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Department of Education

DepEd Complex,

Meralco Avenue

PasigCity

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Mathematics is one subject that pervades life at any age, in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school.

Mathematics as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.

The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10 are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. We adopt the definition of critical thinking by

Scriven and Paul (1987):

Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating

information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

On the other hand, we define Problem Solving in mathematics using Polyas (1945 & 1962) definition:

Mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown.

These two goals are to be achieved with an organized and rigorous curriculum content, a well-defined set of high-level skills and processes, desirable

values and attitudes, and appropriate tools, recognizing as well the different contexts of Filipino learners.

There are five content areas in the curriculum, as adopted from the framework prepared by MATHTED & SEI (2010): Numbers and Number Sense,

Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra, and Probability and Statistics.

The specific skills and processes to be developed are: knowing and understanding; estimating, computing and solving; visualizing and modeling;

representing and communicating; conjecturing, reasoning, proving and decision-making, and: applying and connecting.

The following values and attitudes are to be honed as well: accuracy, creativity, objectivity, perseverance, and productivity.

We recognize that the use of appropriate tools is needed in teaching mathematics. These include: manipulative objects, measuring devices,

calculators and computers, Smartphones and tablet PCs, and the Internet.

We define context as a locale, situation or set of conditions of Filipino learners that may influence their study and use of mathematics to develop critical

thinking and problem solving skills. Contexts refer to beliefs, environment, language and culture that include traditions and practices, and learners prior

knowledge and experiences.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

The framework is supported by the following underlying learning principles and theories: Experiential and Situated Learning, Reflective Learning,

Constructivism, Cooperative Learning and Discovery and Inquiry-based Learning. The mathematics curriculum is grounded in these theories.

Experiential learning as advocated by David Kolb is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Experiential learning theory

defines learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping

and transforming experience" (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). Situated learning, theorized by Lave and Wenger, is learning in the same context on which concepts and

theories are applied.

Reflective learning refers to learning that is facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real-life situations. Deeper learning

occurs when learners are able to think about their experiences and process these allowing them the opportunity to make sense and meaning of the ir

experiences.

Constructivism is the theory that argues that knowledge is constructed when the learner is able to draw ideas from his own experiences and connects

them to new ideas that are encountered.

Cooperative Learning puts premium on active learning achieved by working with fellow learners as they all engage in a shared task.

The mathematics curriculum allows for students to learn by asking relevant questions and discovering new ideas. Discovery and Inquiry-based learning

(Bruner, 1961) support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships and concepts.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

Mathematics from K-10 is a skills subject. By itself, it is all about quantities, shapes and figures, functions, logic and reasoning. Mathematics is also a

tool of science and a language complete with its own notations and symbols and grammar rules, with which concepts and ideas are effectively expressed.

The contents of mathematics include Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns & Algebra and Statistics and Probability. Numbers

and Number Sense as a strand includes concepts of numbers, properties, operations, estimation and their applications.

Measurement as a strand includes the use of numbers and measures to describe, understand and compare mathematical and concrete objects. It

focuses on attributes such as length, mass and weight, capacity, time, money and temperature among others, as well as applications involving perimeter,

area, surface area, volume and angle measure.

Geometry as a strand includes properties of two- and three-dimensional figures and their relationships, spatial visualization, reasoning and geometric

modeling and proofs.

Patterns and Algebra as a strand studies patterns, relationships and changes among shapes and quantities and includes the use of algebraic

notations and symbols, equations and most importantly, functions, to represent and analyze relationships.

Statistics and Probability as a strand is all about developing skills in collecting and organizing data using charts, tables and graphs, understanding,

analyzing and interpreting data, dealing with uncertainty and making predictions and outcomes.

The K to 10 Mathematics Curriculum provides a solid foundation for Mathematics at Grades 11 to 12. More importantly, it provides necessary

concepts and life skills needed by Filipino learners as they proceed to the next stage in their life as learners and as citizens of our beloved country, the

Philippines.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

LEARNING AREA STANDARD: The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and principles of mathematics

as applied, using appropriate technology, in problem solving, critical thinking, communicating, reasoning, making connections, representations, and

decisions in real life.

