s ab-gun kafas),
A Jllabkl, (pl. of J, bakl) Pot-herbs, beans. Ibkl, (iv The heavens. The sun and moon.
of J) Being, or rendering fruitful, in pot-herbs, or herbage in P &T ab-gah, A watering-place, a cistern, a reservoir.
general, Cooking the herb t). PAft ab-gir, Any hollow place where water collects and
Aj abkir, Nitre. stagnates; a pond, a ditch. A watering-pot.
A t abkat, (Apye) variegated, black and white. (A year) P &\s- s abgin-khnah, A bee-hive.
P < ab-ginah, A mirror. A drinking-glass, . A foil set
partly fruitful, partly barren. (Land) poor and sterile.
Aylubkr, (pl. of 5; bakarat) Oxen. under gems. Wine. A lover's tears. J " A name
A J abka', May he live, or be preserved (when used in for the most transparent glass. j .< The heavens.
prayer after the name of any prince). A J abil, (part.) Supplying the absence of water by fresh
P J abuk, Quicksilver. A bason filled with water. Any grass (a camel, &c.). Expert in the management of camels,
thing watery. Measles, wheals, blisters. Sitting gracefully upon a camel, though not accustomed to ride.
A-8 abakk, A severe season (for cattle). One who takes Name of several places. The lesser cardamom.
care of the property of his relations. Wise. Name of a place. A J abl, (from J") Possessing many camels; skill and care
A Qibk, (iv of 3 for J) Making one to shed tears. in the management of them. Ibl, A camel, the camel species.
*\ -kr, A water-carrier, a sprinkler. A wine-merchant, Clouds threatening rain. Ubl., (pl. of J abil) Christian monks.
a drinker of wine. A jeweller, a polisher of gems. A distillery. Abal, Moist, wet, humid. New hay. Dry hay. Depression of
FAQ abkr, Agriculture. spirits, oppression of the stomach (from bad air or indigestion).
Aj% abkr, (pl. of K, bikr) Virgins, maidens. Ibkr, (iv. Abil, A corpulent camel. Ubul, Grass or stubble remaining
of}) Performing any thing in the morning. Taking time by
after reaping or mowing, or left uncropped by cattle. JJ
the forelock.
iblun ubbalun, Camels straying without a keeper.
f b-kri, A tax on the manufacture and sale of spi A J aball, More or most humid, moist. A perjured man, a
rituous liquors, and intoxicating drugs. P A distillery. wicked wretch, a hypocrite. Smooth, bare.
A & ibkam, (1v of ) Silencing, striking dumb. Muteness.
A \,\ abl, (pl. of J bily, or * bilic) Fatigued, emaciated
Abstaining from cohabitation with a wife. (camels). Worn out with cares and misfortunes, inured to dis
r &&." b-kmah, A kind of gruel or drink, prepared in dif tress, tormented. Administrators or curators of money or other
erent ways, for creating or assisting digestion. estates. Ibla, (1v of J.) Wearing out a garment. Tempt
pJK' ah-kn, See < -

ing, trying, proving. "Making one a partaker of any benefit.

r" Ab-kabd, The China sea. An excellent sword. Swearing. Requiring one to swear. Making manifest. Puri
*A abkur, (pl. of K, bikr) Young camels. Virgins. fying. Having enough, being content. \\ Alabla, Name of
rvi b-kash, A water-carrier. A leathern water-bottle. a well.
re- abkashin, A bracelet. A t iblakh, (1v of *) Pride, haughtiness.
P &T abkam, A kind of serpent.
A & abkam, Dumb. A s ablad, (pl. of a balad) Signs, marks. Iblad, (iv of
p <! b-kumah, A dark-coloured and fetid water found in *) Cleaving to the earth; being poor. Having a sluggish beast.
A J ibls, (1v of J) Despair, brokenness of spirits, si
certain fish, applied in cases of fracture.
lence from grief or eager desire; astonishment, stupor. Being
r x&i ib-kand (or s ab-kandah), Any hollow channel
excavated by the rushing of a torrent; a place where water
prevented from performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
collects and stagnates. A pond.
A -\,\ iblt, (1v of ) Sticking close to the ground. Poverty
A J abka', Weeping more.
Importuning, troubling.
P & Abag, Name of a pleasant town near Shirz. A. &\ iblt, (1v of t) Causing to swallow.
p j ab-guzr, A ford, a ferry. An express. A. &\ iblgh, (iv. oft) Causing to arrive.
' al-gusar, A canal, a channel for water. A s iblk (iv of G.) Opening wide a door.
A J iblani, Two troops of camels, two flocks of sheep, &c.
*Ji ib-gardish, A whirlpool, an eddy. A fleet horse.
Wertigo. Crop sickness. A &\ ablat, A petition, any thing wanted, necessity, indi
b-gr; A horse-trough, an aqueduct. gence. Iblat, Hostility, enmity. Ublat, A murrain, a blight.
p v b-gr-kash, A worthless fellow. Abalat, Heaviness or oppression of spirits (from indigestion or
"s" b-gn, Water-coloured, azure, liquid blue. Glass. bad air). A fault, a crime. Dates bruised between two stones
Ice. A brightsword. A kind of knife. A river. Starch mixed and then milked upon. Abilat, Prolific (camel). Ibalat, Amy
with blue, thing which one has got to ask or do; a petition. Abullat, A
C 2
c l2 ~\

quantity of dates. Name of a very pleasant place near Basrah. certain holy man. l- J.' Name of Layla's husband. J.'
Ibillat, Progeny. Ubullat, Companions, tribes. Jr." The son of the way, i.e. a traveller. -- c Rain.
A * ablaj, Having distant eye-brows, (in opposition to those t J. The sun. A bastard. --~) J.' Wine. c e!"
which meet at the nose). Clear, bright, resplendent, evident. Cold. &J) c The son of God. Unfortunate, unhappy. e'
A 7. Us!" iblijaj, (1x of) Clearness, brightness, perspicuity. \"" Any water-fowl. *}. J." The moon. & c" Name of
A 2'4' ablah, The myrobalan nut.
the inventor of the present Arabic character. *-'er." An only
Son. 3;" J.' A time-server, a sycophant. c A jackal.
A * ablakh, A proud man. &z=- J.' Bread. Sex" The morning. _* J.' A partridge.
A M4) ablad, Having distant eye-brows. Corpulent. There are innumerable surnames formed by the interposition of
A More or most perfect, most effectual. s
t." ablagh, this word (as well as of? father), as "Are J J- J->
*;--> The most proper and effectual manner. U-A t- *- c (which literally implies, The father of Aliy
A c ablak, Pye-balled, black and white, party-coloured. the excellent, the son of Abdallah (i.e. the servant of God), the
A lute, a harp. Name of a tribe. c Name of the fortress of son of Sn, the doctor, the chief). Name of a celebrated phi
**e: J.- , said to have been built by Solomon, and consi losopher and physician, known in Europe by the name of
dered impregnable. <!"G! Behind the back. 'C' The Avicenna.

world; fortune. P t-G' (or 43.J.') Night and day. A abn (from e!") Suspicion, supposition. Coagulation,
Time. The world. J ** '" Happiness, felicity, good clot, blackness, (as of blood in a wound). A concretion or knot
fortune. in wood. Calumny, censure, opprobrious language. Abin, or
A \ ablak. A starling. bin, Thick (soup, &c.). Dry meats. Uban, (pl. of &lub.nat)
P = <!" ablag, Pye-balled. Abalag, or abilg, A spark of fire. Enmities, secret grudges. Knots in wood. -

...A ablam, Having swelled lips. A kind of pot-herb like a A U-" abni, (pl. of e!" ibn) Sons. Barbarians, foreigners
bean. The leaves of the bdellium tree. dwelling in Arabia Felix. 35 ye t Mean ignoble men. P s
P z abluj, Sugar-candy. Bruised loaf-sugar. ~ (or ; ; *"), Companions, of the same rank, quality,
P ablak, A double-faced man, a hypocrite. :: s Men, animals, or plants. A-'s-,
P & T bilah, A blister, a pimple, a felon, a freckle; the small (J *', re- *', or jy J"), Sons of the age, cotem
pox. A bubble floating on the water. --> 24.7 A pearl or poraries. Ibn, (iv of J.-) Ordering a building to be erected.
white speck upon the eye. <<!, *** The stars. 32 y .47 Fattening.
The sun. &A.47 The French pox. P e;-- abnakhun (or e;--" ambkhn), A fortress.
A 43' ablah, Foolish, simple, ignorant, bashful. Vain, arro A s." abnawiy, Barbarous, applied to strangers resident in
gant. Virtuous, prudent (woman). Patient of labour and thirst Arabia. -

(a camel). Jie a!" Simple (from bashfulness) yet intelligent. A c-c! ibnat, A daughter. Ubnat, A vice, a stain, a spot.
* Jr. A & Deceit. & Je (or *) --~~) Youth, an easy An unnatural propensity. Fraud, dissimulation, a secret hatred.
life, free from care. &\,-\: A thoughtless blundering youth. A knot in wood. The throat of a camel, the head of the asper
a J." ablahi, Silliness, folly. artery.
A J Abla', Name of a ridge of mountains on the road lead Pi-" ab-nukrah, Quicksilver, liquid silver. See ---.
ing from Mecca to Madna.
A J.' ibly (or ibbaliy), Belonging to camels, possessing or
pu--T bnis, Ebony. A kind of fish.
PJ-47 abnisi, Made of ebony. t. J-47 An ebony pipe.
being rich in camels. Ubally, A Christian monk.
A pipe played on any festivity.
A Jlibiis, The devil. U-52 v." The deceitful devil. P e--' abnoshidan, To drink water. To be stupified,
A \-" iblis, Plainness, smoothness. astonished, or benumbed.
r &\-" iblisanah, Diabolically. A J Ubna', Name of a place in Syria.
P *' blisah, (<!" or l), A sower, a husbandman.

A **) iblim, Ambergris.

Honey. A *" abniyah, (pl. of s baniy) Edifices, fabrics.
A * abamm, The bass string of a musical instrument. A bass A :) abw (or \,\ ab), Educating. p Ab, A water-lily.
voice. ~by A bass-viol. A: ab, A father. This word has often the sense of 28 zu,
* Gl ibmik, The coulter of a plough. A yoke of oxen. having, endowed with, possessed of, as e--" 3: Possessed of
>kA e." abana, (fut. J 3ya-bunu or ya-binu) He suspected. beauty. -- Having daughters. ~);& 3:) Wearing whis
Ae" ibn, A son. It is written c bin when preceded by a kers. It frequently forms the figure called metonymy, as 3.
Proper name and followed by the name of the father, as . " The father of desires, i.e. a lover. eu--" " Sulphur.
*** c Hasan son of Muhammad. e-) c Name of a Jas- 3." A horse. ***";" A kettle in which an entire sheep
13 3.)
may be dressed. c9||x| The father of spirits, i.e. Quicksilver. --!> A bull. Vil A horse. Al" (Father of conversa
Jlly! A tiger. Jy Adam, as the father of man. 3.) tion), the famous astronomer and astrologer, known in Europe
by the name of Albumazar. He died an. 885. J;-a--> The
* The father of the little fortress, i.e. a fox. y 3." A father of defence, i.e. a city. ****) A horse. s-95." Com
phynx us". Name of othmin the third Khli sl fection. 8-39 ' Winegar. *: Hatred. 52 P2) The father
The father of life, i.e. rain. J.-* The father of stratagem, of the kitten; name of one of Muhammad's companions. \,-->
i.e. a fox. !'; The father of health, i.e. sugar. : or
Name of the angel of death, whom the Arabians call likewise
-*} A musical pipe. ~\ Water. The first chapter Azrayil, and the Persians Murdd; whose office it is, according
of the Kuran. \x";" Name of a celebrated poet. J A to Muhammadan belief, to separate the soul from the body.
vulture, which they say lives 1000 years. L A heron. 3." A "*" abica, (pl. of ~ ab) Fathers. A goat indisposed from
c"The father of relief, i. e. water. Name of the the smell of urine. Abwa (or Ibwa), Name of a village between
author of a Universal History called J-s (the Compen Mecca and Madna where the tomb of Muhammad's mother is
dium of the Times), published with a Latin translation by the venerated.
learned Pocock. Ji (The father of excellence), a very A 3' abwb, (pl. of ~\, bb) Doors. Chapters. Dues,
learned and accomplished man, secretary to the great Sultn fees, taxes. (in India) An assessment on lands over and above
Akbar, Emperor of Hindustn, and author of the elegant history the original rent. <-!" <2\,. (The port of ports), the fortress
of the Mogul Emperors (in Persian) called Akbar namah. ;" of Darband on the Caspian sea. Js") -'' A register of
J Name of a famous orator. Elias): A crow. J." receipts and disbursements of the household and revenue. -->"
The father of compliments, i.e. a drinker of healths. Jsi)3. ~~~) (The ports of felicity), the title of a book, JW-5."
Anythingnew, rare,or agreeable. A facetious, witty, or well-bred A register containing the amount of revenue, with the increase
man. A buffoon, a jester, a mimic. It is written also g 3." and or deficiency. P '- &\#.-:) Taxes levied on the retailers
Jsi. J"; A mule. 5,); The father of the wife, of liquors and other articles in bazars attached to the garrisons.
i. e. a husband. Al-J); A lark. >
A cheese. J- .e.-:) New taxes, arbitrary impositions. c- 2;"
al Wine. *"; A fox. -\}) : A flea. Us) 3. Old, established taxes. -se .*-'' An imposition levied to
Name of Aliy, son-in-law of Muhammad. Ja The father defray the marriage expenses of a Rj, chief, or great land
L Name of a speckled bird.
of the watch, i.e. a cock. holder. --; .-:) Charges and fines in criminal courts.
A: (father of the maid), The father-in-law, and first Khli, N. B. There are many other taxes designated by the word
or successor to Muhammad. y2" Name of Ally, son-in-law -:) joined to another. -:) ** By all means, in every
to Muhammad. A 3.) The city of Thebais, where the finest way.
opium is produced. t- ;" A tray. 2'-3' Bread. Ax-3) Aj." abrz, (pl. of ju bz) Falcons, hawks.
A J abirds, (pl. of Je bars) Colours. Kinds (of cattle).
The father of the curled hair, i.e. a wolf. Jia- ?" A fly.
J-> Alkanet root. e-a-3." Bugloss plant. J.--> Pot A 8'2" abwda, (pl. of {? baret) Honours, nobilities, high

herbs. Jr: The father of ignorance. Name of an uncle of nesses. Fathoms. A sheep which gives much milk.
Muhammad. -j-3.) A tiger. & e-3." Name of the first A J';" abwk, (pl. of J2, bak) Crooked trumpets, clarions.

great Muhammadan lawyer. Al-" A dog. J-> A cat. A J);" abwal, (pl. of Jr. bawl) Numbers. Urines.
A -e); abaicni (dual), The parents, father and mother.
~as "Flesh. -->"Melilot, bugloss plant. Je: "A bull.
Jy Senna. *j," Name of a person mentioned in the Mu rej' abilbn (or c"), (for ev" or J"), Re
knt-i-Haririy. J-3' A cock. -> The father of the pentance.
word, a name of Ndir Shh. Je: Milk. x" Name of A &;" abicibat, (pl. of ~\, bb) Gates, doors, chapters.
**her of Aliy. }}." A druggist. Je: A hyaena. 3." A <>x" ubut, (from ") Warmth, heat. Tumour from
** A bug, a flea.Ke;" A pigeon. Jlex" A species of drinking.
violet,**} Hunger. ex=x" A date. Salt. J-A: A tiger. A ~x" abawat, A family, a tribe. Ubawat, Paternity.
A abbitt, A meadow, any place full of herbage.
L Name of Nutmn king of Arabia. v" A herb
used in dying. v An ape. -x' A Dutch coin cur A ubad (from A^) Durability, permanency. Desolation.
rent in Egypt, &c. something inferior in value to a Spanish (pl. of M abad) Ages.
A "eye;) Abildard, Name of a companion of Muhammad.
P (4s. 8d.) It bears the impression of a lion, which how
er the Arabians have changed to 43 a dog, perhaps to show rj," ab-warz, A swimmer. .

their *empt for Christians, or on account of its base alloy. 3.)

Aj." abz, (agt.) Leaping, springing. Ubuz, (from A")
A Name of niland near Alexandria. 3.}}." A drum. /***) Springing, bounding.
A sparrow. r;" The father of sorrow, i.e. the devil. 3. A J abus, Swift, fleet.
& 14
* Jy' abus, Very swift (horse). skA e aba', (fut. J ya-ba' or ya-bi) He refused.
a Jl ubil, (from Jl) Supplying by green herbage the & abi (or 93. Wi), Without.

Place of water (cattle). Sprinkling or moistening with water J. abiy, (for x" abawiy) Paternal. Abiy, Refusing,

or the juice of herbage. Wandering in the night and pasturing rejecting, loathing. Averse, refractory, untractable, difficult,
without a shepherd; straying, running away (camels). Grow inaccessible. Loathed, despised. J The lion (because un
ing long (grass). Stopping, or remaining in a place (with
camels). Ibbawl, A troop of camels, herd or flock of cattle,
tractable). A proper name. -** J (Loathing meat), name
of one of Muhammad's companions. "
horses, birds, &c. a series or string of them following one another. A e ubayy, (for:" ubayr, din. of ~ ab) A little father.
J" abumn, Repentance.

ex" abun, (pl. of ~ ab) Fathers. PAbn, Elecampane,

A J. Abba', Name of a man, of a well in Madina, of a river
near Kufa, and of another in the marshes of Wasit.
ginger. A e- Dayr Abbun, Name of a monastery in Me
sopotamia. A " abyit, (pl. of s- bat) Verses, distichs.
A &;" abwinat, (pl. ofe); biwn or buwan) Tent-posts. rj' ab-yr, A waterer, a sprinkler. --'7 Irrigation.
P* abyari, A kind of thin linen cloth. A species of dove.
P l b-wand, A vessel in which water is kept. Pe abyn, Penitent.
A s Ubwa', Name of a place. See Abica above.
P J: abyn, Repentance. A &" ibyat, A stoppage of milk in the breast. Abiyat, A
A c" abawayni, (oblique dual) The parents. -
female refusing the male. Ubiyat, Pride, ostentation, great
# A &" abaha or abiha, (fut. s ya-bahu) He recollected.
p 2.7 abid, A spark of fire.
A "abah (from 4') Attention, recollection, remembrance.
A ' abid, Sempiternal, durable. ~" An evergreen.
r & abah, Clear, limpid, pure, sincere. Name of a village
in Media, now called Awa.
re'' abidad (or e), Tyranny, injustice.
A &" abahh, Hoarse. A se' Abidat, Name of a place in Arabia.
**) abir, A bucket. A spark. Tears. A shirt.
A ' abh, (pl. of 38 baht.) Projecting tents. Ibh, (iv of
3:) Demolishing a house or a tent. Rending a garment. Empty A ' ubayr, (dim. of 32' ibrat) A small needle. Name of a
mountain, of a well, and of a man.
ing a vessel. Keeping unemployed. A. Jr.' ubayrak, A vesture of coarse silk.
A abaht, (irreg. pl. of - ab) Parents, ancestors.
A. -\#" ibhj, (1v of z) Gladness. Verdure, luxuriance.
A** Ubayrah, (dim. of ~!" Ibrhm) A little Abraham.
rj ab7: G: or ;-) for j'), Sparks of fire. An urn.
A Jlibhl, (1v of U+) Irrigating a sown field. Giving one
Pe- abstan, To adorn, to embellish, to decorate.
liberty to do what he pleases. Blandishment, flattery.
A ** ibham, (1v of *#) Shutting the door. Leaving (any A L' abish (for e- abishan), A bridegroom's shirt.
thing) concealed and unknown. Being doubtful and uncertain. P .' abisham, The flue of raw silk; the silk-worm's cone.
Turning away from any design. Producing abundantly the plant A Liz" abyax, White. A sword (as being bright). Silver. A
man of unsullied character. Certain stars in the milky way.
J (the earth). Doubt, concealment, mystery. The thumb,
the great toe. (in gram.) The demons. pron. "As This, &c. Jir ' Milk. Jir' --> Sudden death. Ubayyiz, (dim, of
A " ubhat, or ubbahat, Magnificence, grandeur, glory. J" ibaz) A small rope for tying a camel's leg.
AA' abhar, The back. A vein in the back. The jugular A Jewis' ibyisaz, (1x of Jin) Being white. Whiteness.
A Jin" abyazni, Two days, or two months. Ji Milk
vein, the axillary vein, a great artery. The narrower edge of a
pen or feather. The back of a bow; also that curved part from and water; wheat and water; fat and young (the two whites).
the handle to the extremities or horns of a bow. Cultivated A \ abyit, (pl. of 8- bayi: ) Buyers and sellers.
ground, but not overflowed. Name of a city. P A mill. r c" abik, A brilliant colour. A depilatory drug.
AAr" ubaykar, (dim. of K, bakar) The morning.
A Je" abhal, The juniper, or the sabine tree and fruit.
r J" ubhul, The seed of the cypress. A Jr.' abil, Sad, melancholy. An austere Christian monk.
A c" abham, Dumb. Stammering, stuttering. The chief of those monks in the East. A thick batoon, a truncheon.
P Jeff Abihi, Name of a river, called also f Ahu. A &" abilat, A bundle of grass or hay.
A J' abha', More or most beautiful. A J- ubay y, An austere Christian monk, weeping over the

* Je'abhini, A man having a black lip. sins of the age.

rus' abi, Watery, aquatic. Blue. A quince. A kind of p J-7 Abin, Name of a village near Shirz, where mummies
grape. s' 20:2 A water-house or reservoir. A building in the are preserved.
The constellation Aquarius. s' 28 r A water-fowl, a A Jr.' abyan, More eloquent. More or most clear and evi
dent. Ibyan, A proper name.
\\ 1
5 c
Aulabyin, (pl. of c bayyin) Evident. Eloquent. A &t" itkat, Plucking out (hairs, feathers, &c.).
p*" abiv, (for abi) Blue-coloured. P &W) atlah, Pottage, gruel.
rl Abiward, Name of a city in Khursn. A cl atlk, A guardian, a tutor.
re" alyn, (ex) or ex'), Opium. A & U" it-amat, (1v of **) Bringing forth twins. Conjugal
re * abi yahmiya, A cramp, a spasm. intercourse.
PJ ipr, Thyme, sweet marjoram. A P Jl atn (or itn), A she-ass, wild or domestic. A A seat
ylapirah, Extended, level. Simple. at the mouth of a well where they drink. The seat of a camel's
*Alapidar, Here, behold! saddle, or the cushion in litters carried by camels on which tra
* Alipri, Soil, earth, mould. vellers recline. Je J A stone in the water, the upper part
p t aprndkh (or &lay), Goat's skin drest.
appearing above; a hard round stone placed near a well.
P-2 aparkhidah, Clear, pure, without alloy. A er atanin, (pl. ofe attan) Furnaces.
p *2 upurnk, (in anc. Pers.) A youth. Turks.
*}: aparwaz, Victorious, glorious. Name of a king. A
A s itwah (or cu"itwat), Tribute. Corruption, bribery,
a present to a judge with the view to gain a cause.
machine for the refining of sugar. A sieve. A guide. A atw, Futurity. A guest, a stranger, a foreigner, a
p J- upsan, (for e- afsn) A whetstone.

p * apshk, Dew.
traveller. (pl. of $39) itwat) Tributes.
A **) atwh, (pl. of 4.5 tih) Deserts,
f slipghadah, Wain, foolish, light-headed. A ~~) itb, A kind of short shift or inner garment, without
p sft apganah, (for &@ afgnah) An abortion.
p & apk, Making a noise by filling the mouth with wind,
sleeves, worn by women in Arabia. A kind of drawers.
P \ ath, An arrow.
and then striking it.
A -\litbb, (1v of tabba) Debilitating, enervating.
PU-2) apirush, A stadium, a race-ground.
p & ipayrak, Of the colour of lead. Name of an island. A t itbs, (iv of e-j) Carrying away a wounded man.
**) apz (or *::: apizah), An urn, a pitcher. A crooked A_\" attr, Ashes used for manure. Itbr, (iv. of ri) Be
ing cut or broken off; being interdicted, separated, prohibited.
billet with which they draw water.
* - at, The affix pronoun of the second person, as ~\\y A j ittibr, (v111 of 23) Being broken off, separated, in
Thy pride, c", &\s- Thy house. A J--" ittibas, (v111 of U-r) Being dried up.
A -latt, (from ~" atta) Overcoming in an argument, con
A t atbt, (pl. of 8-5 tabat) Followers, dependents, ser
vincing by proof, gaining a cause.
A it, (pl. of J ata') Things fallen into, and floating on wants. Itb8, (iv of 85) Following or causing to follow,join
ing one to another. (in gram.) When one word follows another
the water (as wood, leaves, &c.)
rl at (or ita), A father. without altering the sense; as ex- J-- hasan basan, Hand
AG ati, A blessing. Plenty. Butter. Ita, Any thing pro A ittibat, (v11.1 of **) Following, pursuing. Obedience.
duced by a tree, (as blossoms, fruit, &c.).
P &\ ---, J A command necessary to be obeyed.
A-i tb, (pl. of Jlitb) Short breeches, drawers.
r &latbak, (from Gatia father, and t bak a prince) A Jlitbl, (iv of Jj) Making weak, sick or insane (love):
The lord father (a title given by historians to kings or prime ruining, destroying (misfortune).
ministers). Jar".<\,\ The prime minister, or grand vizir, and A -- ittitb, (viii of ~\) Putting on drawers. See
metimes the king himself. A guardian, a preceptor, a teacher. ".
A z ittijaj, (v11.1 of z) aija) Being hot, being kindled.
At slatt, Pomp, grandeur. <!) c" Household stuff.
A 3-5) ithat, (1v of z) Determining. Being determined. A_\ ittijr, (v11.1 of AF) Trading, dealing. Commerce.
A J'atd, A rope with which they tie together the legs of A_\ ittijr, (v11.1 of >3) Administering medicine.
a cow, whilst milking. A sl ittijh, (v111 of 4-5) The entering of a thought into
p s it-dah, Tributary. Offering a bribe. the mind.

Ay it-rat, (iv ofj) Fixing the eye intently upon any A clittihd, (v111 of**2) Being single. Union, concord,
"ing. Striking with a stick. intimate friendship.
A j itrat, (iv of J) Reiterating, repeating.
A it-hf, (1v of -is) Giving. A present, a gift, a
**"iteat, (iv of F-5) Calling. Vomiting repeatedly. donation. -

AJ it-k, (Iv of J j) Filling a leathern bottle. A *** at-ham, Black.

*litkat, (iv of J) Bending a bow very much, drawing A ** at-hamzy (or ***- at-hamiyat), A kind of striped
the arrow to the head. cloth, manufactured at ** At-ham in Arabia Felix. -
C-3) 16 c
A c itkhkh, (1v of t takhkha) Leaving dough to be ittism, (v111 of -:) Placing a mark upon one's self
A --"
come sour. Kneading well. whereby one may be known.
A 3- ittikhz, (viii of 3-D Taking to one's self; assump P utast, Name of a plant (Boerhavia diffusa).
tion, choice, election. Preparing (food). Beginning. rj-" Atsiz (orj- Atsiz), Naine of a king of the Khoras
A ** itkhm, (1v of **) Producing an indigestion (food). mian dynasty.
A ls ittikham, (VIII of **) Being oppressed (the sto r J atish, (or according to Castellus L-7 atash), Fire.
mach). Indigestion. - Sulphur. Digestive heat. Rage. Desire, appetite, love. A
A & atkhimat, (pl. of *takhm) Boundaries, limits. courageous man. The devil. Light, lustre, beauty. Rank,
A. J ittidan, (v111 of J) Being steeped. Steeping. dignity, value. Dearness, scarcity. J27. J A sword of
A y itr, (iv of sy) Doing things in a train, with intermit good temper. Use". L The seven planets. J-Tu-7 A
ting intervals between each. thunderbolt. JJ' Sorrow, grief, desire, love, ~...~7
A. -j) atrb, (pl. of ~; tirb) Companions, equals, peers, Burnished gold. J J-7 A rose, a tulip. e. -> U-7 Wine.
cotemporaries. Itrb, (1v of ~;) Strewing with earth. The bustle of a market. Injustice, oppression." ele J.J."
A. cy atrh, (pl. of cy tarah) Troubles, cares, vexations.
Wine. Injustice, oppression. exe us, L! The sun. Rage,
Py) atrr, Barberries. fury. Wine. A ruby. &\j J.C.-7 Wine. A ruby, a cor
Ay" itrar, (iv of ; tarra) Cutting off, throwing away. e-y U*. The Persian fire. The disease called St.

