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# Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
DepEd Complex,
Meralco Avenue
PasigCity

## October 10, 2014

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Mathematics is one subject that pervades life at any age, in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school.
Mathematics as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.

The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10 are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. We adopt the definition of critical thinking by
Scriven and Paul (1987):

Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating
information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

On the other hand, we define Problem Solving in mathematics using Polyas (1945 & 1962) definition:

Mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown.

These two goals are to be achieved with an organized and rigorous curriculum content, a well-defined set of high-level skills and processes, desirable
values and attitudes, and appropriate tools, recognizing as well the different contexts of Filipino learners.

There are five content areas in the curriculum, as adopted from the framework prepared by MATHTED & SEI (2010): Numbers and Number Sense,
Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra, and Probability and Statistics.

The specific skills and processes to be developed are: knowing and understanding; estimating, computing and solving; visualizing and modeling;
representing and communicating; conjecturing, reasoning, proving and decision-making, and: applying and connecting.

The following values and attitudes are to be honed as well: accuracy, creativity, objectivity, perseverance, and productivity.

We recognize that the use of appropriate tools is needed in teaching mathematics. These include: manipulative objects, measuring devices,
calculators and computers, Smartphones and tablet PCs, and the Internet.

We define context as a locale, situation or set of conditions of Filipino learners that may influence their study and use of mathematics to develop critical
thinking and problem solving skills. Contexts refer to beliefs, environment, language and culture that include traditions and practices, and learners prior
knowledge and experiences.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 2

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

The framework is supported by the following underlying learning principles and theories: Experiential and Situated Learning, Reflective Learning,
Constructivism, Cooperative Learning and Discovery and Inquiry-based Learning. The mathematics curriculum is grounded in these theories.

Experiential learning as advocated by David Kolb is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Experiential learning theory
defines learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping
and transforming experience" (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). Situated learning, theorized by Lave and Wenger, is learning in the same context on which concepts and
theories are applied.

Reflective learning refers to learning that is facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real-life situations. Deeper learning
occurs when learners are able to think about their experiences and process these allowing them the opportunity to make sense and meaning of the ir
experiences.

Constructivism is the theory that argues that knowledge is constructed when the learner is able to draw ideas from his own experiences and connects
them to new ideas that are encountered.

Cooperative Learning puts premium on active learning achieved by working with fellow learners as they all engage in a shared task.
The mathematics curriculum allows for students to learn by asking relevant questions and discovering new ideas. Discovery and Inquiry-based learning
(Bruner, 1961) support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships and concepts.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 3

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 4

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTION

Mathematics from K-10 is a skills subject. By itself, it is all about quantities, shapes and figures, functions, logic and reasoning. Mathematics is also a
tool of science and a language complete with its own notations and symbols and grammar rules, with which concepts and ideas are effectively expressed.

The contents of mathematics include Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns & Algebra and Statistics and Probability. Numbers
and Number Sense as a strand includes concepts of numbers, properties, operations, estimation and their applications.

Measurement as a strand includes the use of numbers and measures to describe, understand and compare mathematical and concrete objects. It
focuses on attributes such as length, mass and weight, capacity, time, money and temperature among others, as well as applications involving perimeter,
area, surface area, volume and angle measure.

Geometry as a strand includes properties of two- and three-dimensional figures and their relationships, spatial visualization, reasoning and geometric
modeling and proofs.

Patterns and Algebra as a strand studies patterns, relationships and changes among shapes and quantities and includes the use of algebraic
notations and symbols, equations and most importantly, functions, to represent and analyze relationships.

Statistics and Probability as a strand is all about developing skills in collecting and organizing data using charts, tables and graphs, understanding,
analyzing and interpreting data, dealing with uncertainty and making predictions and outcomes.

The K to 10 Mathematics Curriculum provides a solid foundation for Mathematics at Grades 11 to 12. More importantly, it provides necessary
concepts and life skills needed by Filipino learners as they proceed to the next stage in their life as learners and as citizens of our beloved country, the
Philippines.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 5

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

LEARNING AREA STANDARD: The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and principles of mathematics
as applied, using appropriate technology, in problem solving, critical thinking, communicating, reasoning, making connections, representations, and
decisions in real life.

