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172 vizualizări843 paginiA complete book in basics of electrical networks

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Volume I

Electric Networks

Sisteme Electroenergetice

Volumul I

Reele Electrice

S.C. ROMELECTRO S.A., Romania

Richard Bergner Elektroarmaturen & Co. KG RIBE, Germany

Washington Group International, U.S.A.

Power & Lighting Tehnorob S.A., Romania

C.N. Transelectrica S.A., Romania

S.C. ELECON PLUS S.R.L., Romania

Mircea Eremia (Editor)

Adrian Buta Gheorghe Crin Mircea Neme

Virgil Alexandrescu Ion Stratan Bucur Lutrea

Hermina Albert George Florea Georgel Gheorghi

Ctlin Dumitriu Maria Tudose Constantin Bulac Sorin Ptrcoiu

Ion Tritiu Lucian Toma Laureniu Nicolae

Volume I

ELECTRIC NETWORKS

Bucureti, 2005

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

University Politehnica of Bucharest Brunel University

313, Spl. Independenei Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH

060032 Bucharest, Romania London, United Kingdom

Nikos Hatziargyriou Adrian Buta

National Technical University of Athens University Politehnica of Timioara

9, Heroon Polytechniou 2, Vasile Prvan Blv.

15773 Zografou, Athens, Greece 300223 Timioara, Romania

Gheorghe Crin Mircea Neme

Technical University Gh. Asachi of Iai University Politehnica of Timioara

22, Copou Str. 2, Vasile Prvan Blv.

700497 Iai, Romania 300223 Timioara, Romania

Virgil Alexandrescu Ion Stratan

Technical University Gh. Asachi of Iai Technical University of Moldova

22, Copou Str. 168, tefan cel Mare Blv.

700497 Iai, Romania MD2004 Chiinu, Republic of Moldova

Bucur Lutrea Hermina Albert

University Politehnica of Timioara Institute for Energy Studies and Design

2, Vasile Prvan Blv. 1-3, Lacul Tei Blv.

300223 Timioara, Romania 020371 Bucharest, Romania

George Florea Georgel Gheorghi, Laureniu Nicolae

Power & Lighting Tehnorob S.A. Fichtner Romelectro Engineering

355-357, Griviei Av. 1-3, Lacul Tei Blv.

010717, Bucharest, Romania 020371, Bucharest, Romania

Ctlin Dumitriu Maria Tudose

University Politehnica of Bucharest University Politehnica of Bucharest

313, Spl. Independenei 313, Spl. Independenei

060032 Bucharest, Romania 060032 Bucharest, Romania

Constantin Bulac Sorin Ptrcoiu

University Politehnica of Bucharest TRAPEC S.A.

313, Spl. Independenei 53, Plevnei Av.

060032 Bucharest, Romania 010234 Bucharest, Romania

Ion Tritiu Lucian Toma

University Politehnica of Bucharest University Politehnica of Bucharest

313, Spl. Independenei 313, Spl. Independenei

060032 Bucharest, Romania 060032 Bucharest, Romania

CONTENTS

Foreword ............................................................................................................................ XV

Preface............................................................................................................................. XVII

Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ XX

(Adrian Buta, Maria Tudose, Lucian Toma)..................................................................3

1.1. Classification and architecture of electric networks ..............................................3

1.1.1. Types of electric networks..........................................................................3

1.1.2. Architecture of electric networks ...............................................................5

1.2. Electric power systems components modelling under steady-state conditions ...23

1.2.1. Loads (consumers) modelling ..................................................................24

1.2.2. Electric lines modelling ...........................................................................28

1.2.3. Transformers modelling ...........................................................................62

1.2.4. Electric generators modelling ..................................................................76

Chapter references .......................................................................................................80

2.1. General considerations ........................................................................................83

2.2. Radial and simple meshed electric networks.......................................................85

2.2.1. Current flows and voltage drops calculation

under symmetric regime...........................................................................85

2.2.2. Radial electric line with unbalanced loads on phases ..............................91

2.2.3. Simple meshed electric networks.............................................................94

2.2.4. Load flow calculation of radial electric networks ....................................97

2.3. Complex meshed electric networks...................................................................110

2.3.1. Transfiguration methods ........................................................................110

2.3.2. Load flow calculation of meshed networks............................................121

2.4. Reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks .......................................139

2.4.1. Operating issues .....................................................................................139

2.4.2. Mathematical model of the reconfiguration process ..............................141

2.4.3. Reconfiguration heuristic methods ........................................................146

Appendix 2.1. Existence and uniqueness of the forward/backward sweep solution..156

Appendix 2.2. The active power losses variation as a result of a load variation in a

radial network ........................................................................................160

Chapter references .....................................................................................................162

3.1. Operating equations under steady state .............................................................165

3.2. Propagation of voltage and current waves on a transmission line .....................169

3.2.1. Physical interpretation............................................................................169

VIII

(SIL surge impedance loading) ...........................................................173

3.3. Coefficients of transmission lines equations .....................................................176

3.3.1. Numerical determination of propagation coefficient .............................176

3.3.2. Numerical determination of characteristic impedance ...........................179

3.3.3. Numerical calculation of A, B, C and D coefficients.............................181

3.3.4. Kennellys correction coefficients .........................................................182

3.4. Transmitted power on the lossless line..............................................................185

3.5. Transmission lines operating regimes ...............................................................187

3.5.1. Transmission lines equations expressed in per unit ...............................187

3.5.2. Loading only with active power ( pB 0 , qB = 0 ) ...............................188

3.5.3. Loading with active and reactive power ( pB 0 , qB 0 )...................195

3.5.4. Operating regime with equal voltages at both ends ...............................199

3.6. Series and shunt compensation of transmission lines........................................201

3.6.1. Influence of power system lumped reactance ........................................202

3.6.2. Series compensation with capacitors......................................................205

3.6.3. Natural power control by capacitors ......................................................209

3.6.4. Shunt compensation with reactors .........................................................213

3.6.5. Mixed compensation of transmission lines ............................................219

3.7. Transmitted power on the line with losses ........................................................221

3.7.1. Power formulae ......................................................................................221

3.7.2. Performance chart (Circle diagram).......................................................224

3.7.3. Power losses...........................................................................................225

3.8. Application on AC long line ...............................................................................226

Chapter references .....................................................................................................238

4.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................239

4.2. Structure and configurations .............................................................................242

4.2.1. Structure of HVDC links........................................................................242

4.2.2. HVDC configurations ............................................................................247

4.3. Analysis of the three-phase bridge converter ....................................................256

4.3.1. Rectifier equations .................................................................................256

4.3.2. Inverter equations...................................................................................266

4.4. Control of direct current link ..............................................................................270

4.4.1. Equivalent circuit and control characteristics ........................................270

4.4.2. Control strategies of HVDC systems .....................................................275

4.4.3. Control implementation .........................................................................277

4.5. Reactive power and harmonics..........................................................................280

4.5.1. Reactive power requirements and sources .............................................280

4.5.2. Sources of reactive power ......................................................................283

4.5.3. Harmonics and filters .............................................................................285

4.6. Load flow in mixed AC-DC systems ................................................................293

4.7. Interaction between AC and DC systems ..........................................................297

4.7.1. AC systems stabilization........................................................................297

4.7.2. Influence of AC system short-circuit ratio.............................................299

4.7.3. Effective inertia constant .......................................................................301

4.7.4. Reactive power and the strength of the AC system................................301

IX

4.9. Application on HVDC link................................................................................309

Appendix 4.1. HVDC systems in the world .............................................................319

Chapter references .....................................................................................................323

5.1. General considerations ......................................................................................325

5.2. Basic electric phenomena in grounded neutral networks ..................................327

5.2.1. Network neutral potential relative to ground .........................................327

5.2.2. Single-phase-to-ground fault current .....................................................329

5.3. Isolated neutral networks...................................................................................334

5.4. Grounded neutral networks ...............................................................................338

5.4.1. Solidly grounded neutral networks ........................................................338

5.4.2. Resistor grounded neutral networks.......................................................338

5.4.3. Arc-suppression coil grounded networks (resonant grounding).............346

5.5. Neutral point situation in electric networks.......................................................358

5.5.1. Neutral grounding abroad ......................................................................359

5.5.2. Neutral grounding in Romania...............................................................361

Chapter references .....................................................................................................365

6.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................367

6.2. Short-duration voltage variations. Voltage dips and interruptions ....................374

6.2.1. Origins of dips and interruptions............................................................374

6.2.2. Voltage dips characterization and classification ....................................375

6.2.3. Voltage dips calculation.........................................................................379

6.2.4. Mitigation solutions ...............................................................................380

6.3. Transients and overvoltages ..............................................................................392

6.3.1. Sources...................................................................................................383

6.3.2. Mitigation methods ................................................................................385

6.4. Long-duration voltage variations .....................................................................386

6.4.1. Origin and effects...................................................................................386

6.4.2. Voltage level assessment .......................................................................388

6.4.3. Mitigation solutions for the voltage regulation ......................................390

6.5. Harmonics in power systems.............................................................................395

6.5.1. Sources...................................................................................................395

6.5.2. Fundamental concepts............................................................................396

6.5.3. Effects of harmonic distortion................................................................411

6.5.4. Modelling and analysis ..........................................................................419

6.5.5. Mitigation solutions to controlling harmonics .......................................437

6.6. Voltage unbalances ...........................................................................................446

6.6.1. Unbalance indices ..................................................................................447

6.6.2. Origin and effects...................................................................................449

6.6.3. Voltage unbalance and power flow under non-symmetrical conditions 450

6.6.4. Practical definitions of powers in system with non-sinusoidal

waveforms and unbalanced loads...........................................................452

6.6.5. Mitigation solutions to the unbalanced operation ..................................456

Chapter references .....................................................................................................467

X

(Hermina Albert) ......................................................................................................471

7.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................471

7.1.1. Background ............................................................................................471

7.1.2. Evolution and structure of the losses in the Romanian

electric networks ....................................................................................474

7.1.3. Comparison between losses in the Romanian electric networks

and other countries .................................................................................476