Proscription, banishment. A child's game. Utrr, Name of a Anthony's fire. c-: U-7 To be hasty or unsteady. To op
town in Turkistan. press. 72 U-7 Wine. Tears of grief. A goblet of wine.
A J-7| atris, (pl. of U.P. turs) Shields, targets. **** L Obliterated, abandoned, burnt. F U-7 Liquid fire,
A Je; itrs, (iv of Je;) Confirming, establishing. Making (met.) Wine. The lip of a mistress. 22; Ll Soup for the
even, or straight. sick. 55- &; J-7 Wine. J-- J-7 (or el- Jl
A &P itrt, (iv of 8 F) Filling. Jrj) Red wine in a goblet of crystal or gold. j-e- Jl
A F. itrf, (iv of -5.) Bestowing the luxuries of life. Se A fire consuming the world. As-Ll Fire struck from a flint.
ducing, corrupting; rendering effeminate and dissolute (af ** U-7 The light of the sun. Love. Grief e-lev
fluence). To set on fire. To shoot. To provoke. To unsettle the mind.
A "A" atrak, (pl. of - turk) Turks. To abandon. Jse.J." A burning up of stubble, to fertilize
A "P" ittirak,(v11.1 of3) Leaving, abandoning, dismissing. the land. By U-7 Wine made from grapes. J-9.0-7
A & Fl atribat, (pl. of ~); turb) Grounds, earths, sands. Angelic bodies. 32) J-7 The sun. Jej U-7 See Je J
P ~, Utrut, Name of a certain king. J.U." Lustre, elegance, beauty. prj U-7 The sun. Us"
A z utruj, An orange. , Red wine. The lip of a mistress. --Li Name of a
A -y utruijat, One single orange. medicinal plant. LU-5' Fire struck from a stone by the hoof
A &P atrae, Wehement, intense. Filling, replenishing. of a horse. "ex-U-7 Love. Pensiveness, melancholy. J-7
A atraf, Having a protuberance on the upper lip. J- Red wine. j- --L The world-adorning sun.
A c utrunj, An orange. As J Wine. A pomegranate. * L (or --~~~~")
P -> atrub, A kind of disease which renders the skin loose The sun. t L | Moroseness, harshness. 39-3 vl Con
and flabby. gealed fire, i. e. gold. ey U-T A fire lighted by the cara
AJA) utrur, The servant of a praetor; a bailiff. Name of a vans at night, to direct those who have remained behind. U.J.'
bird. A youth arrived at puberty. s.As The fire of the stomach, i.e. hunger. J.--L-7 The
A ittizt, (v11.1 of {j}) Abstaining, refraining. fiery pillar which served as a guide to the Israelites. Lj
A ey) ittizn, (v111 of ej) Receiving money by weight. ex-. To appease anger, to quell a riot. J- J-7 The
Correctness of measure in a poem. beauty of the spring. &s, s -is U-T The seven planets.
A t- ittisakh, (v11.1 of) Being dirty; filthiness. J J" A sword with an Indian blade. 7, U-7 A sword.
A_\-Wittisr, (v111 of, ] Distributing by lot the limbs of a A goblet of wine.
slaughtered camel. Playing at dice, casting lots. P 35); U-57 tish-afrzah, A rocket.

A &\- ittisie, (v111 of 85) Completing the number nine. rj," L tish-afros, Kindling a flame. An eolipile.
Watering camels on the ninth day. -
P&j," J tish-afrzanah, Chips, shavings. A tinder
A &\- ittis, (viii of 3-2) Being ample, extended, dif box.
fused. Being comprehended, or contained.
A J-Wittishk, (v111 of c-p) Drying oblong slips of meat.
A J-Wittisk, (v11.1 of G-2) Being joined, connected, ar pj"J" U-7 tish-andz, Casting out fire.
ranged. Being convened, assembled. Being complete. - r2: U-7 tish-angez, Kindling fire. Fuel. An incendiary.
c 17
Jv' tish-br, Raining fire, flaming, fiery. A fire-lock, * P -*U-T tish-mujassim, A sword of a good temper.
a tinder-box. J-7 & A flaming sword. P gv | itish-mizj, Fiery-tempered, choleric.
rjv tish-bs, Playing with fire. A maker of fire P t tishnak, Fiery, hot.
works. An engineer. Lightning, PJ L tish-nisr, Weeping, sorrowful.
p * U-7 tish-bz, Fire-works, a bonfire, a feu-de-joie. P J-f tish-nihl, A fire of faggots.

re J atish-ban, A devil, a demon. P er se','' tishwdi ayman, Divine glory.

re, J tish-barg, A tinder-box. P f A.R. |-7 atishw-hindi, An Indian sword.

rvv itish-bs, The fire displayed to Moses on mount p J-7 tish?, Belonging to fire, burning hot, fired with rage,
Sinai, Wine. irascible, choleric.
- ry, J tish-prah, A spark of fire, a lighted coal, a P J- atish?, A porcupine.
match. A candle. The moon. A glow-worm. Litigious. P J-f atishiyan, Eloquent. Demons, infidels.
** J tish-pity, Restless; a mettlesome horse. P *}<-I atishjah, A glow-worm,
* --> U-7 tish-parast, A fire-worshipper, a Guebre. P cl tishin (or c-c & 5) atishah mansilb), Fiery.
"Jj U-7 tish-partcar, A shining sword. P & cl tishin-panjah, Skilful, expert, adroit.
J tish-paykar, The sun. A spirit, a demon. * Jr. e-T tishin-pil, (c- e--" tishin-daw) The sun.
r U-7 tish-tb (or &G Jff atish-tabah), A furnace, P <!-e--atishin-dawj, The sun. A ruddiness in the sky.
P J e--" tishin-zabn, Speaking with fluency.
astove, a grate. One who superintends a furnace.
r; J tish-tw (or ; U-7 tish-t), Warmth, heat. A r - ex-atishin-sada (or -- ex-T itishin salib),
furnace, The sun.
r &S e--" atishin-kasah, The sun.
A 2-latshah, Impetuous; an enthusiast.
P J- e--" atishin-libas, Clothed in scarlet.
r;&v tish-khtir, A man in love. One of a quick un -

derstanding, or of an enlightened mind. r_j\s e--" tishin-mr, A heart-burning sigh. A flame. A

* &ls. J tish-khnah, A fire-temple. A park of artillery. rocket.

'-v tish-khr ():-J", or -J"). An A -\ai'ittisii, (v111 of - i.e.) Being described. Describing.
eater of unlawful food. A receiver of bribes. A phoenix, a Description, qualification; as 3'5' Jes- Endowed with sin
salamander. A tyrant. -
cerity : s c-ex- Fossessed of happiness, glorious, august.
p {- J itish-dgh, A burn, a scar. A J ittisal, (v11.1 of J-2) Arrival. Conjunction, contiguity.

p J- tish-dn, A hearth, a fire-place, a chafing dish A. c ittizah, (v11.1 of) Being clear, evident, manifest.
*}) L tish-rz, Pouring out fire; an incendiary. A s ittize, (v111 of 832) Pressing down a camel's neck
"J J atish-zabn, Floquent, rhetorical. in order to mount on his back. Humiliation, abasement, mean
* J; U-7 tish-zadagi, A fire, a conflagration, arson. ness, abjectness.
p &; J itish-sanah, (or e) J tish-zan), Tinder, touch A e.Va.) ittitn, (v11.1 of J) Fixing one's residence any where.

wood, any thing combustible. A fire-steel, a tinder-box. A ittab, (1v of C-x) Wearying, fatiguing, exhaust
"J-7 tishistn, The region of fire, hence applied to a ing. Filling a vase. Becoming dislocated after having been set
hot fire of cannon or small arms in battle. A funeral pile. (a bone). Having jaded cattle. --\xi}\ --> Jr. A disease
p e-J' tish-sakhun, A reviler, a rebuker, a usurper.
producing lassitude.
JJ' atish fishin, Scattering fire; a volcano. 295) ittied, (v111 of x=2) Receiving, or being gratified by,
A x"
J J A fiery dragon. a promise. Promising, or rather threatening, mutually.
*Jas J tish-fiel, A fleet or mettlesome horse. A. C-) ittas, (1v of Jss) Destroying any one (God).
*Ji tishak, A small fire. Lightning. A glow worm. A \xi\ ittiiz, (v111 of aes) Being admonished; improving
The venereal disease. from advice or correction.
*}< tish-kr, Angry, hasty, tyrannical. A fire-place, a A cl itghab, (1v of -*) Ruining, destroying.
kitchen. A blacksmith. A J ittifak, (v11.1 of G32) Agreeing, consenting; concord,

tish-kaw, A poker. consent, harmony 3. league, conspiracy. Happening, coming to

r sft tish-gh, A temple of the Magi or worshippers of pass; chance, accident. P &_- J Unexpected good for
fire in Persia. A furnace, a grate, a chimney. tune; agreeable accidents.
ft itish-gadah, A fire-temple. sft The sign A \,\;\ittifakan, Unanimously, in concert, with one accord.
By chance, perhaps, accidentally. Successfully.
r tish-girah, A fire-shovel. Fuel.
**\ittifakt, (pl. of Gittiak) Accidents. Successes.
'vv itish-libs, clothed in scarlet. A. J) ittifaki, Casual, fortuitous. Consenting, agreeing
D -
~) 18 J

A J" ital, (1v of J) Rendering inodorous. AJ itmi-rar, (1v ofj Q) Length. Firmness.
A \littik, (v111 of 32) Being timid; heed, caution. Fear *A c" atana, (fut. e'. Ja-tinu) He walked slowly.
A ey atan, (from J') Standing, stopping, tarrying. Atun,
ing God; piety.
A Jlitkn, (iv of Jij) Doing anything properly. utn, or utun, (pl. of ej' atn) She-asses. Utun, (pl. of ey
A Jlittikn, (v111 ofe) Knowing with certainty. Search. atun) Furnaces.
A \l atkiy, (pl. of J.; takiy) Religious men, fearing God. A U--t atnmis, Wild camomile.
r & Atak, Name of a town situated on the Indus. AJ atnn, Contraction of step, shortening of pace. Itnn,
A "G" itka, (1v of "G) Making one recline, throwing down. (1v of 25 tanna) Being distant. Weakening a boy, and prevent
A "&" ittikaa, (v11.1 of 3) Leaning against; reclining upon ing his growth (disease).
one side. A ;) atw, (from *") Coming, coming suddenly, surprizing.
A Jlittikl, (v111 of J) Trusting, confiding. Reliance. Producing, bringing forth copiously, shooting forth buds, pro
A JT tal, Full, replete. ducing fruit, bringing forth young. Giving liberally with a view
A Jl atl, (from J") Walking slowly, softly, with short steps. to a return, bribing a judge or great man to obtain any thing
Itil, Name of the river now called the Volga; also of a town. contrary to justice; watering ground plentifully, in order to
A \,\ atla, (pl. of ; tilic) Following one another; the young have a large crop. A gift. Tribute. Any mode of living or
of an animal following the mother. It!a, (1v of 33) Ordering acting in order to attain an object. Butter forming by the agi
or causing to follow. Giving. Proceeding, going or running tation or churning of milk. Velocity, celerity. Adversity, sor
before, outstripping. Having a colt following (a camel). En row, an inveterate distemper, calamity, death. The right way,
trusting something to another. Leaving part of a debt unpaid. a straight path. Anything erect, upright in walking. A liberal
Sending to demand payment. man, a man of noble appearance. P e To plait linen.
A z ittilaj, (v111 of &)Entering. Causing to enter, in A \,\ itic, (1v of 55) Destroying, wasting.
A J';" atwk, (pl. of U; tack) Desires, passions.

serting. A e';" atican, Avaricious, greedy.

A c" atlad, Riches, hereditary wealth, slaves or cattle
A utb, (pl. of -" itb) Short breeches or drawers.
brought forth in the family, and descending by way of heritage.
Ittid, (iv of M3) Possessing such wealth. A 3; atcat, (from ; ") Arrival.
P<>;" att, Roughness, sharpness, pungency.
A &" itlat, (iv of 85) Stretching the neck to see or hear. Pe aturban, A monk. A devotee.
A -) itl, (iv of 3) Consumption, ruin, destruction. P *;" Atiashah, Name of king Shpr's aunt.
A c atlam, (pl. of f talam) Furrows made in the ground A atum, Broken, ripped open, two holes being burst into
for sowing, draining, or making boundaries. one; ethinc metaphorice, foemina cujus uterque naturae meatus
A slitlh, (iv of al.) Destroying, ruining. Making one mad
in unum evasit, ex frequentiore congressu.
with vexation, stupifying, putting in a phrenzy. re;" atun, A school-mistress. The membrane which en
A 3.5" atillat, (pl. of Js tail) Necks. closes the foetus.
A t atlat, Having a long neck. A ey atun, An oven, a furnace. A place where any thing is
A -s) itli-bb, (1v of q) Being well directed and generated or formed. The fire burning in the furnace. Utn,
conducted (business). Being extended and level (a road). (from ej) Residence, stay.
Stretching forth the neck (an ass). A <2\;" atunat, (pl. of &;" atunat) Furnaces.
*A - atama, or atima, (fut. ** 3ya-tamu) He unstitched. A *;" utli, Hard-breathing, occasioned by fatigue or other
A atm, (from *") Tearing, ripping up. Delaying. ' similar cause.
Al atm, Name of a walley. Atam, Delay, slowness, sloth, slug A c" ittihb, (v111 of ) Accepting a gift.
gishness, laziness, indolence. Utum, The wild olive. A it-hm, (1v of **) Travelling to Tihmah. Coming
A atamm, More or most perfect or complete.
into a sultry region. Discovering a country to be unhealthy.
A itmm, (1v of * tamma) Completing, bringing to per
Conjecturing, guessing. Suspecting, doubting.
fection. Granting any one his desire (God). Furmishing with A ittiham, (v111 of **) Suspecting something bad. -

a hoe or a mattock. Arriving at the summit of one's wishes. A J at?, (part.) Coming. Subsequent, future. e
Being near her confinement (a woman). Being come to the full About to be explained. -
(the moon). Attaining to its full growth (a plant). P .**) :: A J ata, (fut. J ya-t?) He came.

J c. ** To conclude any business. A J aty (from J.') Coming, arriving. Coming unawares,
A 3-l Al atamat, Name of a fertile valley near Madina. surprizing. Bringing, leading. Abolishing, destroying. Giv
r &itmid, A coulter, a plow-share. A yoke. ing, presenting; requiting, repaying. Punishing. Coming to:
(5) - 19 - &
gether, copulating. Doing, effecting, Being, existence. Ata', A 3,9] asrat, The commemoration of traditions, sayings, or
Any thing flowing on the water, as leaves, &c. Atiy, Foreign, actions of any one, particularly of Muhammad. The remains
outlandish, unlooked-for. An unexpected overflow of water. of any thing. *** 3)" J- Upon the traces of any thing; as
Water brought into a field, particularly from another's ground. if something already existing were followed by its like (as when
A-liti-il, (viii of -l) Coming to a watering-place. anger is excited in the mind of an angry man, or when an ac
A clitti-d, (viii of 2%) Proceeding gently in any business. cession of fat is made to any thing already fat). Israt, Want
Av-l alyis, (pl. of Li tays) He-goats. or scarcity of provisions, adversity.
AJ-l itti-s, (viii of v) Despondency, despair. A 3,9] israt, (Iv of y) Raising dust, forcing it into a more

A*- ittiym, (VIII of **) Slaying a sheep or camel which impetuous motion; ploughing. Exciting sedition, raising a mob.
had been kept for milking. A j asy, (pl. of & isfiyat) Trivets. &\} The
A J ityan orityanat, Arrival, accession, meeting, coition. third trivet; the projecting part of a mountain, which together
A sl' atyh, (pl. of 4.5 tih) Deserts. with two stones is employed by the Badawin Arabs to support
A i aliyat, (part, fem) Coming, future. Futurity. 3.57 a kettle. ) &l x~ Overtaken by a very great mis
t The pus or matter of a sore. A Jli askil, A woman bringing forth an abortion. Harden
A $4.5 Utaydat, Name of a place.
P J tishn, Spirits, demons. ing the hands (labour).
A JT sl, (pl. of J asl) Tamarisk trees.
Alulayshat, A knave, a low fellow (a term of abuse). A J) asl, Glory, nobility. (from J) Pursuing glory, be
re-" itin, Manifest, disclosed. Collected together.
ing ennobled. Usal, Surname of one of Muhammad's com
A ' atyah, Wandering about in astonishment. Proud, ar
panions. Name of several places in Arabia.
rogant, haughty.
A JU' asilat (from J), Being deeply rooted. Firmness.
* < assa, (fut. ~}. ya-ussu.) The grass grew luxuriantly. Nobility.
Al-' ass (or cl att), Being perplexed by arguments, con A *T sm, (pl. of lism) Crimes, sins.
vinced by proofs. A 2.5 asm, or ism, A mulct, a fine, a punishment for crimes.
A isi, Stones. A criminal. Asm, Name of an infernal river, the Styx.
A 'lisia, (iv of **) Unstitching a leathern bottle. Wound A 25) assm, A criminal.
ing and killing. ..f. J- assami, (or e-) A defendant in a law-suit.
A $." is-at, (iv of ) Darting, shooting an arrow. A. J Asn, Name of one of Muhammad's companions.
A-asib, Name of a tree. A c as an in, (pl. of J isnn), Mondays.
A -) isbat, (iv of~x) Rewarding. Recovering health. A s iswat (or ; ) is wy, (from ;) Carrying or citing be
A s asby, (pl. of 3.5 subat) Bodies, troops of men, &c.
fore a judge; informing against, calumniating, whispering.
Middles of fish-ponds or cisterns. A &\,\\ as awilat, Tedious old men.
A ci ss, (pl. of ~3 asis) Luxuriant, corpulent, fleshy.
A &\\ isyat, Citing before a judge, whispering. Name of
A casis, Household furniture, baggage. Wealth of any a well between Mecca and Madna.
kind in money, land, slaves, household furniture, &c. Iss or A - asiyis, (pl. of ~~" asis) Plump, jolly, handsome.
isisal, (from assa) Growing luxuriantly (herbage); being A " asab, Name of a tree.

thick, entangled, involved (shrubs, hair, &c.). Having large A col asbt, (pl. of ~3 sabt) Firm, steady. Isbt, (iv
plump hips and thighs (a woman). of G-j) Confirming, corroborating; affirmation, proof. Know
A assat, Any one particular species of wealth. Ussat,
ing for a certainty. Hanging about one continually (a disease).
A man's name.
Inflicting a grievous wound.
A J assy, Abounding in wealth. A}\ asbt, (pl. of a sabit) Fools, oafs, sluggards.
A A sr, (pl. of asr) Impressions, signs, vestiges, Tra A 3.5" Al asabat, Name of a country in Arabia abounding in
* annals of memorable sayings or events. _\\ The palm trees.
traditions of Muhammad. J) ;S Name of Aswad, a satirical A asbaj, Having the middle of the back prominent.
Poet &;- A Chronicles. &* j Sublime impressions, i.e. A : Asbirat, Name of a town in Arabia.
meteors, Aff }: js- Wonderful narrations. Several books A & asbiyat, (pl. of 3.5 subat) Middles of cisterns.
relative to traditions, history, geography, the planets, &c. bear A s-r Isbit, Name of a mountain in Arabia.
the name ofA -
A \ isj, (iv of J) Putting to silence. Throwing furni
Aj isr, (pl. ofj sa-ar) Retaliations. ture into confusion.
A Q-9 Asrab, Name of a place in Syria. A isjan, (1v of **) Raining heavily.
D 2
_3) 20 U3)
AAA' asjar, Thick, broad. nificent work, any thing that procures reputation, worthy of re
A Jas" asjal, A man with a large belly, and fat under the membrance. Hereditary honour, virtue. Frequentia congressus
short ribs. A spacious wallet. The widest part of a valley. cameh cum camela. 2." ** 5; In the first place. Asarat,
e- <! He addressed him in abusive language. Paramount authority.
A s as-h; (pl. of -i-. siha) Certain parts of the in A asram, One whose teeth are falling out. (in pros.)
testines of cattle. Cutting off a foot. J a! as ramni, (Night and day), as
A els" is khn, (1v of c) Enfeebling (as a wound). In interrupting each other.
A asra, (from 25) Wealthy (man). Wet, moist.
flicting wounds. Slaying with great carnage. Conquering.
A -A asariy, One who relates traditions, particularly those
A J issikhn, (v111 of e) Being copious.
A s asdi, (pl. of s sady) The breasts, either of a man of Muhammad.
or wornan. A 2'-' astt, (pl. of a satt) Men with thin beards.
A i asar, More impressive. A J issal, (1v of J*) Being very numerous (guests).
Ayl asir, (part.) Joining. Relating, recording. Marking a Being extensive and intricate (business). Opposing, resisting.
A e- as tabn, (pl. of ~~~ saab) Flowing, gliding. Chan
camel in the foot. Exciting. Electing, choosing. Honouring.
Polishing a sword. Excelling. Commencing. Proposing to nels through which water runs. Ustabn, A large, fair, and
undertake any work. handsome face. Crowding together.
*AA asara, (fut ya-suru) He made to follow. A J astal, One whose teeth grow out from the side of the
AA asr, (from , ") Joining
g, causing to follow. Relating, guin. A corpulent man, a man of distinction.
alleging, handing down by tradition. Excellence, preeminence, A_\ issinjar, (111 of, s
Q) Fluency, diffusiveness.
transcendency. Commencement, exordium. Isr, A vestige, A ~~ as tub, (pl. of saab) Flowing. Fluids. Canals.
the hinder part. After, subsequent to. Fresh, the best part A - asghab, (pl. of saghb) Springs or reservoirs of
of butter. 2 }: e==} Not the least shadow or trace. *; J water in vallies or groves never visited by the rays of the sun.
At his heels. Immediately after. Usr, The scar of a healed Aj isghr, (1v of A) Losing the front teeth. Cutting
wound, a sign. A vestige. The undulated or shining surface of one's teeth. Striking on the mouth.
water, or of a bright sword; gracefulness or comeliness of coun Aj issighar, (v1.1 of ) Cutting its teeth (a child). Shoot
tenance. Asar, A mark, a sign, an impression, a vestige. A ing forth (the teeth).
history, a memorial, a relation, a tradition; a collection of tra A V asghima, (pl. of saghn) Mountain-plants of the
ditions relative to the actions and sayings of Muhammad, the wormwood species.
Sunna, or unwritten law, with regard to which the Muham A i asi, (part.) Following; a sectary, a follower.
madans are divided into two great sects, one called Sunnites, ** as afa, (fut. s ya-sifu) He followed.
who believe in these traditions, the other the Shiites, or fol A asi, Firm, constant.
lowers of Ay, who reject them.The Turks are of the first Aj asr, (pl. of , ; safar) Cruppers of horses or other
sect, the Persians of the latter. A good work, a pious monu beasts of burthen. Isfar, (1v of , ) Putting on a crupper.
ment, any thing memorable or illustrious. e."; The history Striking on the backside. Bringing forth (a goat).
of countries. r; A-ty- Resplendent, bright like the sun. A e isan, (1v of ej) Hardening the hands (labour).

A e--" Worthy of approbation. A ~, a K-- An army A &" isfiyat, or usfiyat, A trivet. A multitude of men.
celebrated for victory, a victorious army. J Informed, con A cl is kb, (1v of ~) Kindling. Making bright and
scious, acquainted with, intelligent. j}} A historian, a writer. glittering.
A J askl, (pl. of J sikl) Burdens, loads, incumbrances,
**".ey. A The sacred writers. Asur, Excellent. Stu
dious of excelling. Pure, sweet butter. Isar, A vestige, a impediments, baggage, equipage, train, suite. J J The
trace. Good news. Usur, The scar of a wound; a mark treasures of the earth. Men buried in it. Faults. Iskal; (IV of
made upon the soles of the feet of camels by the impression of J) Bearing heavily (a load). Overcoming (as sleep). Put
which upon the ground they can be traced when straying in ting in pain (as disease or guilt). Oppressing, afflicting. Being
the deserts. pregnant (a woman).
A e;" isrd, (1v ofe;) Crumbling into small particles. A J askal, More or most heavy.
PL}" asrr, Barberries. A J iskl (for C- iskl). A branch of a palm, bearing
A 22 isram, (1v of ft) Causing the teeth to fall out.
unripe dates. Iskl, (iv of JG) Bereaving a woman of her
A 3;" asrat, Whatever remains of any science. Any doctrine children. Being bereft of her children (a mother).
raceived from one's ancestors. Any thing remaining which has e askun, A palm-branch; the stalk of a bunch of dates.

been handed down by tradition. Usrat, A great, noble, mag *A J asala, (fut. J ya-silu) It was well rooted.

c) 21 &
.A J asl, A tamarisk shrub. J cl. Name of a place re A y-e Uj isn tashara, (mas.) Twelve.
markable for a battle between the tribes of ~) us. and re-J. A & Usnat. A man's name.
A.J. asall, Rich in sheep and wool. AJ is natani, (fem.) Two.
A -- aslb, (pl. of silb) Worn-out camels. Old men. A&A =\s Isnay tashariyat, Name of a sect of Muham
Aclasalt, (pl. of il aslat) Large prickly tamarisks. madans who follow the twelve Imms.
A cl isls, (iv of e-j) Becoming three in number. A *" asniyah, (pl. of U.5 san) Praises, encomiums, prayers.
A g islaj, (1v of *) Snowing. Being snowy (the day). A ; is ic, (from 3') Information, impeachment. Slander.
A \,: iswa, (1v of **) Continuing in any abode. Causing to
Being overtaken by the snow. Rendering joyful. (for g ilaj)
Victory, good fortune. tarry, detaining. Receiving hospitably.
A "; aswab, (pl. of --> sawb) Robes, vestments.
A J isll; (iv of J salla) Causing to be restored. Abound
ing in a species of wool called &l. sallat. A_\; as war, (pl. of 23; sawr) Bulls. Large pieces of sour
...A islab or as lab, Earth or stones, or small fragments of curd, quite dry.
A --> asiab, (pl. of --> sawb) Garments, &c. (implying a
either. Islab, A camel losing his teeth and the hair of his tail
through old age. small quantity).
A&E aslat, A root, stock, origin. Esteem, honour, glory, A_j, usur, (pl. of asr or asar) Vestiges. The dazzling
dignity. A fund, substance. Chance. The tamarisk species. refulgencies of a bright sword when flourished in the sun.
A J; asical, Foolish, insane, lazy, slow. Affected by a
Name of a place near Madina, and of a village near Baghdd.
AJ. aslak, Seed of the agnus castus. torpor or vertigo, a disease peculiar to sheep, goats, &c. Usul,
A *: aslam, Broken in the edge (as a sword, &c.), pierced, (from J") Firmness, constancy. Nobility. (pl. of Ji) asl)
Tamarisk trees.
broken, or cracked (a wall, &c.).
A." isin, (part.) Sinning; a culprit. Slow. Fatigued. A asim, A sinner. See ' below.

* asima, (fut ya-samu) He was a sinner.
A e; assin (or ey attun), A furnace.
A asim, (for asim) A sinner. J asa', (fut. J ya-s?) He falsely accused.