## KEY STAGE STANDARDS:

K3 46 7 10
At the end of Grade 3, the learner demonstrates At the end of Grade 6, the learner demonstrates At the end of grade 10, the learner
understanding and appreciation of key concepts understanding and appreciation of key concepts demonstrates understanding and appreciation of
and skills involving numbers and number sense, and skills involving numbers and number sense, key concepts and skills involving numbers and
measurement, geometry, patterns and algebra, measurement, geometry, patterns and algebra, number sense (sets and real numbers),
statistics and probability as applied, using statistics and probability as applied, using measurement (conversion of units), patterns and
appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem algebra (linear equations and inequalities in one
solving, reasoning, communicating, making solving, reasoning, communicating, making and two variables; linear functions; systems of linear
connections, representations and decisions in real connections, representations and decisions in real equations and inequalities in two variables;
inequalities and functions; polynomials and
polynomial equations and functions), geometry
(polygons; axiomatic structure of geometry; triangle
congruence, inequality and similarity; and basic
trigonometry), statistics and probability (measures
of central tendency, variability and position;
combinatorics and probability) as applied, using
appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem
solving, communicating, reasoning, making
connections, representations, and decisions in real
life.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 6

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 20, space and
K measurement, simple geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts and data collection as applied, using appropriate technology, in
critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 100, fractions,
GRADE 1 measurement, simple geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection and representation as applied, using appropriate
technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in
real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 1 000, fractions,
measurement and geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis as applied, using
GRADE 2 appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and
decisions in real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 10 000,
fractions, measurement, geometric figures, pre-algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis as applied, using
GRADE 3 appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and
decisions in real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 100 000,
fractions, decimals including money, ratio, angles, plane figures like square, rectangle, and triangle, measurement (perimeter, area
GRADE 4 of triangle, parallelogram and trapezoids, volume of cubes and rectangular prisms, pre-algebra concepts, data collection,
representation and analysis as applied, using appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning,
communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving whole numbers up to 10 000 000,
fractions, decimals including money, ratio, percent, geometry (circles and five or more-sided polygons), measurement
GRADE 5 (circumference, area of circle, volume of cubes and rectangular prisms, temperature) ,pre-algebra concepts, data collection,
representation and analysis as applied, using appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning,
communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real life.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 7

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving fractions, decimals including money,
ratio and proportion, percent, rate, integers,geometry (spatial figures), measurement (surface area, volume, meter reading), pre-
GRADE 6 algebra concepts, data collection, representation and analysis, probability, expressions and equations as applied, using appropriate
technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in real
life.
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of numbers and number sense (sets and real number
system), measurement (conversion of units of measurement), patterns and algebra (algebraic expressions and properties of real
numbers as applied in linear equations and inequalities in one variable), geometry (sides and angles of polygons), statistics and
probability (data collection and presentation, and measures of central tendency and variability) as applied, using appropriate
technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in
real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (factors of polynomials, rational
algebraic expressions, linear equations and inequalities in two variables, systems of linear equations and inequalities in two
variables), geometry (axiomatic structure of geometry, triangle congruence, inequalities in a triangle, and parallel and perpendicular
GRADE 8 lines), statistics and probability (probability of simple events, linear correlation and regression) as applied, using appropriate
technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in
real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (quadratic equations and
inequalities, quadratic functions, rational algebraic equations, variations and radicals), geometry (parallelograms and triangle
GRADE 9 similarities and basic concepts of trigonometry), statistics and probability (normal standard distribution) as applied, using
appropriate technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and
decisions in real life.
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (sequences, series, polynomials,
polynomial equations and polynomial functions), geometry (circles and coordinate geometry), statistics and probability
GRADE 10 (combinatorics and probability, measures of position and measures of skewness and kurtosis) as applied, using appropriate
technology, in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations and decisions in
real life.

