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Artistic Thinking as Transcognitive Practice: A Reconciliation of the Process-Product

Author(s): Graeme Sullivan
Source: Visual Arts Research, Vol. 27, No. 1 (2001), pp. 2-12
Published by: University of Illinois Press
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Accessed: 14-03-2017 12:26 UTC

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Artistic Thinking as Transcognitive Practice: A Reconciliation
of the Process-Product Dichotomy
Graeme Sullivan
Teachers College Columbia University

Abstract Strange or novel but in retrospect can seem

entirely appropriate. For many artists,
Describing and explaining the cognitive imaginative thoughts may arise in planning;
foundations of artistic thinking remains an elusive during the process of making; as a conse
goal for researchers. In an effort to demystify the quence of critical reflection; or through
artistic process many approaches have been
meanings made by others. These signifi
deployed to investigate the workings of the cant others can include art teachers, art
creative mind. The results of these inquiries
writers and cultural commentators for when
continue to influence art education for the
imaginative thinker is at the heart of art learning. artworks are made and displayed they
Several cognitive perspectives have been applied open up an opportunity to think and learn
to art education that draw influence from about art.
psychology and cognitive science which give a In an effort to demystify the artistic pro
clearer understanding of the processes and cess many approaches have been de
products of art learning. To better understand how ployed to investigate the workings of the
these might be more cogently applied in the field, creative mind. The outcomes of these in
there is a need to critique current theories in
quiries continue to influence art education
relation to views grounded in contemporary art
for the imaginative thinker is at the heart
practice. This study examines the art and science
of art learning. To better understand how
of cognition and identifies common interests in
the quest for a more dynamic, multidimensional cognitive perspectives might be more co
model that more accurately captures the gently applied in the field, there is a need
complexity of cognition. Drawing on research of to critique current theories in relation to
artists' practice a model is proposed that views grounded in contemporary art prac
reconciles the process-product dilemma by tice. This study examines the art and sci
defining artistic thinking as transcognition. ence of cognition and identifies common
interests in the quest for a more dynamic,
Art need not be a mystery. Nor should it multidimensional model that more accu
be muddied by myth. A reader of art edu rately captures the complexity of cognitive
cation journals over recent years might be processes. Drawing on research of artists'
perplexed by the array of theories and prac practice a model is proposed that recon
tices we proclaim, but there are some en ciles the process-product dilemma by de
during principles at play. Some things stand fining artistic thinking as transcognition.
out: art involves thinking. Thinking is never
fixed as it embraces what is known and
The Science of Cognition
unknown. And the importance of thoughts
becomes apparent when they are enacted The study of creative thinking has long
in some form. While the value of thinking been a topic of interest. The use of diverse
has long been championed, the mecha thinking processes is, of course, a well
nism by which thoughts are generated and documented strategy used as much by
enacted in creative ways remains delight scientists as by artists (Feyerabend, 1987;
fully obscure. Artists are versatile in using Perkins, 1981; Weisberg, 1993). There
insights and intuitions to bring ideas to frui were times of course when science and art
tion in ways that might initially appear seemed to be indistinguishable. When