K3 46 7 10

At the end of Grade 3, the learner demonstrates At the end of Grade 6, the learner demonstrates At the end of grade 10, the learner

understanding and appreciation of key concepts understanding and appreciation of key concepts demonstrates understanding and appreciation of

and skills involving numbers and number sense, and skills involving numbers and number sense, key concepts and skills involving numbers and

measurement, geometry, patterns and algebra, measurement, geometry, patterns and algebra, number sense (sets and real numbers),

statistics and probability as applied, using statistics and probability as applied, using measurement (conversion of units), patterns and

appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem algebra (linear equations and inequalities in one

solving, reasoning, communicating, making solving, reasoning, communicating, making and two variables; linear functions; systems of linear

connections, representations and decisions in real connections, representations and decisions in real equations and inequalities in two variables;

life. life. exponents and radicals; quadratic equations,

inequalities and functions; polynomials and

polynomial equations and functions), geometry

(polygons; axiomatic structure of geometry; triangle

congruence, inequality and similarity; and basic

trigonometry), statistics and probability (measures

of central tendency, variability and position;

combinatorics and probability) as applied, using

appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem

solving, communicating, reasoning, making

connections, representations, and decisions in real

life.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 20, space and

K measurement, simple geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts and data collection as applied, using appropriate technology, in

critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 100, fractions,

GRADE 1 measurement, simple geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection and representation as applied, using appropriate

technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in

real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 1 000, fractions,

measurement and geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis as applied, using

GRADE 2 appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and

decisions in real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 10 000,

fractions, measurement, geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis as applied, using

GRADE 3 appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and

decisions in real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 100 000,

fractions, decimals including money, ratio, angles, plane figures like square, rectangle, and triangle, measurement (perimeter, area

GRADE 4 of triangle, parallelogram and trapezoids, volume of cubes and rectangular prisms, pre-algebra concepts, data collection,

representation and analysis as applied, using appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning,

communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 10 000 000,

fractions, decimals including money, ratio, percent, geometry (circles and five or more-sided polygons), measurement

GRADE 5 (circumference, area of circle, volume of cubes and rectangular prisms, temperature) ,pre-algebra concepts, data collection,

representation and analysis as applied, using appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning,

communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving fractions, decimals including money,

ratio and proportion, percent, rate, integers,geometry (spatial figures), measurement (surface area, volume, meter reading), pre-

GRADE 6 algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis, probability, expressions and equations as applied, using appropriate

technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real

life.

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of numbers and number sense (sets and real number

system), measurement (conversion of units of measurement), patterns and algebra (algebraic expressions and properties of real

numbers as applied in linear equations and inequalities in one variable), geometry (sides and angles of polygons), statistics and

GRADE 7

probability (data collection and presentation, and measures of central tendency and variability) as applied, using appropriate

technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in

real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (factors of polynomials, rational

algebraic expressions, linear equations and inequalities in two variables, systems of linear equations and inequalities in two

variables), geometry (axiomatic structure of geometry, triangle congruence, inequalities in a triangle, and parallel and perpendicular

GRADE 8 lines), statistics and probability (probability of simple events, linear correlation and regression) as applied, using appropriate

technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in

real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (quadratic equations and

inequalities, quadratic functions, rational algebraic equations, variations and radicals), geometry (parallelograms and triangle

GRADE 9 similarities and basic concepts of trigonometry), statistics and probability (normal standard distribution) as applied, using

appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and

decisions in real life.

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (sequences, series, polynomials,

polynomial equations and polynomial functions), geometry (circles and coordinate geometry), statistics and probability

GRADE 10 (combinatorics and probability, measures of position and measures of skewness and kurtosis) as applied, using appropriate

technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in

real life.