Time Allotment:

Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Daily 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins 50 mins

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 8

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## CONTENT/STRAND CONTENT PERFORMANCE LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

## Numbers and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Number Sense demonstrates formulate challenging
understanding of key situations involving sets describes well-defined sets, subsets, universal sets and M7NS-Ia-1
concepts of sets and and real numbers and the null set, cardinality of sets, power sets and other
the real number solve these in a variety kinds of sets.
system including power of strategies including
sets and other kinds of power sets and other illustrates the union, intersection, difference, and cross M7NS-Ia-2
sets, cross product of kinds of sets, cross product of two sets, and the complement of a set.
two sets and the product of two sets and
complement of a set. the complement of a set. uses Venn Diagrams to represent sets, subsets and set M7NS-Ib-1
operations.

## represents the absolute value of a number on a number M7NS-Ic-1

line as the distance of the number from 0.

set of integers.

## expresses rational numbers from fraction form to M7NS-Ie-1

decimal form and vice versa.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 9

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
describes principal roots and tells whether they are M7NS-Ig-1
rational or irrational.

of a number is.

## estimates the square root of a whole number to the M7NS-Ig-3

nearest hundredth.

number line.***

order.

## represents real-life situations which involve real

numbers. M7NS-Ii-2

## Measurement The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates formulate real-life
understanding of the key problems involving illustrates what it means to measure. M7ME-IIa-1
concepts of measurements and solve
measurement that these using a variety of describes the development of measurement from the M7ME-IIa-2
includes precision and strategies. primitive to the present international system of units.
accuracy and significant
figures. illustrates precision and accuracy of measurement. M7ME-IIa-3

## performs operations on measurements involving M7ME-IIb-1

significant figures.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 10

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## approximates the measures of quantities particularly M7ME-IIb-2

length, weight/mass, volume, time, angle, temperature
and rate.

## converts measurements from one unit to another in M7ME-IIb-3

both Metric and English system.***

measurement.***

## Patterns and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Algebra demonstrates model situations using
understanding of key oral, written, graphical translates English phrases to mathematical phrases M7AL-IIc-1
concepts of algebraic and algebraic methods in and vice versa.
expressions including the solving problems
square of a multinomial, involving algebraic interprets the meaning of an where n is a positive M7AL-IIc-2
the properties of real expressions, linear integer.
numbers as applied in equations and
linear equations and inequalities in one differentiates between constants and variables in a M7AL-IIc-3
inequalities in one variable. given algebraic expression.
variable and problem
solving involving evaluates algebraic expressions for given values of the M7AL-IIc-4
equations and variables.
inequalities in one
variable, e.g. number classifies algebraic expressions which are polynomials M7AL-IIc-5
relations, age, geometry, according to degree and number of terms.
mixture, coin,
investment, motion, work adds and subtracts polynomials. M7AL-IId-1
and clock.
derives the laws of exponent. M7AL-IId-2

## uses models and algebraic methods to find the: (a) M7AL-IIe-2-g-1

product of two binomials; (b) product of the sum and
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 11
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
difference of two terms; (c) square of a binomial; (d)
square of multinomial (e) cube of a binomial; (e)
product of a binomial and a trinomial. ***

equations.

## translates English sentences to mathematical M7AL-IIh-2

sentences and vice versa.

variable.

one variable.

## solves linear equation and inequality in one variable M7AL-IIi-2-j-1

involving absolute value by: (a) graphing; (b) algebraic
methods.

## solves problems involving equations and inequalities in M7AL-IIj-2

one variable including problems on number
relation, age, geometric, mixture, coin, investment,
motion, work and, clock.

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates create models of plane
understanding of key figures and formulate and represents point, line and plane using concrete and M7GE-IIIa-1
concepts of geometry of solve accurately pictorial models.
shapes and sizes, and authentic problems
geometric relationships. involving sides and illustrates subsets of a line. M7GE-IIIa-2
angles of a polygon.
classifies the different kinds of angles. M7GE-IIIa-3
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 12
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## derives relationships of geometric figures using M7GE-IIIb-1

measurements and by inductive reasoning;
supplementary angles, complementary angles, equal
angles, vertical angles, adjacent angles, linear pairs,
perpendicular lines and parallel lines.***

## derives relationships among angles formed by parallel M7GE-IIIc-1

lines cut by a transversal using measurement and by
inductive reasoning.