2 VISUAL ARTS RESEARCH ? 2002 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois

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studying a painting in 15th century Florence could model their smart machine. Their 'so
it would have been difficult to tell the dif ciety~of-mind! theory made use of multiple
ference between geometry, draughtsman - structures and variable resources. As
ship and illusion. By the late 19th century Minsky says, "you can't understand any
the inevitable deterministic conclusion was thing unless you understand it in several
in sight: artists were focusing on irreduc different ways, and the search for the single
ible elements such as George Seurat's pix truth-the pure, best way to represent knowl
els of paint and Paul Cezanne's underly edge-is wrongheaded" (cited in Brockman,
ing forms, while Ernest Rutherford was 1996, p. 163). According to Minsky one
searching for the simplicity of atomic struc needs several different ways to represent
tures. something in order to understand it and to
But knowledge was making uncertain be able to apply it because things around
progress. The physicists soon followed the us change all the time. In his book Nature's
mathematicians to seek out abstract theo Numbers, Ian Stewart (1995) discusses
retical worlds. They were thinking about how mathematics goes beyond rigid laws
theories that might correspond to the in to embrace "flexible flux" (p.48). The impli
creasingly uncertain observations of the cation is that knowing laws and formula
natural world that previously could be quan about how something might work is not
tified. The parallel quest of artists and sci enough. As Stewart would say, 'fix and flux'
entists sought to see the world in new coexist. For the theoretical physicist,
ways, but when science turned to theory, Murray Gell-Mann, the adaptive systems
art could not keep up. And things split. Later that shape much of our life deploy simplic
in the century, CP. Snow's description of ity and complexity in a 'braided' relation
The Two Cultures (1959) highlighted this ship.1
polite cultural clash between the humani If an analytical lens is held up to re
ties and the sciences as a dispute between search traditions in cognitive science we
the 'intellectuals' and the 'boffins'. see a similar acknowledgment that the
In a more recent publication edited by study of thinking is moving to encompass
John Brockman titled The Third Culture a much broader array of subject matter and
(1996) he chronicles a series of conversa method. Two distinct research trends stand
tions among a highly regarded list of sci out, these being the symbolicist model of
entists. Brockman describes them as 'third cognition (Chomsky, 1968; Newell &
culture thinkers' (p. 18) who seem to be Simon, 1981), and the connectionistv\e\N
filling the gap identified by CP. Snow forty (Bechtel & Abrahamson, 1991; Rumelhart,
years ago. What is intriguing to me is that 1998). Drawing on the unique human ca
there is no set agenda, no accepted canon, pacity to encode and decode symbols
and no standardized way these scientists those advocating a symbolicist approach
think about things. There is disagreement explain cognition in terms of how individu
and debate, but there is communication als process information. The presence of
going on. So what are the scientists think this view in art education is strong among
ing? those who see art as a form of symbolic
We hear the computer scientist Roger functioning. Connectionism draws together
Schank saying information processing is metaphors about the brain and computers
about surprises and it is from the unex and models an architecture of the mind that
pected that we learn. Nicholas Humphrey consists of an enormous array of parallel
defies the objective myth and investigates networks that explain learning as a means
the science of feelings. When Marvin of 'connecting'. To this extent, information
Minsky and Seymour Papert were looking is in the connections and "it means that all
for images to conceptualize their thoughts knowledge is implicitIn the structure of the
about artificial intelligence they realized device that carries out the task rather than
there was no single structure on which they explicit in the status of the units them