Time Allotment:

Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Daily 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

GRADE 7

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

Number Sense demonstrates formulate challenging

understanding of key situations involving sets describes well-defined sets, subsets, universal sets and M7NS-Ia-1

concepts of sets and and real numbers and the null set, cardinality of sets, power sets and other

the real number solve these in a variety kinds of sets.

system including power of strategies including

sets and other kinds of power sets and other illustrates the union, intersection, difference, and cross M7NS-Ia-2

sets, cross product of kinds of sets, cross product of two sets, and the complement of a set.

two sets and the product of two sets and

complement of a set. the complement of a set. uses Venn Diagrams to represent sets, subsets and set M7NS-Ib-1

operations.

line as the distance of the number from 0.

set of integers.

decimal form and vice versa.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

describes principal roots and tells whether they are M7NS-Ig-1

rational or irrational.

of a number is.

nearest hundredth.

number line.***

order.

numbers. M7NS-Ii-2

demonstrates formulate real-life

understanding of the key problems involving illustrates what it means to measure. M7ME-IIa-1

concepts of measurements and solve

measurement that these using a variety of describes the development of measurement from the M7ME-IIa-2

includes precision and strategies. primitive to the present international system of units.

accuracy and significant

figures. illustrates precision and accuracy of measurement. M7ME-IIa-3

significant figures.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

length, weight/mass, volume, time, angle, temperature

and rate.

both Metric and English system.***

measurement.***

Algebra demonstrates model situations using

understanding of key oral, written, graphical translates English phrases to mathematical phrases M7AL-IIc-1

concepts of algebraic and algebraic methods in and vice versa.

expressions including the solving problems

square of a multinomial, involving algebraic interprets the meaning of an where n is a positive M7AL-IIc-2

the properties of real expressions, linear integer.

numbers as applied in equations and

linear equations and inequalities in one differentiates between constants and variables in a M7AL-IIc-3

inequalities in one variable. given algebraic expression.

variable and problem

solving involving evaluates algebraic expressions for given values of the M7AL-IIc-4

equations and variables.

inequalities in one

variable, e.g. number classifies algebraic expressions which are polynomials M7AL-IIc-5

relations, age, geometry, according to degree and number of terms.

mixture, coin,

investment, motion, work adds and subtracts polynomials. M7AL-IId-1

and clock.

derives the laws of exponent. M7AL-IId-2

product of two binomials; (b) product of the sum and

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 11

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

difference of two terms; (c) square of a binomial; (d)

square of multinomial (e) cube of a binomial; (e)

product of a binomial and a trinomial. ***

equations.

sentences and vice versa.

variable.

one variable.

involving absolute value by: (a) graphing; (b) algebraic

methods.

one variable including problems on number

relation, age, geometric, mixture, coin, investment,

motion, work and, clock.

demonstrates create models of plane

understanding of key figures and formulate and represents point, line and plane using concrete and M7GE-IIIa-1

concepts of geometry of solve accurately pictorial models.

shapes and sizes, and authentic problems

geometric relationships. involving sides and illustrates subsets of a line. M7GE-IIIa-2

angles of a polygon.

classifies the different kinds of angles. M7GE-IIIa-3

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 12

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

measurements and by inductive reasoning;

supplementary angles, complementary angles, equal

angles, vertical angles, adjacent angles, linear pairs,

perpendicular lines and parallel lines.***

lines cut by a transversal using measurement and by

inductive reasoning.

segments and angles and construct perpendiculars

and parallels.

sides.

interior angles of a convex polygon.

diameter chord, center, arc chord central angle and

inscribed angle.

pentagons and regular hexagons.

polygon.