## uses a compass and straightedge to bisect line M7GE-IIId-1-e-1

segments and angles and construct perpendiculars
and parallels.

sides.

## derives inductively the relationship of exterior and M7GE-IIIf-1

interior angles of a convex polygon.

## illustrates a circle and the terms related to it: radius, M7GE-IIIg-1

diameter chord, center, arc chord central angle and
inscribed angle.

## constructs triangles, squares, rectangles, regular M7GE-IIIh-1-i-1

pentagons and regular hexagons.

polygon.

## Statistics and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Probability demonstrates differentiate between
understanding of key descriptive and inferential explains the importance of Statistics. M7SP-IVa-1
concept, uses and statistics, collect and
importance of Statistics, organize data differentiates descriptive statistics from inferential M7SP-IVa-2
the difference between systematically including
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 13
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
descriptive and the use of pictogram and statistics.
inferential statistics, data frequency polygon,
collection/gathering and compute accurately poses problems that can be solved using Statistics. M7SP-IVa-3
the different forms of measures of central
data representation tendency and variability, formulates simple statistical instrument. M7SP-IVa-4
including pictogram and apply these
and frequency polygon, appropriately in data gathers statistical data. M7SP-IVb-1
measures of central analysis and
tendency, measures of interpretation in different organizes data in a frequency distribution table. M7SP-IVc-1
variability and fields.
probability. uses appropriate graphs to represent organized data: M7SP-IVd-1-e-1
pie chart, bar graph, line graph, pictogram, histogram,
frequency polygon, and ogive.***

## illustrates the measures of central tendency (mean, M7SP-IVf-1

median and mode) of a statistical data.

## calculates the measures of central tendency of M7SP-IVf-2-g-1

ungrouped and grouped data.***

## illustrates the measures of variability (range, average M7SP-IVh-1

deviation, variance, standard deviation) of a statistical
data.

## calculates the measures of variability of grouped and M7SP-IVh-2-i-1

ungrouped data.***

## uses appropriate statistical measures in analyzing and M7SP-IVj-1

interpreting a statistical data.

## draws conclusions from graphic and tabular data and M7SP-IVj-2

measures of central tendency and variability.

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 14

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## CONTENT/STRAND CONTENT PERFORMANCE LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

## Patterns and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Algebra demonstrates formulate real-life
understanding of key problems involving factors factors completely different types of polynomials M8AL-Ia-1-b-1
concepts of factors of of polynomials, rational (polynomials with common monomial factor, difference
polynomials, rational algebraic expressions, of two squares, sum and difference of two cubes,
algebraic expressions, linear equations including perfect square trinomials, and general trinomials).
linear equations graphs, the Diophantine
including graphing linear Equations, inequalities in solves problems involving factors of polynomials. M8AL-Ib-2
equations given the slope two variables, systems of
and an intercept, finding linear equations including illustrates rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-1
the equation of a line the use of determinants,
given the intercepts, inequalities in two simplifies rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-2
solving problems variables, linear functions,
involving Diophantine and solve these problems performs operations on rational algebraic expressions. M8AL-Ic-2-d-1
equations, solving a accurately using a variety
system of linear of strategies. solves problems involving rational algebraic M8AL-Id-2
equations using expressions.
determinants and solving
problems involving illustrates the rectangular coordinate system and its M8AL-Ie-1
system of linear uses.***
equations including area
of triangle, test for
plots points on the coordinate plane. *** M8AL-Ie-2
collinear points and two-
point form of equation of M8AL-Ie-3
graphs linear equations in two variables.
line and inequalities in
two variables, systems
of linear equations and illustrates the slope of a line. M8AL-Ie-4
inequalities in two
variables and linear finds the slope of a line given two points, equation and M8AL-Ie-5
functions. graph.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 15

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
writes the linear equation ax + by = c in the form M8AL-If-1
y = mx + b and vice versa.

graphs a linear equation given (a) any two points; (b) M8AL-If-2
the x and y intercepts; (c) the slope and a point on
the line, and (d) a slope and an intercept.***

## describes the graph of a linear equation in terms of its M8AL-If-3

intercepts and slope.***

finds the equation of a line given (a) two points; (b) the M8AL-Ig-1
slope and a point; (c) the slope and its intercepts, and
(d) the intercepts.

variables.

variables.

