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Team 12

McClory, Shaye; Milman, Hailey; Palmer, Jonny;


Sells, Sarah; Warren, Matt; , Michelle,Qianyun
Body Positivity

PRIMARY RESEARCH REPORT


Quantitative
SURVEY METHODOLOGY

Definition: A system for collecting comparable information across many people


by using a series of questions.

Strengths: Limitations:
Easy to use for large populations No follow up process
Generalizability General Questions: validity issues
(closed-ended questions)
Standardized = Reliable
Easy data errors due to misinterpretation
Extremely versatile
SAMPLING
Label: Convenience
Describe: Participants were selected based on convenience of the survey makers. The students who
participated were typically friends, roommates, or in the same fraternity or sorority as our group members. We
used convenient media like text messaging and Facebook in order to reach a large amount of people in the
fastest amount of time.
Strengths & Weaknesses: This was the best method of sampling because participants were willing to
participate because they knew who they were participating for. At one point of the recruiting process, we had
24 completed surveys for group 12. We immediately posted on three different Facebook pages that our group
is involved in and within 30 minutes, we had over 70 completed surveys. As much as convenience sampling
benefitted our group with the immense amount of completed surveys, we found that some responses were
not serious, which could be due to the respondent knowing the surveyee. We also noticed because the surveys
were completed so fast, the results might not be as accurate as they could have been.
Justification: As a group, we agree that our method of reaching out to a large amount of people benefitted us
in the end. However, even while some results were obviously inaccurate, those mishaps were balanced out by
the large amount of participants in our survey.
RECRUITMENT

Date(s)/Times: 2-15/9:37 a.m., 2-15/10:06 a.m., 2-15/102-15/11:26 a.m., 2-15/11:29 a.m.,


2-15/1:54 p.m., 2-15/2:51 p.m., 2-15/2.54 p.m., 2-15/3:02 p.m., 2-15/3:03 p.m., 2-16/3:14
p.m., 2-16/3:17 p.m., 2-16/3:19 p.m., 2-16/5:23 p.m., 2-16/5:25 p.m., 2-16/5:26 p.m.,
2-16/8:12 p.m., 2-16/11:47 p.m., 2-17/9:43 a.m., 2-17/10:16 a.m., 2-17/11:22 a.m.,
2-17/11:26 a.m.
Mode(s)/location(s): Text Message, Facebook

Response rate: 110/240 = 45.8%


RECRUITMENT SCRIPT FOR TEXT MESSAGE
RECRUITMENT SCRIPT FOR FACEBOOK
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN for: Scope

Level of measurement: Continuous - Interval Level


Item type: Likert Scale
This item is interval level because there is an equal distance between each given answer. The
four options are all balanced with each other and there is no option that is overpowering
another. It is considered likert scale because there is a rating system in play.
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN for: Scope

Level of measurement: Discrete - Categorical


Item type: Close-ended.
This item has a categorical level of measurement because the participant is putting each
category into a certain section (yes or no). It is considered close-ended because the answers
are provided for the participant to choose from.
8
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN for: Scope

Level of measurement: Continuous - Interval Level


Item type: Likert Scale
This item is interval level because there is an equal distance between each given answer. The
five options are all balanced with each other and there is no option that is overpowering
another. It is considered likert scale because there is a rating system in play.
9
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN for: Scope

Level of measurement: Continuous - Interval Level


Item type: Likert Scale
This item is interval level because there is an equal distance between each given answer. The
four options are all balanced with each other and there is no option that is overpowering
another. It is considered likert scale because there is a rating system in play.
10
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: ITEM RE-DO

This question could best be reworded


as:
How inspiring are each of these
daily activities in relation to your
own body positivity?

The biggest issue with this item is the wording of the question itself.
It is misworded and doesnt allow the reader to quickly comprehend
the question. It disrupts the flow of the survey. While the question is
useful, simple rewording it could change the error.
TARGET PUBLIC

University of Oregon - Specifically juniors

Out of the 356 people that took this Body Positivity survey, 142 or 39.88% of students
stated they were juniors. This is a much higher percentage than freshman, sophomore and
seniors that took the survey. Out of the 110 University of Oregon students that took our
survey for group 12, 49.09% of them were juniors. This was less than anticipated because
we had hoped for more than 50% to be juniors. Because most of us in our group are juniors,
we wanted to focus our attention on our own age group so that we could analyze the data
in a more personable way. We received survey responses from all age groups at UO but
juniors were the majority.
FINDINGS: SCOPE FOR ITEM Q3.2
Of the 135 junior students who took the
survey, 53.08% feel that campus media does
not create an opportunity for issues about
body positivity to appear (M= 1.56, SD=0.50).
This shows that the University of Oregon
does a great job in making students feel
comfortable on campus. 86.01% of the
juniors expressed that being online via social
media and in person are the main
contributors to issues of body positivity.
Body image is a re-occuring subject while
online. Browsing the web and looking
through accounts on social media can hinder
ones interpretation of body image.
Number of Respondents: 135
FINDINGS: SCOPE FOR ITEM Q3.3
Of the 135 third year respondents, 70.37%
said they sometimes and often make
comparisons between themselves and others
(measured on 5 point scale from Never to
Always M=3.55, SD=0.96 ). This shows that
more than half of third year UO students
have their self-esteem affected by their
social environment (population). This means
that body image is critical to students and
comparing themselves to others is common
among the university. The topic of body
image is relevant on the UO campus. This is
important for the university to be informed in Number of Respondents: 135