7.2. Own technologic power consumption ...............................................................477

7.3. Own electric energy technologic consumption .................................................481

7.3.1. Basic notions and data............................................................................481

7.3.2. Diagram integration method ..................................................................483

7.3.3. Root-mean-square current method .........................................................486

7.3.4. Losses time method................................................................................488

7.3.5. Technologic consumption in transmission installations.........................494

7.4. Economic efficiency of the electric network losses reducing............................496

7.5. Measures to reduce the own technologic consumption and the active energy

and power losses................................................................................................502

7.5.1. Measures to cut the technical losses requiring no investments ..............502

7.5.2. Measures to cut the own technologic consumption requiring

investments ............................................................................................504

Chapter references .....................................................................................................505

(Virgil Alexandrescu, Sorin Ptrcoiu) ...................................................................509

8.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................509

8.2. Mathematical models ........................................................................................510

8.2.1. The balance of the nodal currents ..........................................................511

8.2.2. The balance of the nodal powers............................................................511

8.2.3. Power flow per unit computation...........................................................512

8.3. Newton-Raphson (N-R) method .......................................................................514

8.3.1. Theoretical aspects.................................................................................514

8.3.2. Computational algorithm for power flow study by N-R method ...........516

8.4. Decoupled Newton method ...............................................................................531

8.5. Fast decoupled method......................................................................................532

8.6. Direct current (DC) method ..............................................................................541

8.7. Improvements of power flow analysis methods ................................................543

8.8. Static equivalents of the power systems ............................................................545

8.8.1. Introduction............................................................................................545

8.8.2. Ward equivalent .....................................................................................546

8.8.3. REI Dimo equivalent ..........................................................................548

8.8.4. Equivalent with ideal transformers (EIT)...............................................554

8.8.5. Updating possibilities of the static equivalents ......................................556

Appendix 8.1. Specific aspects of the power flow computation of large electric

networks ...........................................................................................................558

Appendix 8.2. Structure and steady state data of the network test.............................563

Chapter references .....................................................................................................564

XI

9.1. Some general aspects ........................................................................................567

9.2. Simple application.............................................................................................569

9.3. The estimator.....................................................................................................572

9.4. Two-node system ..............................................................................................574

9.5. Detection and identification of bad data. The procedure of performance index.577

9.6. The procedure of standard deviation multiple b ...........................................580

9.7. The correction of large errors............................................................................580

9.8. The procedure of test identification...................................................................582

9.9. Application with HTI method ...........................................................................585

9.10. Power system observability .............................................................................586

9.10.1. Test of observability P ~ ..................................................................587

9.10.2. The structure of the gain matrix Q, E ~ U ..........................................590

9.10.3. Test of observability Q, E ~ U ............................................................591

Chapter references .....................................................................................................595

10.1. Horizon of the power system optimization problems ......................................597

10.1.1. Minimization of the total generation cost (MTGC) ...........................599

10.1.2. Minimization of the active power losses (MAPL) .............................600

10.1.3. Optimization of the voltage-reactive power control (VQ) ................601

10.1.4. Optimal unit commitment (OUC) .....................................................602

10.1.5. Optimization of the strategies in deregulated market (OSDM)..........603

10.2. Optimization techniques in power systems......................................................604

10.2.1. Nonlinear programming (NLP)..........................................................604

10.2.2. Lagrange relaxation techniques (LRT) ..............................................607

10.2.3. Multiobjective optimization techniques .............................................612

10.2.4. Modern optimization techniques in operating planning.....................619

10.3. Optimal power flow (OPF) .............................................................................623

10.3.1. Optimization model............................................................................623

10.3.2. Minimization of the active power losses (MAPL) ............................626

10.3.3. Newton Lagrange method (NL) .....................................................632

10.3.4. Interiorpoint methods (IPMs)...........................................................635

10.4. Optimal unit commitment (OUC) ...................................................................643

10.4.1. Introduction........................................................................................643

10.4.2. Lagrangian relaxation genetic algorithms method (LRGA) ...........644

10.5. Optimal unit commitment in deregulated market ............................................653

10.5.1. Dynamic optimal power flow by interior-point methods ...................653

10.5.2. Power market oriented optimal power flow .......................................658

10.6. Optimization strategies in deregulated market..................................................660

10.6.1. Bidding problem formulation.............................................................660

10.6.2. Ordinal optimization method .............................................................662

10.6.3. Numerical results and discussions......................................................663

Chapter references .....................................................................................................666

11.1. Background......................................................................................................671

11.2. Factors that influence the energy consumption ...............................................672

XII

11.3.1. Initial database selection, correlation and processing ........................673

11.3.2. Mathematical model of the load.........................................................673

11.3.3. Analysis of results and determining the final forecast .......................679

11.4. Error sources and difficulties met at load forecast...........................................680

11.5. Classical methods for load forecast .................................................................681

11.5.1. General aspects ..................................................................................681

11.5.2. Cyclical and seasonal components analysis .......................................682

11.5.3. Trend forecast ....................................................................................685

11.5.4. Load random component analysis......................................................697

11.6. Time series methods for load forecast .............................................................699

11.6.1. General aspects ..................................................................................699

11.6.2. Principles of methodology of the time series modelling ....................700

11.6.3. Time series adopted pattern. Components separation ........................701

11.6.4. Establishing of the time series model using

the Box Jenkins method..................................................................704

11.6.5. Time series model validation .............................................................707

11.6.6. Time series forecast ...........................................................................710

11.7. Short term load forecast using artificial neural networks ................................712

11.7.1. General aspects ..................................................................................712

11.7.2. ANN architecture ...............................................................................714

11.7.3. Case study ..........................................................................................716

Chapter references .....................................................................................................719

(George Florea) ........................................................................................................723

12.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................723

12.2. Constructive impact.........................................................................................723

12.2.1. Visual impact ...................................................................................723

12.2.2. Impact on land use ...........................................................................724

12.2.3. Impact during erection and maintenance works...............................725

12.2.4. Direct impact on ecological systems................................................726

12.2.5. Final considerations .........................................................................727

12.3. Electric field impact.........................................................................................727

12.3.1. General considerations.....................................................................727

12.3.2. Induced currents in conductive objects............................................729

12.3.3. Voltages induced in not connected to ground objects......................730

12.3.4. Direct perception in humans ............................................................730

12.3.5. Direct biological effects on humans and animals ............................730

12.3.6. Effects on vegetation .......................................................................732

12.3.7. Audible noise ...................................................................................733

12.3.8. Interference on AM reception..........................................................735

12.3.9. Interference on FM reception...........................................................736

12.3.10. Ions and ozone generating ...............................................................737

12.3.11. Final considerations and recommendations .....................................739

12.3.12. Mitigation techniques ......................................................................742

12.4. Magnetic field impact ......................................................................................742

XIII

12.4.1.General considerations.....................................................................742

12.4.2.Induced voltages on long metallic structures parallel

to inducting currents ........................................................................745

12.4.3. Direct biological effects on humans and animals ..............................745

12.4.4. Indirect biological effects ..................................................................748

12.4.5. Direct perception on humans .............................................................748

12.4.6. Effects on vegetation .........................................................................748

12.4.7. Final considerations and recommendations.......................................749

12.4.8. Mitigation techniques ........................................................................752

12.5. Conclusions......................................................................................................763

Chapter references .....................................................................................................764

(Georgel Gheorghi, Laureniu Niculae) .................................................................767

13.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................767

13.1.1. Changes of the operational environment ...........................................767

13.1.2. Environmental changes......................................................................768

13.1.3. Changing business environment ........................................................768

13.1.4. New technological possibilities .........................................................769

13.2. Opportunities and threats.................................................................................769

13.3. Objectives and strategy....................................................................................770

13.3.1. Ambitions and objectives ..................................................................770

13.3.2. Strategic technical directions.............................................................770

13.4. The future of overhead transmission lines (OTL)............................................771

13.4.1. Overhead transmission lines today ....................................................771

13.4.2. Overhead transmission lines medium and long terms forecasting.

New overhead transmission lines ......................................................799

Chapter references .....................................................................................................802

14.1. General issues ..................................................................................................805

14.2. Technical issues of the integration of DG in distribution networks ................808

14.2.1. Introduction........................................................................................808

14.2.2. Network voltage changes ...................................................................809

14.2.3. Increase in network fault levels..........................................................812

14.2.4. Effects on power quality ....................................................................813

14.2.5. Protection issues.................................................................................815

14.2.6. Effects on stability .............................................................................816

14.2.7. Effects of DG connection to isolated systems....................................817

14.3. Commercial issues in distribution systems containing DG .............................818

14.3.1. Introduction........................................................................................818

14.3.2. Present network pricing arrangements ...............................................819

14.4. Conclusions .....................................................................................................827

Chapter references .....................................................................................................827

XIV

FOREWORD

Electric power systems are an integral part of the way of life in modern

society. The electricity supplied by these systems has proved to be a very

convenient, safe, and relatively clean form of energy. It runs our factories, warms

and lights our homes, cooks our food and powers our computers. It is indeed one of

the important factors contributing to the relatively high standard of living enjoyed

by modern society. Electricity is an energy carrier; energy is neither naturally

available in the electrical form nor is it consumed directly in that form. The

advantage of the electrical form of energy is that it can be transported and

controlled with relative ease and high degree of efficiency and reliability.

Modern electric power systems are large complex systems with many

processes whose operations need to be optimized and with millions of devices

requiring harmonious interplay. Efficient and secure operation of such systems

presents many challenges in todays competitive, disaggregated business

environment. This is increasingly evident from the many major power grid

blackouts experienced in recent years, including the 14 August 2003 blackout of

power network in the north-east of the American continent and the 28 September

2003 blackout of the Italian power network.

The technical problems that the power engineers have to address today

appear to be very complex and demanding for the students of the subject. They will

need both the experience of the past generations and a new enlightened approach to

the theory and practice of power generation, transmission, distribution and

utilization taking into account the techniques that have evolved in other fields.

The present book includes a comprehensive account of both theoretical and

practical aspects of the performance of the individual elements as well as the

integrated power system. The contributing authors are all recognized experts in

power system engineering, either working for the electric power industry or for

universities in Romania and abroad. Together they have had a total of many

decades of experience in the technologies related to electric power systems.