## solves problems involving Diophantine Equations

M8AL-Ih-1
graphs a system of linear equations in two M8AL-Ih-2
variables.***
M8AL-Ii-1
categorizes when a given system of linear equations in
two variables have graphs that are parallel,
intersecting and coinciding.

## solves a system of linear equations in two variables by M8AL-Ii-2-j-1

(a) graphing; (b) substitution; (c) elimination.***
(d) determinants (Cramers Rule)

## solves problems involving systems of linear equations M8AL-Ij-3

in two variables including area of triangle, test for
collinear points, and two-point form of the
equation of line.
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 16
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## Patterns and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve
understanding of key accurately real-life illustrates linear inequalities in two variables. M8AL-IIa-1
concepts of linear problems involving linear
inequalities in two inequalities in two differentiates linear inequalities in two variables from M8AL-IIa-2
variables, systems of variables, systems of linear equations in two variables.
linear inequalities in two linear inequalities in two
variables including variables including simple graphs linear inequalities in two variables. M8AL-IIa-3
simple linear linear programming and
programming and linear linear functions. solves problems involving linear inequalities in two
functions. variables. M8AL-IIa-4

M8AL-IIb-1
variables.***

## solves problems involving systems of linear

M8AL-IIb-2
inequalities in two variables.

## solves simple linear programming problems.

M8AL-IIc-1
illustrates a relation and a function. M8AL-IIc-2
verifies if a given relation is a function. M8AL-IIc-3
determines dependent and independent variables. M8AL-IIc-4

## illustrates a linear function. M8AL-IId-2

graphs a linear function (a) domain; (b) range; (c) table M8AL-Iid-3-e-1
of values; (d) intercepts; and (e) slope.

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 17

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates communicate
understanding of key mathematical thinking determines the relationship between the hypothesis M8GE-IIf-1
concepts of logic and with coherence and clarity and the conclusion of an if-then statement.
reasoning. in formulating and
analyzing arguments. transforms a statement into an equivalent if-then M8GE-IIf-2
statement.

## determines the inverse, converse and contrapositive M8GE-IIg-1

of an if-then statement.

## illustrates the equivalences of: (a) the statement and M8GE-IIg-2

its contrapositive; (b) the converse and inverse of a
statement.

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates
understanding of key formulate an describes a mathematical system. M8GE-IIIa-1
concepts of axiomatic organized plan to
structure of geometry, handle a real-life illustrates the need for an axiomatic structure of a M8GE-IIIa-2-c-1
triangle congruence. situation. mathematical system in general, and in Geometry in
particular: (a) defined terms; (b) undefined terms; (c)
communicate postulates and (d) theorems.
mathematical thinking
with coherence and illustrates triangle congruence.*** M8GE-IIId-1
clarity in formulating,
investigating, illustrates the SAS, ASA and SSS congruence M8GE-IIId-e-1
analyzing, and solving postulates.***
real-life problems
involving congruent solves corresponding parts of congruent triangles. M8GE-IIIf-1
triangles using
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 18
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
appropriate and proves two triangles are congruent. M8GE-IIIg-1
accurate
representations. proves statements on triangle congruence. M8GE-IIIh-1

## applies triangle congruence to construct perpendicular M8GE-IIIi-1-j-1

lines and angle bisectors.

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates communicate
understanding of key mathematical thinking illustrates theorems on triangle inequalities (Exterior M8GE-IVa-1
concepts of inequalities with coherence and clarity Angle Inequality Theorem, Triangle Inequality
in a triangle, and parallel in formulating, Theorem, Hinge Theorem).***
and perpendicular lines. investigating, analyzing,
and solving real-life applies theorems on triangle inequalities. M8GE-IVb-1
problems involving
triangle inequalities, and proves inequalities in a triangle. M8GE-IVc-1
parallelism and
perpendicularity of lines proves properties of parallel lines cut by a M8GE-IVd-1
using appropriate and transversal.***
accurate representations.
determines the conditions under which lines and M8GE-IVe-1
segments are parallel or perpendicular.