Probability demonstrates differentiate between

understanding of key descriptive and inferential explains the importance of Statistics. M7SP-IVa-1

concept, uses and statistics, collect and

importance of Statistics, organize data differentiates descriptive statistics from inferential M7SP-IVa-2

the difference between systematically including

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 13

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

descriptive and the use of pictogram and statistics.

inferential statistics, data frequency polygon,

collection/gathering and compute accurately poses problems that can be solved using Statistics. M7SP-IVa-3

the different forms of measures of central

data representation tendency and variability, formulates simple statistical instrument. M7SP-IVa-4

including pictogram and apply these

and frequency polygon, appropriately in data gathers statistical data. M7SP-IVb-1

measures of central analysis and

tendency, measures of interpretation in different organizes data in a frequency distribution table. M7SP-IVc-1

variability and fields.

probability. uses appropriate graphs to represent organized data: M7SP-IVd-1-e-1

pie chart, bar graph, line graph, pictogram, histogram,

frequency polygon, and ogive.***

median and mode) of a statistical data.

ungrouped and grouped data.***

deviation, variance, standard deviation) of a statistical

data.

ungrouped data.***

interpreting a statistical data.

measures of central tendency and variability.

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

GRADE 8

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

Algebra demonstrates formulate real-life

understanding of key problems involving factors factors completely different types of polynomials M8AL-Ia-1-b-1

concepts of factors of of polynomials, rational (polynomials with common monomial factor, difference

polynomials, rational algebraic expressions, of two squares, sum and difference of two cubes,

algebraic expressions, linear equations including perfect square trinomials, and general trinomials).

linear equations graphs, the Diophantine

including graphing linear Equations, inequalities in solves problems involving factors of polynomials. M8AL-Ib-2

equations given the slope two variables, systems of

and an intercept, finding linear equations including illustrates rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-1

the equation of a line the use of determinants,

given the intercepts, inequalities in two simplifies rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-2

solving problems variables, linear functions,

involving Diophantine and solve these problems performs operations on rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-2-d-1

equations, solving a accurately using a variety

system of linear of strategies. solves problems involving rational algebraic M8AL-Id-2

equations using expressions.

determinants and solving

problems involving illustrates the rectangular coordinate system and its M8AL-Ie-1

system of linear uses.***

equations including area

of triangle, test for

plots points on the coordinate plane. *** M8AL-Ie-2

collinear points and two-

point form of equation of M8AL-Ie-3

graphs linear equations in two variables.

line and inequalities in

two variables, systems

of linear equations and illustrates the slope of a line. M8AL-Ie-4

inequalities in two

variables and linear finds the slope of a line given two points, equation and M8AL-Ie-5

functions. graph.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

writes the linear equation ax + by = c in the form M8AL-If-1

y = mx + b and vice versa.

graphs a linear equation given (a) any two points; (b) M8AL-If-2

the x and y intercepts; (c) the slope and a point on

the line, and (d) a slope and an intercept.***

intercepts and slope.***

finds the equation of a line given (a) two points; (b) the M8AL-Ig-1

slope and a point; (c) the slope and its intercepts, and

(d) the intercepts.

variables.

variables.

M8AL-Ih-1

graphs a system of linear equations in two M8AL-Ih-2

variables.***

M8AL-Ii-1

categorizes when a given system of linear equations in

two variables have graphs that are parallel,

intersecting and coinciding.

(a) graphing; (b) substitution; (c) elimination.***

(d) determinants (Cramers Rule)

in two variables including area of triangle, test for

collinear points, and two-point form of the

equation of line.

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 16

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve

understanding of key accurately real-life illustrates linear inequalities in two variables. M8AL-IIa-1

concepts of linear problems involving linear

inequalities in two inequalities in two differentiates linear inequalities in two variables from M8AL-IIa-2

variables, systems of variables, systems of linear equations in two variables.

linear inequalities in two linear inequalities in two

variables including variables including simple graphs linear inequalities in two variables. M8AL-IIa-3

simple linear linear programming and

programming and linear linear functions. solves problems involving linear inequalities in two

functions. variables. M8AL-IIa-4

M8AL-IIb-1

variables.***

M8AL-IIb-2

inequalities in two variables.

M8AL-IIc-1

illustrates a relation and a function. M8AL-IIc-2

verifies if a given relation is a function. M8AL-IIc-3

determines dependent and independent variables. M8AL-IIc-4

graphs a linear function (a) domain; (b) range; (c) table M8AL-Iid-3-e-1

of values; (d) intercepts; and (e) slope.