Upon invitation from Professor Mircea Eremia, I had the pleasure of visiting

the Electrical Power Engineering Department at University Politehnica of

Bucharest in May 2003. I found there a powerful school of Electric Power Systems

from which about 50 students graduate yearly. During my visit, I also had the

opportunity to review and discuss the proposal for preparing this book. I am very

impressed with the outcome. I am truly honoured to write the foreword of this

book, which I believe will be an invaluable source of reference for students of

power engineering as well as practicing engineers.

President & CEO, Powertech Labs Inc.

August 2005

PREFACE

improvement which, over the years, have led to highly sophisticated and complex

technologies. Their reliable operation is a tribute to the work of dedicated

scientists, innovative engineers and experienced business leaders.

The relatively fast development of the electrical systems and networks has

given rise to ceaseless discussions regarding safe operation and provision of power

quality at the customer. Moreover, the energy policy concerning the promotion of

renewable energy sources as well as the electricity market creation to stimulate the

competition among generation companies have caused new problems in the

transmission and distribution networks. It is clear that the initial destination of

electrical networks to ensure the unidirectional transmission of power from the

power plants towards consumers has changed, since by the installation of dispersed

generation sources into the distribution network the power flow became

bidirectional, with the possibility of injecting power into the transmission network.

In the present work the authors tried to cover in the best way possible the

basic knowledge that the experienced engineer as well as the young graduate

student in electrical power systems should be able to handle. The work Electric

Networks is the first volume of the treatise Electric Power Systems. It consists

of 14 chapters grouped in 3 parts.

The first part entitled Basic Computation introduces the basic topics related

to electrical energy transmission to the reader. In chapter 1, the architecture of

electrical networks and the steady state mathematical modelling of the network

elements are described in detail. The student should be aware that the network

modelling represents the starting point for any application.

The electrical networks are designed for transmission, repartition and

distribution of electrical energy, so that they present various structures. The

transmission and repartition networks operate in complex meshed structure while

distribution networks operate in simple meshed but mostly in radial configuration.

In chapter 2, issues related to radial networks are presented, such as voltage drop or

currents flow calculation. Also this chapter deals with issues related to meshed

networks, such as nodal admittance matrix construction and steady state

formulation and calculation by using the Seidel-Gauss method as well as the

forward/backward sweep adapted for distributed generation.

To use the energetic potential of the Earth, especially the might of water, as

efficiently as possible, but also because of the continuous increase of the inhabited

or industrialized areas, we are forced to transmit the electrical energy for longer

and longer distances. However, the alternating current transmission for long

distances presents special concerns related to voltage. With the exception of the

ideal case when the reactive power consumed in the series inductive component of

the lines is compensated by the reactive power generated by the shunt component,

formed between the line conductors and earth, while the natural power is

transmitted on the line, the voltage can vary in a wide range with respect to the

XVIII

transmission lines, together with the problems related to their operation and,

correspondingly, their solution by means of series or shunt compensation with

capacitor banks or reactors.

The advanced technology in power electronics proves to be the necessary

support for power transmission at long distances, but at direct current. Although the

direct current discovered by Edison, which constituted the revolution of the

electricity industry, has lost the race to electrify the world over the alternating

current discovered by Tesla, however, the direct current transmission and power

electronics based devices, respectively, is the only solution to make undersea links

or to interconnect two systems operating at different frequencies. Chapter 4 reveals

the technical and economical secrets of the direct current transmission.

The modern power systems are probably the most complex systems man has

ever built. Secure operation of the power systems is a very important issue since

unwanted interruptions of power delivery have a large economical impact on

customers and utilities. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with issues related to electrical

network security and also to the quality of the power supplied to the consumers.

The electrical network undergoes permanently disturbances, having different

causes and consequences. Chapter 5 presents the efficient measures, which must be

taken so that the network could cope with the faults, that is, the neutral grounding

of the electric networks. It is disagreeable to find that the intensity of the light

provided by the incandescent lamp flickers, or that our refrigerator is out of order

due to an overvoltage, or even worse, to get stuck in the elevator due to an

interruption in electricity. Chapter 6 deals with problems related to power quality

and electromagnetic compatibility issues giving at the same time mitigation

solutions.

The power systems engineer must be a very good technician but also an

economist. The calculation of power losses, presented in Chapter 7, as well as their

reducing methodologies, supplements the knowledge of the engineer in designing

and optimising of the system operation.

To ensure a proper operation of power systems and the continuity in

supplying the consumer, the engineer is challenged and at the same time stimulated

to develop efficient concepts and technologies. This is the reason why magnificent

ideas of some great engineers, as is the case of the famous Paul Dimos suggestion

to interconnect the power systems at a large scale, where the partners are based on

Trust, Solidarity and Common Interest, are nowadays put into practice.

But, the power networks have become more meshed, and the specialists

activities in the analysis of power system operation more complicated. Therefore,

there is a need for analytical and simulation tools in the power systems operation

and planning. In the second section of the book entitled Load flow and power

system security, performance methods for off-line assessment of a power system

operating state, by using Newton-Raphson type methods and network static

equivalents, are presented Chapter 8. Due to the fast speed at which the electric

phenomena are evolving, the system operator needs powerful tools that can

XIX

approach useful in this respect.

The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented change in its

structure worldwide. With the open market environment and competition in the

electrical industry, after the restructuring of the system into separate generation,

transmission and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and

planning are inevitable. One of the questions the engineer ponders over is: How to

minimize the production and transmission costs to obtain the lowest price possible

for the final consumer?. The answer is tentatively given in Chapter 10 that offers

proposals for optimisation of power system operation in the conditions imposed by

the competitive environment present in the electricity market.

The maintenance of system frequency at a certain value is performed by a

permanent balance between generation and consumption. System operator

performs the power balancing by appropriate auxiliary services. That is the system

operator must know a priori the load consumption from the system so that to

appropriately contract with the qualified producers. Distribution companies are

faced with the same situation since they function as intermediates between

generators and captive consumers. Chapter 11 comes up in help with load

forecasting methods.

The power increase has led to the expansion of networks, including the high

voltage and medium voltage powered transmission and distribution systems.

However, for reasons concerning the conservation of the environment, the

protection against electromagnetic fields or for aesthetic reasons, the installation of

new electrical lines or supplementary capacities in mammoth power plants is, as

much as possible, avoided. The third part of the book, entitled Technical and

environmental computation comes up with ideas of how to solve the possible

problems concerning the environment, presented in Chapter 12, by efficient and

ecological solutions for overhead lines designing, given in Chapter 13.

The negative impact on the environment along with the limited resources of

the Earth, such as coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel, have forced the man to

think of tireless resources, such as wind and the sunlight. The evolution of

technology facilitated the manufacturing of small size high efficiency sources of

power, which can be installed into the distribution network, and in the majority of

cases are even found at the consumers disposal. Chapter 14 presents issues

concerning the impact of distributed generation on the electrical network.

The work is addressed to the undergraduate and graduate students in the

electrical engineering fields but also to specialists from design, research and

services companies.

Hoping that exploring this book will be an exciting endeavour, the authors

apologize to the reader and native English speaker for the language and printing

inaccuracies that inevitably exist.

University Politehnica of Bucharest

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to take this opportunity to acknowledge all persons that

contributed directly or indirectly to carrying out this book, either by technical or

editorial support.

For some chapters the authors benefited from the kindness of some

institutions or companies, which permitted the reprinting or adapting of some

figures, equations or text excerpts. In this regard, special thanks are addressed to

IEEE, CIGRE particularly to the General Secretary Jean Kowal, EPRI

particularly to Dr. Aty Edris who facilitated the cooperation with EPRI, as well as

to Copper Development Association. Reprinting permission was allowed by Dr.

Roger Dugan, from EPRI, also with the kind acceptance from McGraw-Hill

Companies, for some excerpts in Chapter 6, and Ing. Daniel Griffel, from EdF, for

some excerpts in Chapter 5, to whom the authors address their deepest gratitude.

The authors are deeply grateful to Acad. Gleb Drgan for the constant

support and encouragements during writing the book and cooperation with the

Publishing House of the Romanian Academy.

Special thanks are addressed to some persons who contributed to the content

of the final manuscript. The authors wish to express warm thanks to Dr. Mohamed

Rashwan (President of TransGrid Solutions Inc.), who provided valuable

contributions in Chapter 4, to Prof. Petru Postolache (from University Politehnica

of Bucharest), for constructive comments in Chapter 1 and Chapter 11, and

Dr. Fnic Vatr (from Institute for Energy Studies and Design ISPE S.A.) for

valuable suggestions to Chapter 5. Special thanks are addressed to Prof. Nicolae

Golovanov (from University Politehnica of Bucharest) who reviewed the

Chapter 6 and provided many valuable contributions.

The printing of this book was made possible by the financial support of some

companies. The authors wish to express their gratitude to Ing. Viorel Gafia

(Manager of Romelectro S.A.) and Dr. Dan Gheorghiu (General Manager of ISPE

S.A.). Special thanks are also addressed to Washington Group International Inc. for

the financial support granted for printing the book, and to RIBE Group (Germany)

as well as its subsidiary in Romania, which provided valuable technical materials

and financial support for printing the book.

For contributions concerning the translation into English or the electronic

editing of some chapters, the authors wish to extend their gratitude to Dr. Andrei

Fgranu, Dr. Monica Fgranu, Dr. Cristina Popescu, Ing. Silviu Vergoti, Ing.

Ioan Giosan, Ing. Mircea Bivol and Ing. Laureniu Lipan.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the good cooperation with the Publishing

House of the Romanian Academy, and address many thanks to Dr. Ioan Ganea,

Ing. Cristina Chiriac, Mihaela Marian and Monica Stanciu, for their patience and

professionalism in carrying out the printed book.

The authors

Chapter 1

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

CONFIGURATION AND PARAMETERS

The power flow from power plants to consumption areas and customers is

ensured by transmission and distribution networks.