order to help contribute t0 a positive body


image.
FINDINGS: SCOPE FOR CROSSTAB OF ITEMS
Q3.1 & Q8.2
Of the 142 respondents (p= .02), junior women
(M=3.37) were more likely to recognize body
image as a common topic amongst their peers
than junior men (M=2.76) (measured on a
4-point scale from strongly disagree to
strongly agree). For example, 48.9% of junior
women selected strongly agreed that body
image is a common topic amongst their peers
as opposed to 22.8% of men. This information
is valuable when analyzing how gender plays a
role body image, and to what degree it is
present amongst peer groups of differing sexes.
For our campaign, it might be useful to target
the genders differently.

Number of Respondents: 142


FINDINGS: BARRIER FOR ITEM Q4.5

Of the 132 junior students surveyed, 74.24%


stated that images on social media had an
influence on the way they saw their bodies
either some of the time (46.97%) or all of the
time (27.27%). The test measured on a five
point scale, measuring from [No] I dont use
any social media to Yes, all the time
(M=3.98, SD=0.80). This shows that, for a
vast majority of junior students, standards
perpetuated through social media are a
major barrier preventing positive body
image. Because of this, we will focus content
heavily on social media.
Number of Respondents: 132
FINDINGS: BARRIER FOR ITEM Q4.4

Of the 132 junior students surveyed, 79.45% [insert labeled visual]


either somewhat agreed (45.45%) or strongly
agreed (34.09%) that their feeling towards
body positivity were affected by their eating
habits. The test measured on a 4 point scale
ranging from strongly disagree to strongly
agree. (M=3.06, SD=0.88). This
demonstrates that there is a notable
connection between poor eating habits and
low body image. In regard to the campaign, it
is important that we address this, possibly
through illustrating easy ways for students to
eat healthier.
Number of Respondents: 132
FINDINGS: BARRIER FOR CROSSTAB OF ITEMS
Q1.2 & Q4.2
Out of 356 respondents (p= 0.02), less juniors (M=
3.24) felt that exercise influenced their
self-confidence a moderate amount when
compared to the rest of the undergraduate
population (M= 3.34) (measured on a 4-point scale
from none at all to a lot). For example, only
27.27% of juniors selected that exercise influences
their self-confidence a moderate amount versus
38.41% of the rest of the undergraduate
population. This information, although the data is
not drastic, helps us realize that exercise doesnt
play a large role in self-confidence amongst
college students. This will be useful in our
campaign because we now know not to focus a lot
of our energy and efforts into exercise.

Number of Respondents: 356


FINDINGS: MOTIVATION FOR ITEM Q5.1
-For 82.94% of the juniors who took this survey
listed that, overall health was either very or
extremely important. Maintaining a specific How Important or not is each of the following
to you?
body weight, for juniors was either slightly or
moderately important to 57.94% of them.
81.39% of juniors decided that looking like
your ideal type, was either moderately, very,
or extremely important. The question
measured on a 5 point scale from, Not
important at all to Extremely Important.
This shows that the majority of juniors view
overall health as being their primary objective
for staying motivated while looking like their
ideal body type was almost equally as Number of Respondents: 135
motivating.
Overall Health (SD=4.16 ) (Mean=0.83 )
FINDINGS: MOTIVATION FOR ITEM Q5.3
For the juniors that took this survey, 60.46%
found going to the gym to be very inspiring for
their body image, 73.23% found receiving
compliments to be inspiring. Also, looking in
the mirror was 65.62% slightly or moderately
inspiring, while only 5.47% of people found in
extremely inspiring. 59.06% found eating
healthy to be very or extremely inspiring.
From this data we can conclude that
motivation develops from internal action
rather than internal thought. For example, the
action of eating healthy inspired juniors far
more than thinking about what they see in the
mirror. Number of Respondents: 135

Going to the gym:(SD=1.08 ) (M= 3.60 ) Eating Healthy:(SD=0.98)(M=3.62)