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

demonstrates communicate

understanding of key mathematical thinking determines the relationship between the hypothesis M8GE-IIf-1

concepts of logic and with coherence and clarity and the conclusion of an if-then statement.

reasoning. in formulating and

analyzing arguments. transforms a statement into an equivalent if-then M8GE-IIf-2

statement.

of an if-then statement.

its contrapositive; (b) the converse and inverse of a

statement.

demonstrates

understanding of key formulate an describes a mathematical system. M8GE-IIIa-1

concepts of axiomatic organized plan to

structure of geometry, handle a real-life illustrates the need for an axiomatic structure of a M8GE-IIIa-2-c-1

triangle congruence. situation. mathematical system in general, and in Geometry in

particular: (a) defined terms; (b) undefined terms; (c)

communicate postulates and (d) theorems.

mathematical thinking

with coherence and illustrates triangle congruence.*** M8GE-IIId-1

clarity in formulating,

investigating, illustrates the SAS, ASA and SSS congruence M8GE-IIId-e-1

analyzing, and solving postulates.***

real-life problems

involving congruent solves corresponding parts of congruent triangles. M8GE-IIIf-1

triangles using

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 18

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

appropriate and proves two triangles are congruent. M8GE-IIIg-1

accurate

representations. proves statements on triangle congruence. M8GE-IIIh-1

lines and angle bisectors.

demonstrates communicate

understanding of key mathematical thinking illustrates theorems on triangle inequalities (Exterior M8GE-IVa-1

concepts of inequalities with coherence and clarity Angle Inequality Theorem, Triangle Inequality

in a triangle, and parallel in formulating, Theorem, Hinge Theorem).***

and perpendicular lines. investigating, analyzing,

and solving real-life applies theorems on triangle inequalities. M8GE-IVb-1

problems involving

triangle inequalities, and proves inequalities in a triangle. M8GE-IVc-1

parallelism and

perpendicularity of lines proves properties of parallel lines cut by a M8GE-IVd-1

using appropriate and transversal.***

accurate representations.

determines the conditions under which lines and M8GE-IVe-1

segments are parallel or perpendicular.

Probability demonstrates formulate and solve

understanding of key practical problems illustrates an experiment, outcome, sample space and M8SP-IVf-1

concepts of probability, involving probability of event.***

linear correlation and simple events, linear

regression. correlation and counts the number of occurrences of an outcome in M8SP-IVf-g-1

regression. an experiment: (a) table; (b) tree diagram; (c)

systematic listing (d) fundamental counting

principle.***

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 19

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

theoretical probability.

events.

describes the functional relationship between two M8SP-IVj-1

or more variables using linear correlation and

regression

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

GRADE 9

STANDARDS

Statistics and The learner demonstrates The learner is able to use The learner

Probability understanding of key appropriate statistical

tools in drawing computes the coefficients of skewness and M9SP-Ia-1

concepts of skewness ,

conclusions and in kurtosis of a given set of data.

kurtosis, normal

distributions, statistical making decisions about a interprets the coefficient of skewness and

group or population M9SP-Ia-2

hypotheses and testing of kurtosis of a given set of data.

hypotheses including skewness,

kurtosis, normal identifies regions under the normal curve M9SP-Ib-1

distributions and the use corresponding to different standard normal

of statistical hypotheses values.

and testing of hypotheses M9SP-Ib-2

converts a normal random variable to a

standard normal variable and vice versa.

M9SP-Ib-3

computes probabilities and percentiles using

the normal standard table.

M9SP-Ib-4

illustrates a) null hypothesis b) alternative

hypothesis c) level of significance d) rejection

region and e) types of error in hypothesis

testing. M9SP-Ib-5

hypothesis on a population mean. M9SP-Ib-6

M9SP-Ib-7

draws conclusion about the population based

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 21

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

on test statistic values and region of rejection.