The criteria that determine the types of electric networks are:

destination: transmission, interconnection, distribution and utility

networks;

nominal voltage *): extra high voltage (400 kV, 750 kV), high voltage (35

to 220 kV), medium voltage (1 to 35 kV) and low voltage (< 1 kV);

covered area: national, regional, urban and rural networks;

configuration: radial, looped and complex looped (meshed) networks;

the situation of the neutral point: networks with earth insulated neutral,

networks with solidly earthed neutral and networks with treated neutral;

the presence of the neutral wire: networks with available/not available

neutral;

current frequency: alternative current networks and direct current

networks.

a. The destination criterion networks takes into account the functional role of

the electric networks. Thus, transmission networks provide systematic power

transfer from the production areas to the consumption areas. The power transferred

in time corresponds to the determinist component of the forecasting values. The

*)

Several Standards [EN50160, IEEE P1564, HD 637 S1] give definitions of the voltage

either as reference quantity or for equipment designing. The term nominal voltage of the

system Un, as a whole, is defined as a suitable value of voltage used to designate or identify

a system and to which certain operating characteristics are referred. The term rated value

represents a quantity value assigned, generally by the manufacturer, for a specified

operating condition of a component, device or equipment. Because the nominal voltage is a

reference value it is further used in definitions and formulae from theories to identify the

voltage level of the network to which equipments or installations are connected.

4 Basic computation

transfer is realized in different direction and sense as compared to the systematic

transfer and it corresponds to the random component of the forecasting powers, as

well as to some fault situations of the generator groups or of the elements of

systematic transmission networks. The Repartition networks supply the distribution

networks or big customers (which have their own distribution networks). The

distribution networks provide power to the loads and their components power

customers. The distribution networks belonging to the customers are called utility

networks (industrial, domestic).

b. The networks configuration (topology). The radial networks consist of

elements (lines, substations, transformer points) beginning in a power injection

node and ending in a consumption node. As a result, the loads cannot be supplied

on more than a single path (Fig. 1.2).

The looped networks are composed from many loops. The consumption

nodes of these networks are supplied from two sides. Thus, the network in Figure

1.3 becomes a looped network when the circuit breaker CB is closed and both lines

L1 and L2 are supplied.

In this case, the supply continuity of the loads is provided even during the

disconnection of a source or the failure of some network sections. If the network is

supplied by two sources placed at the networks ends then the network is called

supplied from two ends (Fig. 1.4) and it may be regarded as a particular case of the

looped network.

A B Systematic

Systematic Systematic transport

transport Compensation transport

~ ~ ~

PP IS PP

A, B consumption areas

PP power plants

IS interference station

HV / MV transformer substation

MV / LV transformer substation

compensation power transfer.

The main feature of the complex looped networks is that the loads are

supplied from more than two sides (Fig. 1.5), therefore on several paths and from

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 5

several sources. These networks present great supply reliability and economical

operation, but they require more equipment and they are more expensive.

The topology of a network can be modified by the position of the circuit

breakers placed on the lines (Fig. 1.3) or on the substations busbars (Fig. 1.6).

Therefore, the opening of the circuit breaker CB from Figure 1.3 transforms the

looped network into a radial one; the same situation is also possible for the network

from Figure 1.6.

Source 2 Source 1

~ ~

CB

Fig. 1.3. Looped network. Fig. 1.4. Network supplied from two ends.

~ ~

~ ~

a. b.

Fig. 1.5. Complex looped Fig. 1.6. Open ring network topology altering in transformer

network. substations: a. without open ring; b. with open ring.

The architecture of electric networks includes the electric networks

configuration and structure, the voltage levels, as well as the calculated loads, the

specific consumptions and the safety degree, all in tight relation to the functional

role of the network elements, the design features, but also with the other elements

of the power system. It is useful to emphasize some architecture features of whole

power system before presenting the electric networks configuration [1.1], [1.2].

a. Architecture of power system features. The main element that can be taken

into consideration at power system configuration analysis is the voltage level.

Within the limits of a system, several voltage levels emerge from this point of view

(Fig. 1.7), each of these having a well-determined role.

6 Basic computation

750

400

220

Transformer

substation

110

Block

transformer

Local Rural

~ power area

~ plant

20

System ~ Urban

power plant area

Industrial Urban

networks networks

(6) 10

Transformer

points

distribution networks

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 7

The analysis of the planes sequence emphasizes the following features of the

power system configuration:

the system elements (generators, transformers, lines, loads etc.) are placed

in different parallel planes, according to their nature and functional role;

the distance between planes is determined by the difference between the

neighbouring voltage levels;

the connection between planes is achieved through the magnetic couplings

of the transformers (in the case of different voltage levels, or in the case of

not successive planes at the same voltage level) or autotransformers (in the

case of successive planes belonging to the same voltage level);

a plane includes the longitudinal elements of the networks; the transversal

elements are connected between these planes and the neutral point;

the networks from the upper planes serve for power transmission, while

those from the lower planes serve for power distribution;

the generators of the central power plants inject the power in the system

through block-transformers and transmission networks at medium voltage

(Fig. 1.8); if the generators power is higher, the injection is carried out at

higher voltage level;

the lower level buses and networks connected to these buses constitute a

load for the higher level networks (excepting the generator buses);

the power consumption takes place at high, medium and low voltage level

through the network coupling transformers;

moving to higher levels, the networks cover larger areas and the powers

transfer rises, while the density of the networks decreases;

the networks at the lower levels are denser, they transfer less power on

shorter distances;

the power system customers are in transversal connection between the

buses of the distribution networks (the medium voltages planes) and the

plane 0 kV; the power absorbed by the customer and the bus voltage are

smaller.

Power

220 kV transmission

Generator Power

repartition

110 kV

~ 20 kV

10 kV Power

distribution

Local consumption

0.4 kV

0 kV

of the Romanian power system.

8 Basic computation

are a necessary part of the power system is the big (physical and electrical) distance

between consumption centres and power plants. The transmission network is an

inherent part of the power system because it insures the significant power flow

from power plants to consumption centres and it constitutes the support for the

other electric networks.

The transmission networks structure, components and arrangement varies in

time, evolving from one development stage of the system to another, influenced

mainly by the development of power consumption. Thus, the 110 kV, 220 kV and

400 kV Romanian networks first operating as radial transmission networks, were

later (since 1985) transformed into repartition networks (110 kV) and looped

networks (220 and 400 kV).

The looped network is the optimum solution for transmission networks in

countries with well-determined power flow, considering both the consumption and

the power sources placement.

The loop structure provides several paths of power transfer from one bus to

another and it allows better coordination of power plants. This way, the generators

operating at any given moment are the economical ones, and further more, during

failure of some generators, the required power is still supplied by the big number of

operating generators. The design also insures network operation even with a cut-off

connection between two buses, because theres always a backup path of supply for

those two buses.

c. Distribution networks architecture. The distribution network must ensure

the same requirements as any other electric network (reliability, supply continuity,

power transfer quality, adaptation capability during operation, possibility of future

development, cost-effective operation, minimal impact on the environment), but

the neighbouring customers networks raise special problems concerning the supply

continuity and the power quality.

The electric networks present certain design features depending on the

customer or the consumption area properties: the load and population density, the

urban or rural area, the networks impact on the environment, and so on.

The main features of a distribution network are the nominal voltage, the

transfer capacity and its length. The nominal voltage is adopted according to: the

power quantity requested by the loads, the consumers position relative to the

existing electric networks, the utility type.

The International Electrotechnics Commission recommends the following

levels for the public distribution networks:

low voltage: 400 V (230 V);

medium voltage: 1013 kV; 2025 kV; 3335 kV (the voltage of 6 and

10 kV is mainly used to supply big engines and industrial networks);

high voltage: 110 kV.

The amount of power transferred through distribution networks depends on

the nominal voltage of the network and on the loads it supplies. Thus:

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 9

customers;

medium voltage: up to 2000 kW, it supplies customers from tertiary and

commercial domains;

high voltage: customers with absorbed powers exceeding 5 MW.

As for the length of the distribution networks, it depends on the number and

the arrangement of the distribution stations as well as on the number and the

location of the transformer points. If the number of transformer substations and

points is increased, then the maximum length of the distribution lines is reduced.

On the other hand the length of the distribution networks is in tight relation with

the voltage level. The solution for energy loss reduction is to adopt shorter lengths

for the low and medium voltage networks, bringing the consumer as close as

possible to the high voltage level (deep connection), but this solution isnt always

cost-effective.

Two important elements considered for the design of distribution networks

are the dynamics of the power consumption and the increased concern for the

environment.

Regarding the consumption dynamics, the network structure must be

adaptable, especially for the medium voltage networks, providing extension

possibilities through the addition of new lines and the connection of new injection

points, while maintaining the initial and unitary character of the network. Usually

the solution is not costly, necessary changes are an integrating part of the

configuration development.

The distribution networks must comply with the environment protection. This

raises special problems concerning the aesthetic protection of the landscape and the

elimination of accident hazards determined by the electric current influence

(presence).

The distribution networks architecture can be analyzed from two points of

view: the voltage level and the networks location. The architecture of the

distribution networks is presented in which follows considering the voltage levels

and emphasizing the features of urban and networks.

c1. High voltage distribution networks. They usually include networks with

110 kV voltage, but in some countries higher voltage levels may also appear (for

example 225 kV in France).

These networks serve for: the supply of some urban and rural areas

presenting several customer types, the supply of some concentrated customers with

a power demand that requests a 110 kV/MV substation, the power evacuation from

local power plants generating medium powers (from 50 up to 200 MW). The

transmission networks supply the high voltage networks from the 400 kV/110 kV

or 220 kV/110 kV substations called injection substations/ points. The 110 kV

distribution system consists of lines and transformer substations of 110 kV/20 kV

and 110 kV/10 kV that supply the urban and rural consumption areas. Its features

are determined by the customers power, the surface of the supplied area, and by

the configuration of the adjacent networks (transmission and distribution).

10 Basic computation

The high voltage distribution networks have a basic looped design, but they

operate in open (radial) arrangement. The networks technological consumption

determines the separation point, but other restrictions are also considered. The loop

is supplied from two different injection points or from the sectionalized busbars of

the same injection point.