Artistic Thinking as Transcognitive Practice 3

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selves" (Rumelhart, 1998, p.210. Italics thought and act on is to examine the much
his). This sense of integration should come used binary-bound question: is it process
as no surprise to art educators who en or product?
dorse the view that form is content.
There is, however, a third orientation Art Cognition as Product
that offers the possibility of intriguing in
sights. The dynamicist theory of cognition This is a construct that describes cogni
(Thelen & Smith, 1994) describes a more tion as the consequence of thought and
multidimensional model that has some action. In general we associate this view
compatibility with the kind of non-linear with the Anglo-American tradition in psy
models we might envision with artistic cog chology (Bruner, 1966; Gardner, 1972,
nition. This approach sees cognition more 1982). An underlying assumption is that
as a dynamic, systems-like model that is understanding carries some predictive
continually changing as a consequence of power-if one can explain how something
the interaction between the thinker and the works then one can predict what will hap
surrounding environment. Whether such pen. A predictive view assumes an ability
complex models will ultimately lend them to make sense of facts before they are
selves to mathematical prescription re encountered. In art education this orienta
mains to be seen. The acknowledgment, tion has a long tradition, drawing as it does
however, that cognition can be seen as a from psychology as the defining paradigm
dynamic mix of individual action amid en (Arnheim, 1954/74; Dorn, 1999; Golomb,
vironmental constraints will be attractive to 1974).Thinking in a medium is a useful de
art educators who favor a contextualist scription of this orientation and some char
view of thinking and learning. acteristics are listed in Figure 1.
If we identify key concepts that some An example of cognition as product is
contemporary scientists are currently in provided by Paul Bowen who is a sculptor
vestigating these can be seen to focus on from Provincetown, Massachusetts
elements of surprise, feelings, flexibility, (Sullivan, 1996). For Bowen, the material
simplicity and complexity, multiple repre he uses is a site for ideas rather than a car
sentations, alternative paths to meaning rier of any romantic notions of place or as
making, and the like. On the other hand, if traces of history. In describing the way im
we analyze the theoretical frameworks that ages can be recovered from materials dur
are directing research in cognitive science ing the sculptural process Bowen likes to
we see an emphasis on symbolic modes let forms emerge from the activity of work
of cognition and connectionist theories, ing, rather than attempting to impose ideas.
along with recent speculations about more He explains: "frequently I'll screw wood just
dynamic models. Many of the scientists flat to the wall and look for some kind of
who study the complexity of thinking are form that may in some sense already exist
researching topics that comfortably sit there and try to...pull something out of it".
within the content interests of artists and
art educators.
Art Cognition as Process

The Art of Cognition This is a construct that describes cogni

tion as a socially mediated process. In gen
The imaginative thinking of contemporary eral we associate this view with the inter
artists and scientists exhibit many of the pretive and semiotic tradition from Europe
elusive human characteristics art educa (Barthes, 1968; Gadamer, 1960/93). To
tors seek to foster. We know what artists study cognition one does not focus on be
think about,2 but what cognitive processes havior, rather one looks to make sense out
best describe how they think? A useful way of the intrinsic way language is used to
to better understand the scope of artistic construct stories and meanings. What art

4 Graeme Sullivan

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might mean is explored through art talk, or could explore personal paths through com
discourse, that derives from explorations in plex issues by making art convinced her
art and encounters with art (Barrett, 1994; those individual convictions and cultural
Brown & Korzenik, 1993). In art education concerns were inextricably linked. Narra
this orientation is best described as think tive is a primary means used by Maria
ing in a language (Parsons, 1992) and some Magdalena Campos Pons to critique the
characteristics are described in Figure 2. cultural dislocations observed in her Afro
An example of cognition as process is Cuban heritage and serves as a framework
provided by Maria Magdalena Campos for dialogue. Pons uses narrative to explore
Pons who is a Cuban-born emigrant instal and reassert histories about her race and
lation artist working in the US (Sullivan, culture as a way of reviving traditional tech
1996). The reflective thinking that shapes niques such as low relief carving, and as a
Pons' art practice is grounded in a deep metaphor around which she shapes her
cultural affiliation. Her realization that she working processes.

Anglo-American Psychological Tradition Art Education

Empirically based efforts used to answer The study of perceptual processes is seen
questions about how knowledge is ac as the way to understand thinking: visual
quired. thinking.
Aim is to understand mental phenomena Prominence of the symbol-processing view
within an economy of behaviour. (art is a form of symbolic functioning)
A quest for self-evident truths within an ob Different cognitive functions are associated
jective world of reality with different media (domain specificity).
Thoughts are the structural bits of cogni Thinking dispositions and habits of mind are
tion that help grasp the meaning of logical means to achieve understanding.
relationships and exist empirically in the The physiognomic qualities of materials
world. lend themselves to expressive outcomes
Attempts to present a view of understand via the hands and minds of artists (and
ing that is simple, exhaustive and general children).
izare. Artists think in a medium.
Information is observable, confirmable and
therefore knowable.
The mind finds nature.