Algebra demonstrates investigate thoroughly

understanding of key mathematical illustrates quadratic equations. M9AL-Ic-1

concepts of quadratic relationships in various

equations, inequalities situations, formulate solves quadratic equations by: (a) extracting square M9AL-Ic-2-Id-1

and functions, and real-life problems roots; (b) factoring; (c) completing the square; (d)

rational algebraic involving quadratic using the quadratic formula.

equations. equations, inequalities

and functions, and characterizes the roots of a quadratic equation using M9AL-Id-2

rational algebraic the discriminant.

equations and solve

them using a variety of describes the relationship between the coefficients and M9AL-Ie-1

strategies. the roots of a quadratic equation.

(including rational algebraic equations).

rational algebraic equations.

values, (b) graph, (c) equation.

y = ax2 + bx + c into the form y = a(x h)2 + k. M9AL-Ii-2

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 22

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

intercepts, (d) axis of symmetry; (e) vertex, (f)

direction of the opening of the parabola. M9AL-Ii-3

k in the equation y = a(x h)2 + k of a quadratic function

on its graph.***

(a) a table of values; (b) graph; (c) zeros.

Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve

understanding of key accurately problems illustrates situations that involve the following variations M9AL-IIa-1

concepts of variation and involving radicals. (a) direct; (b) inverse; (c) joint; (d) combined.

radicals

translates into variation statement a relationship M9AL-IIa-2-b-1

between two quantities given by : (a) a table of

values; (b) a mathematical equation; (c) a graph, and

vice versa.

M9AL-IIb-2-c-1

solves problems involving variation.

M9AL-IId-1

applies the laws involving positive integral exponents,

zero and negative integral exponents.

M9AL-IId-2

illustrates expressions with rational exponents.

M9AL-IIe-1

simplifies expressions with rational exponents.

and vice versa. M9AL-IIf-1

simplifies radical expressions using the laws of M9AL-IIg-1

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 23

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

radicals.

demonstrates investigate, analyze, and

understanding of key solve problems involving identifies quadrilaterals that are parallelograms. M9GE-IIIa-1

concepts of parallelograms and

quadrilaterals triangle similarity through determines the conditions that guarantee a M9GE-IIIa-2

(parallelograms), appropriate and accurate quadrilateral a parallelogram.

trapezoid, kites, triangle representation and apply

similarity and the principles of similarity uses properties to find measures of angles, sides and M9GE-IIIb-1

principles of similarity in in transformation, other quantities involving parallelograms.

transformation and tessellation, and tiling of

tessellation. figures. proves theorems on the different kinds of parallelogram M9GE-IIIc-1

(rectangle, rhombus, square).

and kites.

M9GE-IIIf-2

applies the fundamental theorems of proportionality to

solve problems involving proportions.

M9GE-IIIg-1

illustrates similarity of figures.

a. SAS Similarity Theorem

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 24

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

b. SSS Similarity Theorem

c. AA Similarity Theorem

d. Right Triangle Similarity Theorem

e. Special Right Triangle Theorems

similar.

right triangles.***

transformation, tessellation and tiling of figures.

demonstrates apply the concepts of

understanding of the trigonometric ratios illustrates the six trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, M9GE-IVa-1

basic concepts of including the law of tangent, secant, cosecant and cotangent.

trigonometry including tangent to formulate and

the law of tangent. solve real-life problems finds the trigonometric ratios of special angles. M9GE-IVb-1

with precision and

accuracy. illustrates angles of elevation and angles of M9GE-IVc-1

. depression.

involving right triangles. ***

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 25

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

GRADE 10

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

and Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve

understanding of key problems involving generates pattern.*** M10AL-Ia-1

concepts of sequences, sequences, series,

series, polynomials and polynomials and illustrates an arithmetic sequence. M10AL-Ib-1

polynomial equations. polynomial equations in

different disciplines. determines arithmetic means and nth term of an M10AL-Ib-2-c-1

through appropriate and arithmetic sequence.***

accurate representations.

finds the sum of the terms of a given arithmetic M10AL-Ic-2

sequence.***

arithmetic sequence.

infinite geometric sequence.

geometric sequence.***

geometric sequence.***

Fibonacci).***

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

solves problems involving sequences and series. M10AL-If-2

and synthetic division.