Figures 1.9 to 1.11 illustrate the above-mentioned aspects.

Figure 1.9 presents the architecture of a supply network requiring at the same

time substations with one transformer unit and substations with two transformer

units, connected in derivation to a mains 110 kV line.

The network from Figure 1.10 uses 110 kV overhead lines (OEL) to supply

rural areas through transformer substations with two transformer units. The A and

C substations are source substations and ensure the supply of the medium voltage

network.

A

110 kV

networks in areas where the

substations are equipped with

OEL one or two transformer units

110 kV supplied from the same 110 kV

line.

A

110 kV

20 kV

Fig. 1.10. Network architecture in

rural areas supplied from 110 kV

lines connected to substations

equipped with two transformer

units.

supplies an urban settlement.

Some concentrated loads are supplied by means of deep joint transformer

substations and lines. The lines have double circuit structure; each of these circuits

is connected to another bus-bar section of the substation (Fig. 1.12).

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 11

Rural

110 kV/MV

110 kV/MV

substation

110 kV/MV 6 kV/110 kV

substation

~ ~

Fig. 1.11. Architecture of 110 kV repartition networks supplying urban settlements.

110 kV ring

Transformer

substation

Deep joint

substation

400 kV/110 kV

substation 110 kV

System

Fig. 1.12. Architecture of a 110 kV urban network supplying a settlement with more than

150,000 inhabitants.

Regarding the HV/MV substations structure and the installed power, these

depend on the destination of that substation namely: public distribution, supply of

concentrated customers or both (public distribution and concentrated customers).

The public distribution substations supply domestic and residential customers.

They have a simple structure, and their dimensions depend on the requested power,

the safety level they must provide and the configuration of the 110 kV networks.

Big cities are supplied from one or two rings of 110 kV. The structure of the

12 Basic computation

substation in Figure 1.13,a is equipped with two transformer units of 1025 MVA

rated power, backing up each other. The 110 kV busbars are simple, sectionalized

by bus breakers or by isolators only, depending on the networks operating diagram

and the protection system. Figure 1.13,b presents the situation of a repartition

network with two 110 kV lines. In this case each busbar section is connected to a

different ring.

110 kV

110 kV / MV

transformer

substation

a. b.

Fig. 1.13. Architecture of transformer substations supplying big cities: a. equipped

with two transformers; b. supplied from two 110 kV rings.

If the locality has great surface and load density, the supplying of some

concentrated customers can be carried out through a deep joint substation

(Fig. 1.12).

c2. Medium voltage distribution networks. High voltage substations supply

these networks in direct or indirect connection. In the first case medium voltage

lines connect the transformer points directly to the MV busbars of the supply

substations. In the second case, MV lines departing from a HV/MV substation

supply the busbars of a MV connection substation, which in turn supplies the MV

junctions through other MV lines.

The medium voltage levels, varying in the 3 to 60 kV range, are chosen in

tight relation to the networks load density and to the economical and technical

criteria. Romania adopted the 20 kV voltage as optimal.

There are several configurations of distribution systems in use today,

considering the phase number and the situation of the neutral point:

the north-American system (Fig. 1.14,a) employs a distributed and solidly

earthed neutral; the main line is three-phase: three phases and neutral; the

derivations are single-phase or three-phase according to the transmitted

power; the distribution is single-phased, between phase and neutral;

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 13

the English system (Fig. 1.14,b), has no distributed neutral, the main line is

three-phase; the derivations have three or two phases;

the Australian system (Fig. 1.14,c), is an economical system; the main line

has only three phases, and no distributed neutral; the derivations have one,

two or three phases; the return path is insured by the ground;

the European system (Fig. 1.14,d) has no distributed neutral; the main line

and the derivations are three-phase.

N

LV

HV/MV

MV/LV

HV/MV

CB N

3

2

1

DS N CB DS

LV 3

2

1

MV/LV LV 1P

MV/LV

N

3 N N

LV 3P

2

3

N

2

LV

LV 1P

MV/LV

1 2 3 N

N

3

1 2 3 N

a. b.

Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: a. with distributed neutral; b. without

distributed neutral, mixed with two or three phases.

14 Basic computation

HV/MV

CB DS

3 HV/MV

2

1

MV/LV LV 1P

CB DS

3

LV 3P N N 2

3 1

1 MV/LV

LV 1P

1 2 3 LV 3P N

IT N

LV 1P

1 2 3 N

c. d.

CB circuit breaker; DS disconnector switch; N neutral; IT insulating transformer

Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: c. without distributed neutral, mixed with

one, two, three phases; d. without distributed neutral, three phase.

transformer points. Urban areas have mainly underground lines, while the suburbs

and rural areas have overhead lines.

The transformer points in urban environment are encased, while in rural

environment they are placed on poles or on the ground.

The medium voltage networks with underground lines and direct distribution

can have backed-up from two substations (Fig. 1.15) or from the same substation

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 15

(Fig. 1.16). Under normal operating conditions the networks operate in radial

connection. The sectioning point is imposed by the networks technological

consumption or by the networks automation. The network presents separation

capability in the middle or at its ends, according to the requirements.

MV MV

S1 S2

Fig. 1.15. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from two transformer

substations.

MV

110 kV / MV

substation

Fig. 1.16. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from the same transformer

substation.

Urban areas with big load densities of 5 to 10 MVA/km2 use cable networks

in grid type direct distribution arrangement (Fig. 1.17) or in double derivation

(Fig. 1.18).

For both arrangements the backup supply can be made from the same

substation or from different substations. This configuration of electrical drawings

can be developed when the load growing on the consumers sides.

16 Basic computation

MV

S2

Future

110 kV / MV

substation

S1

Existing

110 kV / MV

substation

MV

Working

cable

Backup

cable

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 17

arrangements. A transformer substation cable feeder supplies several MV/0.4kV

transformer points and then it connects to another substation, to the same

substation or to a backup cable. The interrupted artery is used for the loop, spindle

and ear arrangements (Fig. 1,19).

The cable from each MV/0.4 kV transformer point is passed through two

circuit breakers (CB1 and CB2) in series connection.

An artery has all its circuit breakers in normal close position, except the one

corresponding to the loops normal opening (interruption) bus, thus avoiding

parallel operation of two supply sources (transformer substations).

In the case of the loops (daisy petals, Fig. 1.19,a), each artery (cable) returns

to the same HV/MV source substation, and there arent any transversal connections

between the loops.

In the case of the spindle structure (Fig. 1.19,b), all cables are supplied from

the same transformer substation source (S) and their ends converge to a common

bus, called reflecting bus (R).

A specialized complex device allows the connection of a backup cable that

brings the source substation to the reflecting node.

In the case of the ear structure (Fig. 1.19,c), the source substation supplies

one end of the working cable while the other end lies on a backup cable. The

networks using degree is good. The development around the same transformer

substation is economic and its performed in time. The length of the cables, their

number and the number of transformer points can be adopted according to the

loads evolution.

Direct distribution arrangements with overhead lines are used in rural areas.

They supply transformer points in derivation (Fig. 1.20,a) or radial tree

arrangement (Fig. 1.20,b).

In the first case different transformer substations back up the supply and there

is the possibility of separation at the middle of network. In the second case there is

only one supply source; during network faults the number of customers not

supplied is limited with the aid of circuit breakers and isolators mounted along the

main line or on some derivations.

The North American medium voltage network presents special features. They

result from the existence of single-phased MV/LV transformer points and from the

presence of the neutral wire and its ground connection. The medium voltage

network tree begins with a three-phase structure (3P+N), continues through three-

phase or double-phase ramifications (antennas), which in turn develop into single-

phase lines (1P+N). The MV and LV network, the public lighting and the

telephony network use the same poles.

The MV/0.4 kV transformer points can be of network type, which supply

domestic consumers or the low voltage public network, and of customer type,

which supply a single consumer: industrial, commercial, public utility or mixed.

Figure 1.21 presents the diagrams of some customers or mixed type transformer

points.

18 Basic computation

Power supply

TP Head of petal

transformer point

CB1 CB2

Supply

feeder

CB

F

MV/0.4 kV

CB1 , CB2 , CB - circuit breaker

F - fuse

TP - MV/0.4 kV transformer point

a.

Working feeder

Working feeder

TP

S R

S R

R R R

Backup feeder TP

R - reflection point

TP - transformer points

b. c.

Fig. 1.19. MV underground networks in interrupted artery arrangement (EdF).

MV MV

S1 S2

110 kV / MV 110 kV / MV

substation substation

a.

Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: a. with backup from

two substation and derivation supply of the transformer points.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 19

HV/MV source

(circuit breaker bay)

Main line

Secondary line

ACB

DS

ACB

DS

DS

ACB - Automatic circuit breaker

DS - Disconnector switch

b.

Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: b. radial-tree diagram.

MV MV

MV cable

MV cable

1x 400 kVA 2 x 400 kVA

or or

1x 1600 kVA 2 x1600 kVA

ABT ABT

0.4 kV 0.4 kV

a. b.

MV

MV cable MV cable

ABT type transformer point: a. one transformer;

0.4 kV b. two transformers and common low

voltage busbars; c. two transformers and

c. sectionalised low voltage busbars.

20 Basic computation

c3. Low voltage distribution networks. The low voltage networks structure is

imposed by the loads density, by the medium voltage network configuration, by

the number of MV/LV transformer points and by the consumers requirements

(allowed outages number and duration).

The rural and urban low voltage networks from the suburbs operate in normal

conditions in radial arrangement (Fig. 1.22,a) with overhead and underground

lines. A more recent solution uses aerial mounted insulated twisted wires. The

solution is very economical in rural areas, suburbs or small cities.

Central areas of the cities and some significant loads are supplied from

looped networks (Fig. 1.22,b). The diagram from Figure 1.22,b1 has the main

disadvantage that a line fault causes the outage of the entire LV line. Figure 1.22,b2

avoids this inconvenient with the help of fuse (F). If a fault occurs, the fuse

separates the network in two parts, and by melting at the faulted end, insures the

faults isolation. The diagram in Figure 1.22,b3 insures better safety. The network

operates in radial arrangement and if a fault occurs in the transformer point, the

corresponding fuse is removed and the circuit breaker is closed.