Figure 1. Cognition as Product: Thinking in a Medium

European Interpretive Tradition Art Education

Understanding 'what things mean' can be Thinking in art and thinking about art is lan
grasped through rational discourse. guage dependent.
Knowledge of cognition is built on the basis Understanding about art is mediated by the
of the way linguistic signs function. artworld .
Understanding emerges as a process me Understanding in art is mediated by the
diated by social and cultural conventions. lifeworld of the individual.

The focus is language and narrative, rather Art talk is grounded in the socio-cultural con
than behaviour. ventions of language.
The mind makes nature Interpretation and meaning is framed by vi
sual images seen as texts.

Figure 2. Cognition as Process: Thinking in a Language

Artistic Thinking as Transcognitive Practice 5

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Cognition and Context Let me briefly explain what I mean by
self-similarity. Reductionism and Euclidean
The importance of context as an informing notions of space were powerful explana
agent in learning and understanding is cen tory systems that guided inquiry in both the
tral to many recent arguments about cogni sciences and the arts. The assumption was
tive development (Harris, 1998; Light & that a change in scale brought new kinds
Butterworth, 1993; Schleifer, Con Davis, & of information. The more things could be
Mergler, 1992; Sternberg & Wagner, 1994). reduced to their basic essence the better
In considering the role of context it is im the chance of figuring out how things
portant to acknowledge that this includes worked. But life is more complicated than
human involvement as well as situational that. Nature and humans resist such sim
factors, physical features and other envi plistic design. It is not so much an evolu
ronmental and cultural cues. Parts of tionary move from simple to complex that
current ideas about cognition such as 'dis holds promise. Rather it is the capacity to
tributed cognition' or 'situated cognition' fit embrace both the simple and the complex
this description. Distributed cognition at the same time. This is at the heart of the
(Perkins, 1992) refers to the way thinking quest of those scientists who seek a grand
takes place within an interactive system that unifying theory to embrace relativity and
includes the self, others, and the artefacts quantum physics for any explanation has
we use. Situated cognition is sometimes to accommodate a massive change in
called sociocultural cognition whereby re scale. There must be some relationship
ality is a social construct and understand between genes, species, cultures and the
ing emerges as a consequence of cosmos and there will probably be some
commonsense transactions in language form of symmetry across this space.
and other forms of communication (Rogoff Self-similarity, therefore, describes re
& Lave, 1984). Inquiries into the informing cursive patterns across scale that appear
role of factors such as discipline character both simple and complex, but generally
istics and individual constraints appear to look irregular. If one ponders Chartres Ca
be offering important insights into the cog thedral, Antonio Gaudi's Sagrada Familia,
nitive context of art education (Efland, or Frank Gehry's Guggenheim in Bilboa,
2000). these buildings have no scale because they
Seeing cognition as a mental activity that have every scale. There is a self-similarity
takes place within a socio-cultural context that is symmetrical across scale because
requires one to abandon the idea that art is when viewed close up or from afar, there
a process or a product. Viewing art prac are details that seem to draw the eye in
tice as displaying cognitive processes which ways simple shapes cannot. And for me,
are distributed throughout the various me this similarity exists in all its simplicity and
dia, language, situational, and cultural prod complexity at the micro level in the meet
ucts offers the possibility of a more plau ing of minds, and at a macro level in the
sible argument. The belief that process and meeting of cultures.
product inform each other does not mean
that we reduce things to their common ele Cognitive Contexts Surrounding Art
ments in the manner of viewing two over Practice
lapping circles. Rather, there is the expec
tation that both represent complex systems Investigations into the contexts that in
of skills and understanding. Instances of form art practice generally focus on
interaction and overlap are strategic rather identifying artists' working processes
than all encompassing or reductive. To vi (Csikzentmihalyi, 1990; Perkins, 1981), or
sualize the relationship between process the outcomes of artistic activity (Arnheim,
and product a useful organizing principle 1986; Jeffri, 1993). These conform to the
here is "self-similarity" (Gleick, 1987, p.103). relative emphasis placed on either process