A ism, (from C) A sin, a crime, an offence; any thing AJ aszy, An informer, a slanderer, a whisperer.
forbidden, as wine, dice, &c. A_\ issi-ar, (v11.1 of j) Taking revenge.
As issinid, (viii of x.) Going to drink at Aaj samad. A t asis, Luxuriant, involved, intangled, (shrubs, hair,
Aj asmr, (pl. of a samr) Fruits. Ismar, (Iv of A$) &c.). Large, big. Fleshy, full of flesh and blood, having large
Bearing fruit. Growing rich. Multiplying, increasing. hips or thighs (women).
A J isml, (iv of J) Causing any thing to settle at the r2: asir, Tears of grief. A ball of fire; the sun.
bottom of a cistern. Being very frothy (milk). Al asir, Signing. Marking the ground with large prints
Ae asmn, (pl. of er saman) Prices. (pl. of J St of the foot (an ox, a horse, or a camel). Impressed, stamped.
mun) Eighths. Ismn, (1v of e) Completing the number Excellent, chosen, selected. An intimate friend. Name of a
man. (Ale.) The sky, the aether. Ajs Name of a moun
eight. Watering camels on the eighth day. Paying a just
price. tain. Usayr, (dim. of," asar) A little sign.
A 3.7 simat, (fem. of .57 sim) Slow-paced. Fatigued. A 5: asirat, A beast of burthen, whose foot makes a deep
** samut, (pl. of asim) Wicked men, sinners. Ps.i.6. impression in the ground. 2. * 5" At first, in the first place;
above all things.
** Asmad, Name of a place. Ismid, (or usmud) A stone P3:) asj, Southern wood (a plant). A spark of fire.
from which antimony is prepared.
A s asman, More or most dear, valuable, precious, A Usulfiyt, Name of a place. Little hills.
A s usun, (for wusun) Statues, figures, idols. A & Usaufiyat, Name of a town in Arabia.
Au'asni, The middle, interval, interstice. (pl. of J sing) A J asyal, A camel with a large sheath. Asil, Radical,
Plaits, foldings. (pl. of J saniy) Shedding the first teeth. firm. Of a noble or illustrious race. Name of a place. Usay,
(pl. of J isnn) The second days, Mondays. Whilst, during, Name of a valley near Madna, fruitful in dates.
in the mean time. psy sJe In the middle of the road, whilst A t asim, A sinner, a criminal. A liar. Wicked, rascally,
travelling. A Isn, (iv of J) Losing the front teeth. Rising heaping crime upon crime.
six years old (a camel). Becoming second; being added (a A& asimat, Flagitious, sinning repeatedly. Frequency in
sinning. -

*"). Praising, panegyrizing. Disparaging, defaming A s asin, (for J") Radical, firm. Illustrious of descent.
*Jinini, Two. Je: In two parts. J J
Two and two. J x. Monday. P t" j, Desire, avidity.
P <! aj, A little, a small quantity. The tamarisk. A gourd, A c- ijzat, (1v of 8 :-) Starving one to death.
a pumpkin. Uj, A wager, a stake. A 3-liftifat, (1v of 3,2-) Shutting the door. Penetrating
>k A g aija, (fut. z: ya-uiju) (The fire) burned vehemently. into the heart of anything. Being hollow.
A g ajj (from z aija), Running, hastening one's pace, run r cu-T jk (or J-T ajal), Earth, dust.
ning as the ostrich, partly running, partly flying. Instigating. A Ju-Tjl, (pl. of J-) aftal) Fates, fixed periods, deaths.
*A*- aja-a, (fut. *gaja-u) He absconded. Causes. (pl. of J-1 il) Herds of wild oxen.
Al- Aj, Name of a mountain in Arabia, and of a town in A J-Wijlat, (1v of J;-) Causing to turn round. Rounding.
Egypt: when doubled, aja aja, it is used by shepherds in cal A N-) aftalid, (pl. of Al-Wajlad) Hard, solid places.
ling to their sheep. A s-) affilid, (pl. of el-Wajld) Hard (places).
A c--Vij-at, (iv of A-) Bringing. Compelling. Pro A --T ajam, (pl. of c- ujum) A kind of quadrangular
tecting. - structures on the tops of houses. Fortifications, castles. Thickets.
A --- ifbat, (1v of --5-) Answering, consenting, ad A c- ijn, (pl. of 3-) afamat) Forests, lion's haunts or
mitting, complying with, humouring. Listening to. dens, the retreats of any animals. Reed-beds, cane-planta
A z- ij, (pl. of 3-\aijat) Heats. Ujj, Brackish water. tions. Ditches, marshes. Frogs.
A --~~ ajanib, (pl. of ~~) ajnabiy) Foreigners, strangers.
A g- ajjaj, Burning, scorching. The sun.
A 3,-\- ajajirat (or J-U- ajajir), (pl. of J-1 ijjr) A --~~-liijnat, A stone bottle, a phial, a cup, a pitcher, a
Platforms on the tops of houses, for the benefit of the air. water-pot, a washing vat or tub.
A c- ajanin, Plural of the above.
A c- ajh, ih, or ujah, A veil, a covering. Water at
A ex- aja wid, (pl. of <!-jawd) Liberal, munificent.
the bottom of a cistern. Ujah, Thirst.
A 3--" ihat, (1v of c;-) Ruining, destroying. A J-J Alajicil, Name of a place in Arabia.
A ***) ajwid, (pl. of e;-- jawd) Fleet, generous horses.
A c-" id, Anything resembling a small narrow arch.
A --- ajabb, (A camel) without a bunch on his back.
A sel-lijdat, (1v of ex-) Saying or doing any thing good.
Possessing a generous horse. Paying money. Being irrigated A \,- ijb, (1v of 3-) Selling standing corn before it is ripe.
copiously (a field). Feeling affectionately disposed towards A s-Vijba, (iv of var) Producing mushrooms in great
another. Appealing to one's liberality. abundance (the earth). Hanging over, projecting. Selling
A Je-) affadil, (pl. of J-Wajdal) Hawks of a particular standing corn before it is come to maturity. Quenching fire.
species. Collecting, assembling.
Aja-T jr, (pl. of ,-) air) Prices, rents, hires. A Q-2-) Al ajbb, Name of a place in Arabia.
A 2- ijar (or j injr), A platform on the house-top, Aj- ijbar, (1v of 2-) Compulsion, constraint. Opposi
very common in the East for the benefit of air. tion. Considering as sound or integral.
A Q-22A- Ajrib, Name of a place in Arabia. A J-Wajbl (or J-Wajbul), (pl. of J.-jabal) Moun
A SA-) irat, (1v of 23-) Protecting, delivering. tains. Ijbal, (1v of J.-) Digging until hard ground appears.
A ej- Ajarid, Name of a place. Going towards a mountain.
A j- ijarah (from P-\), Price, hire, rent, profit, emolu Ae-" i bn, (1v of c-) Discovering one to be a coward.
ment; a privilege, or income of variable amount, sold or let for Coagulating (milk).
a fixed sum. P e sy- To let to a tenant. A3-) ajbia, (pl. of , r jab-a) Rising grounds of a red
Pyle 9-) ijarah-dr,A farmer of land or of revenue. A dish dusky colour. -

lease-holder. A monopolist. A 4-Wajbah, Having a large front or face. A furious lion.

r c- ijzat, (1v of 35-) Giving leave; a permission, a A 3-1 aijat, Fervour, warmth, inflammation, heat. A con
dispensation; sanction, approval; discharge, dismissal. Leav fusion, a tumult. 3-) G *::) The people (are) in a tumult.
mg behind. Causing to pass by, sending, dispatching. Spending A \-" itib, (v111 of J-) Choice, election, selection.
one's time. Paring, clipping. Giving to drink. Letting down. A_\--" ijtibar, (v11.1 of ,-) Setting. Consolidation of a
Conferring a favour. Terminating the hemistich of another's fractured limb. Repairing the broken fortune of a friend.
poem. Finishing the verses of a poem with the letters 9 and 3 A c--Vijtiss, (v111 of e-jassa) Cutting, plucking up,
alternately. P *}- c- Asking permission. Je -j-) extirpating.
To give leave. J- To take leave. A\si-Vijtih, (v111 of 3-r) Extirpating, eradicating.
P J--" is, (U2'-' iijs or Je injas) A species of A_\si-Vijtihr, (v111 of, sr) Making a burrow, or a den.
Damasc plum, a prune. A friend, an intimate, a familiar. A ;'<-Vijtihf, (v111 of -isr) Pillaging, plundering:
A Lw- ujsh, A mixed crowd. Taking up hasty pudding with three fingers.
A x-Wijtidas, (v111 of x-) Preparing a tomb.
a cl- ijtidih (viii of ca-) Mixing up a ptisan. c- iftiyh, (viii of c-) Ruining, destroying.

AJ&-Vijtizz, (viii of 3-jazza) Being cut or broken off. Aj-lijtiyz, (v111 of 59-) Passing by. Giving to drink.
AJ&a- ijtizl, (v11.1 of J3-) Cheerfulness, mirth. AJ--- ijtiys, (v11.1 of U-5-) Searching, scrutinizing.
A 2-liftiru, (viii of 32-) Boldness, intrepidity, enter Patroling in the night. -

prise, endeavour, attempt.

A c- ijtirah, (v11.1 of cr) Purchasing, acquiring. Re- l
A S-liftiy, (v111 of -5,-) Penetrating into any thing
hollow, creeping into the middle of any thing. Sprouting
ceiving a wound. A J-1 itiyl, (v111 of J;-) Electing, choosing. Cir
AJP-lijtirr, (viii of 2-jarra) Drawing. Ruminating. cumambulating.
A 2- ijtiram, (VIII of **) Committing a crime. Cut A t- ajsaa, Hunch-backed, having a prominent back.

ting off clusters of dates. A -- iss, (iv of t-a-jassa) Eradicating, extirpating.

A- ijtiz, (viii of j-) Requesting, demanding. Mak A JU-- isi-ll, (1v of J- Q) Plucking out its feathers (a
ing acceptable or agreeable. Adhering, persevering. bird). Rushing forth in great anger with intent to kill. Be
A j- ijtiza, (v11.1 of 2-) Being satisfied. Contentment. ginning to shoot (grass).
Aj- ijtizz, (v11.1 off-jazza) Reaping. Shearing sheep. A elsl ihad, (1v of Asr) Being of little value.
A {j- ijtizat, (v111 of & P-) Cutting, lopping, severing.
A_\sr ajhr, (pl. of, s juhr) The dens, holes, or retreats
A J--> ijtisas, (v11.1 of U-jassa) Touching, feeling.
of any animals.
AA-lijtisha, (viii of ") Disagreeing with any one A 3 slijh; (iv of -isr) Carrying away. Attacking, op
(a climate). pressing. Thronging, crowding. Moving towards. Being near.
Ak-lijtis, (viii of A- jazza) Swelling (a carcase). Beginning to rain. cols" iht, Oppressions, afflictions.
A J- ijtitl (v111 of Ja-) Placing. Doing. Consti A els- i;hm, (1v of ***) Forbearing, drawing back.
tuting, nominating, appointing. Beginning, setting to work. A s ajham, One who has large red eyes.
A k-) itifia, (v111 of ur) Plucking up, throwing away. A r ajkha', Lean, meagre, extenuated in the thighs.
Ak-"ijtil, (viii of J-) Beholding with delight a bride A 3-)ijd, A prohibitory word used to camels. Ujud, Robust
unveiled and elegantly attired. Unbinding a turban from off or compact of body; strong or firm in the back-bone and bunch,
one's head. Nominating any one to an appointment. (applied to the she-camel).
Ak-litild, (viii of Ma-) Duelling. Striking one an A 2-1 afadd, (A man) with small breasts.
other with whips. Drinking the entire contents of a cup. A "*-" id, (1v of ***) Giving liberally, accommodating,
A J-Wijtilal, (viii of J-jalla) Collecting camel's dung assisting. Bleeding profusely (a wound). Receiving a gift.
for fuel. A 'A-lijdb, (iv of ~~~~) Suffering distress from dearth.
A tw- iftim, (viii of 8-1-) Assembling, flocking to Yielding no increase (the earth). Giving no rain (the clouds).
gether. Being of the same opinion. Arriving at manhood. A c--' ids, (pl. of ~~~-jadas) Tombs.
A concourse, a congress. A heap. Unanimity. Conjunction. A Q-a-Vajdd, (pl. ofa-jadd) Ancestors, forefathers. Name
*J-Wijtiml, (viii of J.-) Melting butter. of a country. Ijdd; (iv of A-jadda) Striving, exerting one's
Al- ijtina, (v11.1 of ~) Gathering, plucking (fruit, &c.). self. Speaking truth. Renewing, making new. Travelling
A --- itinib, (viii of --~~) Shunning, avoiding, de through a rugged country. Being rough (a road). Having
clining,flying, abstaining from, retiring; removing to a distance. dates ripe, and ready for cutting (a palm tree).
A t- ijtinah, (v111 of ~) Inclining to one side. A_\x- ajdar, (pl. of y-jadar) Scars. Unnatural excres
AJ--"ijtihn, (viii of J-janna) Concealing one's self. cences on the body. Ijdr (1v of 93-) Producing the herb
Burying, J-jadr. Swelling.
A|- ijtica, (v11.1 of s;-) Finding a climate unhealthy. A &la- ijdat, (1v of 8-) Giving unwholesome food to a

Aj- ijtivar, (v111 of 9-) Being neighbours. child. Keeping back, restraining. -

A*- ijtihad, (v111 of X-) Carrying on war against in A ex-l ajaddani, (dual) Night and day.

fidels. Striving to accomplish any thing; care, effort, study. A --~~) aftlab, Barren (year). Desert, desolate.
***a-lijtihdy, Relating to a religious war. A -- aidus, (pl. of ~~~ jadas) Tombs. Name of
Aja-lijtihr, (v11. of 4-) Cleaning out a well. Publish a place.
ing, disclosing. Running to arms, in order to invade a pro rja-' aidar (for j), A dragon. A Ajdar, Most worthy,
*ince. Being large, and easy to be seen; having such an P c- ajdaranitan, (in anc. Pers.) To reap, to mow.
*rmy. Beholding without a veil. A t- ajdat, Mutilated (in the hand, nose, ear, or lips).
A-- jtiyab, (v11.1 of --) Putting on a shift. Dig A J-W ajdal, A species of hawk.
s"g a well. Traversing a country. Cleaving asunder. r 32-7 (Jadah, Coloured, dyed. Stitched.
A \3-) iz, (iv of23-) Standing erect. Having a fat bunch venly bodies. ra-,+) Elemental bodies. Ijrm, (1v of
(a young camel). Lifting a stone. **) Committing a crime.
A 83- ijzt, (1v of 83-) Imprisoning, arresting. Becom A 2-) ajrab, Scabby, mangy.

ing **-jazat, q. v. (a horse, an ox, a camel, a sheep). A &A- airibat, (pl. of -- jarb) Certain measures of
A J&-' azl, (pl. of J3-jizl) The roots of great trees; grain containing 384 mudds or about 768lbs. Spaces of ground
trunks of trees. Origins, roots of any thing. Rubbing posts. where such quantities may be sown. (pl. of ~);- jirab) Lea
Ijzl, (1v of J3-) Mirth, cheerfulness. thern bags in which travellers carry their provisions. Spaces
A c- ijzm, (1v of ^3-) Amputating, mutilating. Walk or areas in wells, from the mouth to the surface of the water.
ing fast (a camel). Urging forward. Abstaining
g, controlling A. <-- ujrat, Reward, recompense, hire, rent, wages.
one's self. Proposing, intending. A e- ajrad, Bald, bare. A bald person. A barren field
A 3-) ajzat, Three years old (with respect to the horse, ass, A smooth stone. A horse with very short hair. A barkless
or ox); five years old (the camel); two years old (the sheep). tree. 9,-] Alajrad, Name of a mountain in Arabia.
A *3-) ajzam, Mutilated in the hand, having it cut off. One A e'- ajradani, (dual) Two branches of a palm-tree, two

who having committed to memory the Kurn, forgets it after trees stript of their bark. Two months or two days.
wards. A L-" afrash, Half-pounded, coarse.
A 2-7 Ajar, (or, s Hajar), (Heb. him) Hagar the mother of A \- ijrimba, When one sleeps without a bolster, pillow, &c.
Ishmael, from whom the Arabians claim descent. A c- ijrinsam, (III of-A- Q) Being collected together.
*AA- ajara, (fut:2- Aya-juru or ya-jiru) He rewarded. Aj,2- ijrinmz, (111 of > 0) Being collected together.
A 2- ajr, A reward, premium, recompense, compensation, Ae-) afuran, (or c-" ajurun) A brick, a tile.
hire, rent. A marriage portion or gift. The restoration of a A-5- ajra', May (he) cause to flow, or proceed.
dislocated joint. A\,-\ ajriy, (pl. of s-jary) Pretending to be young.
A 2- ajrin, (for 9- ajruwun), (pl. of 22-Jarw) Whelps. Agents, deputies, attorneys. Ijrya, Custom, course. A re
A ,-] ajurr (or 2-7 ajurr), A brick or tile. turn to where one began.
A &A- ajriyat, (pl. of 2,~ jaric) Whelps. Small cucum
A \,-\ ijr, (iv of 9-) Going with its whelp (a beast).
Ay- ijr, (1v of 52-) Making any thing to flow, giving bers. Particles of cinnamon. Slices of a quince.
currency, bringing forward, producing, paying, executing, Aj- aja:, The reclining of the body upon the side.
performing. P J J-,+) (or e & P ,+), To ad Ay- jz, (1v of -5-) Sufficing, satisfying. Supplying
minister or to do justice, to promote equity, to put the laws into the place of another. Not sufficing. Paying tribute.
execution. Jj.c. s- To obey the commands of A *}- asa, (pl. of 5-jux-a) Parts, parcels. Ingredients,
God. J 2,3- - To punish legally, to put in execution materials. Minerals, drugs. Ijza, (1v of j-) Having enough,
the penal laws. being content. Putting a handle to a knife.
ty- ijra, A sufficiency of cloth to make a garment. (cAst.) A_\}- isr, (1v of j-) Having fruit ready for gathering
A -j- ijrb, (1v of ~~) Having scabby camels or sheep. (a palm-tree). Giving a sheep to be slaughtered. Being fit
A cy- ajrah, (pl. of t- jurh) Wounds. for the butcher (a young camel). Growing old and approach
A y-\ijrr, (iv of ,-jarra) Granting a delay. Leaving ing the period of dissolution.
any one to his own choice. Slitting a young camel's tongue to Ajj- is, (1v of j-jazza) Being fit for reaping (wheat).
prevent him from sucking. Chewing the cud. Piercing with a Having dates fit to cut (a palm-tree). Having sheep fit for
spear. Leaving a spear sticking in the body. Imitating. shearing. Becoming dry (dates).
A {}- asaz, (pl. of 3-jist) The windings or branch
A 5,2- ajrz, (pl. of 55-Jarz) Sterile (grounds) having no
rain. (pl. of 3,-jurz) Maces, sceptres. (pl. of jr jaraz) ings off, of a river. Necklaces. Ijzz, (1v of 2-) Ren
Unfruitful seasons. Bodies, or breasts of men. Ijrz, (1v of dering impatient and querulous.
A J}- ijzl, (1v of Jr) Exercising liberality.
j-) Having ground scantily watered, and producing but little.
Being lean (a she-camel). A J- ajzal, (A camel) galled or wounded on the back.
A J-A- ajrs, (pl. of L- jaras) Bells. Ijrs, (iv of A. e;-- ajzam, One whose nose has been cut off.
U-2-) Making a gentle noise (the bill of a bird in pecking, or A 2--' asd, (pl. of A-fasad) Bodies, trunks, carcases.
the wing of a bird in flying). Singing aloud (a camel-driver). A el- asam, (pl. of-fism) Solid bodies. Ijsim, (IV
A J-Wijrz, (1v of J-) Causing one to be choked. of ^-) Being important and arduous (an enterprize).
A JV- ajral, (pl. of JJ-jaral) Rough and stony places. P c-- aftastan, and jistan, To plant a tree, to fix a pale
A *A- ajram, (pl. of c-jirn) Bodies. --Ll or a fence, to erect a stone. <--T: Newly planted. :
The motions of the heavenly bodies. P ty- w- The hea A --- asam, Large-bodied, corpulent.

J-) 25 --
AJ- ajashsh, One who has a harsh and sonorous voice. giy, Name of a poisonous root. A L- J-Wajal musamma',
A Q- ajsha, (pl. of ut-jash-a) Light bows; branches The day of judgment. -

of trees of which such bows are made. A J-) iijal (for Jiyyal), A wild goat.
A J- ijshash, (1v of U-jashsha) Grinding coarsely. A J-) aftall, Greater, more worthy, excellent, glorious.
A c- ijsham, (1v of -) Toiling hard; drudgery. A 2-1 il, (1v of Jr) Going into exile. Banishing. Be
A A- ajshar, Labouring under a hoarseness, and pain in ing dispersed. Recovering one's spirits.
the breast. A+" Alajshur, Name of a place. A c-) aflb, (pl. of --jalab) Those who drive camels
A 5- ajshirat, (pl. of r-jashir) Corn-sacks. Quivers. for sale from country to country, drovers.
Ala-Vijt, A word made use of in driving cattle. A 2-1 aild, The body, the person. (pl. of J- jild)
A J-Wijeil, (1v of Ja-) Doing, causing to be done, pro Skins, hides, parchments. Books. (pl. of *A*-jalid) Strong.
mising a price for labour, &c. and performing it. Being in (pl. of M-) aflail) Hard places.
A J-ka- ijlas (Iv of J4-) Causing or ordering one to sit.
heat (a bitch). Taking a boiling pot from off the fire with a
cloth called Jae-jigl. Being infected by an immense num A session for judicial proceedings.
ber of dead beetles (water). A -) afflf, (pl. of -i-jilf) Mean, ignoble, wretches,
A-lift, (iv of 3-) Unsaddling a horse. Following sheep tyrants. A carcase of mutton, without skin, head, or feet.
& so as not to let them graze. Being ignorant and unskilful. A J-lajll, (pl. of J-jull) Housings or any kind of horse
A *-liii-a, (iv of u-) Oversetting a cauldron. covering. Ijll, (1v of J- jalla) Reverencing, honoring;
A - air, (pl. of ix-jafr) Kids four months old. Iiar, majesty, glory, exaltation. Giving much. What a sheep brings
(iv of -) Omitting an established custom. forth at one birth.
A J-Wiifl (1v of Jz-) Running very fast (an ostrich). A &T jilat, Eternity; whatever relates to a future life.
Blowing hard and raising the dust (wind). Voiding excrement A al-' Ijtat, Name of a place in Arabia.
(an elephant). A. g- ajlah, Bald on the forehead. Having the hair flowing
A Jlaiin, (pl. ofc-jan) Eye-lashes. Sheaths. Vines. down the sides of the head. A camel-litter, with a low awning.
Aj Aiur, Name of a well in Arabia. A. c- ijlikhmm, (1v of c-
Q) Assembling together.
A *-* wifalat, A herd, a flock. Aialatan, In herds. Haughtiness.
A Ji- aiala', Promiscuously, indiscriminately.
A M-) aflad, Hard (ground, &c.).
A J- ifil, Pusillanimous, timid. A young ostrich. A s- aflat, Having the lips open, so that the teeth appear.
A J-7 jil, (part.) Procrastinating, delaying, protracting,
A ----- ijlit bb, (1v of --~~ Q) Lying in a recumbent
granting time, fixing a term. Hindering, prohibiting, detaining,
posture. Being extended. Departing. Walking earnestly.
retaining, concluding. Exciting, provoking. Returning. Fu Being numerous. Being dispersed.
ture, belonging to the next world, or life to come. A &\- ilinit, (111 of 8-- Being thick.
J-7 ful (or J-1 aal), A belch. Flatulency. A S- ijliwicz, (x111 of 3-) Walking quick (a camel).
A J-' ail, (from J-), Acquisition, gain, Promoting, en
deavouring. Moving, tending towards any object, good or bad. A 4-1 aflah, A bull without horns. Full, broad, plump in
Drawing. Laying snares. the face and temples.
A J-' ail, ajil orijl, Cause, occasion, reason. e J- cr A 4-lajillah, (pl. of J.-jalil) Glorious, illustrious.
Because that ... J- cr For that reason. <<!- cro On A Ja- ajla', More splendid, bright, or resplendent. Bald
thy account. on the forehead. Name of a place in Arabia.
A *n, (part.) Abhorring, nauseating.
A J-'ijl, A kind of wild oxen, of the deer kind. A pain in
the neck, contracted by lying awry. skA -- ajama, (fut. -\ 3ya-jumu) The fire burned. t

"J" Wil, (pl. of J.-lajil) Procrastinators. -- ajima, (fut. -: Ja-jimu) He nauseated.

sk A

A c- ajm, (from --) Heat, warmth, anger, rage. Ajam,

s J'u, Yes, synonimous with t nasam, but a stronger
*malive. The latter is used when an interrogation precedes, (from 2-) A loathing, abhorrence, nausea, detestation. p -
* frmer when it follows the imperative, &c.; as, r" sir, Go, J To loathe, &c. A A marsh, a fen, a bed of reeds, flags, or
Jl dial, Yes; J- tasir, Dost thou go? ** natam, Yes. canes. A wood, a forest, a place of refuge. Ujum, A fort, a
"J'aal, (from J-"), Having a pain in the neck. A term, | castle, any building with a lofty roof, quadrangular and flat,
an wned time. The duration of any given space of time. -: Al ajam, Name of a place in Syria.
J-'al Jal, The period or end of life, the predestined mo A -- ajamm, A building without battlements, (a man) un

* death. <y J-) afalgiritah, On the point of death, armed, (a woman) without ornaments, (a sheep) without horns.
L J- ajal
"a situation which precludes all hopes of life. rz- ijmj or ujmj, Paradise,
c-) 26 :-)
A c-) aftnd (pl. of A42- jumd) Fortified places or emi A --- ajnab, Foreign, strange; a foreigner, a stranger.
mences, c-" Alajmd, Name of a place near Basrah. Inclining or going to one side; obstinate, refractory.
A_\- ijmr, (1v of A-) Laying fragrant wood on the re-- ajumban, Motionless, fixed.
fire. A 3- ajnibat, (pl. of ~\-janb) Sides, parts, margins.
A &\,- ijmt, (1v of 84) Collecting, convoking, consent Corners. Thresholds, courts, &c. before houses.
ing, agreeing, enacting. Fncountering, turning towards. Con A J- ajnabiy, A foreigner, a stranger.
cealing. Tying a camel's teats together. A senate, a council, a A &- ajnabiyat, The state of being a stranger or alien.
court, a crowd. --~~ &\ta-' An assembly of the people. A &- ajnat, jnat, ujnat, for &- wajmat, wifnat or wujnat,
A J- ajmal, (pl. of J-jamal) Full-grown camels. Ij The cheek, particularly the upper and more prominent part.
mal (1v of Ja-) Doing anything well; deserving well. Cast A &- ajinnat, (pl. of e-janin) Embrios.
ing up an account; an abridgment, a summary, a synopsis. A &= - ajnihat, (pl. of c-janah) Wings, hands, fins, (Lev.
Melting butter. Possessing many camels. xi. 9) pinnacles, (Matt. iv. 5) projections of any kind.
A l-" inlan, Briefly, compendiously, summarily. p <- ujand, Obsequious, obedient.
A. J- ijmal, Abridged, summary, compendious. A i- ajna, One deviating from that which is just; acting

A Ku- ijmm, (1v of - jamma) Filling a measure so that iniquitously in not obeying the commands, or fulfilling the inten
the grain runs over. Giving rest. Being turned loose (a horse). tions of a will. One having a hollow back, bent inward.
Approaching. Being ready. <<- ajinnaka, (or - e-c min ajinnaka), (poet, for

A&a=" diamat, A reed-bed, a marsh. A forest, a haunt, a & J- cr min ajli annaka) Because that thou.
den (of a lion, &c.). A subterraneous granary. P c- Ajangan, Name of a village and fortress in Khu
A t- ajmat, (ex- or e--') All, the whole. rtSqn.

A Ja-' anal, More or most beautiful. A va-" inis, A stupid, dull, indolent man, one who does
r- ajmud, (or sex- ajmudah) Parsley. neither good nor harm; also a timid, slow man.
Pr- Ajmir, Name of a province of Hindustn. A c- afted, (pl. of <!-jawd) Liberal, bountiful.
A. J-7 ajin, (part.) Altered, corrupted, fetid; tending to Aj. ajwar, (pl. of A-jr) Neighbours.
corruption (water). A j- aftez, (pl. of 5-jaw:) Middles, centres.
:k A e- ajina, (fut. J-W ga-junu) The water became putrid. A ";-) Al ajic, Name of a place.
A J- ajan, (from e-') A change in the taste and colour of A J);-) ajwal, (pl. of J.-jl) The parapets of wells.
water, fetidness. Beating cloths (as they do at the fulling mills, A *}-
ajicam, (pl. of el-jm) Cups, bowls, goblets.
A j- ajwanz, A sort of spice.
bleaching-greens, &c.).
A U-) in (1v of J-) Gathering fruit. Having fruit fit to Ae- ajwayin, A species of aniseed. j-,+ c- Hen

be gathered (a tree). Being very fertile (land). bane seed.

a u- ajna-a, Hump-backed. A sheep whose horns bend A --> ajicab, Prevailing, efficacious (prayer).
backwards. A 45- ajwibah, (pl. of -- jawb) Answers, replies.
A -u- anb, (pl. of - jamb) Sides, parts, (pl. of <-- * & 3- Answers which put to silence.
-jumb) Polluted. Ijnb, (1v of C---) Being afar off. A <-- ajicas, Arched, vaulted. One whose belly is pro
Putting away. Causing any one to retire, or to avoid. Being minent above, and lank below.
in a state of ceremonial uncleanness. Suffering from a pleurisy. A z- ajj, Greatly inflamed, red, resplendent. Ujij, (from
Coming as a stranger. Being exposed to the south wind. z aija) Being salt, bitter, or brackish (water).
A. c- ijnah, (1v of c-) Rendering inclined. A 29-1 afar (or 9- ajr), A brick, or bricks. An odorife
A Ju- ajnd, (pl. of X-jund) Soldiers, troops, armies. rous apple, nosegay, or any thing held in the hand on account of
Ac- Ajnadayn, Name of a place in Syria. its pleasant smell.
A L-- ajns, (pl. of U-- jins) Kinds, sorts, species, AJ- ujur, (pl. ofj- ajr) Rewards, premiums, marriage

goods, things. Wares, household goods. J- J-- Various portions. (fromJ-) The setting of a broken or sprained limb.
kinds of riches. &" L-- Various sorts, different kinds. A. 99- ajurah, A reward, hire, fare, wages. PUlo w- A
P --- J---, Playthings, toys. labourer for hire.