The way the transformers medium voltage side is supplied divides the

looped networks into three types: longitudinal looped (Fig. 1.23,a), transversal

looped (Fig. 1.23,b) and mixed (Fig. 1.23,c). Big cities, with big load densities (10-

15 MVA/km2) have mesh type looped networks. In mesh networks the low voltage

lines are connected to all possible buses and the network is supplied through

medium voltage distribution cables departing from the busbars of the same

substation. The special technical and economical advantages of the complex looped

networks are:

high degree of supply continuity;

high quality of delivered power, since the consumers voltages are

levelled on the entire area;

proper balancing of the network, due to the loads even repartition;

adaptability to load development, because the looped networks are

designed from beginning to meet future rises in power consumption.

TP1

TP2

Fig. 1.22. Low voltage networks: radial (a); looped (b1, b2, b3).

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 21

MV

0.4 kV

a.

MV

0.4 kV

0.4 kV

MV

b.

Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: a. longitudinal; b. transversal.

22 Basic computation

c.

Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: c. mixed.

Substation busbars

s

ble

ca

V

CB

M

Transformer

points

Distribution box

Branch

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 23

under steady-state conditions

Generally, the components of an electric circuit are resistors, reactors,

capacitors and conductors to which correspond the following parameters:

resistance R, inductance L, capacitance C and conductance G. The same elements

can be found in various combinations in electric receivers, electric lines,

transformers and generator units.

The property of a circuit element to absorb electromagnetic energy and

transform it into thermal energy is called resistance. When an electric current is

passed through a conductor, this is getting heated and in the same time along it a

voltage drop occurs. In the case of an iron core coil (i.e., transformers,

autotransformers, generators, electric motors, etc.), this is getting heated also due to

the iron losses through hysteresis phenomenon and eddy current. Heat losses also

occur in the dielectric of capacitors pertaining of a circuit element when an

alternating current is passed through it.

Any circuit section is linked by a magnetic flux when an electric current

passes the circuit. In alternating-current circuits, the magnetic flux varies in time

and therefore in every circuit section appears a self-induced or mutual e.m.f. and

consequently, this circuit section is characterised by self and/or mutual inductance.

In any dielectric insulation surrounding one of the electric circuit elements

operating at alternating voltage there is always an alternating potential difference,

which generates an electric field of density D, which varies in time, and therefore a

displacement current = D t appears. Likewise, in the case of an electric line

powered at alternating voltage, the alternating current value along the conductors is

not constant because the current is split in every line section as displacement

currents.

Similarly with what happened into electric capacitors we can say that, in the

case of an electric line, there are electric phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground

capacitances. The same situation can be observed at the winding wires of

transformers and autotransformers. Between windings there is an alternating

potential difference and therefore there is an electric field variable in time and thus

a displacement currents also appear. This situation is similar to the loads

characterised by pure resistance where, due to the voltage drop across their

conductors generates an electric field around the conductors and thus displacement

currents.

Because the resistance of the dielectric insulation is not infinite and also due

to corona discharge, other active power losses occur, different from the losses in

resistance R, and thus another parameter is defined. This is called conductance,

noted by G, having inverse dimension of the electric resistance. This parameter is

due to the leakage currents in the insulators of the overhead electric lines, between

phases or between phases and ground, and in the insulation of underground cables.

The intensity of these leakage currents is highly dependent on the state of

24 Basic computation

negligible, the conductance G is also negligible.

The parameters of an electric circuit are dependent on the characteristics of

materials from which the circuit is made: resistivity , magnetic permeability and

electric permittivity . These material quantities are not constant and depend on

other values such as temperature, the current passing through the circuit or the

terminal voltage (especially, in the case of iron core saturation of electric

equipment). In some cases this dependence is small and can be negligible, so it can

be assumed that the electric circuit parameters are irrespective of the current or

voltage. Under these considerations the circuits are called linear circuits; otherwise

the circuits are nonlinear. In this chapter we will consider only the case of linear

circuits.

An electric consumer consists of a set of electric receivers. In an electric

receiver the electromagnetic energy is transformed into other forms of energy.

The load modelling is a difficult issue due to some objective factors such as:

huge number of electric receivers from complex consumer structure;

lack of accurate information related to the consumer components;

fluctuation of consumer structure in terms of day time, climatic conditions,

evolution of technology, etc.;

uncertain characteristics of the consumer components, respectively of

electric receivers in terms of voltage and frequency variation.

In terms of the goal of the proposed analysis, the load modelling has distinct

forms and specific approaches. In power systems practice three classes of issues

are identified, every one necessitating an adequate modelling of the load: steady

states calculation, emergency conditions calculation and the power systems

planning and design, respectively.

In this chapter the load modelling under steady state conditions is considered,

being symmetrical and balanced regime. Nowadays, in most of the cases the load

modelling for the steady state calculation is based on deterministic approach,

neglecting the random character of the power consumption. Instead, there are also

studies based on probabilistic approaches.

The power receivers of a complex consumer have variations of demanded

power, more or less time pronounced, by the hours of the day (hourly variations) or

by the days of the year (seasonal variations). These variations in time of the power

demand by a consumer are illustrated in daily load curves, respectively in yearly

load curves.

Based on these curves and using specific analysis, it can be determined the

calculation load of a certain consumer. It should be mentioned that it is about a

constant calculation load value determined for a balanced consumer, at a certain

instant of time and under nominal voltage and frequency conditions as well.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 25

related to the power demand by the consumer at a certain instant of time. Although

the determination procedure uses static analysis and admits the randomness of the

nodal consumer, the calculation load obtained in this way is specific only for a

certain instant of time, decreasing the accuracy of the model.

Because in most cases the voltage at the consumer terminals is different from

the nominal voltage, and also the frequency is different from the nominal one, the

load modelling through static load characteristics is performed. In terms of the

dependence of the power on the terminal voltage and frequency, two load models

are defined:

Static load model, which expresses active and reactive powers at any

instant of time, in terms of voltage and frequency at that instant of time,

either as polynomial form or exponential form. The static model is

currently used for normal steady state calculation;

Dynamic load model, which expresses active and reactive powers at any

instant of time, in terms of voltage and frequency at that instant of time as

well as at the foregoing times, by using differential equations. The

dynamic models are used for emergency operating conditions.

The static characteristics have the following general form:

P = P ( f , U ) , Q = Q( f , U ) (1.1)

The most used expressions of the active and reactive powers have one of the

following forms, called polynomial model (1.2):

( )

P( f ,U ) = P0 a U 2 + b U + c (1 + g f )

(1.2)

Q( f ,U ) = Q (d U

0

2

)

+ e U + q (1 + h f )

U f

U f

P( f , U ) = A

U nom f nom

(1.3)

U f

U f

Q( f , U ) = B

U nom f nom

or

u

U

P = P0 (1 + g f )

U nom

(1.4)

u

U

Q = Q0 (1 + h f )

U nom

26 Basic computation

where: a, d are constants deriving from the load modelling through constant

impedance;

b, e constants deriving from the load modelling through constant

current;

c, q constants deriving from the load modelling through constant

power;

g, h constants indicating the variation of P and Q with frequency;

A, B quantities calculated with the expressions (1.3), in terms of the

steady state results when U = Un, f = fn;

u, u coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and

reactive powers with the voltage;

f, f coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and

reactive powers with the frequency.

In literature, complex studies for the determination of a, b, , h and f, u,

f, u coefficients are given. The values of these coefficients depend upon:

consumer type: complex, residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural,

fluorescent lamps, arc bulbs, air-conditioned installations, domestic

consumption, asynchronous motors, synchronous motors, inductive loads,

electric heating, electrochemistry factories, arc furnace, static converters,

and so on;

period of the year: summer or winter;

geographical area: north, south, east, west;

load power factor.

If information about the electric consumer is not available, average value of

the coefficients might be used (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1

coefficient f f

u u

consumer

Complex 0.7 ... 1.2 0.6 ... 1.5 1 ... 2 0.6 ... 0

Residential 1 ... 1.5 0.5 1 ... 1.4 0.7

Commercial 1.2 0.185 1.17 0.488

Industrial 0.7 ... 1.5 1 ... 2

consumption by resistive loads type and by electric motors type (closer to constant

power modelling). In terms of the complex consumer structure (preponderance of

resistance consumption or of motors) impedance or constant power modelling

might be used.

From the general model (1.2) the following particular static models results:

constant impedance model, where the power vary direct-proportional with

the voltage magnitude square;

P ~U2; Q ~U2 (1.5)

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 27

the model where the power varies direct-proportional with the voltage

magnitude;

P ~U ; Q ~U (1.6)

constant power model, where power demanded by the consumer is

independent by the voltage;

P ~ const. ; Q ~ const. (1.7)

Usually, the loads are modelled through its active and reactive powers, as

shown in Figure 1.25,a. It is possible to consider the same load through series or

parallel combinations of resistance and reactance of constant values (Fig. 1.25,b,c).

U U U

RS

IS Xp IXp IRp Rp

XS

P+jQ

a. b. c.

Fig. 1.25. Load modelling: a. constant powers; b. series impedance; c. parallel

impedance.

series impedance Z s = R s + jX s , the values of resistance Rs and of reactance Xs

can be inferred from the expressions of the current:

U

Is =

R s + jX s

and of the complex power:

U2 U2

*

S s = P + jQ = U I s = = 2 (Rs + jX s )

R s jX s R s + X s2

U 2 Rs U 2Xs

P= ; Q=

R s2 + X s2 R s2 + X s2

then:

P2 + Q2 =

(

U 4 Rs2 + X s2 ) =U 2 P

=U 2

Q

( Rs2 + X s2)2

Rs Xs

28 Basic computation

In consequence:

U 2P

Rs = (1.8)

P2 + Q2

U 2Q

Xs = (1.9)

P2 + Q2

Xs reactance of the load series connected, [] ;

Zs impedance of the load series connected, [] ;

U phase-to-phase (line-to-line) voltage, [V];

P single-phase active power of the load, [W];

Q single-phase reactive power of the load, [VAr].