FINDINGS: MOTIVATION FOR CROSSTAB OF
ITEMS Q8.2 & Q5.4
Out of 142 respondents (p= 0.00), junior
women (M= 3.39) were extremely more likely
to have their body confidence influenced by
Instagram, as opposed to junior men (M=
2.33) (measured on a 4-point scale from
never impacts to strongly impacts). For
instance, 88.67% of females selected
strongly impacts as opposed to only 13.33%
of males. This data is valuable because it
shows how different social media channels
affect different genders. This will be very
useful for our campaign when knowing where
to target different people with Number of Respondents: 142
advertisements.
FINDINGS: CHANNELS & SETTINGS FOR ITEM
Q6.1
Out of 125 juniors, 96% respondents
(M=1.04, SD=0.2)say that they use
facebook as one social media platform to
receive information. 94.4% respondents
(M=1.06, SD=0.23) said yes to receive
information by using Instagram and
89.52% respondents (M=1.10, SD=0.31)
receive information from Snapchat. This
shows that most respondents prefer using
Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat to
receive information. As a team of juniors,
we can relate to this information and use
these media outlets for our campaign.
Number of Respondents: 125
FINDINGS: CHANNELS & SETTINGS FOR ITEM
Q6.3
Out of 125 juniors, 84.30% of respondents
(M=1.16, SD=0.36) get information about
body positivity from peers. 76.23%
respondents get information about body
positivity from social media. 74.28% of
respondents receive information about
body positivity from their families. 68.33%
of respondents said no to receiving
information from the Health Center. This
information shows that most juniors get
more information from social media,
peers and family. The university Health
Center does not give enough information
about body positivity for students.
Number of Respondents: 125
FINDINGS: CHANNELS & SETTINGS FOR
CROSSTAB [ITEMS Q6.1 & 6.3]
Of the 121 respondents (p=0.03), 85.71%
freshman use Twitter to get information.
62.81% Junior (M=2.59) use Twitter to
receive information about body
positivity; 37.19% juniors (M=2.91) do not
use Twitter to get information.
(Measured on 4-point scale from
Freshman to Senior).
This tells us that compared to freshman,
junior students at UO are less likely to use
Twitter to receive information about
body positivity.
Number of Respondents: 121
FINDINGS: MESSAGE TESTING

28.23% of the junior respondents found the


image not at all motivating while 27.42% of
the junior respondents found the image
moderately motivating. In between those
two, the majority of the respondents, 33.87%,
found the image somewhat motivating. This
informed our group that the image we made
connected with a portion of the audience,
however
additions need to
be made in order to
connect with a larger
majority. Number of Respondents: 121
IDEA 1
Channel and Setting:
- Flyer displayed at the UO Health Center, the dorms, the
EMU, the Rec Center, Lillis, Allen Hall, and all sporting
arenas.
- Not only will there be a flyer, but this campaign will be on
the Oregon Duck Instagram and Twitter.
- It will be displayed during Oregon football and basketball
seasons because that is when the Duck is most present on
campus.
Justification: We noticed at times our survey wasnt being
taken seriously and we would receive sarcastic and humorous
answers in the other tab. We could use these findings to
create a campaign that brings humor to our issue. College
students dont like to take things seriously all the time, so we
would target our audience with humor. In addition, the Oregon
mascot is a well known, humorous and positive figure at UO
which brings a positive image to our campaign.
IDEA 2
Channel and setting:
- UO Instagram dedicated to body positivity. It
would be run by students in the SOJC.
- Each post would be a picture of a UO student
on campus with the hashtag #DearMe. The
caption would be a quote from that individual
explaining what they love about him or
herself.
Justification: Based on our findings in the
crosstab of body image being a common topic
among peers tested by gender, we noticed that
48.9% of women agree it is a common topic
compared to 22.8% of males who find it to be
common. It is important to be comfortable
talking about your body with fellow peers. We
believe it is necessary to include both men and
women in the Instagram in order to educate the
entire community.
LESSONS: WHAT DID YOU LEARN ABOUT THESE
METHODS AND HOW THEY CAN BE USED IN CAMPAIGN
PLANNING

From this quantitative research report, we learned the endless amount of possibilities that
results from surveys. One survey can lead to a multitude of results for reporting and
analysis. Surveys provide a deep analyze of a large and diverse population. However, due
to the large number of participants, surveys need to be very versatile. Each person taking
the survey is interpreting each item differently, so both versatility and standardization are
necessary. We found it was very simple to gain participants in our target public, juniors, at
UO. We were able to use multiple media outlets to approach possible participants,
resulting in more than 50 participants than originally needed. We could use the simple
result that the large number of survey participants show that body positivity is an
important issue. Ultimately, we can use our findings from our survey to compare answers
in order to build strong fundamentals for a potential campaign.
LESSONS:
WHAT WOULD YOU DO DIFFERENTLY NEXT TIME?

It is necessary for surveys to be relatable to each individual taking the survey. This not only
makes it easier for the participant to give accurate results, but it also leads to more honest
answers than you might receive from someone who is uninterested. For example, we
found that some answers were not taken seriously and we were given evidently false
results. For question 8.2- For which gender identity do you most identify? we received
answers such as llama, alligator, and I dont know what cisgender is. We also received
answers saying, Im a guy, F***ing male, and male. The people that answered
falsely could have submitted accurate responses and that would have changed our result.
This finding has us questioning if the other answers were inaccurate when it involved
gender. From this mishap, we believe that we could have done a better job relating the
survey to both male and female participants. Adding a few questions that are more
directed at males could have changed the accuracy of our results.