A - su-" in, (iv of -i-) Declining from the right way; A j- ajwizat, (pl. of ;|- jayiz.) Beams.
injustice. Discovering any one to be unjust. A - ajwaf, Concave, hollow. Ample, large. (in gram.)
c- ijnn, (iv of c- janna) Rolling a winding-sheet | A concave verb, one whose medial radical is either a 9 or a 45.

round a corpse; hiding, concealing, burying. Coming on (the A J-ji al ajwafni, (The two hollows) The belly and the
darkness of night). Buzzing (as flies). Making mad. matrix.
\\ 27 \-)

A Ji- ajwak, A downcast or distorted countenance. (A man) preserved in vinegar; also the pickle or liquor in which these
with a thick neck. meats or fruits are preserved. Freshness, verdure. Mixed,
A J- ajwal, Dusty ; a dusty day. Name of a mountain. assembled together. Unequal rugged ground, full of risings
** aftin, Disagreeable, loathed, disdained. (pl. of 3 and hollows. (s STATU) Immemorial custom, conformity
ajamat) Haunts or dens of wild beasts; marshes, fems. to religious institutions.
AJ- ajun, Corrupted (water). Ujun (from e-9 Becom r J-) achk, A frying-pan.
ing fetid (water). P <!-T achak, Earth, dust.
A *- ajuh, (for *3) awjuh) (pl. of 4-2 wah) Faces. P <- uchakkah, A pick-pocket.
P. J- ich?, A kind of hawk. A vizir.
At-lijh, (iv. of Ji-) Lying open and disencumbered
(a road). Being clear and serene (the sky). Appearing, go A r" ahh, Coughing; repeating often ah ah in coughing.
ing forth (a man). Giving little; stinginess. Not conceiving. A Lu-) Ahabish, (pl. of J-Habash) Ethiopians.
A 2'- ijhd, (iv. of 34-). Overloading a beast of burden; A Cl- ahbish, (pl. of &\- hubshat) Mixed assem
harrassing, vexing. Suffering vexation. Pursuing with ear blies, men of different tribes.
nestness. Craving food. Growing grey. Walking fast. A &t-lihsat, (iv of c-) Digging up the earth, sifting or
Aji- ijhar, (iv of ji-) Speaking clearly, publishing. examining it in order to find any thing.
Aji- ijhz, (iv of ji-) Making an assault upon a wounded A J-U- ahjy, (pl. of 35) uhjaw) Enigmas.
person with intent to kill. A c- ahh, Thirsting. Being angry. Ah! alas! Uhh,
AJ- ijhsh, (1v of U-4-) Being about to cry. Stimula Thirst. Rage, indignation, anguish, grief, passion, heat or
ting to activity. Perseverance. inflammation proceeding from agitation of mind.
A Ji- jhs, (iv of Jie-) Overcoming, snatching the prey A 2-7 ihd, (pl. of A- ahad) Units. Sundays. 3-,
from another. Casting her young (a camel). Causing to de e-V), An incomparable man; the one of ones; a phoenix.
part with haste; removing, putting away. Avenging one's self. A Ju-Juhd, as el- , They came singly, by ones. Ju
Aji- ajhar, Squint or goggle-eyed. One that cannot bear el-) uhad-uhd, One by one.
the glare of the sun. Beautiful, with a slight and delicate cast A $90-lihdat, (iv of 3-) Turning away from.
...A -se- ahadi, Independent pride.
of the eye, inclining to a squint.
ry-" ajharah, A kind of prickly shrub. A --~~~) ahds, (pl. of ~~~~ hadis) News, things
Aji- ajhuz, (pl. of j- jahz) Marriage-portions. Wed which have recently happened. Sayings or traditions concern
ding apparel, paraphernalia of brides. Pudenda mulierum. ing Muhammad, handed down by the Musulmn doctors, to the
A ji= ajhizat, (pl. of ji-jihz) The pack-saddles ofcamels. number of 5266. JWA c-e'-' The tenets of the Kurn.
A Ji- ajhal, More or most ignorant. J-9 Ji- , The A $.3-) ihazat, (1v of 3,-) Driving camels fast. Drawing
most ignorant of mankind. together.
*Ji-lajhish, A company of men of different tribes. A SA- ihrat, (1v of 9-) Answering, replying.
*Ji- qjha', Bald. A house without a roof. A &\- ihshat, (1v of U-) Enticing from their haunts,
AS- ayid, (pl. of Az-jd) Necks, particularly such as and surrounding every where with nets (animals).
are long and taper. Short shirts or shifts. Name of a place A U-1-1 Ahass, Name of a city in Arabia, about two days
in the flat marshy ground of Mecca. journey from the Persian gulph.
A - ayaf, (pl. of &-jfat) Stinking carcases. A. e--' ahsin, Good things.

*** ajaj, (from z aija) A burning, a conflagration. A 3.3-lihzat, (iv of J-) Surrounding, comprehending.
** ayad, Having a long and beautiful neck. Very good. Understanding.
*Ji jidan, To stitch, to sew. A &l-) ihtat, (iv of ex-) Surrounding, enclosing, includ
AA- (jir, A mercenary, a hired labourer, a servant. ing, embracing, comprehending, understanding.
Ps- ajiranah, In a mercenary manner. Ak- ahz, (irreg. pl. of a-hazz) Fortunes, successes.
*** airi, Servitude, labour, hire. A &t- Uhsat, Name of a place; also of a tribe.
Aji- Alujayfir, Name of a place in Arabia. A &t-lihkat, (iv of <<-) Making an impression (a
"J Jil, Procrastinating, deferring; slow. Delayed. sword, or a discourse).
Collected (water). Heaped up (mud). Ujayl, A man's name. A \- ihlat, (1v of J;-) Passing by, elapsing. Laying
**- ajim, (from *"), Burning, kindling; heat. snares. Sagacity, slyness, subtlety. Being one year old. Re
re- Ujayn, Name of a city in Hindustn. maining in a place by the year. Leaping on horseback. Re
*Tichr, Powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, lating any thing incredible, impossible, or absurd. Having
P"rved in salt, vinegar, honey, syrup, &c. particularly onions barren camels. Rushing upon any one and striking him (with
E 2
a whip, &c.). Pouring out water, by inclining the vessel in A J--> ihtibas, (v11.1 of U-->) Retaining, containing, con
which it is contained. Impowering or sending one to demand fining, imprisoning. Despising. Restraining one's self. A
or exact a debt from another. Squinting, or causing to squint. strangury. Being shut up, besieged, imprisoned, or contained.
Ar- ahamir, (pl. of 2-) ahmar) Red. Barbarians. A - ihtibak, (v11.1 of -) Drawing the back and
Uhamir, Name of a mountain. the legs together with a bandage. Doing any thing well.
A 3,4- Uhmirat, Name of a people of Persian origin, A Ja- ihtibal, (v111 of J.--) Taking game with a net.
living in Kfa. A c-) ihtitn, (v111 of c-) Resembling, matching.
A e- ahn, Being enraged, hating, bearing a grudge. A -----Vihtisas, (v111 of e- hassa) Exciting, instigating.
A &\-lihnat, (iv of c-) Remaining in one place. De A -si-) ihtijab (v111 of - sr) Being veiled; seclusion.
stroying, putting to death. A gt- intijj, (viii of a haija) Proving. Pleading.
A Je- ahicis, (pl. of Je;-) ahwas.) Proper names of men.
Ajst-) ihtijr, (v111 of Pr) Abounding in stones. Con
A -- ahabb, More or most lovely, amiable. structing for one's self a cell.
A s- ahb-a, (pl. oft- haba-a) The favourites of a king. Aj\si- ihtijz, (viii of j-s") Girding up one's loins Ar
A-1 ahibb, (pl. of --- habib) Beloved friends. rivingin jus- Hijaz.
A c-) ahbb, (pl. of C--- habib) Friends, relations. A 3-i- intij, (v111 of -is) Calling off one's attention,
Ihbb, (1v of -- habba) Loving, liking, choosing, prefer renouncing. Taking possession of Overcoming.
ring. Coming into ear (corn). Kneeling down (a camel). A *i- ihtijam, (v11.1 of -**) Cupping, scarifying. Being
Becoming fidgetty and restless from disease or work. Being turgid from a fullness of blood.
stubborn and refractory (a camel). A est- ihtijn, (v111 of cs) Drawing any thing to one's
A_\-) ahbr, (pl. of r-hibr) Hebrew doctors or scribes. self with a curved stick, and keeping it.
Vestiges. Inks. Ihbr, (iv of 2-) Marking, impressing. A c-) ihtidad, (v111 of 3- hadda) Inflicting punishment.
A U--> ahbs, (pl. of U-- hibs) Locks, dams, or collec A ex- ihtidm, (v11.1 of **~) Burning; fervent heat.
tions of water. Waters pent up. Bed-clothes, counterpanes. Rage. Redness of blood inclining to black.
Prisons. Hibs, (1v of U-) Dedicating to pious uses. A "&a-Vihtisa, (v111 of 53-) Putting on shoes. Resembling.
Throwing into prison. A_\x- ihtizr, (VIII of 23-) Avoiding, taking care.
A ~2- ihtirab, (v111 of ~~~) Fighting, duelling.
A L- ihbsh, (1v of Utre-) Bringing forth a swarthy
child. A <!-- ihtirs, (v111 of c-) Tilling the ground. Hurt
A JA-lihbz, (iv of C4-) Causing to beat or throb (as ing a horse by over work.
an artery). Making a bow-string twang. Letting an arrow Aj\;== ihtir, (v111 of 3,-) Taking care. Being secure.
fall carelessly without reaching the mark. Exhausting a well. A J-)- ihtiras, (v111 of U->) Preserving one's self. Be
Excluding any one from his rights. Mental aberration. ing preserved or guarded. Stealing sheep in the night.
A PV-1 ihbt, (1v of h-) Rendering void. Changing its A J-A- ihtiras, (v111 of Je;-) Coveting. Being in earnest.
course (water). A 3.2-lihtir, (v111 of -5,-) Being skilful in any art.
A J-1 ihbl, (1v of J.-) Impregnating, getting with A J'A- ihtirk, (v111 of JA-) Conflagration, burning.
child. -
Ardour, strong desire. The disappearance of a planet on ae
A U-) Ahbush, An Ethiopian. count of its nearness to the sun.
Ae- ahbun, Hydropsical. A *V=- ihtiram, (v11.1 of -) Veneration, honour, reve
Ajst-) ihbinjr, (111 of - Q) Swelling with rage. rence, respect.c- :- c- Princes (judges, or any great
A U--! ihbint, (xv of a-) Being pot-bellied. men) worthy of reverence, entitled to respect, honourable.
A U- uhbsh, A mixed multitude. Ajj-- ihtizz, (v11.1 of j-hazza) Cutting or chopping.
A - ihtizak, (v11.1 of-t-) Putting on a girdle.
A 4-) ahibbah, (pl. of C- habib) Intimate friends.
A --~~}) At ahatt, Name of a place in Arabia. A c- ihtizam, (v11.1 of -) Girding one's self with a
A u-liht, (iv of 2-) Sewing, twisting, making firm. rope. Putting on clothes or armour.
A c- alitt, (pl. of c-> hatt) (Horses) going with a A \-a-) ihtisa, (v111 of 3--) Sipping. Digging a well.
quick and long step. A --~~! ihtisab, (viii of ~) Computing, calculating,
Ayu- ihtr, (iv of 2-) Giving sparingly. Tying a knot enumerating. Imputing. Examination of weights and mea
fast. Providing a feast for builders after finishing a house. sures. The police.
A J- ahtn, (pl. of ex- hatn) Equal, alike. A\ta-' ilitish, (v111 of 2:-) Stuffing, cramming; repletion.
A \-) ihtib, (v111 of 3-) Drawing up the legs by means of A L*a- ihtishsh, (v111 of U-- hashsha) Seeking forage.

a bandage passing round the loins (as people do who are weary). Stacking hay.

A *l-" ihtisham,5 (v111 of ~

--~) Beingg ashamed (through t A -la-lihtiln, (v111 of 4-) Dreaming. Pollutio nocturna.
fear). Having many dependants, followers, or domestics; Reaching the age of puberty.
magnificence, grandeur. ---- 2 As Honour and glory. A \-) ihtim, (v111 of us-) Abstaining from, avoiding,
A2\-Vihtisr, ((viii ofLya-) Putting a housing on a camel.
s to shunning. Protecting. Prohibiting. Being inaccessible.
A 3.2- ihtizr, (viii of ri-) Coming into one's presence. A Qua-) ihtimd, (viii of x^) Being intense (heat). Com
Arriving in town from the country. Approaching (death). mending one's self.
A J-W ihtimsh, (v111 of Ut-) Beng fired with rage,
Running (as a horse, a fawn, &c.). Hurting, injuring. Sorrow.
Ae- ihtizn, (viii of cri-) Taking in one's arms, em and rushing to battle.
bracing. Sitting, brooding.
Keeping back, hindering. A Jua- ihtiml, (viii of J-) Laying on a burden. Tak
A-le-lihtitb, (viii of -a-) Collecting fire-wood. ing up one's goods, and quitting one's abode. Bearing
g, sus
Feeding on dry thorns (a camel). taining; patience. A compliment. Possibility, probability.
A c-iltitn, (wit of Cla-) Being broken. Suspicion. Danger.
A\c-lihtiz, (v111 of J-) Being highly honoured, and A c- ihtimam, (VIII of ~ hamma) (for ***) Anxiety.

amply provided for (as a wife by her lord); obtaining authority A c-) intinik, (viii of 13-) Reining, curbing a horse.
and influence. Devouring every green herb (locusts). Eradicating. Subduing,
Aj- ihtizr, (v11.1 of 4-) Construction of a sheepcote. overcoming. Strength, firmness.
Enumeration. Disesteem. A \; -) ihtiica, (v111 of 55-) Comprehending, containing,
Ak-lihtisiis, (v111 of a- hazza) Delight, happiness. collecting. Occupation, enjoyment, possession.
A J- ihtiwash, (v11.1 of J-) Starting game; intercep
It's Ajs- ihtiir, (v111 of -) Digging; excavation.
Aja-) ihtifax, (viii of ji-) Sitting down on the point of the ting, surrounding.
foot and preparing to rise. Drawing one's self together. A z- ihtiyj, (viii of g-) Indigence, want, necessity,
A*-lihtias, (viii of Ai-) Cautiousness, care, defence, need, occasion.--- -\s) The necessitous, the poor.
preservation. Being provoked. Self-commendation. co-- ihtiyjt, Wants, necessities, things requisite.
A-- ihti, (v111 of -i- haa) Eating up all that is on Aj- ihtiyz, (v111 of 59-) Collecting together.
the table, Plucking the hairs from off her face (a woman). Ak-) ihtiyt, (v111 of *;-) Surrounding, comprehending.
Dressing. Taking care; caution, circumspection, foresight, scrupulousness.
A J-Wihtial, (viii of J-) Assembling together; a con Confirming.
course, a procession. Filling its bed (a river). Giving atten Al-- ihtiytan, Cautiously, carefully.
tion. Polishing. Being manifest. A J-Wihtiyl, (viii of J;-) Fraud, deceit, machination.
Ae-lihtian, (viii of c-) Appropriating to one's self. Aj- ihsr, (1v of 2-) Bursting (a date).
Extirpating. A J-lihsl, (1v of J-) Giving unwholesome food to achild.
, * -- intikb, (viii of C-5-) Taking a load on one's A Us" ahj, (pl. of uss. haja') Districts, tracts. (pl. of
back. Perpetrating a crime. us hija') Dispositions, tempers, geniuses.
Aj- ihtikr, (viii of -) Despising. Deserving con "A cls ahjb, (pl. of ~\s hijab) Veils, curtains.
tempt. A zs ihjaj, (1v of 6- haija) Sending one on a pilgrim
A J- ihtikk, (viii of G-hakka) Disputing, contending. age to Mecca.
Being lank (a horse). Taking a sure aim, and hitting (a bird). A_\s- ahjr, (pl. of , r hajar) Stones. Name of a place.
A J-lihtikn, (viii of c-) Giving or taking a clyster. Iljr, (1v of, s) Constructing a cell.
Suppression of urine. A Jus- ahjl, (pl. of J s hijl) Fetters. Ihal, (1v of
Aj- ihtikr, (v11.1 of K-) Reaping. Accumulating, or J-s") Tying up a camel's foot.
hoarding up grain against a time of scarcity. A els- ihjm, (1v of ***) Diverting any one from his pur
**@-lihtikk, (viii of J.- hakka) Rubbing the body pose. Behaving in a cowardly manner.
*gainst a post. Grappling with an adversary. A els- iljn, (1v of cs") The flowering of the herb *
AJK- ihtikal, (v111 of JK-) Being obscure and ambigu summ. Drawing any thing towards one with a crooked stick.
A is- ahijat, (pl. of ** hajaj or hijaj) Bones that sur
* Being tongue-tied ; dumbness.
A --> ihtilb, (v111 of CJ-) Milking. round the eyes, those on which the eye-brows grow.
Akk- ihtilt, (v11.1 oflu A blunder. Anger. Grief. AA= ahjur, (pl. of , s hajar) Stones.
AJk-lihtilk, (viii ofG-) Shaving (the head). A cs- ahjan, Crooked, hump-backed, hawk-nosed.
*J-lihtill, (viii of J- halla) Reposing. Restraining A}s- uhjw (or *-**\ uhjiyat), An enigma; any question
anger, put to try the genius.
_-) 30 _-)
a 4-1 ahad, One, any one. A-J God. A-J ex Sunday. A hounds. Ihraj, (1v of: P-) Leading into sin; making miserable.
J-c Eleven. (mas.) **- One of you. c-) A- The one Rendering light. Prohibiting, interdicting.
A cy- ahrah, (pl. of cy- hirh) Pudenda mulierum.
of ones; an incomparable man. e--- 3- One of two good
things. 3- J% Every one, all. 3- er's No one. Ihd, ALy-ahrr, (pl. of 2 hurr) The free, free-born, noble,
Unity. Uhud, Name of a mountain near Madna. free men. Herbs, greens, or any kinds of garden stuff which
A 3- ahadd, More or most acute, sharp, vehement or fierce. are eaten raw. The middle parts of houses. Ihrr, (iv of A
a "A-" ahadan, One by one, singly. harra) Being hot. Having thirsty camels.
A -l-'ihdb, (iv of ~~~~) Making one hump-backed; Aj)}=\ ahrs, (pl. of 3,-- hirz) Fortifications. (pl. of jj
giving an inclination. | haras) Cobnuts. Ihrz, (1v of 3,-) Obtaining a reward, and
A -- ahds, (pl. of ~~ hadas) Pollutions, impurities. enjoying the benefit of it. Affording security. Strengthening.
(pl. of ~~~~ hadis) Youths. Novelties, accidents, chances. Abstaining. Avoiding.
A U-,-] ahrs, (pl. of U-j- hars) Ages. Ihras, (iv of
Ihds (1v of c-) Producing, inventing, bringing into exist
L-) Remaining in a place for a long time.
ence. Being in a state of impurity, and incapacity for prayer. A Jay- ahrz, (pl. of UAE,-- haras) Corruptions of the body.
A gl- ahdj, (pl. of z- hidj) Loads, burdens. Litters.
Ihdaj, (1v of z-) Putting a litter on a camel's back.
Depravities of the mind. Sick, at the point of death. Insane
from grief or love. Thin, emaciated. Wicked. Those from
A c-lihdd, (iv of A- hadda) Mourning the loss of her whom nothing is to be dreaded or expected. Quiet, unable to
husband (a woman), and laying aside all ornamental attire. nlove,
Name of a well in Madna. Ihrz, (1v of J-) Ema
Giving an edge, sharpening. Considering very attentively. ciating (as love or sickness). Begetting bad stock.
Ajee ihdar, (1v of 93-) Swelling from a blow (the skin). A - ahr, (pl. of 3,- harf) Sides, parts. Lean ca
Causing to swell. Hemming, or adorning with a fringe (a gar mels. Ihraf, (1v of A-) Making lean. Being prosperous,
ment). Twisting and tying in knots the ends of a piece of increasing in wealth.
linen. -

J'A- ihrk, (iv of J.-) Setting on fire. Making gruel.

A J'- ahdk, (pl. of 3~ hadakat) The pupils of the ^\,-\ ahrm, (pl. of , haram and -j- harim) Sacred

eyes. c c- Camomile flowers. Ihdk, (iv of J-) places, sanctuaries, asylums. Ihram, (1v of ,) Being unlaw
Encompassing. Looking very narrowly. ful. Making illegal, prohibiting; interdiction, anathema, ex
A ex-luhdn, (pl. of A-1 ahad) Ones; the only ones. communication. Putting on a mean habit, in which the pilgrims
A -- ahdab, Hump-backed. enter Mecca, in order to celebrate the festival of the 10th day
A J- ahdal, Partial, inclined to one side, acting unfairly. of the penult month of the Muhammadan year. Beginning the
Having one shoulder higher than the other. Wry-necked. In holy month called Muharram, during which it is unlawful with
clining to one side in walking. Having only one testicle. the Muhammadans to fight, hunt, or indulge in any sensual gra
Crooked towards the extremity (a bow). -

tification. The cloak or habit above alluded to, made of a slight

A &- uhdasat, A parable, a narrative, a story, a tale.
woollen cloth. A thin sheet or a coverlet of woollen, which tra
A c-) ahadun, (pl of 3-1 ahad) Ones. vellers spread on the ground, and wrap themselves in at night.
A 45- ihda', (fem. of 3-1 ahad) One. ~}} sa- One of
Winning at dice. Taking under one's protection. -

one, any thing wonderful, unequalled. 3,4- sa- Eleven. (fem.)

P sa- ahadi, A species of military corps in India.
A Q- ahrad, (A camel) having the tendon of the fore-foot
A 2-1 ahadiyat, Unity. Concord, alliance. A L-A- ahrus, (pl. of U-j- hars) Ages. -

A --'A3-) ihddb, (x11 of ~~~~) Being hump-backed. A J-W ahrash, Rough (coin). The mange, the murrain.
A 3-1 ahazz, Thin-plumaged (bird). Small, or thin-tailed A land
A scab not besmeared. Sting-tailed (scorpion, &c.).
(animal). Slender-bodied, small-handed (man). Lightly and crocodile. Name of an herb.
hastily made (oath). Of interrupted conception (a womb).
A 5,-) ahru, (pl. of 3,-harf) Letters, particles.
A 3-1 ihz, (iv of .53-) Giving a shoe, or a share of spoils. A t- ihrimb (xv of ~~) Growing (as hair or grass).
AJ&- ahzr, Care, caution. L'-) c" Provident. A c- ihrinjm, (111 of e-j- 0) Thronging, crowding
AJ|3-) ahzk, (pl. of 333-hickat) Parts, segments, sections. together. Wishing for a thing and afterwards retracting.
AJ- aharr, More or most hot. A C- ihrinfash, (111 of J- 9) Proneness to anger or
a -y- Ahrb, Name of a place. Ihrb, (1v of c-) Vice.

Pointing out a road whereby a hostile incursion may be made. A cy?,-]allirrun, (pl. of 5,-- harrat) Stony countries.
A zy- ahrj, (pl. of g- hiri) Shells of a small white shell A -5,-] ahra', Better, best.
A ,-) ahriy, (pl. of 5,- hary) Suitable, worthy.
fish. Those parts of the hare, deer, &c. which are given to the
c-) 31 h-)

A U4.A- ahriz, A species of saffron. A cla-) ihsd, (1v of x-a-) Coming to maturity and being
A}- ahizz (or 5- ahizzat), (pl. of jj-haziz) Strong places. fit to cut (corn). Twisting a rope tight. Making strong.
A -j- ahzb, (pl. of -- hisb) Troops, bands, cohorts. A_\a-) ihsr, (1v of ra-) Besieging, investing. Restrain
A j- ahzm, Cohorts, bands. ing, prohibiting. Pressing. Having the orifice of the teats
AJ- ahzn, (pl. of &- huznat) High, rugged mountains. very small (a camel). Costiveness. Numbering. Abstaining
Ihsan, (iv of ej-) Making sorrowful. from going on a pilgrimage.
s- ahzam, Thick in the middle of the body. High and A J2\a-) ihss, (iv of Ja- hassa) Giving any one his share.
rugged ground. Most careful or cautious. A a-lihs; (iv of i-a-) Conducting business in a steady
A J- ihzi-lal, (1v of J}~ Q) Rising from the ground and judicious manner. Twisting a rope tight. Hastening.
(a camel). Appearing lofty through a mist (a mountain). A Ja-) ihsal, (1v of Ja-) Producing green and unripe
Al-- ahs, (pl. of us-- his y) Waters subsiding through dates (a palm tree).
any sandy ground, and collecting on a solid stratum. The strata A Ja-lihsn, (1v of cra-) Taking a wife. Going veiled
of stone or clay on which these waters stagnate. Ihsa, (1v of (a woman). Keeping a wife very much secluded. Continence,
;--) Giving one to drink. Sipping by little and little. chastity. Besieging. Strength, firmness.
A -->! ihsb, (iv of --~) Being sufficient. Content A Ja- ahissani, (dual.) A slave and an ass.
ing. Giving often. Becoming red or white (a camel's coat). A --- ahzb, (pl. of ~i- hi-b) The twangs of a bow
Aj->! ihsr, (iv of ,--) Dimness of sight. Weariness. string. Male serpents.
A J--> ihsas, (iv of U.- hassa) Feeling, perceiving, see A zki- ahzj, (pl. of- hizj) The remains of water in a
ing, finding, knowing. Combing a horse's mane. cistern.

AJ-'ahsil, (pl. of J-- hist) Newly-hatched crocodiles. A ji- ihzr, (1v of ri-) Producing, presenting, making
AJ->! ihsan, (iv of e--) Doing good, conferring an ob appear, summoning, citing, calling before. Running. Sti
ligation. Knowing well. Beneficence, courtesy. Kindness. mulating a horse to the course.
* A. J.--) ihsn-didah, Benefited, served, obliged; any one A Ji-1 ahzn, (pl. of cri- hin) Sides, parts, tracts.
who receives favours. A-J--! ihsn-mand, Obliged; grate The dens of hyaenas. Ihsan, (1v of cri-) Despising.
ful. A 3-1 ahizst, (pl. of Lza- haziz) The lower parts of
Al----' ahsab, More or most esteemed, honoured; most any thing.
befitting. (A camel) white and red. Red-haired (man). Ala- ahatt, More or most steep or depressed. Very swift
A J-> ahsan, More or most beautiful, excellent, or agree (dromedary). -

able. Ahsana, (in prayer) May (God) be gracious. Ahsin, A -la-Vahtb, (pl. of ~la- hatab) Fire-wood, pieces of
(imp. of iv) Do good. wood. Ihtab (1v of -a-) Being fit for pruning (a tree).
**-> ihsinta, Inheritance, possession. A Jua- ahtl, (pl. of Ja-hitt) Wolves.
A a- ahtab, Very slender (like a stick).
**~ ahsanad, (for A --~~~! ahsanta) Well done!
Al- ahsh, (pl. of - hasha) Bowels, intestines. A 3-1 ahazz, Very fortunate or happy. Ahuzz, (pl. of
Auck-lishish, (iv of U- hashsha) Foraging, fodder hazz) Prosperities, felicities, good fortunes.
ing, collecting fodder. Having a dried-up foetus in the womb A Ua-Vihz (1v of Ja-) Preferring one to another.
(a woman). Being dried up; withering (the hand). A-Vihrz, (iv "of a> hazza) Rendering prosperous and
*- alsh, Dried-up udders. Ihsh; (iv of -i-) happy.
Bearing bad dates (a palm tree). A G-A All, Name of a town in Arabia. Iha, (iv of J-)
**k- ahsham, Servants, domestics, followers, attendants. Walking barefoot. Causing to go unshod; injuring a horse's
Trops, train, matchlock men. Ihsham, (1v of --~) Re hoof. Shaving or trimming one's whiskers. Having a galled
vering, venerating, regarding with awe. Provoking, annoying. beast. Being very inquisitive; dispute. Disquietude. Bene

*u-J Alahas, Name of a valley in Arabia. volence, kindness.