If the load is modelled through a resistance in parallel with an inductive

reactance:

U U2 U2

I Rp = ; P = UI Rp = ; Rp = (1.10)

Rp Rp P

U U2 U2

IXp = ; Q = UI Xp = ; Xp = (1.11)

Xp Xp Q

Xp load reactance parallel connected, [] .

An electric line is characterised by four parameters, having different physical

causes: resistance R, caused by electric resistivity of currents paths, inductance L,

which is the effect of the magnetic field, capacitance C, which is the effect of the

electric field, conductance G, caused by defective insulation and corona discharge

losses.

The resistance and inductance are included in the series impedance

z = R + jL , and the conductance and capacitance are included in the shunt

admittance y = G + jC . The presence of the impedance consisting of resistance

and inductive reactance leads to voltage variations along the line so the impedances

are so called series parameters, while the presence the admittance consisting of

conductance and capacitive susceptance C, modifies the currents flowing through

the lines conductors, through leakage currents appearance, and therefore they are

also called shunt parameters.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 29

In Figure 1.26 are illustrated the series and shunt elements of a single-circuit

three-phase overhead line, operating under normal steady state conditions, for

which the following expression can be written:

V a = z aa I a + z ab I b + z ac I c = (Raa + jLaa )I a + jLab I b + jLac I c

Va Ia

Ia zaa yab

Ib

Lab Vb

Ib zbb yca

Lbc Lca Ic ybc

Vc Va Vb

zcc

yag ybg

Ic

ycg Vc

overhead line without shield wire.

I a = y aa V a + y ab (V a V b ) + y ac (V a V c ) = Y aa V a + Y ab V b + Y ac V c

I b = y ba (V b V a ) + y bb V b + y bc (V b V c ) = Y ba V a + Y bb V b + Y bc V c (1.13)

I c = y ca (V c V a ) + y cb (V c V b ) + y cc V c = Y ca V a + Y cb V b + Y cc V c

Due to unbalance of some loads the mutual inductance has different values,

and then asymmetrical voltages appear. By manufacturing and operation (phase

transposition) means, the equality of self-impedances and self-admittances

respectively, and the equality of phase-to-phase mutual impedances and phase-to-

phase mutual admittances, are achieved:

z aa = z bb = z cc = z = R + jLself

(1.14,a)

z ab = z bc = z ca = jLm

and

30 Basic computation

Y ab = Y bc = Y ca = Y m = y ab = y bc = y ca

Y aa = y aa + y ab + y ac

(1.14,b)

Y bb = y ba + y bb + y bc

Y cc = y ca + y cb + y cc

Note that, also, under normal steady state conditions, electric generators

generate an e.m.f. of a, b, c sequence also called positive or direct sequence. The

voltages, currents, impedances and admittances of this operating regime are

considerate of positive/direct sequence.

The normal steady state is considered as perfect symmetrical and balanced;

therefore, the following equalities can be defined:

V a +V b +V c = 0

(1.15)

Ia + Ib + Ic = 0

Taking into account (1.14) and (1.15), expressions (1.12) and (1.13) become:

( )

V a = ( z z m ) I a = z I a = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I a = R + jL+ I a

+

( )

V b = ( z z m ) I b = z I b = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I b = R + jL+ I b (1.16)

+

( )

V c = ( z z m ) I c = z I c = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I c = R + jL+ I c

+

I a = (Y Y m ) V a = Y V a

+

I b = (Y Y m ) V b = Y V b

+

(1.17,a)

I c = (Y Y m ) V c = Y V c

+

thus the expressions (1.17,a) become:

I a = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V a = jC + V a

I b = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V b = jC + V b (1.17,b)

I c = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V c = jC + V c

Equations (1.16) and (1.17) shows that under perfect symmetrical conditions,

by design, the scheme from Figure 1.26 can be replaced by a three-phase network,

where the phases are electrically and magnetically decoupled. Under these

considerations, the series and shunt elements from Figure 1.26 are replaced as

shown in Figure 1.27, where positive/direct sequence impedances and admittances

are considered.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 31

Ia

Ib

Ic

z

Ia

z

Ib

z y y y

Ic

a. b.

Fig. 1.27. Three-phase line of direct/positive sequence: a. series elements; b. shunt

elements.

Therefore, under steady state conditions, the three-phase line can be replaced

by three independent single-phase lines, with no electric or magnetic coupling, and

with currents and voltages shifted only by 120 and 240 degrees. In consequence,

steady state analysis can be performed only for a single-phase line, whose

parameters are called service line parameters.

The service inductance of a three-phase electric line represents the ratio of the

total magnetic field flux, generated by the currents on the three phases linking the

conductor of one phase, to the current flowing through it. The service inductance is

the positive/direct sequence inductance and is denoted by L+ or more simple by L.

The service capacitance of a three-phase electric line represents the ratio of

electric charge of one phase conductor (to which contributes the electric charges

from all the others conductors) to the potential of respective conductor, measured

with respect to a reference potential (earth or metallic shell of a cable).

In this way, the three-phase system (or in the general case, a multi-phase

system) can be replaced with a single-phase system, which has only one

capacitance with respect to the reference potential, determined in terms of all

capacitances of the real three-phase (multi-phase) system. The service capacitance

represents the direct/positive sequence capacitance and is noted by C + or more

simple by C.

The service parameters or direct/positive sequence parameters are, in general,

given in per unit length, usually 1 km, called per unit length parameters and are

noted by r0 , l0 , c0 , g 0 .

The electric resistance of electric lines conductors is the most important

cause of the active power losses ( P ) in electric lines. The effective resistance of a

conductor is given by formula:

P

R = 2 [ ] (1.18,a)

I

32 Basic computation

where P is expressed in watts, and I represents the actual value of the current, in

ampere.

The effective resistance is equal to direct-current resistance of the conductor

only if the distribution of current throughout the conductor is uniform.

In direct current, the expression of resistance Rdc is as follows:

l l

Rdc = = [] (1.18,b)

s s

conductivity of material, [m/ mm2];

l conductors length, [m];

s cross-sectional area, [mm2].

On the hypothesis of specific resistance varying linear with temperature, its

value at a certain temperature C is determined in terms of electric resistivity

at 20 C:

= 20 [1 + 20 ( 20 )] (1.19)

where 20 is temperature coefficient at 20 C. For usual calculations the following

values are considered: Cu = 0.00393 ; Al = 0.00403 ; Fe = 0.0062 .

The electric resistance R2 of a conductor at the temperature 2 can also be

determined with formula:

R 2 T0 + 2

= (1.19')

R1 T0 + 1

R2 resistance of conductor at temperature 2, in ;

1, 2 conductor temperatures, in C;

T0 constant depending on the material type having the values: 234.5 C

for annealed copper, 241 C for hard-drawn copper, 228 C for

hard-drawn aluminium.

At temperature of 20 C, the electric resistivity of annealed copper is

1/58 mm2/m, and of hard-drawn aluminium is 1/33.44 mm2/m. The electric

resistivity of hard-drawn conductors is different form the above-mentioned

values due to the treatment applied.

In general, the conductors are manufactured in a stranded form (aluminium

conductor, steel reinforced ACSR). A stranded conductor is made from wires

disposed in layers, tight and spiralled in opposite directions. The resistance in

direct current of such conductor is calculated taking into account that the average

length of wire is 2 4% greater than the real length of conductor, for overhead

lines, and 2 5% greater for underground cables, and the cross-sectional area used

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 33

wire with the number of wires.

The alternating current resistance is the different from direct current

resistance due to the following issues [1.16], [1.17]:

Skin effect consisting in non-uniformity distribution of current in the

cross-section of an electric conductor mostly when this is made from one or more

concentric circular elements. When a current is passed through a conductor this

generates a magnetic field that is stronger inside the conductor and its intensity

decrease towards the surface. In consequence, the self-induced e.m.f. in conductor

is higher towards centre of cross-section. Accordingly to Lenzs law the magnetic

field push the current to flow near the outer surface of conductor, thus total density

of current is smaller in interior and higher towards the surface. As the frequency of

alternating current increases so does the effect becomes more pronounced. Thus,

skin effect increases the effective resistance of conductor by reducing the effective

cross-section of conductor from which flow the current. Skin effect depends upon

the cross-sectional area, material type of conductor, frequency and magnetic

permeability. In literature, the influence of skin effect on the electric resistance is

given by Rac Rdc ratio, in curves or tables, in terms of the above-mentioned

parameters. For instance, for steel-reinforced conductor (ACSR) of 400 mm2 area,

Rac Rdc is equal to 1.0055.

Proximity effect leads also to a non-uniformity distribution of current, in

cross-sectional area of an electric conductor. For instance, in a single-phase electric

line consisting of two conductors (go and return conductors), the nearest parts of

the conductors are sweep by a stronger magnetic field than in the farthest parts.

Therefore, the parts of the conductor nearest each other have a lower inductance

value compared with the farthest ones. The result is an increased current density in

the parts of the conductor nearest each other, and a lower one in farthest ones. This

non-uniformity density of current increases the effective resistance. For usual

distances of the overhead lines operating at frequency of 50 Hz, this effect is

negligible.

The resistance of the conductor made from magnetic materials varies with

current magnitude because in the steel-core of the Al-Ol rope conductor the power

losses increase, especially when the number of layers is odd. Magnetic conductor

tables, such as ACSR conductors, contain values of electric resistance for two

values of the carried current, emphasizing this effect.

As regards the underground cables with high cross-sectional area, the above-

mentioned causes have a more pronounced character. Therefore, in alternating

current, power losses in conductors can be calculated with expression:

Pac = Pdc + Ps + Pp + Psc + Psh + Pt (1.20)

(

Pac = 3Rac I 2 = 3I 2 Rdc + Rs + R p + Rsc + Rsh + Rt ) (1.21)

34 Basic computation

Rdc direct current resistance;

I effective value of current flowing through conductor;

Rs , R p , Rsc , Rsh , Rt are incremental resistances due to skin effect,

proximity effect, screen wire losses, outer sheath losses and

protection tube losses.

In practice, for the calculation of Rs and Rp quantities, having a prevailing

effect, semiempiric formulae are used. When the cables are disposed in steel tubes,

due to the increase in magnetic flux, skin effect and proximity effect become more

pronounced.