Theorem.

equations.

and Algebra demonstrates conduct systematically a

understanding of key mathematical illustrates polynomial functions. M10AL-IIa-1

concepts of polynomial investigation involving

function including polynomial functions in graphs polynomial functions.*** M10AL-IIa-2

Descartes rule of signs, different fields including

the Rational Root Descartes rule of signs, uses Descartes rule of signs to determine the M10AL-IIb-1

Theorem, the upper and the Rational Root number of positive and negative real zeros of a

lower bounds for real Theorem, the upper and polynomial function.

zeros of a polynomial lower bounds for real

function. zeros of a polynomial

finds the rational zeros of a polynomial function

function. M10AL-IIb-2

using the Rational Root Theorem.

zeros of a polynomial function.

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 27

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

demonstrates

understanding of key formulate and find derives inductively the relations among chords, arcs, M10GE-IId-1

concepts of circles and solutions to challenging central angles and inscribed angles.

coordinate geometry. situations involving

circles and other related proves theorems related to chords, arcs, central M10GE-IId-2

terms in different angles and inscribed angles.

disciplines through

appropriate and illustrates secants, tangents, segments and sectors of M10GE-IIe-1

accurate a circle.

representations.

proves theorems on secants, tangents and segments. M10GE-IIe-2-f-1

M10GE-IIf-2

problems involving

geometric figures on the applies the distance formula to prove some geometric M10GE-IIg-2

rectangular coordinate properties.

plane with perseverance

and accuracy. illustrates the center-radius form of the equation of a M10GE-IIh-1

circle.

equation and vice versa.

coordinate plane.***

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

coordinate plane.

Statistics The learner demonstrates The learner is able to use The learner

and Probability understanding of key precise counting

concepts of technique and probability illustrates the permutation of objects. M10SP-IIIa-1

combinatorics and in formulating

probability including conclusions and making derives the formula for finding the number of M10SP-IIIa-2

circular permutations and decisions including permutations of n objects taken r at a time.

the number of distinct circular permutations,

permutations of n things permutations where derives the formula for finding the number of M10SP-IIIb-1-b-2

of which n1 are of one some objects are alike permutations of n distinct objects arranged in a

kind, n2 of a second and conditional circle.

kind,, nk of a kth kind, probability.

M10SP-IIIb-3-b-4

solving problems derives the formula for finding the number of

involving conditional distinct permutations of n things of which n1 are

probability and of one kind, n2 of a second kind,, nk of a kth

interpreting data kind. M10SP-IIIb-5

presented in a Box-and-

Whisker plot. solves problems involving permutations. M10SP-IIIc-1

illustrates the combination of objects. M10SP-IIId-1

differentiates permutation from combination of n

objects taken r at a time. M10SP-IIId-2-e-1

derives the formula for finding the number of

combinations of n objects taken r at a time.

M10SP-IIIf-1

solves problems involving permutations and

combinations. M10SP-IIIg-1

illustrates events, and the union and intersection of

events.

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 29

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

M10SP-IIIg-2

illustrates the probability of a union of two events.

M10SP-IIIh-1

finds the probability of (A B).

M10SP-IIIh-2

illustrates independent events. M10SP-IIIi-j-1

conditional probability.

Probability demonstrates conduct systematically a

understanding of key mini-research applying illustrates the following measures of position: quartiles, M10SP-IVa-1

concepts of measures of the different statistical deciles and percentiles.***

position. methods.

calculates a specified measure of position (e.g. 90th M10SP-IVb-1-c-1

percentile) of a set of data.

plot.

M10SP-IVe-1

solves problems involving measures of position.

M10SP-IVf-1-g-1

formulates statistical mini-research.

M10SP-IVh-1-j-1

uses appropriate measures of position and other

statistical methods in analyzing and interpreting

research data.***

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

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