Au-'ahass, (A man) having thin hair. (A bird) having A c-) als, (pl. of -i- hais) Tripes, bellies.
few feathers on the wing. Barren (year). Unfortunate. A c-) ald, (pl. of Al-hfid) Friends, companions, fa
Ala- ihsa, (1v of Ja-) Numbering, computing. Writ milies, grand-children, sons-in-law, relations.
ing, expressing. Ordaining. Comprehending, knowing. Power, Aj- Ahfar, Name of a place. Ihar, (iv of ji-) Chang
ability. Vas-1} la ihsa, Inexpressible, beyond expression. ing his teeth (a colt).
a la-'ih Y-r (iv of a-) Causing to break wind. A J- ahfash, (pl. of Ut- hish) Cases in which women
*~~! in o, (iv of a-) Scattering gravel about put their spindles, &c. Small boxes. Small houses, closets,
whilst running (a horse). &c.
<<>) 32 -)
a Jel- alis, (pl. of Jai-haft) Leathern sacks. Lions i-) The sciences of the javelin (or the arrow) and the sword.
whelps. il) ck- The judgments of the stars (a book treating of
AJ33- als, (pl. of Jai-hafaz) Household goods, furni judicial astrology). Ihkm, (1v of K-) Fortifying, defend
ture, utensils. Camels which carry them. ing, strengthening. Seasoning. Completing, regulating, in
A- ihfax, (1v of A-) Provoking to anger. stituting. Restraining a fool. Curbing a horse.
A s- inff, (1v of -i- haa) Allowing the hair to be A e- c- ahkamul hkimin, The judge of judges, the

come matted from neglecting to oil it (a woman). Plucking lord chief justice: also a title given to governors of provinces.
the hairs from her face. Making a horse's belly to rumble by AJ-1 ahall, Feeble in the legs, weak in the feet.
overloading him. A \-) ihl, (iv of 3-) Sweetening, discovering to be sweet.
A c-) ahn, (pl. of 3.5-hafnat) Handfuls, small quan A \-) ihl-a, (iv of U-) Applying a collyrium to the eyes.
A -- ihlab, (iv of e-J-) Assisting in milking; milking
A&- ahiffat, (pl of -\;= hi f) Curls, locks, or braids cattle in the fields, sending the milk to different quarters. Hav
of hair. Troops, bands. Parts, sides. ing a camel bringing forth females. Flocking from all sides.
A c- ahakk, More or most worthy, deserving. Legitimate. A &\-) ihlabat, Milking cattle in the fields and sending the

A horse that places his hind-foot in the footstep of the fore-foot. milk to different quarters.
A G- ahikka, (pl. of G-hakk) Worthy, suitable, proper.
A J-4-) ahls, (pl. of U.-hils) Saddle-cloths, or any thing
A -- ahkb, (pl. of -i- hukub) Periods of 80 years, put upon a camel's back to prevent galling. Carpets, or any
ages. Ihkb, (1v of C-5-) Putting on the back girth of a thing similar laid under rich garments or furniture. Ihlas, (iv
camel's saddle. Being barren from the want of rain (a year). of v4-) The weaving of a camel's saddle-cloth. Continued
A 25- ahkd, (pl. of As- hikd) Hatreds, rancours, ani and gentle rain.
mosities. Ihkd, (1v of A-) Stirring up hatred. Making a
A 2-) ihlt, (1v of al-) Pertinacity in swearing.
fruitless search for ore.
A le- ahlf (pl. of --hilf) Treaties, agreements, com
Aj- ihkr, (1v of -) Holding up to contempt. pacts. Confederates, companions. Fidelity in observing agree
A s- ahk, (pl. of -i- hik) Hills of sand. Sands ments. Name of an Arabian tribe. Ihl, (iv of -i-) Ad
extending a great way, and sloping from mountains, walls, ministering an oath.
trees, &c. towards the sea. Name of a large district of country A J.-) ihll, (1v of J- halla) Causing one to alight and so
in Arabia, extending from Hazramawt (to the eastward of the
journ in a place. Rendering lawful. Renewing hostilities at
straights of Bbilmandib (the gate of tears) at the entrance
the expiration of the sacred months during which war is inter
into the Red Sea), to Omn on the gulph of Persia, and Ormuz. dicted. Laying aside a Nazarite's vow. Putting off mourning
It is covered with little hills of moving sand, which, when the
(a widow). Deserving punishment. Having milk in the udder
south wind blows, often prove fatal to the caravans.
previous to yeaning (a sheep).
A J- ihkk, (1v of C- hakka) Proving or establishing A - ahlam, (pl. of ~~
hulm) Dreams. Bodies. Puber
the truth of a doctrine. Knowing for certain, distinguishing
justly. Restoring any one to his rights. re; J- J- To
ties. Ihlam, (1v of Al-) Dreaming.
Pe 41 ahlab diyy rumi, A kind of spurge.
administer justice. A J.-- ahlas, Of a bay colour.
A J- ahkal, (pl. of 3.3-haklat) Arable lands, sown fields.
A J--!> ihlis as, (1x of U-4-) Being dyed of a bay colour.
Belly-achs (peculiar to camels from eating certain herbs). A J- ahla, More or most sweet.
Ihkl, (1v of J-) Putting forth the blade (corn).
A e- ahkn, (pl. of 3.5-haknat) Belly-achs. A 3.1- ahliyat, (pl. of J- hally) Strong withered grass.
A --- ahkab, A wild ass. A J-Wihil, Foramen penis et uberis. Name of a valley.
A 5-1 ahkar, More or most vile or contemptible. (Used for A}<!--! ihll, (x11 of 3-) Sweetness. (poet.) Sweeten
I or me). ex",i- The meanest of (your) servants. Ing.
A - 33.5-lihkkf, (x11 of --) Crookedness. A <!-- ihllk, (x11 of <<!-) Being exceedingly black.
A \{-\ihk-a, (iv of 3-) Tying firm, pulling tight (a knot). A -- ahamm, Black (horse). Near, neighbouring.
A J-lihkl, (1v of J{-) Being obscure and doubtful. A V-1 ahm, (pl. of ham) Fathers or brothers-in-law.
Entering into the merits or intricacies of any question. Ihm, (iv of J-) Guarding, preventing. Rendering inac
A c- ahkm, (pl. of hukm) Orders, decrees, man cessible. Heating iron.
dates, precepts of the law, judgments, sentences. Letters A c-) ihmd, (iv of ~~~) Being praised. Deserving praise.
patent. Secrets, mysteries, Predictions, presages, prognos A Jv-' ihmsh, (iv of L-) Kindling (anger). Adding
tics. cl- The ordinances of religion. 2 ' c fuel to the fire.
ex-) J
A Ju-Jihmz, (1v of Jia-) Producing bitter plants (the A -- ahnaf, Bow-legged, bandy-legged. A man's name.
earth). Feeding a camel with such plants. A -- ahnak, A camel that eats much.
Aja-l ihnak, (1v of G-) Bringing forth a foolish son. A J- ahna, Crook-backed. t-3 e- Very benevolent.
A g- ihwj, (1v of ex-) Wanting." Causing to want.
Esteeming one to be a fool. Exhibiting signs of folly.
A Ja- ahml, (pl. of Ja- hamal) Burdens, loads. Ju A 39-) ihwz, (1v of 35-) Driving camels fast. Drawing
Jy The accoutrements, baggage, &c. of foot soldiers; any together that nothing might escape.
thing carried by foot travellers. Ihml, (1v of J-) Loading. Aji= Ahwaz, Name of the country which the moderns
Assisting in taking up a load. Emitting milk without conceiving name Khzistan, and the ancients Susiana; also the capital city.
(a woman or a camel). A J- ahwaz, (pl. of U-5- haics) Basins, reservoirs.
A w- ihnam, (1v of A J- ahical, (pl. of J-hl) States, conditions, situations,
hamma) Determining, measuring.
Warming water. Washing with hot water. Being feverish. affairs, accidents, circumstances, accounts, relations, events
Throwing into a fever, Keeping in anxious suspense. Blacken (either past or present). r J- J- Military affairs.
ing with charcoal. Approaching. J * -- J);-) Prosperity, good situations. ---> -->
A vel ahmad, More or most laudable. One of the names of **** J-- The Nabob enquired about many circum
Muhammad. c- Ahmad-bd (city of Ahmad), the capi stances.

tal of Guzerat, 244 measured coss south-west from Delhi, each Pulsr. J);-) ahwal purs?, Enquiry after health, affairs, &c.
coss 4000 English yards. The computed coss are only 2500 A. <-,-] ahwab, Guilty. Undutiful to parents.
yards. e---- Name of the vazir of Mahmd Sabuktagin. A t- ahwaj, More or most needed or necessitous.
*J- Js j y. *~) It has happened according to A J- ahwazzy, Active, ready, nimble, clever.
A 2- ahwar, Having beautiful eyes. Understanding, intel
**- Ahmad-nagar, (The city of Ahmad) Name of a lect, intelligence. The planet Jupiter.
city of the Dakhan, 280 coss from Delhi. Here died the great Ay- ihwirar, (1x of 25-) Being exceedingly white (the
Awrangzeb. white of the eye). Being very black (the pupil of the eye).
A -e);- Ahwarani, Name of a place.
AJA*- ahmadiy, Belonging to Ahmad.
A 32-) ahwirat, (pl. of);- hutcar) Sucking camels colts.
Are ahmar, Red. Barbarous (not Arabian). The planet
A -- ihwariy, Having a soft and shining skin.
Mars. A new untrodden path. 2- <--> A violent death.
A -55- ahwazzy, Nimble, swift.
Ay- ihmirr, (1x of >) Being very red. A violent
death. A J-> ahwas, Bold, undaunted, intrepid, fearless. Name
A.Jae- al ahmarni, (The two reds) Wine and flesh. of a place abounding in palm trees.
A 52- ahmirat, (pl. of j- himr) Asses. A Je;-) ahwas, Having the angle of the eye very acute.

A}~ ahmaz, Stronger. Pricked, tart (wine). Name of a man.

Av- ahmas, Strong, bold, unwavering. Barren (year). Ak;-) ahwat, Surrounding. Most comprehensive.
Aux~ ahmash, Spindle-shanked, slender-limbed. A J;-) ahwal, Blind of an eye. Squinting. Crafty, sly.
Avia-'ahmaz, Acid, acrid, bitter. A J-Willicill, (1x of J;-) Being blind of one eye.
AJ<l ahmak, Foolish, stupid, awkward. A fool. A \,-\ilitica, (1x of .53-) Redness.
A. Jia- ahmaki, Folly, stupidity.
A s- ahwa', Black, dusky (in the lips).
AJ- ahma', Modest. A&;-) ahwiyat, (pl. of \;= hiwa) Arabian tents made of
*A*- ihmirr, (x1 of, ) Being extremely red. woollen or goats' hair.
3: A e- ahina, (fut. e-g 3ya-hanu) He was angry. A '- ihwiw, (x1 of 53-) Excessive redness.
AJ-'ihan, (pl. of 3-1 ihnat) Hatreds. Angers. A J- uhayy, (dim. of s;-) ahtea') Blackish in the lips.
Al- ahn, (pl. of > hinic) Sides, curves, angles. A Q- ahy, (pl. of us- hayy) The living. Tribes, families.
* -- innis, (iv of J.-) Making one swear falsely. Deserts. Ihy, (1v of :-) Recalling to life, reviving. Having
A t- ihnaj, (1v of t-) Prevaricating, cavilling. healthy, thriving flocks. Discovering a place to be fruitful.
Aux~! ahnsh, (pl. of U- hanash) Reptiles, serpents, Migrating to a region abounding with herbs. ex')\- A
"Pers' Cunning or malignant (people). term used (in India) to denote any piece of ground incapable of
AJ<! ihnk, (1v of G.-) Irritating, exasperating. Lean yielding advantage, either from want of water, from inunda
tion, or any other cause. "]"; \;=\ The quick and the
A-4- ihnak, (1v of <<-) Rendering expert. dead.
A&- ihnat, Hatred. Anger. (from J-1) Bearing an ex A c-) ahyd, (pl. of Ar- hayd) Eminences, or prominent
treme hatred, holding in utter aversion. parts of a mountain.
(3-) 34 <--)
Aju- ahys, (pl. off-hayyis) Places, environs; the courts A v.----' akhmis, (pl. of U---' akhmas) Camels five years
or avenues leading to a house. old. -

A eV- ahyn, (pl. of c- hin) Times, ages. Ihyn, (iv A Jax's- akhmis, (pl. of Jae- akhmas) The hollow parts
of c-) Living, passing some time in a place. of the soles of the feet. Slender in the middle.
A G- ahynan, Sometimes, from time to time, now and A els- akhani (for -e);-) akhaicani), Two brothers.
then. Accidentally. In the event of, in case that. Pej UsT khndan, (from e--" akhtan) To make one
A 3-1-1 ahihat, Extreme anger or sorrow. Uhayhat, Name come forth, to cause one to draw (a sword, &c.). .
of a celebrated man.
A $.3-likhwat, (from 33-)) Acting as a brother or a friend.
A -->| Uhaydib, (dim. of ~~~~) Name of a mountain. A \,\! akhy (or -- akhr), (pl. of 3~! akhiyat)
A i- ahyaf, A country or field on which no rain falls. Stakes, ropes, &c. to which cattle are fastened.
A J-Wahyal, More or most sagacious." A J's "ukhyil, Having many moles, particularly those which
A s:- uhaywi, (dim. of .53-) ahwa') Reddish-lipped.
add to beauty. Spotted. Vain. Dignified, honourable, worthy.
A 3-1 ahyiyat, (pl. of \,- haya) Pudenda mulierum. A \-" ikhb, (iv of 3-3-) Extinguishing. Pitching a tent.
P & akh, Ah! a sigh. Bravo! courage ' Ukh, Oh!
A --~" ikhbb, (iv of --~ khabba) Trotting a horse.
A ) akh, A brother. Fy! Ah! alas! Ikh, A word used to
A curs-) akhbt, (pl. of c--> khabt) Plains, extensive, level
make camels bend the knee. Ikhkh, A pot.
and soft grounds. Unequal and sandy grounds. Ikhbt, (iv
Al-T ikh, (pl. off" akh) Brothers. of c-) Self-abasement. Mental tranquillity.
A G-likh, (111 of 3-) Acting like a brother; contracting
A curs" ikhbs, (1v of G-) Corrupting. Keeping bad
a most intimate friendship. Ukhkh, Name of a place near company. Being the proprietor of any thing evil and impure.
Basrah. An exclamation of surprize.
Ajs- akhbr, (pl. of > khabar) Histories, tales, annals,
Ajs- akhbir, (pl. of js- akhbr) News. gazettes, news, relations, advices, chronicles, traditions, p A-)
A &ts-) akhdd, (pl. of ex~" ukhdd) Furrows, oblong * 2 Precious advices, happy news, agreeable intelligence.
cavities or clefts in the ground. Blows cutting the skin.
A "** |----> J- Dreadful news, unfortunate advices. J.-
A 3-\ikhs, Stagnant water, a pool, a ditch, or any place
where water stagnates. Land of which any one takes possession is the title of many books of history; as \;=\;\- History of
either for himself or for his lord. the Khalfs; y) js- History of the poets; * A-\
A J3-) Alikhazani, Name of a place in Arabia. IIistory of the world : <\;<\;\ , C."js ) The history of
A $3's." akhazat, A pond, &c. Land granted by a prince countries and the description of cities. Ikhbar, (1v of J-)
on feudal or copyhold tenure. A handle, the handle of a shield. Advising, informing, relating, certifying, giving intelligence.
.* -ss- ikhz, An acceptance, a receipt.
* L; J-W akhbr-nate's, A news-writer, an intelligencer.
A -- ikhbar y, Declarative, expressive.
PA-T akhr, Anything thrown away on account of its in
significance. See J-T akhal. A J-W ikhbl, (1v of J-) Giving another the benefit of a

A sys-Wikhrat, (iv of 23-) Bending, turning. Lending. sheep's milk, or of a camel's hair. Lending a horse to go on "
A c- akharij, (pl. of zy- kharj) Tributes, imposts, re military expedition.
Outgoings, expenses, costs. Rivers overflowing their A -->) akhbas, More or most impure.
banks. Clouds when just beginning to appear. A J-Walakhbasini, (The two impurities) Dung and urine.
rj's 7 khs, Things of small value. A &\ akhbiyah, (pl. of \-- khiba) Tents, tabernacles.
A J.-- akhs, (pl. of \-- khasa) Unequal. Name of one of the mansions of the moon.
A J.'s Vakhsf, Soft ground. P **) akhpakh, Understanding, wisdom, intellect.
s ikhsat, (1v of J22-) Making one ford a river. A G-- ukht, A sister, a female friend or companion. Simi
A s-\ Akhf, A man's name. lar, equal, alike, congenial. J- *\s \ The sisters of Canopus,
A &\s-Wikhfat, (iv of 39-) Terrifying, intimidating. name of two stars of the second magnitude.
A Js-) akhkk, (pl. of J- ukhkk) Clefts, fissures. rs- akhtj, A feudatory wassal to another sovereign. -

p J's 7 khl, Any kind of rubbish (as parings of fruit, A ea-\ akhtn, (pl. of ex~ khatan) A bride's nearest kin
shavings of wood, &c.). Name of a city. dred, as father, brother, &c. Sons-in-law. Circumcision feasts.
A JUs" ikhlat, (1v of Lst) Appearing doubtful. Portend A \s-\ikhtib-a, (v11.1 of **) Being concealed, lying hid.
ing rain (a cloud). Considering the appearance of any thing A --~\ ikhtibab, (v11.1 of C--> khabba) Cutting or tear

especially of a cloud disposed to rain. Putting an image re ing a strip from a piece of cloth.
sembli ng a man near a young camel to scare the wolf. Having
Ajs- ikhtibar, (v11.1 of re-) Experience, skill.
milk in the udder (a came!). Being fruitful in grass. | Ajs ) ikhtibs, (viii of 3-3-) Baking brea"
<--) 3J **
A J- ikhtibas, (v11.1 of U-->) Overcoming.
ticular, proper, special. Appropriation, choice. Intimate friend
Av-Vikhtibiish, (viii of Ls-) Collecting, gathering. ship, particular attachment or devotion.
Azikhtibiit, (viii of ars-) Importunately asking a fa A 3-3-likhtisii, (v111 of --a-) Sewing, doubling, stitch
vour without claim or previous acquaintance. Asking at night ing. Covering the body with leaves.
from shame. Shaking leaves from a tree. A '-- ikhtisam, (v11.1 of ra-) Enmity, altercation, dispute.
A J-Wikhtibil, (v111 of Js-) Depriving any one of his A --- ikhtisab, (v111 of --~i-) Tinging the nails or the
reason, or of the use of his limbs.
hair with cypress.
A was likhtiti-a, (v111 of **) Concealing one's self from
A 23.3-likhtistid, (v111 of x-i-) Putting a halter on a camel.
fear or shame Being greatly afraid. Deceiving. -

Ajs- ikhtisar, (viii of ri-) Mowing, reaping, cutting

A s- ikhtitam, (v11.1 of **) Finishing, completing; end, down any thing green. Dying in the flower of youth.
conclusion, fulfilment. Pas- --> Affectionately, friendly, A &\-a- ikhtise, (v111 of 8-i-) Humbling, abasing; self
lowing, whose end or tendency is love or friendship. abasement. Passing quickly by.
- A Jaz-Vikhtitn, (viii of c-) Being circumcised. Cir A U- ikhtit, (v111 of 3a*) Stepping. Over-stepping.
cumcising one's self. Acts xvi.
A {x- ikhtidit, (v111 of **) Being deceived, cheated. A -la-likhtitb, (viii of a-) Preaching. Betrothing
a wife. Inducing to marry.
A x- ikhtidam, (v11.1 of **) Being employed in ser Al-Ur-likhtitt, (viii of a khatta) Drawing a line, tracing
wice, -

(upon paper). Beginning to grow (a beard).

123- (or A&T khtar) A star. An omen. An en
A jux-likhtiti, (viii of -a+) Seizing, carrying off by
sign, a standard. Name of an angel. js- << Born under
force. Leaving (as a fever). Gr-likhtitan, Forcibly.
a lucky planet, fortunate, virtuous. 2-) * >9 A daugh
A \l ikhtia, (v111 of 5-) Withdrawing, concealing one's
ter of fortunate stars. 2: 2-) The fifth constellation, i. e. self. Producing, shewing. P Js *322 *9; \;=&\ Lurking
the planet Mars. J's 2-) The planets of wisdom, i.e. Ju
behind the veil of oblivion, i. e. indolent, lazy, obscure.
piter and Mercury. j-j- 2- A happy constellation. A
A y- ikhtiar, (v111 of, 3-) Violating an agreement.
J. To count the stars, i.e. to keep awake. JA A Je-likhtifax, (viii of J-) Being circumcised (a girl).
The standard of Gw, or of Faridun.
r; t akh tufa, Spittle, saliva.
Avrs ikhtirash, (viii of U,) Scratching. Providing
for a family. A}-\ikhtil, (v11.1 of 33) Retiring with another to a soli
,4) tary place. Penetrating and cutting (a sword).
Az ikhtirat, (v111 of Stripping the leaves off a
A -\;<\ikhtilab, (v111 of 44) Wounding with the nails.
branch. Unsheathing a sword.
Cheating, cajoling. Mowing, cutting down grass.
A&R- ikhtir, (v111 of &A) Cleaving. Deriving from
A z- ikhtilj, (v11.1 of **) Dragging away. Being for
another source. Inventing, contriving. Defrauding.
A JR- ikhtirak, (vi.11 of JA) Tearing. Being rent. Per cibly separated, being weaned. Trembling. Winking (the
wading, blowing with violence, (as the wind). Patching, sew eye).
A L-k- ikhtils, (v11.1 of J-4)
Seizing, snatching, carry
ing on a patch or piece. Making up a story.
A 2- ikhtiram, (v11.1 of **) Destroying, extirpating. ing off. \-k-) ikhtilsan, Hastily, violently, forcibly.
Cutting off. Dragging away. A Q-2-1 ikhtilt, (v111 of al-) Mixture, confusion, perplexity.
"J-> akhtaristn, Name of a treatise on astronomy. Insanity. Intercourse, conversation, commerce, association,
As akhtar-shumr (or L-L-3 2-), An astronomer. friendship. Breaking down (as a horse).
r;-- akhtar-g, An astrologer, a fortune-teller. A &- ikhtilt, (v111 of t-) Being divorced. Robbing,
A}< ikhtizz, (viii of j- kha:2a) Stitching. Selecting. plundering. Violating an agreement.
A {j=- ikhtisfit, (v11.1 of
{}) Tearing away, alienating A s- ikhtil, (v111 of -i-) Discord, diversity, dissen
(one) from his kindred. sion, coolness, misunderstanding. Going to and fro. Suffering
A J}~ ikhtizl, (v11.1 of J) Being alone. Putting asunder. from a diarrhoea. P J -3%-" To contradict.
AJ- ikhtisan, (v11.1 of e5-) Hoarding. Keeping a se A ck-likhtilt, (pl. of 3-3-1 ikhtilf) Dissensions.
A J ikhtilak, (v11.1 of c-) Being well-proportioned, of

A s- ikhtisht, (v111 of --~) IIumbling one's self.

just dimensions. Inventing a lie. Beginning a thing anew.
Al-& ikhtisa, (v11.1 of J-a-) Castrating one's self.
Adopting foreign habits. Fragrancy.
AJ- ikhtisr, (v11.1 of a-) Abridging, abbreviating, con A J-Wikhtill, (v111 of J-khalla) Being emaciated. Stand
tracting, curtailing; an abridgement. Taking by the hand. ing in need. Sewing, stitching. Confusion, disorder, altera
Ava- ikhtiss, (v11.1 of La-khassa) Being peculiar, par tion; defect, detriment, obstacle. Sourness, acidity. J
E 2
23-) 36 - $)

Ju- A state of confusion (disorder, tumult). zy- J- An ning. A vein in the neck to which the cupping-glass is ap
alteration of health or constitution (for the worse, illness). plied.
Ayu- ikhtimr, (v111 of 23-) Putting on a veil called j A 23-) akhdam, One who has many servants. (A horse or
khimr. Fermenting (as wine, dough, &c.). sheep) having the lower part of the hind legs of a whitish co
A ***
ikhtimam, (v11.1 of ** khamma) Sweeping a house. lour (If on one foot only it is called J- arjal).
Cleaning out a well. Hearing distinctly. Weeping bitterly. A xs- ukhdad, An oblong fissure in the ground, a furrow.
P e khtan, To draw (a sword, &c.). To hang, to sus (A blow) cutting the skin.
pend. To lead, to bring. To go forth. To overtake, to reach. A & T khiz, (part.) (A camel) beginning to become fat,
To play. To accustom. To weave, to knit. To castrate, to also to breed teeth. (Milk) beginning to turn sour.
geld. To fear, to tremble. An ambassador. Name of a king. * , 3- akhasa, (fut. 3- ya-khusu) He took.
A --- ikhtins, (v111 of ~~~) Bending inwards the A 3- akhs (from 3S-1), Taking, seizing, apprehending, re
brim of a leathern bottle, so as to be able to drink. ceiving; intercepting, assailing, taking prisoner. Objecting,
A J- ikhtinak, (v111 of G.A.) Being strangled. cavilling. Containing, holding. Clipping, paring. Begin
p &l akhtah, Drawn (sword). Trained, managed (horse). ning; purpose, intention. Marching, tending towards; leading
Castrated. A gelding. Exhilarating (wine). J &T Mas through. Way of life, manner, disposition, habit. Equal,
ter of the horse. alike, resembling. Unanimous. Punishment. Rigidity, (when
J- ukhtiy, Sisterly, belonging to a sister. A she-camel.
A the body from any cause becomes stiff, and is thereby deprived
Aj- ikhtiyr, (v111 of 23-) Election, choice, option. J of motion). *"A- Taking vengeance. 2-2 & Taking
J-Free-will. P J j- To choose, to will. and seizing; fraudulent dealing. ra's 2 & Receipt and
t:- ikhtiyr, A man in years. disbursement. U43; 3- A receipt. 3-) ** The pro
A y- ikhtiyran, Voluntarily, spontaneously. gress or motions of the stars. P J 3-) To take, to receive,
.4 - ikhtiyr, Choice, approbation, power, authority. to examine. Ikhz, A cautery applied to a camel's side to pre
In one's own power, at one's own disposal. vent a threatened distemper. Custom, mode of living. Akhaz,
A Jlikhtiyl, (v111 of J.-) Strutting, walking with dig (from 3-) akhiza) (A camel's colt) having the stomach op
nity; pride, superciliousness, thinking highly of one's self. pressed by too great a quantity of milk, or from its acid quality.
A c- ikhtiyn, (v11.1 of c-) Betraying ; deceit, perfidy. Fury. Akhiz, Suffering from an inflammation in the eyes.
A \ akhs, (pl. of J.- khasy) Ox-dungs. Ukhuz, Opthalmia. (pl. of J-W ikhs) Pools, stagnant wa
A j- ikhsar, (1 v of 2-) Leaving butter to condense. ters. Lands which a man takes possession of, either for himself
A * akhsam, Flat-nosed; having a broad round nose, not or his lord.

sensible of smell (as the lion's). A broad-sword. (A camel)

A "3+\ikhs-a, (iv of 3-) Humbling, making tractable.
A 33-7 akhixat, Rigidity, stiffness; a disease occasioning a
having a round and short foot.
stiffness in the joints.
A --& Akhs?kas, Name of a town in Transoxania (Tur
kistan) situated on the river U*. Shsh. A $3- ukhsat, A philtre, a fascination, any thing by which
A Jss- ikhjl, (iv of J) Confounding, putting to shame. one is easily deceived. An amulet, a charm. Depressing, sub
jecting one to an injury or hardship. A.) s \ A little while
P &-s- akhjastah, The threshold of a door. A purple
after sun-set, when candles are lighted.
flower, otherwise called e';*) arghuwan.
a glas- ikhdaj, (1v of **) Bringing forth an imperfect PAT akhar, A bason, a bathing-tub, a reservoir. Yes;
surely, truly. For example.
colt. Being without rain (the winter). AAT akhar, Je A" Another, or a
Another, a second.
AAA- ikhdr, (1v of J) Being overcast with clouds or foreign country. AT <-- Another way, otherwise. P J
rain. Being always in society.
A &la- ikhdt, (1v of **) Concealing, laying by. ex~! To be altered.
AAT khir, Last, posterior, ultimate, final. The end, issue:
A eles- ikhdm, (1v of **) Giving a servant. Seeking a extremity, latter part. Finally, at last, afterwards. JA
servant, taken one into service. At length, finally, eve; AT The end of time, the last "S.
A ex- akhdn, (pl. of J.A.- khidn) Friends. Girls. e.V., A. J. To the end of the world. J A-V The *
A --As- akhdab, A tall slim fellow. A fool, an ideot. breath. AT 2 J; First and last. P --> 2-\ The lauer part
rja- akhdar, A whole brother or sister. of the night. ex~" To be finished. AS j=-\ A catas

Ajs- akhdar, Dark (night). trophe. At length. es" To finish.

A s- akhdary, A wild ass. r_<\ akhur, (or 25-N akhr) A stall. The collar-bone.
A t- akhdae, More or most fallacious, crafty, sly, cun A 2-) akhir (for A-" akhir), The end, the extremity.

_-) 37 c-s-)
A.A- ukhar, (pl. of 52- ukhru', fem.) Others. Ukhur, A 3-,-]
-> akhrijat,
war, (pl. or
of ~
z>+ kharj)) Exp
Expenses. Revenues.
The latter or hinder part. Name of a well at the foot of mount g2,3- Akhraj.
AAT akhiran, Finally. W-7 A- He came at last. P A-AT akhar-charb, Pleasure, ease, affluence.
A-,-] Al akhrb, Name of a place between Egypt and r -e J-1 akhar-dast, Any one occupying the lowest seat.
Madina. The end of an affair. A shoe-maker. Dice.

A-,-] ikhrb, (1v of -,-) Laying waste, depopu A L'A" akhras, Dumb. (A mountain or other place) hav
lating. - ing no echo. Silent (army). Thick (milk) the sound not be
A-A- akhrt, (pl. of c,-- khurt) Needle-eyes, holes ing heard (when the vessel which contains it is shaken).
pierced in the ears or any other thing. Collar or breast-bones. r_\- AT akhur-slr, Master of the horse. A grey-beard.
P e-AT khur-sangin, An empty cratch. An unprofitable
Buttons, buckles, clasps, &c. for fastening the breast-harness of
horses, &c. post.
A gj akhraj, (pl. of G.J-kharj)
Tributes, revenues, pro p JA" akhirash, At last, finally, after all.
duces. Expenses, expenditures. Clouds just appearing. Rivers A 32-) akhrifat, (pl. of -5,-kharif) Sucking-lambs.
A JA akhrak, Dull, unskilful. Pierced in the ear, and
overflowing their banks. Ikhraj, (1v of z_*) Producing,
drawing forth, bringing forward, expelling. Rushing or sally mangled in the operation. Blowing vehemently (the wind).
ing out. Expending. Growing great. P J zy- To ex P $2.7 akhurak, A small stable or stall. The collar-bone.
pel, to banish. A **) akhram, Having the lips chapt (by cold), Pierced
A. --!> ikhrajat, (pl. of ikhrj) Expenses, charges. in the ear, nose, &c.
A. s Al akhramni, Name of two mountains in Arabia.
A}- ikhrr, (iv of A- kharra) Causing to fall, throwing
A U-\,+) ikhrinmas, (or L-- ikhrimmas), Silence.
down. Cutting off the hand.
A J-A ikhrs, (iv of U,) Making dumb. A *\,-\ ikhriwwat, (x111 of *A-) Being long and tedious (a
AJ-All Al akhras, Name of a place in Tihamah. journey). Holding fast the foot of a bird (a springe). Travel
Ak'A' ikhrt, (1v of 2,2-) Causing a diarrhoea. Suffering ling quickly.
under a complaint called 2,3- khirt (a camel). Closing a wallet. rule;-) akhrash, (for Uly-kharsh) A clamour, a noise.
AA ikhrf, (1v of 53) Yeaning, foaling in autumn (a h ,47 akhrut, A walnut.
sleep, a camel, &c.). Entering upon the autumn. A ev, akharian, (pl. of AT khar) Others. Posterity.
A JA ikhrk, (iv of J.A.) Astonishing, confounding, dis A. *A ukhraw? y, Relating to the other world.
couraging, deterring. Tearing to pieces. Behaving roughly. A 45- ukhra' (or V ukhra), (fem. of AT akhar) Amo
A ~~ akhrab, More or most ruinous, laid waste, pierced, ther, the last.
cleft asunder. Perforated in the ear. ~A) Al akhrab, A "A- ikhiryan, (or VAT khiran), At length, in the end.