6 Graeme Sullivan

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or product described earlier. How is the way qualitative data analysis software (Gahan
we think about art as process or product & Hannibal, 1998).4
reconciled in light of what we know about As part of the research outcomes, Criti
cognition and culture? In an interview cal Influence was an exhibition that pre
Christo and Jeanne-Claude were asked if sented the work of both artists along with
their art practice emphasized the process a range of other visual arts perspectives
or the product (Chang, 1979). Their re that included contributions from the direc
sponse was that they always thought in tor of the gallery and an art critic who wrote
terms of process and progress. Their work about the artists' work. The documentation
is not only about the process of planning associated with Critical Influence was pre
and negotiation, but also about the sented in two forms. A series of six broad
progress made in advancing our under sheets served as an exhibition catalogue.
standing.3 Each of these presented a different per
To examine a wider set of contextual spective on the practices investigated as
factors that influence how artists think a part of the project. A more detailed account
study was undertaken with two artists who was contained in a CD-ROM that was on
were invited to participate in a twelve month view for the duration of the exhibition.
research project that culminated in an ex Jayne Dyer's contribution to the exhibi
hibition of their work in a commercial gal tion was to produce an enormous work
lery (Sullivan, 1998) titled Critical Influence. titled Site, which stretched from floor to ceil
The aim of the Critical Influence project was ing over several walls of the gallery. It was
to investigate approaches to contemporary almost overpowering in its scale and im
visual arts practice so as to be able to bet pact. Site created a brooding mood that
ter understand how artists think. The took the viewer across surfaces that were
project documented the studio practice of scratched, scutched, rubbed and layered
two artists as they prepared work for a two with paints, and, chalks on a journey of
person exhibition. As well, the role of other traces of pasts and places. This work ex
artworld agents such as the exhibition con plored the basic human need to be located
text, the gallery director, the catalogue es within contexts that ground individual and
sayist and the curator were all considered cultural identity. But Dyer's art suggests
to be active elements in the artistic enter these connections exist as momentary
prise. The participating artists were Jayne encounters of places and things. Her work
Dyer and Nikki McCarthy. Both are mid implies that a sense of place and identity
career artists living in Sydney, Australia. As may occupy a space that is caught between
well as producing artworks for exhibition, shifting physical and temporal sites. As an
each artist also participated in a twelve avid traveller Dyer collects maps much in
month qualitative case study that mapped the manner that others take photographs.
the influences on their art practice. Infor While these record sites that grid the land
mation was collected in the form of a se scape she feels they negate the existence
ries of interviews with each artist, along of those who live within the borders. Draw
with studio observations recorded in writ ing on Bachelard's 'poetics of space'
ten, photographic and video formats. In (1964), Dyer's art suggests that where and
terviews were also conducted with those how we locate ourselves requires an ac
involved in the exhibition process, includ ceptance that our relationship with place
ing the gallery director and an art critic, both is neither stable nor able to be coded.
of whom wrote catalogue essays. The in Rather, it constantly shifts between the tan
terviews were transcribed as on-line data gible and the transient.
while the observations were annotated as
I intend the work to be sensed, felt, not
off-line data with both being subject to on
literally interpreted. I want the scale of the
going analytic induction and content analy
work to force the viewer to engage physi
sis using the NUD?IST computer-based cally as well as visually...! am not inter