## Statistics and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Probability demonstrates formulate and solve
understanding of key practical problems illustrates an experiment, outcome, sample space and M8SP-IVf-1
concepts of probability, involving probability of event.***
linear correlation and simple events, linear
regression. correlation and counts the number of occurrences of an outcome in M8SP-IVf-g-1
regression. an experiment: (a) table; (b) tree diagram; (c)
systematic listing (d) fundamental counting
principle.***

## illustrates an experimental probability and a M8SP-IVi-1

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 19
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
theoretical probability.

## solves problems involving probabilities of simple M8SP-IVi-1

events.
describes the functional relationship between two M8SP-IVj-1
or more variables using linear correlation and
regression

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 20

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## CONTENT CONTENT STANDARDS PERFORMANCE LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE NUMBERS

STANDARDS
Statistics and The learner demonstrates The learner is able to use The learner
Probability understanding of key appropriate statistical
tools in drawing computes the coefficients of skewness and M9SP-Ia-1
concepts of skewness ,
conclusions and in kurtosis of a given set of data.
kurtosis, normal
distributions, statistical making decisions about a interprets the coefficient of skewness and
group or population M9SP-Ia-2
hypotheses and testing of kurtosis of a given set of data.
hypotheses including skewness,
kurtosis, normal identifies regions under the normal curve M9SP-Ib-1
distributions and the use corresponding to different standard normal
of statistical hypotheses values.
and testing of hypotheses M9SP-Ib-2
converts a normal random variable to a
standard normal variable and vice versa.
M9SP-Ib-3
computes probabilities and percentiles using
the normal standard table.
M9SP-Ib-4
illustrates a) null hypothesis b) alternative
hypothesis c) level of significance d) rejection
region and e) types of error in hypothesis
testing. M9SP-Ib-5

## formulates the appropriate null and alternative

hypothesis on a population mean. M9SP-Ib-6

## computes for the test statistic value.

M9SP-Ib-7
draws conclusion about the population based
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 21
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
on test statistic values and region of rejection.

## Patterns and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Algebra demonstrates investigate thoroughly
understanding of key mathematical illustrates quadratic equations. M9AL-Ic-1
concepts of quadratic relationships in various
equations, inequalities situations, formulate solves quadratic equations by: (a) extracting square M9AL-Ic-2-Id-1
and functions, and real-life problems roots; (b) factoring; (c) completing the square; (d)
equations. equations, inequalities
and functions, and characterizes the roots of a quadratic equation using M9AL-Id-2
rational algebraic the discriminant.
equations and solve
them using a variety of describes the relationship between the coefficients and M9AL-Ie-1
strategies. the roots of a quadratic equation.

## solves equations transformable to quadratic equations M9AL-Ie-2

(including rational algebraic equations).

## solves problems involving quadratic equations and M9AL-If-1

rational algebraic equations.

## represents a quadratic function using: (a) table of M9AL-Ii-1

values, (b) graph, (c) equation.

## transforms the quadratic function defined by

y = ax2 + bx + c into the form y = a(x h)2 + k. M9AL-Ii-2

## graphs a quadratic function: (a) domain, (b) range, (c)

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K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
intercepts, (d) axis of symmetry; (e) vertex, (f)
direction of the opening of the parabola. M9AL-Ii-3

## analyzes the effects of changing the values of a, h and M9AL-Ij-1

k in the equation y = a(x h)2 + k of a quadratic function
on its graph.***

## determines the equation of a quadratic function given: M9AL-Ij-2

(a) a table of values; (b) graph; (c) zeros.

## Patterns and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve
understanding of key accurately problems illustrates situations that involve the following variations M9AL-IIa-1
concepts of variation and involving radicals. (a) direct; (b) inverse; (c) joint; (d) combined.
translates into variation statement a relationship M9AL-IIa-2-b-1
between two quantities given by : (a) a table of
values; (b) a mathematical equation; (c) a graph, and
vice versa.
M9AL-IIb-2-c-1
solves problems involving variation.
M9AL-IId-1
applies the laws involving positive integral exponents,
zero and negative integral exponents.
M9AL-IId-2
illustrates expressions with rational exponents.
M9AL-IIe-1
simplifies expressions with rational exponents.