Name of a certain barren mountain in Arabia. A A ukhrayat, (pl. of -5A ukhra') The last parts.

"cAT khir-bin, Beholding the end; provident, prudent. re;47 akhriyn, Household furniture, wearing apparel.
A-AT khirat, Posterior, last. The extremity. Life T rej9-) akhriyan, An ignorant, stupid fellow.
eternal; the other world. A is always opposed by the A g;-) ikhrjj, (x1 of z_*) A mixture of white and

Arabians to \ duny, which signifies, The world, or the black in an ostrich. -

Present life: synonymous to which the Persians make use also of AJAA ikhrirk, (x1 of J.A.) Being much torm.
J- J. This world, and J- e That world; and likewise Aaj- ikhrit, Peeled, barked, skinned. Turned, as in a
figuratively -t-.' .43. The lodging of to-night, and sl turner's lathe. Wild leek.

The habitation of to-morrow. 52 U. &\! The final dispen AJAT khirin, (oblique pl. of ,-7 akhir) The last, the
sation, i.e. Christianity. latest comers; posterity. 3,- enj Decree of fate. Ter
A 5A akhiratan, In fine, at length. 5,3- A- He came at Jy J.A." An epithet of Muhammad.
mination of an affair.
last 5A, & He sold upon futurity, i.e. on credit. A 93) ikhz, (iv of 54) Despising. Grieving, afflicting.
A 5- akhirrat, (pl. ofJ.y- kharr) Beaten tracks between
two hills.
A - akhizzat, (pl. of 35-khuzaz) Male hares.
A&A akhraj, Variegated with black and white. (A sheep) AJ- akhzar, Having small twinkling eyes, purblind.
with white feet and sides. (A mountain) covered with black A j- akhzam, A male serpent. Name of the grandfather
and white sand or stones. Collecting tribute. of Htim Tayy.
A z-A ikhrjj, (1x of g_-) Being variegated with black A akhza'. More or most ignominious, infamous, mean.
and white (an ostrich). A J.-- akhass, More or most vile, ignoble, avaricious.
*~~~! Al akhrajani, Name of two mountains in Arabia. Aj\--) ikhsr, (1v of ,-3) Suffering loss.
c- 38 is-)

A J--- ikhss, (1v of L-3-khassa) Acting basely. Dis sea; under this name the Arabians comprehend all that ocean
covering one to be vile and contemptible. which extends from the coasts of Arabia and Ethiopia to India,
* <-T khastah, The lowerlintel of a door-way, a threshold. and even to China. ri-) ** The green or Persian gulph.
AJ- akhsar, Expending. Suffering any loss or injury. ri- J-s A green peacock, the peacock of paradise.
A &-- akhsifat, (pl. of -5,-- khasi) Wells dug in rocks. A yi- ikhsirir, (1x of Pik) Greenness, verdure.
* <-4T khsamah (or *-- akhsamah), Barley or rice A ti- akhsat, Humble, submissive. Obedient, well-broke
water. A wine or spirit made from barley, &c. (horse). Hanging the head. Bending the neck (an ostrich.)
p J- Ukhs?, Name of a town in Transoxania. A -- akhsu, A serpent.
* --- Akhsisak (or --- Akhsikat), Name of a A J-Wikhsilal, (1x of J-i-) Being moist. Being full of
city. branches (a tree). -

r Js akhash, (U&- akhash, or e--" akhshan), Price, A ji- ikhssr, (x11 of ri-) Excessive greenness.
value. e-- Jsi To give a price. A Ji-i- ikhs/sal, (x11 of J-i-) Excessive humidity.
A {\- ikhsht, (iv of 8-2-) Rendering humble. A J-Wikhsilal, (x1 of J_i+) Being full of branches.
A --- akhshab, Wooden. Wooden-fronted, impudent. A Was" ikht, (iv of a-) Causing to step.
Harsh, hard, thick. Horrible, dreadful. Rough, rugged. A "la-likht-a, (1v of Ja-) Erring, sinning involuntarily.
A J Al akhshabni, Name of two mountains near Imputing sin. Throwing into danger. -

Mecca, and of two near Madina. A -la-likhtab, (1v of a-) Coming within reach of the
A i- akhshaf, Walking badly by reason of the mange. hunter (game). Inviting to a marriage. Ripening (grapes,
A -- akhsham, Defective in the sense of smelling. gourds, &c.).
P & 3.3-lakhshamah, Barley or rice-water. A_\la- akhtar, (pl. of Aa- khatar) Dangers, destructions.
A e- akhshan, Rugged, extremely rough. Dignities, honours. (pl. of Ala- khitr) Many camels. Ikhtr,
rz- akhshanj, Adverse, inimical, repugnant, contrary. (iv. of A-) Recalling to mind. 2xposing to danger. Staking
p six: -) akhshandah, A child's rattle. one's property. Being equal in rank.
A J- akhsha', More or most timid. A ua- ikht, (iv of -a+) Missing the mark. Being
p ** khsh/j, Adverse, contrary. e--T akhsh/jan, folded together. Wounding with an arrow.
A Ja- ikhtl, (1v of Ja-) Talking at random.
The (four) opposites, i. e. the elements.
A c----Vikhshishb, (x1 of ---) Being very muddy A -la-' akhtab, A green magpye. A species of black and
(water). Abounding in grass (the earth). white eagle, with a large head, which hunts sparrows. Any
A J--- ikhshshn, (x1 of c-) Being extremely rough. thing in which the russet-brown colour prevails. A black hine
on the back of an ass. One who repeats best the prayer called
Being clad in coarse raiment.
r akhshik, (or e-). See **T and J-T. &las khutbah. A bitter kind of gourd. Becoming fat.
A Ja- akhass, More or most peculiar, especial, or excellent. A la-' akhta, Having an extenuated belly.
A Ja- akhtal, Flap-eared. A hyena. Foolishly talkative.
J J- akhassu'l khawass, Most excellent of the nobles.
Name of a poet. Jas) ' abil akhtal, A horse, a mule.
A -\as akhsb, (pl. of ~ khasib) Cultivated, inha A las' akhtam, Long-nosed. -

bited places. Full of provisions. Ikhsb, (1v of -a-) A \-" ikh, (1v of J*) Concealing, hiding, suppressing.
Abounding in produce (a place). Going to such a place. Fat Manifesting. \\ |- The art of rendering one's self invisible.
tening. A c-liklitid, (iv of A$3.) Appearing pregnant (a camel).
A ; as ikhsf, (1v of -i-,-) Running swiftly. Covering AJ- ikhfar, (1v ofA-) Failing to afford protection, be

(the body) with leaves. traying. Giving one a protector. -

A *\a- akhsm, (pl. of : khusm) The corners of the eyes. A J-- ikhs, (1v of U.S.A.) Talking indecently. Inebria
A Cia akhsa, Variegated, party-coloured, black and white ting very soon (wine).
(cattle). Ash-coloured. A U2'-' ikhs, (iv of U-354) Circumcising a girl. Slowness.
A gi- ikhzaj, (1v of **) Breaking up a concern. A s." akhf, (pl. of -is khuff) The hoofs of a camel.
A &i= ikhzt, (iv of 8-i-) Humbling, rendering submis Ikh; (iv of Cix khaffa) Loading lightly. Being lightly
sive. Causing to stoop (old age). Speaking politely, amo loaded. Having light, nimble horses. Being in easy circum
rously (to the ladies). -
stances. Laying aside one's gravity.
A J- ikhzl, (1v of J-33) Moistening. Being dark. A J- ikhk, (1v of c-) Dozing, nodding. Setting (a
A.M.&l akhzad, Bent double. star). Flapping the wings (a bird). Returning without spoil.
A, is akhzar, Green, dusky brown. 23-), The green Being at the full (the moon). Being gaily dressed. Prostrating.
J-) 30 ~)
A * akhfaj, (A camel) trembling in the limbs. Having mentary qualities, or complexions in man. Ikhlt, (1v of A$).
the feet distorted. Bow-legged. Helping a camel to cover. Breaking down in running (a horse).
A L akhfash, Having small weak eyes, seeing better at A 3- akhlf (pl. of -i- khalf) Successors, descen
night than in the day-time. Name of three grammarians. dants. The teats of a camel. A r \aj) c-ex-,-3)- akhlft
A&l akhiyat, (pl. of $3 khif) Veils, coverings. &#3- satadat ittisf7, His glorious and august, or virtuous, posterity.
J The coverings of sleep, i.e. the eyes. Ikhl; (iv of ~~) Breaking a promise, disappointing. Giv
Ajjis ukhkk, A fissure in the ground. ing no rain (clouds). Repairing a garment. Repaying, re
PJ3. akhkr, A fire-brand, a burning coal, ashes.
imbursing, making amends. Germinating afresh (a withering
* x&T khkakand (A.G. >< *.x.<! ~4- or x~), plant). Removing a girth from before the sheath of a camel.
A child's rattle, a timbrel, an instrument made of two brass Drawing water. Putting the hand to the sword. Becoming
plates, or bones; castanets. offensive from long fasting (the breath). Being a year under
*JGlakhkul, Long-headed. A beard of corn. Chaff. full age (a camel). Being cleft asunder (a tree). Depravity.
A J- akhlak, (pl. of c- khalk) Peoples. (pl. of c
rl akhkalandah, A curry-comb.
** ukhkam, The rim of a drum, a sieve, &c. A fillet, or khulk, or khuluk), Natures, dispositions, habits, manners. J}<!
wreath for the head. &-- Amiable manners. *- J}<! Laudable qualities.
1,3 akhkamr, The crupper of a horse. Akhlak is a general name for books on morality, as Vx' ck
P *l akhkabah (<-33) or *%+), A button-hole, a loop.
The morals of learned men; 4, J}<! The manners of

*}<! akhkur, A wild pear. Unripe, sour fruit, as dates, kings; us-s J}-\ Name of a dissertation on ethics. (pl. of
or plumbs. A button-hole. c- khalak) Worn-out clothes. (pl. of J- khalk) Goodly
r akhkzah (or 5,3- akhkjah), The same as the portions. Ikhlk, (1v of c-) Wearing out, or being worn
preceding; also, a weaver's shuttle. A button. out (a garment). Putting on a worn-out garment. Lightness.
*Js' akhkish, (+5.3." or U.S.3") Unripe fruit. A Js" akhll, (pl. of J khill) Intimate friends. Ikhlal,
re akhkn, A button-hole, a loop, a button. (1v of J-khalla) Confounding, disturbing. Exhausting, im
akhgar, Charcoal. & Live embers, poverishing. Frustrating, disappointing. Deserting, aban
AJ- akhall, More or most indigent. Akhull, (pl. of C doning. Keeping a fort thinly garrisoned. Bearing unripe
khull) Winegars, dates (a palm-tree). Turning sour (wine). Feeding camels
on a sweet herb called & khullat.
Als akhl, (pl. of 5,3- khalic) Empty, vacant. Wain, idle.
A c- akhlam, (pl. of * khilm) Friends, companions.
Ikhla, (iv of :-) Being void and solitary. Courting retire
ment. Consulting in private. Laying waste, depopulating. A t akhillat, (pl. of J}< khill) Tooth-picks, small
Leaving off eating. Being peculiar to, belonging exclusively. needles. The coverings of sheaths or scabbards.
A J-4) akhlas, More or most pure, sincere. <!--" J.--
Abounding in herbage. Putting a bit in a horse's mouth. Fod The most faithful of servants. e;" Ja- Cordial, genuine.
dering cattle. Adding fuel to the fire.
Als akhilla, (pl. of J.3 khalil) Friends (intimate and A l- akhlat, A wild pear.
A - akhla, Foolish, labouring in mind. (A camel) in
A -3. akhlb, (pl. of ~!- khilb) The claws of wild beasts. clining to one side on account of a distorted shoulder. A male
g serpent. A current.
Diaphragms. Pericardia. U.) --> Beloved by the women. A c- akhlak, More or most apt, fit, or proper. (A stone,
Ikhlb, (iv of ~4-) Plucking, gathering. Being thick and
muddy (water). &c.) smooth, equal, free from fissure or flaw. Worn out, poor.
| Of a good disposition.
** ikhlj, (1v of **) Extracting, drawing forth. PJ- akhlr, Bean-pods. The carob-tree.
A $. ikhld, (1v of **) Perpetuating, rendering eternal. A Q- akhliy, (pl. of J- khl; and of J. Khaliy) Free *

Remaining stationary in a place. Continuing steady in one's from grief, pain, or care. Idle. Unmarried. Uncultivated,
attachment. Growing old by slow degrees. Leaning, inclining. desert, uninhabited, void, vacant. Times past.
*Jikilis, (iv of L4+) Purifying, correcting; emenda A ** akhj, An excellent swift horse. -

tion. Sincerity, piety, friendship, affection, probity, candour. A 3.3-likhlilak, (xii of c-) Equality, evenness. Being
A.'s ikhlsan, Sincerely, unfeignedly. overcast (the sky). Having a low elevation (a building).
***k ikhls-mand, Sincere, friendly; a friend. A cl ikhmd, (1v of ~~~) Extinguishing a fire.
Als akhlt, (pl. of 43- khilt) Mixtures, miscellanies. IIu Aju- ikhmr, (1v of 24-) Covering, concealing, suppress
"its of the body. Name of a town in Armenia. &9) !--" ing. Fermenting. Revolving in the mind. Giving, bestowing.
"he corrupted humours. &y .9%3.) The four humours, ele Entering into a crowd. Hatred. Neglect. Abounding in wine. -

I. of A sy-likhwn, (pl. of t akh) Brothers, friends, compa
mas, nions. J e);- Cotemporaries. Ikhwan, A table, a tray.
A -->;-) ikhwat or ukhwat, (pl. of t akh) Brothers. 45
ikhwatuhu, His brothers. Ukhuwat, Brotherhood, fraternity.
A <-- akhwas, Having a loose, pendulous, flagging belly.

ob A- akhiz, (from 3-) Growing sour, (milk).

t-T akhur, A stable, a stall. Litter or straw laid under
eep cattle. A cistern, a bath, a stone vessel from which water is
poured upon the body. J-7 ) The master of the horse.
r_f akhr-salar, Master of the horse. A grey-beard.
Pf akhrak, The collar-bone.
;ious A U-,-) akhicas, Having the eyes sunk in the head. A hot
wind which hurts the eyes. A deep well. A hill of sand. A
m7s) sheep with one eye black and the other white.
A - akhwaf, More or most timid. Very alarming.
A J:- akhtcak, One-eyed. Deep (well). Ample, roomy.
hich Wide extended (desert). Scabby, mangy (camel).
ed. A. J;-) J;-) akhwala akhwala, (Sparks of fire) flying about,
here (men) dispersed here and there.
and A &;-) akhwilat, (pl. of J khl) Maternal uncles.
P e akhn, A theologian, a preacher, a public speaker.
A e;-) akhun, (pl. of ) akh) Brothers; friends, companions.
A &;-) akhicinat, (pl. of e':- khiwan) Tables.
und P A >> khnd, A tutor.
A -s;-) akhatriy, Brotherly, sisterly.
f the A U.3-) e dam al akhtein, Dragon's blood (a red gum).
P us- akh?, A good work. Manly, generous.
foot. A J akhi, My brother.
AJ- Ukhayya', Name of a place in Arabia.
kles. Aj- akhyr, (pl. of 23 khayr) Good, best, choicest, most
excellent. J- **}s Chosen from the best; most excellent.
A J-- akhys, (pl. of U-3-khs) Thickets, dark groves,
. Haunts of lions. Places full of reeds or flags, in which animals
take shelter. Rays of milk streaming from the teats when milk
A J- akhyash, (pl. of U-23 khaysh) Linen cloths of a
coarse and flimsy texture.
A 2'-3" akhyt, (pl. of a 3 khay!) Threads, slender ropes.
A 3-) akhy, (pl. of -i- khayf) Skins of teats. Dif.
ferent kinds of men. Brothers by the same mother, but different
pt. fathers.
A J- akhyl, (pl. of J- khayl) Horses. Horsemen, ca
valry. Proud, conceited (people). Ikhyl, (1v of J:3) Por
tending rain.
ming A J Ukhyan, Name of two mountains.
A&T akhiyat, akhiyat or &- akhiyat A rope, stake, peg,
or ring with which cattle are fastened; a tether.
A & akhiyat, Brotherhood. Protection, tutelar authority.
A & akhikhat, Broth made of flour, with butter, or oil.
41 \S)

rl akhidan, To arrive, to reach, to overtake. pronounce, to express, to sing, to warble. J J JAC) To

&lakhiz, (fem, 53:- akhixat) Taken; a captive. make payment of debts. e- ..s) To perform military
ras akhir, The foundation of a house. Cement, plaster, duty, to make a campaign, to discharge that vassalage which *
the incrustation of a wall. An unburnt brick. A land-mark. military tenant owes to his lord.
Az akhyar, (from 23-) Better, best. Akhir, (from A) A sale idi-at, (iv of) Falling sick.
Posterior, last. y:- akhiran, At length, in fine. A -le adb, (pl. of C-3) adab) Civilities, good manners,
a vy akhirs, (or 4-9-1), (Ets) Wild wheat. devoirs, ceremonies, politeness, forms of address in writing and
*** ukhayra', (dim. fem. of ukhra'), Another. speaking, salutations, respects. Many books, particularly of
p Jz akhiridan, To draw a sword. morality and science, have the title of adb; as 3 ~~) -'
*js" akhiz, Cement, plaster, the incrustation of a wall. L-A) The manners of the Arabians and Persians; \,\! ~e
s akhiz-gar, A plasterer. The duties of travellers, or the manner in which those who
A v-> akhyas (J.-- exe & adad akhyas), A great number. travel to, or reside in, foreign countries, ought to conduct
r st akhisah, Aram leading the flock. A march-stone, a themselves; use 'Si The duties of a judge; -3%) -le
The duties of a secretary; 94) 'S' The manners of
land-mark. Defective, imperfect.
A J-s- ukhayshin, (dim, of e- akhshan) Roughish. princes, &c.; c's 3. $33 ,-S7 Name of a Persian Dic
A Le- akhyas, (A ram) having one horn broken. (A tionary, explained in Arabic and Indian, by Kz Mahmd
goat) having one horn erect, the other inclined to the head. bin dahlawiy, a native of Delhi, who died ann. 1420. ,-\s
Having one eye larger than the other. -'e Well-bred, learned men. --~~...~"Si The minor duties
A - is akhya, (A man or horse) having one eye grey, the of life. sle adb-gh, The place of obeisance in the
other black. (A camel) with a large sheath. palace of a chief.
AJ3-'akhyal, Having many moles (on the face, &c.). A A -le id-ab, (1v of ~~) Labour, diligence, exertion.
green magpye. Name of a tribe and of a place. A 2'- wdbir, (from 29 He turned his back.) One who has
G Ls- akhinus, ('Eg's) Wild wheat. an aversion to his kindred, who listens to, or cares for, nobody.
ge- akhyun, (Ezi) Snakes-head (a plant). r x<\e" ada-band, A describer of the actions or blandish
ments of women.
* < khyah, A ram preceding the flock. Praise. Spittle.
A limit, a boundary, a hedge or inclosure. r x'e) ada-bandi, Description of blandishments, &c.
As ill, Strength, power, vigour, hardness. A slida-at (or "e" idi-a), Suspecting falsely.
A add (from cladda), Taking by surprize, overpowering A "e" adat, An instrument, tool, utensil, apparatus; what
(as an unexpected misfortune). Vociferating or braying like ever is necessary in the forming or completing of anything. (in
a camel. Wandering, straying. Power, strength, victory. gram.) An accessory particle; as x <-- The definite
Add, or idd, Misfortune, sorrow, great danger. An arduous, article (JW). y c-le) An illative or conclusive particle,
difficult affair; any great and momentous business. A profane prefixed to nouns or verbs; as 3, Then, therefore; cl
or unlawful action. Udd, Power, strength, vigour, victory. Je: A conjunctive particle; s- ,-3) A particle added to
Name of an ancient Arabian tribe. Iddi, (imp. of -59) Let form the plural from the singular number; Je ,-'e) A par
alone, relinquish, meddle not. ticle supplementary to nouns or participles in forming the names
s's idi, (s 3|T, Ginger in the undried state. of agents, similar to er in English; as 3% kr-gar, Alabourer,
as all (or; adawa), (fut. >\. ya-d) He assisted, he from JS Labour, &c.; \* -'s) A vocative particle; cl

strengthened. He became strong. (The fruit) came to ma - A particle of relation or possession, which, when added
to a substantive, implies the being endowed with any quality;.
turity. He armed himself well. He prepared for a journey.
He lay in ambush. as ~~}}" arzil-mand, Desirous, from 25W arz, Desire.
A's ad, Payment, satisfaction, performance. A cle adad, Power, strength, victory. Adad, idad, or
rad, Pronunciation, eloquence, voice, expression, song, addad, The chameleon (a plant). Idd, (pl. of 3) idd) Mis
music, odes. Wel stv -U.3 The nightingale with the melodious fortunes, sorrows, dangers.
* - Ls A.A., A). The melody of the birds with A \,\,\ add, A species of mezereon.
A r"o c-> Just expression or pronunciation.
sweet notes. A see idadat, (iv of 9,9) Being infested with worms.
*** - ~~~ Well-weighed, judicious interpretations.
A Me) Adr, Name of the sixth Syro-Macedonian month
J% 'J' To pay, to satisfy, to liquidate, to discharge. To (March), their year beginning in October. With the Jews
perform, to execute, to accomplish. To assist. To bring to | however it is reckoned the twelfth month (February), their
Perfection. To prepare for a journey. To lie in wait. To year commencing with March.
-2) 44)

A Lo adrki, A kind of Indian medicine, of an acrid A -l) idbb, (1v of ~3 dabba) Causing to creep. Placing
poisonous quality.
a boy on horseback. Administering justice in a province.
A 303) idrat, (1v of 23) Turning round. rl- sle A_\e adhr, (pl. of 23 dubr) The hinder or latter parts of
* Handing round, pushing about, the deathful cup. any thing, of the back, neck, &c. those who come last, the rear.
rele adarin, (in anc. Pers.) Hideous. Wicked. (pl. of 329 dabarat) Ulcers, galled places on the backs of
r Je dsh, Bearing the same name with another. cattle. J.sLs Two inclinations of the head or body, after
* le ud, Membrum virile. The ear. certain evening prayers. ve The same ceremonies
Fr le) adfahm, Understanding by signs. after morning prayers. Idbar, (1v of ye) Turning back.
**) adk (or crs adk) An island. A ford. Setting (as the sun or stars). A reverse of fortune, fall, dis
A &J'el idlat, (1v of J) Assisting, making superior.
A ele dm, (pl. of le idam, and of ** adm, q.v.) grace, ruin. Perverseness. Following. Galling a horse's
p re adm, The celestial globe. back. Having a galled back (a horse). Exposing to the
west wind. Understanding. Ripening. Twisting (reins).
A re adam, Whatever joins one thing to another. Name
of a place. A woman's name. Idam, Whatever is eaten with A y." idbaran, Finally, in the end.
A Sje' idbrat, Synonymous with Je idbr; also the open
bread. A chief, a leader, a model. Consenting, agreeing.
Name of a well a day's journey from Madina. Adama, (in part of the ears turned towards the hinder part of the head.
A J-- * (iv of U-9) Being of a dark colour (grass)
prayer) May (God) prolong.
A 2'-3'addam, A tanner, a currier. when beginning to sprout.
P Je ida-mal, A pension. Tribute. P &\,\! adabanah, With reverence, with respect; civilly,
A ----'e idmat, (1v of **) Perpetuating. humanely, politely, wisely, discreetly, learnedly, courteously.
Raining gently sj' e *-disasah, Possessed of a clear voice.
without intermission. Stilling a boiling kettle. P

A &\el dnat, (iv of eye) Being weak and infirm. A --> adbab, Hairy (camel).
A &le) idanat, (1v of J) Lending. Buying or selling on A e" **'. An entertainment to which one is invited.
credit. Compensating. Subduing, reducing to servitude. P &\s lab-khanah, A school. A water
closet, a necessary.
* Ls Adnsh, Name of a reputed prophet. AA- adbar, Ulcerated, 9. alled in the back. Adbur, (pl. of
A 'e) adani, (pl. of jo daniy) Near, neighbouring. Weak,
29 dabr) Fields. Green corn, or any thing of that kind, cut
Worse, more or most infamous. as food for horses. Emoluments. Deaths. (pl. of 29 dibr)
A <2\,\e adwt, (pl. of cle adit) Instruments, utensils.
Swarms of bees or hornets. Young locusts. Rocks in the sea,
A 8,'e' *at, An ewer, or vessel, from which the Mu
sometimes covered with Water, sometimes left dry. Great
hammadans pour water, for washing the hands and other waters. Much wealth. Plentiful. The latter parts.
members in their religious ceremonies. A U-- ts, Chesnut-coloured (horse, &c.).
A 'e) adawi, (pl. of 3,\,\! idawat) Ewers, water-pots. A U--- idbiss, (1x of Je) Being of a dark bay colour.
A cle) adhim, (pl. of se adham) Fetters. Black horses. A s *07/, Polite, learned.
Name of a mountain.
Al adahim, Name of certain dark-coloured hills in A <s' adabiyt,

Najd. (fem. pl.) Relating to humanity, po

liteness, or learning. Accomplishments. The graces,
A f idib (part.) One who invites to an
the master of a feast. entertainment, Ale adr. A species of serpent.
A --> adb, (from r 'c') Inviting to an entertainment, A e iddat, Adversity, grief. A wonderful, difficult, or
thing stupenduous or wonderful. Any wicked thing. $3. *se dah '''iddat, A great misfortune.
AJe adsar, Perishing.
A -e) adab, Courtesy, politeness, urbanity; good-breeding, Ruined. Careless.
respect, reverence. Modesty, bashfulness. Learning, IllOra A 2-e' idja, (iv of 3-3) Being dark (the night).
lity, sound doctrine. A law, a rule, an institute. d *** affin, (pl. of J** dajn) Cloudy, rainy (nights or
stupendous or wonderful. As) -e) Abundance o Any thing *Ys). Idjn, (1v of cre) Remaining stationary. Being
the sea. reele -e) To *rect, to civilize, to teach. f water
-e)in dark and cloudy (the day). Raining incessantly.
95 To behave modestly, properly, or honestly. -e) ~% A c-e adjan, (A camel) of an ugly black colour.
Rudeness, incivility. J% -e) .* To offend against good A 5-3) adjaw, Hairy,
having intangled hair (a goat).
manners; to be boorish, blunt, rude, or unpolished. * CA-3) idhs
* (iv of J-3) Pismissing a suit. Abolish
A -->) adabb, Having little hair on the face. Hairy (camel) Ing. Defeating. Causing to slide.
A\e idi (r. of ) Producing the herb eoy rams. A J-2 idhak, (1v of Casting lots. Propping up.
G-J) Driving away. Despising.
* W3) udaba, (pl. of ~9) adb) Humane, learned ...A J-2 adhl (or

2 polite -
J-2 adhul), (pl. of J-3 dahl) Caverns
in the earth
> *rrow at top and wide at bottom, where people
_>) 43 _2)
may walk. Cavities in the channels of rivers, or the bottoms A cys' adrk, (pl. of 350e darakat or darkat) Shields made
of wells. Openings in the sides of the Arabian tents, through of strong leather. Wickets or small doors in great gates.
which the women retire when any man enters. Moles, dikes, A J- idrkz, Name of a hard and bitter root.
or other works by which water is collected and confined. *J-39- idrks, Froth of the sea.
J-C Al adhl, Name of a place. a -3ye adrak, (pl. of 99 dark) Punishments. Lowest
A 5-9 udhuwat (or J-e' udhiy), The place where the pits of hell. Lower parts of ropes used in drawing water. Parts
ostrich lays her eggs. Name of a lunar mansion. of the earth. Idrk, (iv of -s) Overtaking, attaining. Ar
r2: adakh, Good, elegant. Of a dignified appearance. riving at manhood. Coming to maturity. Comprehension, un
AJ<! idkhr, (1v of ,-3) Vilifying, rendering contemptible. derstanding, perception, intelligence, intellect, capacity, genius.
s iddikhar, (v111 of A-3) Being contemptible. A599) iddirak, (v11.1 of 99) Overtaking.
A Je idkhl; (iv of J-3) Introducing, inserting. A 43-le ~$99 idrkt-i-sadikah, True, just conceptions.
*Jiddikhl, (viii of J-2) Entering. P cy- adrm (or 93 azram), A packing-needle.
se-- iddikhn, (viii of c-e) Sending forth smoke. A. fjel idrm, (1v of eye) Changing his teeth (a young
*Je adkhal, Interior, more or most intimate, familiar. camel).
Ae adkhan, (A sheep) of a dirty smoky colour. A 3,9] adarat or udrat, The rupture. A swelled testicle.
A&J'adkhinat, (pl. of Jse dukhan) Smokes, fumes. A 3-9- adrujjat, The step of a ladder.
A2. Adad, Name of a tribe in Arabia Felix. Idad, (pl. of P Ut-jet adarakhish, Lightning.
is iddal) Adversities, misfortunes. Wonderful things. A eye adrad, Toothless, or one whose teeth are worn to the
A see adulty, Belonging to the tribe of 23 Adad. stumps. Name of an Arabian legion.
p9.7 dar, Fire. Adir, A phlebotomist, a bleeder. P z adarshakh, A pickle.
Ajji adar, Afflicted with the rupture. A 82 adrat, (An animal) having a black head and white
**). adira, (futje'. ja-diru) He was ruptured. body. (A sheep) having a white breast and black thighs. (A
Ajl adar, The rupture. Udur, (pl. ofJe adar) Ruptured. night) when the moon does not appear till near sun-rise. Adrut,
AJ adarr, Having oblong, ruptured, or swelled testicles.
ld (pl. of & J dirt and dark) Coats of mail. -

Ayelidr, (iv of 533) Teaching, instructing. P ej adaran, The itch, the scab.
A jidr-a, (iv of ye) Flowing from a camel's udder P 99 adark, A swinging cot or bed; a swing for children.
beestings). Announcing.
Ay idlir (viii of 5,9) Combing, parting the hair. At Adrak, (s STT3B5) Moist ginger. Idrik, A small plum.
It p ve adram (or ve adram), A saddle-cloth. A sword, a
tacking, assaulting.
A jiddiri-n, (v11.1 of ye) Lying in wait (a hunter). knife. A large needle.
A-jidrb, (iv of ~99) Passing through the defiles of a A eye adram, Fleshy on the arms, ancles, thighs, &c. Ancles
mountain to invade an enemy's country. or wrists so covered with flesh, that no part of the legs or arms
A c- adrj, (pl. of zy- daraj) Ways, paths. Steps, de appears more prominent than another. Toothless (camel). A
grees (of honour). Idrj, (1v of gye) Exceeding a year and species of red-leafed herb.
not bringing forth (a camel). Folding. Inserting. Tying a r Js99) adram-kash, A cobbler's awl, a packing-needle.
camel's teats. P &sje adramah, A saddle-cloth made of coarse wool.
A Je idrinfak, (III of Gye Q) Walking quickly.
Ays' idrr, (1v of ye darra) Agitating, moving, whirling
"d Giving liberally and continually. . P <f adarang, Grief, sorrow. A heavy calamity.
idrr, Cloth sufficient to make a garment. A pension. A &je Adranah, Adrianople.
A )- idrarat, Pensions." A ey- adrawn, A manger, a crib, a stall.