Artistic Thinking as Transcognitive Practice 7

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Jayne Dyer. Site. Installed in Critical Influence exhibition. 1998

ested in concrete information or proven many cultural groups share common bonds
data. These provide poor insights into the and beliefs. For McCarthy, a central con
nature of our temporality. I seek out the nection to the land, for instance, offers
spaces between and across these paral
strong synchronicities across cultures. She
lels. (Jayne Dyer: artist interview, 1998)
also believes indigenousness is mostly
Nikki McCarthy is an indigenous instal perceived as belonging to the past. Yet the
lation artist. She describes herself as an belief structure of many indigenous cultures
artist who is both Aboriginal and Austra is part of a living tradition that transcends
lian with an obligation to deny difference the past. As with the concept of indigenous
and locate links through her art. Whether ness, McCarthy believes the media and
using neon, glass, light, industrial enam technology used by non-Western cultures
els or coloured sand, her artworks are is often assumed to include only age-old
evocative explorations of her Aboriginality. methods and techniques. This simplistic
Her art practice is grounded in a persis assumption fails to acknowledge that in
tent search for clues of connection. A sens digenous cultures continually adapt tech
ing intellect reveals for McCarthy certain nologies to suit varying needs. Her use of
symbolic properties she sees embedded technologies does not exclude older, more
in objects and materials she finds around traditional mediums, but simply leaves
her. These serve as visual clues that can room for a broader understanding of what
contain messages and meanings that of is known and used by indigenous people.
ten imply connections across time and Within the artistic brief McCarthy sets her
space where a sphere can be a dot on the self, the use of new technologies also has
landscape, or the entire globe at the same the capacity to bring together indigenous
time. and non-indigenous people to allow a
Being native to a land and culture is a clearer perception of what it is to be differ
generic description of indigenousness and

8 Graeme Sullivan

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cess-product dichotomy. This involves a
melding of the psychological view that de
scribes art learning as 'thinking in a me
dium,' and the interpretive position that
describes art knowing as 'thinking in a lan
guage.' This can be described as "thinking
in a setting" (Sullivan, 1996).
The cognitive coalition involves an on
going dialogue between, within and around
the artist, artwork, viewer, and context
where each has a role in co-constructing
meaning. This process is iterative and stra
tegic in nature as meaning is encompassed
and negotiated. I describe this as
transcognition. Transcognition is a process
where the 'self and 'others' are parallel and
necessary agents of mind that inform each
other through analysis and critique. We can
see this represented in figure 3 below. The
strategic interaction between the self and
others occurs over time and involves itera
Nikki McCarthy. Arrival, in Critical Influence tion and negotiation as individual purpose
exhibition, 1998 is mediated by situational factors. During
this time, concerns about process and
Art as Transcognitive Practice product serve as a basis upon which prac
tice is grounded.
The outcomes of the Critical Influence The two artists participating in the
project indicate that mapping the cognitive Critical Influence project exemplify
character of artistic practice there is a need transcognitive art practice. The influences
to move towards a reconciliation of the pro that inform Jayne Dyer's work cannot be

