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Service Bulletin

Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.


Greensboro, NC USA Trucks
Date Group No. Page
This Service Bulletin replaces SB 21155, Cylinder, Fault
Tracing (11.2002), publication no. PV776TSP170581.
4.2004 211 55 1(8)

Cylinder Balancing
Fault Tracing
Checklist F
D12D
Cylinder Balancing, Fault Tracing
Checklist F

W2003785

This information covers fault tracing the cylinder balancing of the Volvo D12D engine.

Contents
General Guide to Fault Tracing page 2
Cylinder Balancing, Fault Tracing page 3

Note: Information is subject to change without notice.


Illustrations are used for reference only, and may differ slightly from the actual engine
version. However, key components addressed in this information are represented as
accurately as possible.

PV776-20 006533 USA15120


Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 2(8)

General Guide to Fault Tracing

You must read and understand the precautions and guidelines in Service Information,
group 20, "General Safety Practices, Engine" before performing any procedure. If
you are not properly trained and certified in a procedure, ask your supervisor for
training before you perform it.

To use this checklist:

1 Complete basic data gathering


Read fault codes
Check vehicle parameters

2 Use the recommendations in appropriate symptom information, plus the


information gathered above to provide a foundation for continued fault tracing
using this checklist.

One fault often affects other systems. Therefore, it is important to confirm or


eliminate suspected causes of faults at an early stage, using tests in VCADS
Pro.
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 3(8)

Cylinder Balancing, Fault Tracing


See also:

General Guide to Fault Tracing page 2

Vehicle Chassis No. Mileage Customer


Yes No

1 Cylinder Balancing Test page 4


Is the cylinder balancing correct on all cylinders?

If the test displays that cylinder 1 or 6 compensate positively, see Air in the Fuel
System, Check page 6
Action:

2 Compression Test page 5


Does the compression test indicate that the compression of all cylinders is acceptable?

In the event of a fault indication, continue fault-tracing according to Low


Compression, fault tracing (Checklist G).1
Action:

3 Unit Injector Cut-off, Manual, Check page 5


Does the engine sound change when the injectors are disabled?

Action:

4 Air in the Fuel System, Check page 6


Is the fuel system free of penetration by air?

Action:

5 Exhaust Leaks in Fuel System, Check page 7


Is the fuel system free of penetration by exhaust gases?

Action:

6 Unit Injector Adjustment, Check page 8


Are injector adjustments within specifications?

Are the rocker arms and camshafts fault free?

Action:

7 Cylinder Balancing Test page 8


Carry out a cylinder balancing test if corrective actions have been taken.
Does the cylinder balancing test still point out the same cylinder?

Action:

Notes:

Completed by: Dealer: Date:

1
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Diagnostics, group 2103
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 4(8)

Cylinder Balancing, Fault Tracing


See also:

General Guide to Fault Tracing page 2

Cylinder Balancing Test


This test shows if there is an abnormal deviation in
the fuel injection of any cylinder.

W2004439

Positive compensation

If a cylinder (unit injector) is compensated for a longer


time, i.e. has a lesser fuel quantity injected into the
cylinder, the cause of the fault could either be in the unit
injector or the cylinder.

The symptom may be lower intake manifold pressure and


thus lower power output.
In order to be completely sure that the cause of the fault
is in the unit injector, the compression test on the cylinder
must be free from faults. See Compression Test page 5.

Note: Before a unit injector is removed, check that there


is no air in the fuel system and that the injector preload
(adjustment) is as specified.

Negative compensation

A large individual negative compensation on any cylinder


indicates an abnormally large fuel quantity from the unit
injector for the cylinder.

If black smoke develops during acceleration, and


the cylinder balancing test shows that a unit injector
compensates negatively, this could indicate that the unit
injector is faulty and leaks fuel.
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 5(8)

For more information, refer to Service Information, Unit


Injector replacement, group 232.

1
Connect the PC tool to the vehicle diagnostics connector.
Perform Cylinder balancing test; follow instructions
in VCADS Pro.

2
Evaluate the result.

Evaluation
3
It is normal that the cylinders are both positively and
negatively compensated in order to obtain an even idling
speed. The sum of the values for all the cylinders
must be 0.