P 3,9] udrah, The crest of a helmet.

idrri, A pension. As much as will fill a dish.
Au-j- udrs, (pl. of Ly dirs) Tattered garments. Ca A cs' idrihmm, (1v of *** Q) Being aged.

mels tails. J-j-";" abu adras, Pudenda mulierum. Idrs, A JJ' Idris, The Arabian name for t:-- Enoch the pro

("of Je) Studying. phet (Genesis v. 21). This name is derived from Lj9, which
*Je adras, (pl. of Jeye dirs) Misfortunes, calamities. signifies study or meditation. The Arabians say that God sent
The factuses of mice, moles, hares, cats, &c. The brayings of thirty volumes to this antediluvian prophet, containing the se
** when seeking her colt. Jay- ) umm adrs, A mole. crets of the most occult sciences; in consequence of which, the
*{}. adr, (pl. of & 29 dirt or dare) Coats of mail, cui books of Enoch have long enjoyed great reputation in the East.
* of iron, leather, &c. Women's shifts. The prophecy of Enoch is mentioned by the apostle Jude in his
A. t iddirt, (v11.1 of &y) Putting on a cuirass or a shift.
epistle; and the Ethiopians have long alleged that it was still
G 2
44 J>)
preserved, with his other books, in their language. M. du A *** adgham, (Horse or sheep) having the head and lip,
Pieresc made every effort to procure it, in the reign of Francis I. black. One who speaks through his nose.
but in vain; and the learned have in general doubted of its ex r 52 adaf (orJi- adafar), A nephew by the brother.
istence, till lately that the ingenious and enterprising traveller A Ge" ad-a, (pl. of Ge di-a) Warm clothings of wool, or
Mr. Bruce has discovered the prophecy, during his residence in camel's hair. Whatever is produced by camels, as young ones,
Abyssinia; several copies of which he has brought to Europe. milk, hair, &c. Warin places in bed-chambers, where sick
The Muhammadans attribute to Enoch the inventions of writing, people sit. Fomentations. Idfa-a, (1v of (#9) Warming.
of the needle, of astronomy, of arithmetic, and particularly of A Ge" iddia-a, (v111 of C-) Putting on warm clothing.
geomancy, or the art of fortune-telling by figures. The eastern Drawing near the fire. Warmth, genial heat.
Christians say that Enoch is the same with the Hermes, Mercury, A Jel adn, (pl. of cjo dafin) Covered up, buried, hid.
or Trismegistus of the Egyptians. U-4Je) 3' aba idris, Mem Unknown or latent (diseases).
brum virile. A J- iddin, (v111 of eje) Running away and hiding
F & 3- C-99 Idris-khanah, (Enoch's house) Heaven. himself (a slave), lest he should be sold. Being choked up (a
a Jy adriyun, Name of a flower. well). Being buried.
rvel adas, Name of a grain. Aji- adfar, Fetid, filthy, rusty (arms, &c.).
AJ-2 adsak, Having a large mouth. A ti- adfat, More or most repellent, most skilful in removing
A 2-3" adsam, Ash-coloured. or carrying off.
A U-2) idea, (1v of ce) Causing one to be adopted as a son. A Ge" adfak, Swift. (A camel) whose teeth project.
Ace' iddie, (v111 of 32.9) Demanding one's right, assuming, A Je' adfa A large tree. An eagle. Long-horned (goat).
boasting (of family, courage, &c.); pretension, presumption, Long-winged (bird). Long-necked (horse). Hook-beaked
arrogance. Inviting, calling to, ordering to be brought. Wish (eagle).
ing, desiring earnestly. Asking a blessing. Avowal. A 3.3.) Idfiyat, Name of a mountain in Arabia.
a c-lee) adis, (pl. of e-co dats) The beginnings of dis A J- adakk, More or most subtile, slender, thin, abstruse.
eases. Hatreds. A J- idkk, (1v of J dakka) Pounding, pulverizing. Al
A Jelee adis, (pl of Laco dies, or dats) Hillocks or heaps tenuating. Speaking abstrusely. Dealing in minutiae. Di
of sand. Ideas, (1v of Jace) Killing a person (heat). minishing.
A eleo iddizm, (v111 of ***) Leaning on a prop. P &#3 adakchah, A cover, wrapper.
a ce adab, Foolish. A ti- adkat, Wehement, keen (hunger).
A ** adcaj, Black (man). a .33) adkam, Having three teeth broken.
AJee adcar, Emitting no fire (a chafing-dish, &c.). P & adak, An island.
A 5,29 udaitcat, (or &ce udaiyat) An enigma, a riddle, any
P 53 aduk, Pudenda.
thing that one strives hard to know. A cl adakk, Broad-backed (horse). Bunchless (camel).
A\col adaiy, (pl. of Usee datiy) Adopted. Bastards. Aje iddikar, (v11.1 of S) Remembering. Taking advice.
A 3.23 adaiyat, (pl. of \ce dut) Salutations, congratulations, A. ee adkan, Inclining to black. Strewed with herbs (meat).
compliments, wishes, prayers. Invitations. Blessings. r;3 adgar, Measure. Comparison. Conjecture.
A J) adghal, (pl. of Je daghal) Vices, corruptions.
Je" adala, (fut. of Jes ya-dilu) The wound healed.
Thick forests, trees, or luxuriant herbage, where the branches A J idl, A pain in the neck. Milk thick and sourish (proper
and fibres are interwoven and intangled. Ambushes. Impos
for making butter). Anything which gives rise to quarrels.
tors, scoundrels, pickpockets, adulterers or falsifiers of coin, &c. AS3) idl, (1v of J2) Throwing, sending, or letting down,
Idghl, (1v of Je) Lying in ambush, deceiving. Laying an dropping. Drawing (water, &c.). Laxus pendens (penis).
information. Marring, spoiling. Producing trees thickly en Forming an intimate alliance. Offering a bribe to a judge.
tangled together (the earth). Pleading in a court of justice. Speaking evil of another
a elio idgham, (1v of **) Making black in the face. Ens
A z- idlaj, (1v of g) Departing at night-fall.
feebling or benumbing (heator cold). Swallowing food not mas - A z iddilaj, (v11.1 orge) Travelling during the last watch
ticated, eating in a hurry. Putting the bit in a horse's mouth.
Inserting one letter into another. of the night.
A. Fo iddigham, (VIII of **) Bridling a horse. Contract A. v- adlas, (pl. of Je dalas) Darknesses. Grass grow
ing two letters into one. ing at the end of summer. Ideas, (1v of U-9) Finding such
PA adghar, A summer-house. grass. -

pAc) adghar, A vent-hole.

A 9) idlt, (1v of tle) Lolling the tongue.
45 22)
A-53) idlif, (1v of -ie) Speaking harshly. a & T dimat, (pl. of ** adim) Meats, seasonings. Sur
* 33 idlk, (iv of Gle) Drawing a sword. faces of the ground. Skins.
A Cle idlal, (iv of Jo dalla) Giving proof, or argument. A ce" adamat, The skin, the thin skin, cuticle, or membrane,
speaking fair, coaxing. Looking askance as lovers. Confiding. which covers the flesh, intestines, &c. Conjunction, or that
Being mangy (a wolf). Hostility, inroad, incursion. which causes it, that which passes between, and unites two
A J. adillat, (pl. of Je dalil) Arguments, reasons, proofs, bodies; union, mixture, propinquity, affinity. Necessity. A
evidences, indications. ***", &J Clear proofs. &c.*P* &Je) chief, a general, a leader, a model, an exemplar, a pattern.
Legal, judicial proofs; evidences before a court of justice. Udmat, Brownness, duskiness. Being imbued or tinged with
A L23 adlas, (An ass) getting a new coat. Bald. (A camel) a brown colour. A clear shining white (in camels). White
having lost its hair. mixed with black, or any other colour (in deer). A gift.
A J adlakiy, (8-3) or J'), Penis crassus et longus. r_5- *37 adam-khur, A man-eater, a cannibal.
a jo adlam, Swarthy, (man or ass). Dusky. A lion. p J--: f dam-shinas, Knowing mankind.
A idlimam, (1x of) Blackness. Hanging (as the lip). A U-ve admas, Having eye-brows thin at the extremities.
A idlihman, (1v of *** q) Being very dark. ...A ss admut, (pl. of S-c dama) Tears.

A J adli, (pl. of 39 dalw) Buckets, urns, tankards. A &ce admighat, (pl. of &\ce dimgh) Brains.

Ms idlila, (x11 of J2) Going quickly. Being covered. rcs' adam-gari, Humanity. Benevolence. Valour.
P er) adman, Pure, fragrant (musk).
A idlimam, (x1 of Co) Being very dark (the night).
A --> udmus, A place under the ashes, where they bake
A adam, Brown, dusky, tawny, mulatto. Adam, the fa
ther of the human race. AJ' ( s bani-adam, The sons of
A. Jse admits, Dark (night).
Adam, i.e. mankind. J) ci The second Adam, i. e. Noah.
A. Js damy, Human. A man. Brown, dusky.
A servant, a messenger. White and at the same time hairy A J.-e) Udma', Name of a place in Arabia.
(camel). Having the pupils of the eyes varied, black and white. p Js adamiyn (or jus-37 adami-zd), Men, mortals.
(A white deer) marked with stripes of an ash colour.
A adm, (from **) Adding one thing to another (as bread ****- adamiynah, Humanly, like a man.
to meat, &c.); uniting in love or friendship. Conjunction, con
A --~~" adamiyat, Humanity.
cord, consent, familiarity. Necessity. Udm, An example, a A eye adann, Crook-backed (man). Short-necked. Dwarf

model, a chief, a leader. (pl. of Vice adm), Brown. White ish (plant). Sweeping the ground (bellies of animals). Short
with ash-coloured stripes. Adam, Man, mankind, Adam and in the fore-feet (horse). Hollow in the middle of the floor (a
his posterity. A human foetus completely formed. A tomb. A We' adn, Nearer. Lower. Last. Least. Basest, vilest,
A kind of date. Names of several places in Arabia, and often, by
j Ge" Before all things, above all. P Jjo Mean, of low
the poets, put for Yaman or Arabia Felix itself. (pl. of *-
adim), Surfaces of the earth. Dressed skins (of goats, &c.). condition. A Idn, (1v of 533) Bringing near. Being near her
Udum, (pl. of ld idim, and adm) Meats, seasonings, time (a camel). Living on spare diet.
Pickles. Dressed skins (of goats). Surfaces of the earth. A t adna-a, Crooked, hump-backed.
p adam, A ruby. A Velidn-a, (1v of us) Perpetrating enormities. Being
Ake adm, (fem. of *37 adam) Brown. hump-backed.
A\so idma, (1v of J-9) Striking till the blood flows.
A. J-99) adns, Dirty (fellows), nasty (rascals), sorry (dogs).
****) adamt, (pl. of3" adamat, q.v.) Skins. * 99) idi, (iv of ie) Suffering from severe and co.
A g idmaj, (iv of ***) Wrapping one's self in a gar tinued illness. Going down (as the sun). Approaching.
Putting in pain.
ment. Being veiled. Strengthening. Being slender in the body. r x- adand, How See J 33 adank.
**** iddimaj, (v11.1 of ***) Being mixed together. r & Kel adunk, How At what rate 2 An uncertain, unknown
A Je idmk, (iv of G-ce) Introducing suddenly. Inserting.
number, conjectural computation. One truss, hamper, &c. One
A Je idml, (iv of Je) Cicatrizing a wound. half of a horse's load, as much as a beast carries upon one side.
A Udmm, Name of a town.
One side of a piece of money.
"Jidamn, Men. A je adna', Lower, lowest.
Ae idmn, (iv of gree) Exercise, continual practice. A Je Adaniyn, Name of two wallies.
A Je udmn, (A buck or doe) of a white colour. Adamn,
A \,\ idw, (from le") Ripening, coming to maturity.
The corruption of the palm-tree. Name of a tree in Paradise. A\,e idw, (iv of us;*) Afflicting with disease.
A *\,e) adw-a, (pl. of "3 da-a) Diseases.
*Ps dam-pir, The creator of man, i.e. God.
| WS)

A -s ada, Exact, punctual in ones payments.

A fe) ady, Apparatus, (especially of a military kind). Lit
tle (flock or wealth). Ample (garment). Udy, Becoming
thick (as milk).
A -se Adda' and Udda', Proper names of men.

A_\e) adyr, (pl. of 23 dayr) Monasteries. Churches.

A "se adyak, (pl. of - dik) Cocks, chanticleers.

A ce adyan (pl. of ce din) Religious rites or ceremonies.

P c- adyan (or ex- adyn), Fat cattle (in motion).

A J- iddiyn, (v111 of ce) Running in debt.

A 3' adub, Courteous, well-bred. Learned; a tutor.

A &e" adzyat, A little.

r s adicharah, The inverted thorn.

P &e adid, Consequence, sequel. A spring of water.
A Me" adid, Clamour, noise. Adverse fortune.
ru- adsh, Fire.
A ** adm, Goat's leather, perfumed, which they bring from
Arabia Felix. Bread when eaten or baked with meat. Name

of one of the companions of Muhammad, also of several places.

The surface of the earth. V-" ** The expanse of heaven.
y-" -- The diffusion of light or day. Je re The half

way between sun-rise and mid-day. Udayn, Name of a country.

P ** adim, The face.
a &e Udaymat, Name of a mountain.
A eft- adyun, (pl. of ce dayn) Debts.
P 3Al adindah, The rainbow.
r &e adnah, Friday.
P e:- adyun, A rapacious animal.
A 3' x, When (in a past sense). Indeed. If, if so be. For
asmuch as. Already. Behold! lo! 23) isin (.3-> hinayizin
or "3" isska), Then, at that time. 23.9 yawnayizin, On
that day. .** daylatayisin, On that night. V. 3 iz-m, When,
if at any time.
A 3' ass, Amputation, cutting off.
A 'S' asi (-5." isa' or $3. azat), Trouble, damage, loss, in
jury, tyranny, oppression. A source of vexation.
A 'S' is, When (in the future sense). Behold.
A TS, is-ab, (1v of 3) Being terrified (by a wolf).
A 'S isabat, (1v of S) Liquefaction. Augmentation
Invading, plundering. Melted butter.
AA-3' Asakhir, Name of a pass between Mecca and Madina.
A se!..." isdat, (1v of *S) Helping to drive camels.
A J33 azzil, (pl. of J&S zulzul) The lower parts or skirts

of shirts or other garments. -

A 'S' Azr, (or,37 Msar) The Chaldean or Syro-Macedonian

month of March. This must not be confounded with another
month called 937 Azar, which is the last month of autumn in the
Persian calendar.
P c' acaryun, Foam of the sea.

y i,j asrki, The seed of a poisonous Indian plant. (pl. of c,3 zurab), Foul stomachs, Izrb, (iv of ~9)
"Js Azrtis (or J-4937 Azarts) A proper name. Whetting. Nauseating medecine.
a -213 iseat, (iv of **) Publishing, divulging. Drain fell sar-bd (or Js Azar-ibd-gn), Name
ing, exhausting. "Squandering, lavishing. of a fire temple in Tabrz; also the ancient name of Tabriz itself.
P escs' azar-bd-gun, A stove. A smith's forge.
A-33) ur. The ear. Membrum genitale maris. Ends.
A &WS) izrt, (iv of &S) Embracing. Measuring. Wish
A33) islikat, (iv of J) Giving one to drink or taste.
A J3 islat, (iv of J) Letting down a veil. Abusing, ing for. Bringing forth (the wild cow). Talkativeness.
over-working a slave or a horse.
Aj azar-afroz, An eolipile. A phoenix.
AJ.9% izrak, (1v of Jy) Producing the lote plant.
AJ3 sillat, (iv of J3 zalla) Contempt. Depression. pe-Tj Asar-yn, Name of the fourth temple of the seven
A 13) is-m, (iv of *3) Forcing, compelling.
A JST azn, (pl. of J usn or usun) Ears, lobes of the ears.
which the ancient Persians named after the seven planets.
P s Msar-bd, Name of a priest of the Magi.
Handles. Many names of herbs are compounded with this P esilisar-bd-gn (or e Azar-by-gn), Name
word; as, -} e' (Hare's ears), Bupleurum. J'S
of a fire temple in Tabrz; also Tabriz itself.
s (Kid's ears), Ribwort. -2" JST (Bear's ears), P Jy' Azar-barsin, Name of the sixth fire-temple (in
Mulim. s." JST (Sheep's ears) Hound's tongue. **!) e'Si
Persia) of those named after the seven planets.
(Slave's ears), Shepherd's staff. Jj JST (Doe's ears):
r f asar-bii, Name of a red and yellow flower; also its root.
Hound's tongue. J!" e/37 (Mouse's ears), Chickweed. e' P Asar-i-bahrm, Name of the third fire-temple.
J (Elephant's ears), The Egyptian bean. u- J'S' P Jl Azar-bijan (The region of fire), A province of
(Presbyter's ears) or us) JST (Judge's ears) Venus's
Persia, which corresponds nearly with the ancient Media, though
it comprehends also a part of Syria and Armenia Major. It
AeS asin or aszn, (from es) Signifying55 announcing,
was here, according to Oriental tradition, that Kayumaras, the
giving notice; the signal for summoning to prayers, by the
great-grandson of Noah, established the first dynasty of the Per
Muazzin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques.
A J'S uzniy, Large-eared (applied to men).
sian kings; it being near Ararat, or the Gordian mountains,
where the ark is supposed to have rested after the flood.
A-3 asabb, A wild bull. Long. A long tooth projecting
from the side of a camel's mouth. P --> J&T azar-parast, A fire-worshipper.
A t izzibah, (v111 of t) Preparing a sheep for sacrifice. e Vje izar-pira, One who attends on a fire-temple.
A 5,3 asirrat, (pl. of 5);LS zarurat) Reeds of an aromatic
A Jlitbl, (iv of J.3) Causing to wither. Debilitating. kind, infused in the water with which they sprinkle dead bodies.
A&S azibbat, (pl. of &u subbat) Balances of debts. P Ls asartush, A salamander.
p <3 Uzbak, Usback Tartar.
A c Asruh, Name of a town in Syria.
a J-3 azhl, (pl. of J-3 zahl) Enmities, hatreds. Retalia
tions, desires of revenge.
*_\,-37 Azar-khurdar (or ee>,37 Asar-khurdd) Name
A.A-3) azkhr, (pl. of A-3 zukr.) Provisions or treasures accu of a priest of the Magi; also of the angel who presides over fire.
P e-A/S, Asar-khurin, Name of the fifth fire-temple, called
mved for future use. 1:khar, (1v of A-3) Laying up in store.
after the seven planets by the ancient Persians.
Aj iskhir, The bog-rush. p Ji azarakhsh (for Ls azar-rakhsh), Thunder, a
ry' zar (sometimes written asur), Fire. Name of the
thunder-bolt, thunder-stone. Name of the ninth day of the
"g" or demon who presides over fire, the god of the worship month Azar.
Persoffire. Name of Abraham's father. Thunder rolling with
a dreadful noise. Lightning. A cobbler's awl. The ninth solar r 3937 sirkhusha, Intense cold fatal to man and beast.
"uth, when the sun is in Sagittarius. Name of the last lunar
P <&J&T asar-rang, Bright, shining, red, flame-coloured.
"*"outh. The name of the ninth day in any month, but Confused, dispersed. Difficult. Trouble, vexation, misfortune.
*"larly in the 4th month Tir-mh, exus .37 (The calamity, ruin, slaughter, murder.
glorious fire), Name of a female magician. P 937 azar-gun
(or s *ar-yn), Flame-coloured, fiery-red, bright. * <s Asar-sardahasht, Name of the eighth fire
N s icr, (1v of **) Blowing. Winnowing. Sifting.
* L:937 asaras, A salamander.
sng and unhorsing a cavalier. Shedding tears. -' Asarshab (or ~~~n937 Asar-gushasp), Name

Ay agr*-a, Grey about the forehead.

with a black body and dappled ears. (A horse or a goat) of the angel or demon of fire. Fire, flame, lightning. A tem
A ple of the Magi or worshippers of fire. Name of one of the tem
~y azrb, (pl. of 03 zarab) Obscene conversations.
Ples in the city of Balkh, destroyed by Alexander. Asalamander,
48 c
cuous, or witty. Izka, (1v of J) Making the fire burn, or the
lamp shine more clearly. Sending forth spies.
A_\S askr, (pl. of 3 zikr) Praises of God, continual
prayers, or a repetition of the names and attributes of the Su
preme Being. Izkr, (iv of S) Calling to remembrance.
? Praising. Bringing forth a male child.
A_\S' i::ikar, (v11.1 of S) Recalling to one's memory what
had been long forgotten.
AAS askar, More or most acute, or sharp.
...A us aska, More or most acute, ingenious, quick.
A USS' azkiya, (pl. of J zakiy) Acute, ingenious, witty.
A. J3 asall, Most vile, abject, submissive.

A 3) asilla (or 33 asillat), (pl. of J.J. salil) Abject, vile,

mean, contemptible, slavish, wretched, miserable.
A J.S. islak, (1 v of JS) Disturbing, troubling. Pouring
water into the hole of a lizard.
a J.3' islal, (1v of J zalla) Associating with base people.
Contempt, depression. Dishonour. Mode, manner, condition.
a ---.S. izliebab, (1v of - 9) Walking fast.
A 'S' asa, Small-nosed; ape-nosed.
A&S aslak, Pointed (spear). Eloquent.
A $.3' islit (x11 of J) Clandestine flight. Submission.
A U-3 is-m, When. "
Ajss' azmar, (pl. of 2.3 zimr) Intrepid men. Protectors.
A S isman, (1v of S zamma) Becoming vile and con
temptible. Discovering any one to be so. Committing an act
fraught with turpitude. Receiving under one's protection.
Lagging behind from fatigue.
A&S.) azimmat, (pl. of zimm) Safeguards. Rights,
dues. -

A JST azan, Long-eared (animal). Azin, One who sings

while he reads or recites the Kurn. A porter. A chamberlain.
ht A es azina, (fut. e.S Ja-canu) He listened. He knew,
AeS asn, (from es") Perceiving, knowing, being sure.
f Aes izn, (from JS) Permitting ; leave, licence, dismissal.
AJS uzn, The ear, the tip of the ear. A handle. e."
--" The wings of an arrow. Ar) e." (Ear of the slave)
The water-plantain.
e." azan, (pl. of 33 asanat) Blades of corn. Small camels

or sheep. (from e') Listening, attending to, obeying.

J azin (for es zin), Chanting the Kurn. Listening,

hearing, knowing. A porter. A chamberlain.

A e." izan, Well, very well. Come on. Surely, verily.
A es usun, The ear. Name of a mountain. J *
Name of an Arabian tribe.
A es azann, Snotty, snivelly.
A 33' azn, (fem, of es azan) Long-eared (animal).
A -u, aznb, (pl. of 3 zanab) Tails, rumps, poste
riors. J -US Horse-tail (a plant). Iznb, (1v of 9)
i Committing a crime,
49 \\
A casn, (pl. of & 3) acnat, q.v.). Asylums, moun handle or ear. A slight perception, a little knowledge. Name
tains, where the same jurisdiction extends for twenty miles. of a king of the Amalekites; also of a valley.
P <3 'axinah, Friday.
A&S asnibat, (pl. of-5 zanab) Tails (of quadrupeds).
A&S asanat, A leaf or blade of corn. The small kind of A r (or A biyr), (imperative of J" awardan) Bring
the camel species; also of sheep, &c. (Meat) agreeable to the thou. (in comp.) Bringing; a bringer. J) ar without madda,
palate, exciting an appetite. Adana, a city of Cilicia near when added to the third pers. sing. pret. of certain verbs forms
Tarsus, Name of a mountain near Mecca. Uzanat, One who abstract nouns, asj, raftr, Going, gait, walking, from G-3)
hoards, or treasures up any thing. Uzunat, One who lends an ear. raft, He went, as gutir, Speech, from -gut, He said.
A !" asica, (pl.of,3 z) Kings of Arabia Felix, whose names r) (for 3" agar), If. A saw. The dregs of oil.

all begin with 39 il. Izw, (1v of 5,9) Causing to wither. AJ) arr, Kindling, lighting fire. Resounding, shouting in
A- i:wab, (or &;3 izwabat) Thick milk, cream. triumph. Compulsion, impulsion. Throwing off clothes, ar
As azicd, (pl. of ** zawd)Troops of camels from 3 to 10. mour, or a slough. Coitus. Ramus spinae qui allisus sepius ad
AS asst, (pl. of ls zaietal) Spiders with yellow backs. terram, donec emollescant extrema, deinde, aqua et friato sale
A3. azwk, (pl. of J sawk) Tastes, flavours. conspersus, inseritur in matricem camelae, ad excitandum cu
A53 az-ub, (pl. of ~~~ zi-b) Wolves, wild dogs. pidinem genitalis congressus. Irr, Fire.
A axicat, (A man) short in the chin. r 97 r (in comp. from J-W rstan) Embellishing,
A *: Isin, Idumea. adorning ; an ornament. V J Gracing the banquet.
regel azun, Thus, in this manner. J- (or yi **), Adorning the world, ornament of the
Ae." Azn, Name of a place near * Ray. universe, the most noble, excellent, eminent, renowned.
A-s ashab, (pl. of s zahab) Particles of gold. Izhb, ATA ar-, (pl. of ra-y) Opinions, counsels, doctrines.
(1v of -*) Going, ordering or permitting to go. Gilding. A < *) ird-at, (1v of 59) Showing, exhibiting. Having a
*Jishi, (iv of JSS) Causing to forget. swollen udder (a sheep). P J *> y .**) To show the face.
Ae azhn, (pl of es zihn) Geniuses. Memories. A. 97 rb(and -U) ar-b),(pl.of ~) irb) The members,

A Jl azi, Vexed, hurt, offended, injured. A wave of the sea. hands, feet, &c. ~!" *- J- 2,3- Adoration on seven
$ A s: aziya', (fut. ..s ya-ka') He received damage.