## writes expressions with rational exponents as radicals

and vice versa. M9AL-IIf-1

## derives the laws of radicals. M9AL-IIf-2

simplifies radical expressions using the laws of M9AL-IIg-1
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K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates investigate, analyze, and
understanding of key solve problems involving identifies quadrilaterals that are parallelograms. M9GE-IIIa-1
concepts of parallelograms and
quadrilaterals triangle similarity through determines the conditions that guarantee a M9GE-IIIa-2
(parallelograms), appropriate and accurate quadrilateral a parallelogram.
trapezoid, kites, triangle representation and apply
similarity and the principles of similarity uses properties to find measures of angles, sides and M9GE-IIIb-1
principles of similarity in in transformation, other quantities involving parallelograms.
transformation and tessellation, and tiling of
tessellation. figures. proves theorems on the different kinds of parallelogram M9GE-IIIc-1
(rectangle, rhombus, square).

and kites.

## describes a proportion. M9GE-IIIf-1

M9GE-IIIf-2
applies the fundamental theorems of proportionality to
solve problems involving proportions.
M9GE-IIIg-1
illustrates similarity of figures.

## proves the conditions for similarity of triangles. *** M9GE-IIIg-h-1

a. SAS Similarity Theorem
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K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
b. SSS Similarity Theorem
c. AA Similarity Theorem
d. Right Triangle Similarity Theorem
e. Special Right Triangle Theorems

similar.

## solves problems that involve triangle similarity and M9GE-IIIj-1

right triangles.***

## applies the principles of similarity in M9GE-IIIj-2

transformation, tessellation and tiling of figures.

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates apply the concepts of
understanding of the trigonometric ratios illustrates the six trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, M9GE-IVa-1
basic concepts of including the law of tangent, secant, cosecant and cotangent.
trigonometry including tangent to formulate and
the law of tangent. solve real-life problems finds the trigonometric ratios of special angles. M9GE-IVb-1
with precision and
accuracy. illustrates angles of elevation and angles of M9GE-IVc-1
. depression.

## uses trigonometric ratios to solve real-life problems M9GE-IVd-1-e-1

involving right triangles. ***

## solves problems involving oblique triangles.*** M9GE-IVh-1-j-1

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 25
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## CONTENT CONTENT PERFORMANCE LEARNING COMPETENCIES CODE

STANDARDS STANDARDS NUMBERS

## Patterns The learner The learner is able to The learner

and Algebra demonstrates formulate and solve
understanding of key problems involving generates pattern.*** M10AL-Ia-1
concepts of sequences, sequences, series,
series, polynomials and polynomials and illustrates an arithmetic sequence. M10AL-Ib-1
polynomial equations. polynomial equations in
different disciplines. determines arithmetic means and nth term of an M10AL-Ib-2-c-1
through appropriate and arithmetic sequence.***
accurate representations.
finds the sum of the terms of a given arithmetic M10AL-Ic-2
sequence.***

## differentiates a geometric sequence from an M10AL-Id-2

arithmetic sequence.

## differentiates a finite geometric sequence from an M10AL-Id-3

infinite geometric sequence.

## determines geometric means and nth term of a M10AL-Ie-1

geometric sequence.***

## finds the sum of the terms of a given finite or infinite M10AL-Ie-2

geometric sequence.***

Fibonacci).***

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 26

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
solves problems involving sequences and series. M10AL-If-2

## performs division of polynomials using long division M10AL-Ig-1

and synthetic division.

Theorem.

equations.

## Patterns The learner The learner is able to The learner

and Algebra demonstrates conduct systematically a
understanding of key mathematical illustrates polynomial functions. M10AL-IIa-1
concepts of polynomial investigation involving
function including polynomial functions in graphs polynomial functions.*** M10AL-IIa-2
Descartes rule of signs, different fields including
the Rational Root Descartes rule of signs, uses Descartes rule of signs to determine the M10AL-IIb-1
Theorem, the upper and the Rational Root number of positive and negative real zeros of a
lower bounds for real Theorem, the upper and polynomial function.
zeros of a polynomial lower bounds for real
function. zeros of a polynomial
finds the rational zeros of a polynomial function
function. M10AL-IIb-2
using the Rational Root Theorem.