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traced to easily identified seminal sources sponsibility as art teachers is to be able to
or discrete periods of her life. The en make this happen well and to ensure oth
semble of thoughts and actions that inform ers know about it.
her art practice are fluid and dynamic.
There is a strategic character to her think End Notes
ing that exploits the mutability of cognition.
For Jayne Dyer, the transcognitive char 1. Jean Dubuffet (1988) uses the notion of a
acter of her art practice is seen in the way braided relationship to describe the cultural
she embraces change and uncertainty as response to art. In his writings he is critical
of the cultural elite and antagonistic towards
compatible cognitive capacities. art critics. He thinks art criticism is like strands
The influences that source the work of
of unravelling rope where meaning and the
Nikki McCarthy and the issues she raises work are intertwined or disconnected so the
about received histories and cultural tradi
same image can mean different things de
tions serve to question, instruct and reveal pending on your perspective, or which part
new possibilities. Her indigenous under of the rope you hold. While Dubuffet sees this
standing that the metaphysics of change practice as a liability it is also possible of
and identity are dimensions that co-exist course to see it as contextually grounded
across time and space is at the heart of her process that considers many perspectives.
art practice. There is an intuitive character 2. What are contemporary artists thinking about?
to Nikki McCarthy's thinking that is identi Some examples can be drawn from the
fied within her spiritual connections and lo Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art,
cated in the external physical forms she Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia
creates. For McCarthy, the transcognitive (Webb, 1999). The Asia-Pacific is an exhibi
process is one of 're-cognizing'. tion of contemporary art held every three
years and includes artists from the Pacific
region, Australia, and Asian countries. Two
Conclusion examples from this exhibition are indicative
of the imaginative thinking currently bubbling
While the educational status of art remains
away in contemporary art.
shadowed by science, they share the spot Mella Jaarsma was born in the Nether
light as vital human activities that make us lands but trained in Indonesia where she has
think. After all, scientists think about how been working as an artist since the early
progress leads to change, and artists think 1980s so she has a certain insider's knowl
about how change leads to progress. Art edge and an outsider's perspective. A piece
she had in the Asia-Pacific Triennial was titled
ists cast their minds to issues, ideas and
Hi Inlander (Hello Native). The work is a set
experiences that reveal imaginative in
of performance capes made from the treated
sights, yet the process resists capture by
skins of chicken, fish, frogs and kangaroos.
the freeze-frame of clinical analysis. Art It seems Mella is saying something more than
practice cannot be reduced to standard posing the question about what it must be
ized dichotomies of cause and effect, in like to walk around in someone else's skin.
put and outcome, or process and product. She highlights the uncertainty of identity, one
Making art and responding to art remains that is not confined or confirmed by location,
an iterative and strategic encounter that or by origin. One is reminded of how much
comprises a creative coalition of individu emphasis in art education we put on identity,
als, ideas and actions. It is messy, mindful as we try to help students express who they
are through their art. The work of Mella
and magical. But it is not mysterious. This
Jaarsma is a jolting thought about how diffi
is the kind of learning we know happens in cult it is to accommodate difference.
our art classrooms where there really is a Lee Mingwei is a Taiwanese born artist
meeting of the minds. As we come to un who lives in New York and his installation,
derstand how artists and art students think, The Letter Writing Piece, comprises three el
act and learn we are better able to articu egantly constructed booths in which viewers
late what it is we do in schools. Our re can sit or stand. There is writing paper avail

10 Graeme Sullivan

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able and one is invited to write a letter to tion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
someone who you always wanted to say Press.
something important to, but never got around Chang, Ching-Yu (1979). Christo: From an un
to doing it. Letters are posted in slots on the published interview. In E. H. Johnson (Ed.),
inside of the booths and can be sealed or left American artists on art: From 1940 to 1980
open for others to read. So the viewer spends (pp. 196-200). New York: Harper Row.
time in these small contemplative spaces Chomsky, N. (1968) Language and mind (En
reading intimate, and at times compelling, ac larged ed.) New York: Harcourt Brace
counts of missed opportunity. And in the pro Jovanovich.
cess your cool, detached gallery gaze is un Csikzentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychol
masked. You are surrounded by the weird and ogy of optimal experience. New York: Harper
wonderful feelings of real people. It is dis & Row.
arming and touching. One is poignantly re Dorn, CM. (1999). Mind in art: Cognitive foun
minded of the capacity of art to make con dations in art education. Mahwah, NJ:
nections; that expression is a deeply felt Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
human need that links artist and audience. Dubuffet, J. (1988). Asphyxiating culture and
other writings. Trans., Carol Volk. New York:
3. When Christo wrapped part of the Sydney
coastline with 100,000 square meters of fab Four Walls and Eight Windows.
Efland, A. D. (2000). The city as metaphor for
ric in 1969 he succeeded in bringing to dra
integrated learning in the arts. Studies in Art
matic attention a less obvious aspect of the
Education, 47(3), 276-295.
Australian landscape: the edge-where the land
Feyerabend, P. (1987). Farewell to reason. Lon
meets the sea. This was an arresting image
don: Verso.
at the time and changed the way we thought
Gadamer, H-G. (1960/93). Truth and method.
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