Note: When any cylinder is compensated more than


80% in relation to the other cylinders, it indicates that
there is something abnormal with that cylinder. However
this does not necessarily mean that there is a fault with
the injector. It is therefore important that all tests are
carried out before removing an injector.

4
If the cylinder balancing test shows that cylinders 1 or 6
compensate positively, first check that there is no air in the
fuel system. See Air in the Fuel System, Check page 6.

Compression Test
This test shows if the compression pressure of one
cylinder differs from the others.
Note:The engine is not started during the test.

1
Connect the PC tool to the vehicle diagnostics connector.
Perform Compression, test; follow instructions in
VCADS Pro.

2
If any cylinder displays less than 80%, there may be
a compression fault. If fault is indicated, continue with
Fault Tracing, Checklist G, Low Compression.3

Unit Injector Cut-off, Manual, Check


1
Connect the PC tool to the vehicle diagnostics connector.
Perform Unit Injector cut off, manual; follow instructions
in VCADS Pro.

2
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Repair, group 2371
3
Impact or ID-DVD: Info type Diagnostics group 2103
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 6(8)

2
Run the test at idling speed and at 1000 rpm.

3
Switch off the injector that is suspected to be defective. If
the engine sound does not change, it can be assumed
that there is a fault in the unit injector.

Air in the Fuel System, Check


Special tools: 9990056, 9990149

1
Remove the return hose from the left front of the cylinder
head.

2
Install hose 9990056 to the banjo bolt and insert other
end of hose into suitable container.

Note: This check determines if air is present in the fuel


system on the pressure side.

9990056

T2019057

3
Remove the fuel supply line between the fuel filter
housing and EECU fuel cooling plate. Install test hose
9990149 to check for air on the supply (suction) side.

W2004301
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 7(8)

4
Activate the electric fuel pump and run until air has been
purged from the hoses. If there is no air in the hose, start
the engine and check whether the hose contains air when
the engine is running.

Note: Run engine long enough to purge all air from


fuel system.

5
If the fuel system contains air on the pressure (return)
side but not on the supply (suction) side, use a carbon
monoxide tester to determine whether the fuel contains
carbon monoxide; refer to Service Information, group 21:
Fault Tracing, Checklist G, Low Compression.4 Carbon
Monoxide (CO) in Fuel System, Check.

6
If the system contains air or exhaust gases on the
pressure (return) side, refer to Service Information, group
23: Locating Air Entry into the Fuel System.5

7
If the system contains air on the supply (suction) side but
not on the pressure (return) side, check all fuel lines,
fittings, and seals from the tank(s) to the engine including:

Rubber seals on the fuel priming pump.

O-ring on the fuel bowl on the fuel filter housing.

Fuel lines.

Fuel line fittings (thread connections).

Fuel line fittings (seals).

Exhaust Leaks in Fuel System, Check


1
If the carbon monoxide test shows that combustion gases
are forced into the fuel system, use the results from the
cylinder balancing test and the compression test to
determine whether this points to any particular cylinder.

2
Make a visual check in order to see if anything indicates
a gas leakage at the unit injector or copper sleeve of
the cylinder in question.

For removing and installing the copper sleeve, refer to


Service Information, group 236.

4
IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Diagnostics, group 2103
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IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Repair, group 2309
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IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Repair, group 2379
Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Date Group No. Page
Service Bulletin 4.2004 211 55 8(8)

Unit Injector Adjustment, Check


1
Inspect the camshaft, rocker arms, valve springs, and
calipers for excessive wear.

2
Check the valve and unit injector adjustment; refer to
Service Information, group 217.

Note: Pay particular attention to the valve and unit


injector adjustment on the cylinder identified in the
cylinder balancing test.

Cylinder Balancing Test


1
If any corrective action has been taken up to this point,
perform a new cylinder balancing test; see Cylinder
Balancing Test page 4.

2
If the cylinder balancing test still points to the same unit
injector, check the unit injector by switching off the
injector. See Unit Injector Cut-off, Manual, Check page
5. If the injector is faulty, replace it; refer to Service
Information, group 238.

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IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Repair, group 2140
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IMPACT or ID DVD: Info type Repair, group 2371