## determines the bounds (upper and lower) for real M10AL-IIb-3

zeros of a polynomial function.

## solves problems involving polynomial functions. M10AL-IIc-1

K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 27
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## Geometry The learner The learner is able to The learner

demonstrates
understanding of key formulate and find derives inductively the relations among chords, arcs, M10GE-IId-1
concepts of circles and solutions to challenging central angles and inscribed angles.
coordinate geometry. situations involving
circles and other related proves theorems related to chords, arcs, central M10GE-IId-2
terms in different angles and inscribed angles.
disciplines through
appropriate and illustrates secants, tangents, segments and sectors of M10GE-IIe-1
accurate a circle.
representations.
proves theorems on secants, tangents and segments. M10GE-IIe-2-f-1

M10GE-IIf-2

## formulate and solve derives the distance formula. M10GE-IIg-1

problems involving
geometric figures on the applies the distance formula to prove some geometric M10GE-IIg-2
rectangular coordinate properties.
plane with perseverance
and accuracy. illustrates the center-radius form of the equation of a M10GE-IIh-1
circle.

## determines the center and radius of a circle given its M10GE-IIh-2

equation and vice versa.

## graphs a circle and other geometric figures on the M10GE-IIi-1

coordinate plane.***

## K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 28

K TO 12 MATHEMATICS

## solves problems involving geometric figures on the M10GE-IIi-j-1

coordinate plane.

Statistics The learner demonstrates The learner is able to use The learner
and Probability understanding of key precise counting
concepts of technique and probability illustrates the permutation of objects. M10SP-IIIa-1
combinatorics and in formulating
probability including conclusions and making derives the formula for finding the number of M10SP-IIIa-2
circular permutations and decisions including permutations of n objects taken r at a time.
the number of distinct circular permutations,
permutations of n things permutations where derives the formula for finding the number of M10SP-IIIb-1-b-2
of which n1 are of one some objects are alike permutations of n distinct objects arranged in a
kind, n2 of a second and conditional circle.
kind,, nk of a kth kind, probability.
M10SP-IIIb-3-b-4
solving problems derives the formula for finding the number of
involving conditional distinct permutations of n things of which n1 are
probability and of one kind, n2 of a second kind,, nk of a kth
interpreting data kind. M10SP-IIIb-5
presented in a Box-and-
Whisker plot. solves problems involving permutations. M10SP-IIIc-1
illustrates the combination of objects. M10SP-IIId-1
differentiates permutation from combination of n
objects taken r at a time. M10SP-IIId-2-e-1
derives the formula for finding the number of
combinations of n objects taken r at a time.
M10SP-IIIf-1
solves problems involving permutations and
combinations. M10SP-IIIg-1
illustrates events, and the union and intersection of
events.
K to 12 Curriculum Guide version as of August 2013 MATHEMATICS 29
K TO 12 MATHEMATICS
M10SP-IIIg-2
illustrates the probability of a union of two events.
M10SP-IIIh-1
finds the probability of (A B).
M10SP-IIIh-2
illustrates independent events. M10SP-IIIi-j-1

## solves problems involving probability including

conditional probability.

## Statistics and The learner The learner is able to The learner

Probability demonstrates conduct systematically a
understanding of key mini-research applying illustrates the following measures of position: quartiles, M10SP-IVa-1
concepts of measures of the different statistical deciles and percentiles.***
position. methods.
calculates a specified measure of position (e.g. 90th M10SP-IVb-1-c-1
percentile) of a set of data.

## interprets data presented in a Box-and-Whisker M10SP-IVd-1

plot.
M10SP-IVe-1
solves problems involving measures of position.
M10SP-IVf-1-g-1
formulates statistical mini-research.
M10SP-IVh-1-j-1
uses appropriate measures of position and other
statistical methods in analyzing and interpreting
research data.***

*** Suggestion for ICT enhanced lesson when available and where appropriate