#! A aca', Injury, harm, annoyance.

members, a mode of worship customary among the Muhamma
A. s' azi, Injured, vexed, hurt, offended. (A camel) un dans, the hands, knees, feet, and forehead, touching the ground.
A -) Arab, Irab or Urb, Name of a place, and of a well.

tractable, skittish, restless, impatient. A &\) arbat, (from ) Acumen, intellect, industry, skill.
A t asykh, (pl. of t zikh) Male hyenas (especially
A &!, irabat, (1v of c-p) Doubt, suspicion. Scepticism.
when very hairy). Wolves. Jades, sorry nags. Certain red P J--9) arb-ch2 (or J&V) arbah-kash), A carter.
dish stars. Prides.
A &\}) arbah (for r tarabah), A wheel. A waggon.
A.J." a:yl, (pl. of J.' zay!) Skirts, tails, ends, borders of A <-) irs, Fire. Fuel.
a garment. The lower parts of any thing. Appendices. The A zy arraj, A liar, a tale-bearer, a sower of discord.
long tails of animals (as of lions, oxen, &c.). The meanest J-9) arjil, (pl. of Jy rajil and rajul) Foot-men. Men.
of men, Tracks made in the sand by the skirts of long garments. A

A&3' a:'yat, (fem. of s axi) Skittish, restless, untractable. A t-) arjih, Deserts, plains. The swinging motion of
As-S asiyat, Injury, damage, hurt, wrong, loss. A source camels when they travel with a short step.
of vexation. P ey's ~3 Oppressors, tyrants, workers of evil. Aj-9) arjz, (pl. of Sj arjsat) Poems consisting of
p Jl ssh, A door-sill. Chips, shavings, rubbish. Fire. verses called jy rajas, where the cesura is six times repeated.
"J'' isin, Custom, common usage, institution, rite, cere A -) arji, (pl. of s irjf) False rumours. Tu
mony. A solemnity, or festival, at the beginning of the year, or
the public entry of any prince ; on which occasions the cities of A ---, irhat, (1v of cy) Giving rest. Bringing cattle
"eria are decorated with temporary buildings, adorned with home in the evening. Paying a debt. Breathing. Smelling.
"t boughs, &c. A kind of building erected in the Persian Exhaling an agreeable odour. Taking the air. Being re
cities fr music, &c. on such triumphal festivals. A churn.
freshed. Dying. Entering.
A c- sin, A crier. Summons to prayer. The place to A t) irkh, A wild ox. A deer.
""" such summons extends (as a street, or a parish). A gene A 3.3-9) arkhina, (pl. of e) arkhn) Princes, archons.
*', a leader, an exemplar. A prop, a support. A sponsor, a re arakhidan, (for e-j rmidan) To rest.
"... Permission. Name of a man. rej Ard, Name of an angel presiding over the twenty
*c usayn (or 3-3 usaynat), (dim, of es uzn) A little fifth day of each month; also the twenty-fifth day ofeach month.
50 \\
make tooth-pickers, &c. A piece of ground. Name of a place
in Memra, on Mount Arafat, near Mecca. Name of a mountain
and district of land belonging to the tribe of Hudayl.
a $9 ark ('Anza) A kind of nut, which, when chewed
with betel-leaves and fine lime, strengthens the stomach, and
gives an agreeable flavour to the breath.
A JV) araki, (pl. of ~9) arikat) (She camels) having the

belly-ache from eating too much of the tree ark.

~% arkib, (pl. of % rakab) Pubes muliebris.

&9) arkiyat, Camels which feed on the tree ") ark.


e arkn, (pl. ofe rukn) Columns, chief personages.


P ) arm, Rest, tranquillity, peace, quiet, repose, cessation,

inaction. Sleep, a dream. An easy private life. Health.
Obedience, subjection. A garden. A town. A dwelling
place. re; Restless, uneasy. *W J Giving tranquility
to the mind. es- ' To give rest, pacify, make easy, calm.
e-r' To take rest. To be patient.
A 97 arm, (pl. of ) irm or iram) Stones erected in the
desert for the direction of travellers. Pleasant gardens. The
place where the different parts of the forehead meet. White
deer. Name of two mountains, one of which lies between
Mecca and Madina.
A *L) ar-am, (pl. of ri-m) White deer. Ir-am, (1v of )
Rendering inclined, moving the affections. Disgusting. Re
pairing (a vase). Closing up (a wound). Tending upon the
A ) Arm, A proper name. Gen. xxii. 21. Name of a
mountain and of a well on the confines of Syria.
P e armnidan, To cause to be quiet, to set at rest.

* >* arm-banu, (The calm princess) A proper name.

P J KVT rm-ban, A garden within a city.
p e armdan, To rest, repose.
P --~~ f arm-dost, Loving ease; indolent.
P U-ji aramish, Quiet, repose, rest.
P su. *W Arm-shh, (King of peace) Name of a Mogul
r 1, \ arm-talab, Seeking ease; idle, slothful.
Pjy" arm-kr, A lazy person, one who does not work
unless asked or ordered, one who does a thing slowly and de
; tedious,- patient,%indifferent,
- - - r - -
sedate. A sluggard.
P s rm-gh (or <<\ arm-gah), A place of rest, a

calm, peaceable, secure dwelling. A bed-chamber. U-59A

s (Resting in Paradise) An epithet of Muhammad Shh.
A J aramil, (or <!--9) armilat) (pl. of J) armal)
Widowed. Unmarried. Distressed, poor, in want of victuals.
Barren (years) in want of rain, producing little. The poor.
(pl. of &:) armulat) Pieces of the thorny plant **
c xy) armn, (Aviuan.) The anemone.
P J rmi, Peace, calmness, repose, tranquillity.
P &J' armd, He rested. Returning thanks.
51 +2)
p J rmidan, To rest, to repose, to cease, to desist,
or pained (in the stomach). Impatient, Aching. Desert, de
to settle, to sleep. To cause to revolve. solate. Urab, (pl. of &J) urbat) Knots. Necessary affairs.
r f irmidah, Quieted, calmed. A irb, (1v of y) Taking interest; usury.

re)" Arn, Name of a city. A cubit. The elbow. A -y arbb, (pl. of ry rabb) Lords, masters, possessors.
P .--"J) Superiors, conquerors. J-J.--J) Judicious,
Ae) irn, (from ey) Liveliness, joy, vivacity. (111 of
w) Exulting. Longing for the cow (a bull). Boasting. A discerning, prudent. J ..-9, Pensioners. s- .*-*)
bier. The den of a wild beast. A sword. e) su: A bull. ex~ Possessed of dignity and power. e- ~9) Sage, in
A e) Arran, Name of a small district, by some comprehend telligent. e':- 2-9) Counsellors, c- 2-9) Eloquent
edin Armenia, by others made a distinct province, between orators. 3 .--"J) Devout, observers of religious precepts.
Azarbijn (Media) and Grjistn (Georgia). Name of a e s- .--J) Endowed with purity, of a contemplative and
castle in Parthia. (for J- Harrn) Name of a town in Me holy life. ~ +] Artificers, artisans. , J is -)
sopotamia. Acts vii. P. Privet. Urrn, Abier. J 2 -\s _5 Ji Persons of merit and learning.
A -) arnib, (pl. of -) arnab) Hares. Je .*-*) Grandees, eminent men. Je ,-4) Spiritual
A &y' irnat, (iv of cy) Losing many sheep by a murrain.
persons. << 2-9) Most clement lords. Al- .**)
Dancers and singers & 2-99) High-minded, liberal (per
A 3) urn, A kind of grain put into milk to make it curdle.
sons). Irbb, (1v of c, rabba) Propinquity. Remaining in
Ai, arniyat, (A tree) having a tall trunk.
one place. Keeping close to the male (a she-camel).
r x) arawind, Grief, regret. Desire, wish. Attention, A z irbaj, (Iv of g, Begetting dwarfish children.
vigilance. The Tigris. Splendour, pomp, grandeur. Name A. c irbah, (1v of ty) Paying interest. Killing a young
of a mountain in Hamadn.
A arwy, (pl. of &2) uriciyat) Mountain-goats. camel to provide an entertainment for one's guests.
A irbkh, (1v of ty) Purchasing a female slave who is

r j rh, Mastic. subject to fainting fits.

Aks) arhit (or lars) arhit), (pl. of las, raht) Any num A Suj irbz, (1v of 32) Amputating. Making a scourge.
ber of men below ten living together without women. Enemies. A U.S. Airbsh, (iv of Jy) Budding and sending forth a
Great pieces, mouthfuls. Garments of leather, reaching from grateful smell (a tree).
the haunches to the knees, cut into thongs for ease in walking. A JAS) arbz, (pl. of J&J rabs or rabaz) Fortifications,
rl ary, Adorn thou. (in comp.) Adorning. walls of a city. The suburbs. Wives. Domestics. Intestines.
pw aryanidan, To cause to adorn. Houses or places where the people reside. Folds (for cattle).
ru-ji ryish, Ornament, embellishment. Preparation. Riches. Ropes for fastening camels saddles or burthens. Por
Equipage. Custom, law, institute. A note in music. J tions of milk, each sufficient for one meal. Irbz, (1v of J&J)
**); Name of a note in music. A mole on the face. J Folding (sheep). Furnishing with necessaries. Shining in his
J% To adorn. J-s UAW The ornament of the assembly. full strength (the sun).
A-9) aryik (pl. of t ark) Certain trees on which A s arbt, (pl. of S-9 rab) Houses, mansions, (particu
they feed camels, (pl. of &J' arikat) Thrones. larly for the spring-season). (Men) of middle stature. Coffins.
As Uryin, Name of a small stream. Biers. (pl. of 89 rube) Fourth parts. (pl. of s y rubat)
g * Ai ryindah, Ornamenting. An ornamenter. Camels' colts dropped in the spring. Irbt, (iv of 8) Having
PJ rydan (or ve25 J), To adorn. camels which drink on the fourth day. Being four in number.
p **) ryidah, Ornamented. Visiting on the fourth day. Attacking (as a quartan fever).
#A ~) araba, (fut. ~% ya-ribu) He tied a knot. Suffering from a quartan fever. Allowing a camel to drink his
+A ~ ariba, (fut. ~". ya-ribu) He had need. fill. Frequently repeating any act. Running to and fro. Not
A - arb, The fore-finger, index. Irb, Skill, knowledge, conceiving (a camel). Pasturing in the spring. Entering upon
industry, prudence, sagacity, wisdom. Wickedness, dishonesty, the vernal season. Dwelling in a spring-habitation. Begetting
disingenuousness, fallacy, perfidy. A member, limb. Membrum children in the prime of life. Breeding the teeth called &=\,.
genitale, pudendum. Urb, The small-sized young of any ani A **) irbagh, (1v of $49) Letting camels drink their fill.
Arab (from ~)), Indigence,
mal, being of the first birth. A Ju) arbk, (pl. of &J ribkat) Halters.
want necessity, asking or searching for any thing necessary. A J) irbal, (1v of Jy) Jealousy. Resembling a lion.
Attempt, enterprize. Skill, knowledge, intellect. Shrewdness. A e) urbn (for e\,-), Arabians. Earnest-money.
Adversity. Languor. Arib or rib, Industrious, expert, skilled, A &_ irbat, Want, indigence. Any thing wanted. *A*S
*gacious, sly, cunning, shrewd, wise, intelligent. Adverse (for Labouring in mind, deficient in common sense.
"ne). Enervated. Amputated (hand). Corrupted. Aftected a &J) urbat, A knot. Any thing necessary to be done, indis
H 2
A 3.7 Aral, Name of a lofty mountain in Tihmah.
A 3) irat, A fire-place, a chimney. Fire, heat. Dried flesh.
Meat steeped in vinegar.
P 07 rat, A cubit. The elbow, the tip of the elbow.
A cl aratt, Stammering. A stammerer.
r' art, (in anc. Pers.) A country, a kingdom.
A s irta-a, (1v of ) Smiling.
eSS. A ~9) irtb, (1v of -) Fatiguing, wearying, vexing.
A irtt, (1v of ~, ratta) Causing to stammer.

A t' irtaj, (1v or ) Shutting (a door). Being shut (a

door, the womb). Having an egg completely formed (a hen).
Being in foal (an ass). Rolling with a heavy swell (the sea).
Being very barren (a year). Abundance. Snowing continually.
A -----0) Artahasht, Artaxerxes.
A s artie, A multitude. Irta, (iv of 8-) Turning into
a good pasture. Producing abundance of grass (rain).
P J urtak, (in the dialect of Khrzam) A merchant. -

* ,

A irtak, (1v of 9) Causing to run. Smiling.

A irtam, (1v of ) Tying a thread round the finger, in
order to be reminded by it of something.
A s irtiba-a, (v11.1 of 9) Keeping watch. Ascending a
watch-tower. Valuing, estimating.
A ~~) irtibas, (v11.1 of ~) Delaying. Being divided.
A J- irtibs, (v11.1 of U-9) Being mixed together. Being

close and compact, (a body, a bunch of grapes).
A k-) irtibat, (v11.1 of =) Binding. A ligament, a chain,
a connexion. Friendship. The equipment of a horse for battle.
P w **) To form a connexion, to enter into an alliance.
A s irtilie, (v111 of 8-) Growing fat on spring-grass.
Lifting up a large stone to try one's strength. Being middle
sized. Running violently (a camel). -

A J irtibak, (v11.1 of Cy) Being held fast in a snare (a

doe). Being intricate and confused.
A - irtibak, (v11.1 of 9) Being mixed, confused,
thrown into the mire. Stammering. Endeavouring to get
loose from the toils of a hunter.
A J irtibal, (v11.1 of J) Being abundant (riches).
A -y urfat, The crest of a chameleon.
A z) irtitaj, (v11.1 of t)
Pronouncing with difficulty.
A J irtitik, (v11.1 of Cy) Being stitched, or closed up.
A irtisa, (v11.1 of c) Being thick and somewhat acid

(milk). Being in a state of confusion (business). Waywardness.

A <-' irtisas, (v11.1 of cy rassa) Collecting old clothes

together. Being carried off the field of battle half-dead.

A ls irtija, (v11.1 of ;-) Hoping. Fearing.
A. z irtij a, (v11.1 of gy raija) Agitation, tremor.

Aj' irtij, (vi.11 of jy) Composing a poem with the

metre called jy rajas.
A U- irtijas, (VIII of L.-J) Being shaken. Thundering.
~) 53 <-2.)

A t irtij, (viii of 8-2-) Carrying back. Receiving A z) irtie.j, (v111 of **) Being abundant (riches). Be
back, Selling (a camel). Refusing the male. ing full (the bed of a river). Tremor, trepidation.
A J irtijl, (v111 of Jy) Placing any thing on its feet. A c, irtizd, (v11.1 of Ae) Trembling, quaking with fear.
A J-l irtizs, (v11.1 of U.e.) Tremor, trepidation.
Seizing by the foot. Suspending by one or both feet. Speaking
extempore. Ambling (a horse). Taking a middle course. A Ll' irtiesh, (v111 of Ue) Trembling, trepidation.
Collecting a large quantity of locusts to roast. Cooking in a A Je irtiets, (v11.1 of Lae) Twisting himself (a snake).
large copper. Being singular in one's opinion. Being beaten (clothes). Being frisky (a kid). Being vibrated
A:) irtijalan, Unthinkingly, inconsiderately, extempore. (a lance). Flashing (lightning). Becoming dear (provisions).
A irtijam, (VIII of **) Being heaped together. Al, irtigha, (v111 of 33) Drinking the froth of milk.
A s irtijn, (VIII of c-) Being confused and difficult A-*) irtighab, (v11.1 of e-c) Desiring, wishing, valuing.
to arrange. Not coagulating, but turning sour (milk). Accu A s irtifid, (v11.1 of 339) Acquisition, gain. -

mulating. Abiding. A Jel) irtifas, (v111 of Jes) Dearness, scarcity.

p <<} artajak, Lightning. A t irtifat, (v11.1 of s9) Elevation, ascent, exaltation,
A J irtihs, (v111 of Ji-J) Being clothed with shame. height. Abstraction, carrying off. P -94. A .8%) The
A Jlirtill, (viii of J-2) Emigration, departure, death. height of glory and magnificence, s & 28); Castles
A & artakh, Dry, parched, without moisture (skin). high as the heavens. e=A t To take the altitude (of the sun).
.AJ' irtikhas, (v111 of Lasy) Buying cheap; cheapness. A J) irtiak, (v11.1 of G3) Leaning on the elbow, or on a
A 'A) irtida, (viii of sey) Putting on a mantle.
cushion. Being assisted. Deriving emolument.
A **) irtidad, (v11.1 of 9) radda) Refusing, opposing. A. irtika, (VIII of J) Addition, accession, increase,
Apostacy, apostatizing, becoming a renegado. augmentation. Advancement, promotion, ascent, exaltation.
A &A) irtidae, (v111 of 8-9) Abstaining. Being defiled. A irtikb, (v111 of --) Expecting, observing, con
.A. &A) irtidgh, (v111 of ey) Falling into the mire. templating. Looking down from an eminence.
A-s) irtili, (v111 of -5) Riding behind another on A J irtikash, (v11.1 of Uij) Mixing in battle.
the same beast. Following. Pursuing (an enemy). A &\ irtikt, (v11.1 of s) Regarding, attending to.
"J'si) irtidan, (v111 of ejej) Making a spindle. A Jj irtikn, (VIII of eft) Being dyed with saffron.
A j) irtiza-a, (v11.1 of 9) Diminution, detriment, loss. p Artak, Name of a mountain in Turkistan. A quilted
A}.j irisis, (v111 of jy razza) Sticking (as an arrow in the horse-cloth.

mark). Being close-fisted. Stinginess. A j irtika, (v11.1 of%9) Confidence, trust, dependance.
A JF) irtisak, (v111 of J59) Receiving a stipend, or ration. A ~&M irtikb, (v111 of ~9) Mounting, riding. Com
A L--/ irtisis, (viii of Jy rassa) Notoriety, celebrity. mission or perpetration (of a crime). Undertaking, taking upon
A t-i) irtise, (viii of 8-9) Liberality towards domestics. ones self. ** 2-&M Commission of sins, perpetration of
A * irtisam, (v11.1 of y) Painting, designing, writing. crimes. 33 !--9) Commission of adultery.
Yielding obedience to an order. Reciting the praises of God. Aj, irtikas, (v11.1 of j) Throbbing (as an artery). Lean
A distinguishing mark, whatever is eminent or remarkable. ing on a bow or a staff. Firmness, stability.
* *ra; Victorious, famous for victory. '- <-29; Aftec A. L-9) irtikas, (v11.1 of U.9) Being inverted, thrown down.
tionate, benevolent, friendly. Being squeezed into a narrow compass. Relapsing, backslid
A-) irtish, (viii of 33) Receiving a bribe (a judge). ing. Standing still on the threshing-floor (an ox).
Putting for stalks (a cucumber, a colocynth). A JAS) irtikaz, (v11.1 of J4%) Stirring in the womb (a
A --) irtish, (v111 of -ity) Sipping, sucking. Asking. foetus). Writhing in the agonies of death (a wounded person).
**) irtisad, (viii of x2) Expecting. Strength. Agitation, disquietude, amazement.
. A t irtistie, (v111 of 8ey) Being closely set (the teeth). A irtika, (v11.1 of i) Lying on the ground (snow).
Diffusing itself over a small part of the heavens (lightning). A irtikam, (v111 of ) Being closely packed.
A irtiza, (v111 of Jy) Approval, consent, acceptance.
A J) artal, Worn, consumed, used.
A tj irtizh (viii of c) Making an apology. A. irtim, (v111 of us sy) Being thrown. Throwingstones
A tj irtisakh, (viii of t) Being pelted with stones. at one another. Reviling mutually. Casting one's selfheadlong.
a &y irtizt, (v111 of *-3) Sucking the breast. A j irtim, (v11.1 of jy) Trembling from a severe blow.
A **) irtitan, (viii of Ab) Being troublesome, perplexing, A u- irtims, (v11.1 of U-9) Being tinged. Immersion.
intricate (business). Being pressed closely together. A J*) irtim, (v111 of Li) Assailing, attacking. Wast
Ax.j irtiza, (v111 of Je) Going to pasture. ing away with a liver-complaint. Prevailing against, triumph
* -'s) irtisil, (viii of e-e) Being frightened. Alarm. ing over, carrying off. Wavering. Grieving.
54 *2)
A **) irsimam, (1x of ) Having white on the upper lip.
of r &J) arj, Price, worth, value, esteem, honour. Extraction.
A rhinoceros. A swan. Araj, Name of a bird. The elbow.
A gJ) araj, (from 9) Sending forth an agreeable perfume.
A zy' arij, Fragrant, odoriferous, aromatic. The stirring up
of dissensions, seditions, or quarrels. An aera.
A U-2) arja, (pl. of \-y raj) Sides, parts, margins, coasts.
Irja, (1v of 3-2) Strengthening the sides of a well with bricks.
A 2'-y' irj-a, (1v of *) Deferring, putting off. Being
about to bring forth (a camel). Being unsuccessful (a hunter).
A ~~) arjab, Intestines. (pl. of --) rajab) The months

of Rajab.
A c irjah, (iv of 2*)Giving over-weight.
A s irjad, (1v of x~) Being afraid. Terrifying.
A U--> irjas, (1v of U-9) Sounding the depth of water.

P --~~ Arjasb, Name of an ancient king of Turkistan.

A 8-) irj, (iv of 8-) Stretching forth the hand behind

the back to receive something. Wishing (to another) a brisk
sale. Becoming lean and afterwards growing fat (camels).
Easing nature.
A 3-2) irj, (iv of i) Engaging in business. Mixing
in in debates. Raising a tumult. Spreading false reports. Pre
paring for battle. Having flabby ears and being vicious (a
camel). Rumour. Fiction. Tumult.
A Jb' arjal, (pl. of Jay rajl) Sleeps. White papers. Ca
lamities. Armies. (pl. of Jay rijl) Large swarms of locusts.
Irjal, (1v of Jy) Making one go on foot. Neglecting. Leav
ing a camel at liberty with her foal.
P c- arjalun, A wild vine.

A J arjn, A species of wild olive common in Morocco.

Irjn, (iv of e-j) Feeding a camel on hay in the stable.

Arajan, An attempt to sow dissension.
A J Arrajan, A town in Susiana or Khuzistan.

A s irjah, (1v of 3-9) Deferring beyond the proper time.

A. Js) irjihnn, (iv of cs Q) Bending. Agitating.
Falling. Rising (as a vapour above the surface of the plain).
Aj-y arjaz, A camel whose limbs tremble when he rises.
A U-2.2) Argis, Name of a mountain clothed with eternal snow.
A 3x2) arjitat, (pl. of *- rajiz) Halters. Sodden meats.
ng A J) arjal, (Cattle) marked with white on one foot or on

the forehead. Ball-faced (horse or sheep). A large-footed

man. (A way) difficult, troublesome for the feet, on account of
the number of stones. Arjul, (pl. of Jy rijl) Feet. Parts of
any thing. Gulphs of the sea. Great swarms. The lower
horns or extremities of bows, nearest the ground when shooting,
A & arjilat, (pl. of Jy rajil) Infantry. Camels left
with their young, that they may suck without interruption.
P \t- arjimand, Rare, excellent, worthy of great price,
exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished.
;" ~~~) arjimand bni, (The noble princess) A proper name.
t 55 2)
re arjan, A fabric, an edifice. A wooden hay-fork. A s-9. irkhf, (1v of -is-j) Making dough thin and watery.
A winnowing van. The bitter almond-tree. Being fatigued (a beast of burden).
p M-9. Arjand,Name of a town. A **) irkham, (Iv of) Sitting, brooding.

P &9) Arjanah, Name of a desert in Persia. A&M arkhat, A heifer. Urkhat, An epoch, an aera, a period
re;-) arjawn, Purple, deep red. A purple robe or A Jy" arkhul, (pl. of Jy rikhl, rakhil, or rikhlat) Lambs.
carpet. A tree, which, before it shoots its leaves, is entirely co A *9) arkham, (A horse) with a white head and black body.
wered with purple flowers. Meal. The first day of the lunar P S.A.-9) arkhandah, A tincture-powder, with which they tinge
month. The Persians make frequent use of this tree in their the nails and other parts of the body of a beautiful red; some
metaphors: they call wine, which is forbidden in their religion, nations, mixing it with vinegar, dye the manes and tails of their
J9)A-ib-i-arjawn, The water of Arjawn, or the purple horses. A kind of tree from which they make a fine oil.
water; and e';*) ----> Wi- sy Faces of saffron and eyes e <</ Arakhang (or <! Rakhang), A country of In
of Arjawn, are common expressions, to imply passionate lovers, dia called by Europeans Arracan.
in whose countenances a yellow melancholy is painted, and Ge) arkhn, (Az) A prince, achief, an archon, a high
whose eyes are inflamed with shedding of tears. priest, a patriarch (among the eastern Christians).
r j) arjatni, Very red. A Jy urakh?, A native of ) Urakh above.
A *>2 ariuhat, or urjhat, A swing. A &J) urkhiyat, The loose or pendulous part of any thing.
A jy) arjsat, A poem in the measure called jy rajaz, P e rd, Flour, meal. A defect, a blemish. Anger. 3-e
where there are six pauses or cesuras in the line. Barley-meal. **se
Wheaten flour.
P 9) ard or irid, The twenty-fifth day of the Persian month.
Av-) Arjis, Name of a fortress in Mesopotamia.
***) arjikanah, A yellow grass used in dyeing. Ird, Name of a town in Persia. Urd, Like, similar.
P **) archand, (See A-A harchand). A y aradd, More or most useful, or profitable.
p \o) Arda, Name of a priest of the Magi.
****9. archang, Defeat. (See <<) artang).
p s archin, Aladder, a staircase.
A le) ird, (iv of sy) Travelling. Treading firmly on the
"J Archini, Name of a mountain. ground. Throwing down. Destroying. Spoiling, marring.
A tJarahh, Broad or large-footed.
A sley arda-a, More or most wicked. Unbelieving.
A- arh, (pl. of U-) raha') Mill-stones, mills. Breasts, A "e2) ird-a, (1v of "e2) Assisting. Sustaining. Increas
or the callous parts of them on which camels recline. Hoofs of ing. Establishing. Doing evil, marring. Letting down (a veil).
camels and elephants. Grinders, back teeth. Independent P &\e rdabah, Pottage.
tribes, who live by themselves. Numbers of domestics. Chiefs A cl irdh, (iv of ty) Enlarging a tent. Plastering a wall.
of the people. Fields of battle. Crowds of camels pressing P ele rdad, or ardad, A deceiver, an impostor. A satyr.
upon one another. Round circular clouds (like mill-stones). A #9) irdagh, (1v of #9) Being very slimy (the ground).
A J irhl, (iv of J-9) Breaking in a camel. Making a Moistening the earth (rain). Being scanty (water).
Present of a strong camel. Assisting another to depart. A 39) ard, (pl. of -5.99 ridf) Persons or things placed
A **) arham, (pl. of ---, rahim) Wombs, matrices. Rela on the crupper. Buttocks. Irdf, (1v of -3) Following,
tions (especially by the mother), uterine kindred. r J- --> succeeding to. Causing one to ride behind on the crupper.
"rhm-hakki, The right of propinquity; what is due to relations. A 2'-y' irdm, (1v of *9) Continuing without intermission
A -->) arhi, (imp. of Iv) Give way, retire (used chiefly (rain, fever). Becoming green again (a tree).
A. ele) ardn, (pl. of eye) rudn) Sleeves. Irdn, (1v of
"horses when they want them to back). Name of a tribe.
AJ- arhal, (A horse) white on the back. (A sheep or eye) Putting sleeves to a garment. Continuing (a fever).
gal) black on the back. Arhul, (pl. of J-2 rahl) Mansions, Being dark.
*ges on a journey. Small saddles for camels. Bedding, cover r &le;) ardnah, A species of violet.
* &c. which travellers carry with them. rle rdie, Ademon, an evil genius, a magician, a satyr.
A **) arham, More or most merciful. c-9) **) The P y.29y) Ardvrf, Name of a Persian legislator who

"" merciful of the merciful, (an attribute of God). flourished about the year 200 of the Christian aera.
A J arhi (or &- arhiyat), (pl. of U-9 raha') Mills.
Pi->y) ardab, War, quarrel, altercation.
***"arhikanah, Name of a herb used in dyeing. ~9) irdabb, A large Syrian and Egyptian measure, of

A t arkh or irkh, A bullock. Urakh, Name of a town. above 2500lbs., also, the same with *ey) irdabbat below.
Airkhi, (iv of J) Giving the reins, relaxing. Run P \e rd-ba, A kind of pottage or gruel.

A &9) irdabbat, An aqueduct of earthen pipes. A great reser

"g in a straggling manner. Having soft buttocks (a horse).
*Jirkh, (iv of La) Holding cheap, valuing little. voir of water formed of clay. A large tile, or roof formed of tiles,
r &e) ardulah, Milk-pottage, pap, gruel.
reve," Ardn, Name of a certain king of Persia.
P se ardah, A mill-stone. A hand-mill.
p s ardah, Flour, meal, flour-bread. A kind of porridge.
A- $e) A dish made of dates with hot bread, butter, &c.
P &\se rdahalah, A kind of milk-pottage.
It p s. 3.}y ardah-bakhrak, A species of thorny fruit.
p's9-3-y) ardah-khurma, A thorny date-tree. -

P Js3.)y ardah-kanji, A thorn which is eaten green, with

dates and syrup.
P -5y urd?, The first month in autumn (September).
A & ardiyat, (pl. of \ey rida) Upper garments, cloaks,
gowns worn by the dervises, any kind of loose upper garment,
which is put on when going out of the house. Swords. Bows.
d Il.
Ornaments. Intellects. Ignorances. Disgraces. Debts. Zones
worn by the ladies, made of leather and adorned with jewels.
P JeyT rdizghn (or eJe), Sweet-meats, liqueurs.
of P & 2)" ardinah, A kind of gruel or pottage.
in A. |3) irra, (1v of ) Weakening, exhausting. Giving
us, any thing worn out. Having jaded horses. Throwing away.
CO 3'3) irzaz, (1v of & razza) Raining gently.
A. Perspiring.
her JS) arzal, (pl. of J raz!), Wile, ignoble.
A Irzl, (1v of
2ek J) Despising, treating with scorn.
A "S) irzm, (1v of S) Abounding. Overflowing. Ex
" . ceeding (the number fifty).
A. J arzal, More or most mean, base, ignoble, or vile.
rj," arz (for t arj), Price, value. Quantity. Esteem, vene
ration, honour. A keeper. An owner, a proprietor. Jy
Price current, market-price.
Ajj arz or urz, The pine, cedar, pitch, juniper, or any cone
bearing tree. (from J) Firmness, fixednes