For determination of inductive reactance, the following simplifying

hypotheses are considered:

(i) the distances between phase conductors are bigger compared with their

radius;

(ii) the current is uniformly distributed within the cross-sectional area of

each conductor;

(iii) there is no ferromagnetic material inside or outside the conductor;

(iv) the current in every conductor is constant along its length;

(v) the sum of instantaneous currents flowing through the n conductors is

zero, that is:

i a + ib + ic + .... + i n = 0

Under these assumptions, we may apply superposition for the magnetic

circuit of a solenoid with N turns.

The inductive reactance of a single phase from a multiphase electric line is

given by formula:

X = L = 2fL (1.22)

where: f is frequency, [Hz];

L inductance of a single phase, [H].

We next consider a multiphase electric line as a set of turns passed by

reciprocal influenced currents; first, the basic formula necessary for calculation of

the inductance of a solenoid with N turns (Fig. 1.28) [1.18] is determined, then the

general case of a multiphase system is treated.

2

3

Fig. 1.28. Flux linkage into a solenoid.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 35

Starting from the magnetic circuit law we express the magneto-motive force:

mmf = H dl = i (1.23)

dl length element, [m];

i instantaneous current linking the solenoid.

According to Biot-Savarts law, the magnetic field intensity in any spatial

point is a linear function of all the currents that generates the respective field and

therefore it can be calculated by using superposition. The relationship law between

the magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity (material law), in magnetic

medium with linear characteristic, is:

B = H (1.24)

where: B is magnetic flux density, [Wb/m2];

r relative magnetic permeability, [H/m];

0 magnetic permeability of vacuum, [H/m];

= r 0 absolute magnetic permeability of medium, [H/m].

The total flux through a surface of area A is the surface integral of the

magnetic field B, that is:

= B d a = B cos B, d a da ( ) (1.25)

A A

(1.25) becomes:

= BA (1.26)

Due to the solenoid shape several magnetic fluxes appear, some of theme

linking only some parts of the solenoid, called leakage fluxes, as it can be seen in

Figure 1.28. The total leakage flux is determined by considering the contribution of

each turn:

N

t =

k =1

k (1.27)

where k is the sum of all fluxes linking the turn k of the solenoid. As illustrated in

Figure 1.28 this could have the expression k = 1 + 2 + 3 . The inductance of

the overhead lines can be calculated starting from the fundamental relationship

representing the ratio of the total magnetic flux, linking the surface bounded by the

contour of a circuit, to the current passing through the respective circuit, having a

linear dependency:

36 Basic computation

t

L= (1.28)

i

When there exist more circuits, in the same medium, that influence each

other, under the condition of linearity mentioned earlier, self- and mutual

inductances are defined.

Specific inductance calculation for an infinite straight conductor

In order to obtain an accurate value of the inductance of an electric

transmission line, the flux linkage inside as well as outside of each conductor must

be taken into consideration.

a. Flux linkage inside the conductor

In Figure 1.29 the cross-section of a cylindrical conductor in shown.

ds

x dx

Let the magnetic field lines at a distance x meters from the centre of the

conductor and concentric distributed relative to the axis of the conductor. The

magnetic field intensity Hx is constant along these field lines and tangent to it. In

consequence, the equation (1.23) becomes:

H ds = H

x x ( 2x ) = ix (1.29)

is obtained by multiplying the total current i from the conductor with the ratio of

the cross-sectional area, passed by the current ix, to the total cross-sectional area of

the conductor:

x 2

ix = i (1.30)

r 2

from where it results the expression of the magnetic field intensity:

x

Hx = i (1.31)

2r 2

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 37

The value of internal flux is a percent of the linkage flux due to the total

current from conductor and is calculated with formula:

r

x x 2 i

int =

0

2

i 2 dx = 0 r

2r r 8

(1.32)

int 0 r

Lint = = (1.33)

i 8

b. Flux linkage outside the conductor

Consider a cylinder of radius R , made from magnetic flux lines surrounding

an infinite length conductor of radius r. The flux linkage outside the conductor is

determined as volume integral inside the cylinder considered from radius r to

distance R where the magnetic field intensity has no longer influence.

1m

r

x dx R

is x meters from the centre of the conductor, the magneto-motive force becomes:

2x H x = i (1.34)

where i is the current passed through the conductor.

Knowing that the relative magnetic permeability of air is r 1 and taking

into consideration equations (1.24), (1.25) and (1.34), the flux linkage outside the

conductor is:

R

i 0i R Wb

ext = B d a = 0

A

2x dx = 2 ln

r

r m

(1.35)

where: R is the distance meters from the axis of the conductor to the point

where H = 0 ;

r radius of the conductor.

38 Basic computation

with expression:

R H

Lext = ext = 0 ln (1.36)

i 2 r m

Therefore, the generalised self-inductance of a massive conductor is:

0 R 1

L = Lext + Lint = ln + r (1.37)

2 r 4

Consider a system of two conductors of radii equal to r situated at the

distance D from each other, where one conductor is the return path of current for

the other. The two-conductors system forms a contour that bounds a surface linked

by the magnetic flux.

h

i i

r r

ground

Fig. 1.31. Two-conductors system.

with formula:

D 1

L = 0 ln + r (1.38)

2 r 4

Relation (1.38) can also be written as:

0 D 4 D

L= ln + ln e r = 0 ln r (1.39)

2 r 2 r e

4

re = r e r 4 the equivalent radius of conductor. Therefore:

0 D

L= ln (1.40)

2 re

For r = 1 (non-magnetic material) and massive conductor, it results

re = 0.7788 r . For stranded conductor, made from non-magnetic material, the

following ratios are obtained:

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 39

conductors with 19 wires re r = 0.757 ;

and for aluminium-steel conductors:

conductors with 7 wires re r = 0.770 ;

conductors with 30 wires re r = 0.826 .

for dry air, and l = 1000 m, the inductance per unit length is obtained:

D D

L0 = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase]

re re

D D

x0 = L0 = 314 0.46 lg = 0.1445 lg [/km phase] (1.41)

re re

Thus, we can draw the conclusion that the reactance of an electric line does

not depend upon the current passing through the line.

Total flux linkage of a conductor, from an n-conductors system

Consider the general case of n parallel conductors (Fig. 1.32), representing a

multi-phase system under normal steady state conditions.

Conductor 1 H=0

d1

dk

D12

D1k

Conductor 2 Conductor k

constitutes the return path for the sum of currents from all phases (under normal

operating conditions the intensity of current flowing through the imaginary

conductor is zero). For symmetry reasons, this imaginary conductor is considered

parallel with the other conductors.

The distance between the real conductors is small enough so that they

influence each other. For simplicity, consider only the calculation of magnetic flux

linking the conductor 1, due to existence of the current from conductor k, the

40 Basic computation

currents from the other conductors are considered zero. Finally, we apply

superposition, which takes into account the influence of magnetic flux due to the

currents from the others conductors. As it can be seen in Figure 1.32 the magnetic

field lines due to currents ik are concentric circles.

Having the previous assumptions made, we may alike the general case of a

multi-phase system with the case studied earlier of a system with two conductors.

We denote by dk the distance from the centre of conductor k to the imaginary

conductor, where the magnetic flux intensity is zero, and by D1k the distance from

the centre of conductor 1 to the centre of conductor k. By applying equation (1.35),

the self-flux linking the circuit composed by conductor 1 and imaginary conductor,

due to current i1 in conductor 1, is:

0i1 d1

11 = ln [Wb/m] (1.42,a)

2 re

and the flux linking the conductor 1, due to the current flowing through conductor

k, has the following expression:

0ik d

1k = ln k (1.42,b)

2 D1k

Therefore, the total flux linking the conductor 1 due to the contributions of all

currents flowing through the n conductors is:

0 d1 d2 d d

t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln k + ... + in ln n (1.43)

2 re D12 D1k D1n

0 1 1 1 1

t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln

2 re D12 D1k D1n

(1.44)

+ 0 [i1 ln d1 + i2 ln d 2 + ... + ik ln d k + ... + in ln d n ]

2

Knowing that the sum of instantaneous currents through the n conductors is

zero:

i1 + i2 + ... + ik + .... + in1 + in = 0

we may express the current in in terms of the other n-1 currents [1.10]:

Substituting the current in from (1.45) into (1.44) the following expression is

obtained:

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 41

0 1 1 1 1

t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln

2 re D12 D1k D1n

0 d1 d d d

+ i1 ln + i2 ln 2 + ... + ik ln k + ... + in1 ln n1

2 dn dn dn dn

respect to the real conductors, the logarithms of ratios of distances from real

conductors to the imaginary conductor tend toward zero so that the expression of

the total flux linking the conductor 1 get the form:

0 1 1 1 1

t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln (1.46)

2 re D12 D1k D1n

Using self and mutual inductances, we can see that the expression (1.46)

represents the Maxwells law referring to inductances:

t1 = L11i1 + L12i2 + ... + L1k ik + ... + L1nin (1.47)

Therefore, in the general case of a system with n conductors, where the sum

of all currents is zero, the self-inductance Ljj and the mutual inductance Ljk are

given by expressions:

0 1

L jj = ln [H/m] (1.48,a)

2 re

0 1

L jk = ln [H/m] (1.48,b)

2 D jk

The above equations constitute the basis of practical evaluation of reactance

of the electric lines.

Inductance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line

Let us consider a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line (Fig. 1.33)

with unequal distances between phases.

Due to unequal spacing between phases it cannot be defined the inductivity

La assigned to the phase a that could be constant in time and cannot be say that the

flux a is proportional to the current ia (both in instantaneous quantities). For this

reason, we next consider the sinusoidal steady state so that we must express the

inductivity of a phase into the complex space:

a

La = (1.49)

Ia

By expressing the flux linking a phase it can be defined an operator, constant

in time, and an inductivity that allow coherent operations, into a complex space (of

42 Basic computation

voltage and the derivative of current, etc.

D12

1 D23

2

single-circuit three-phase overhead line.

Applying (1.46) for this case it results the expression of flux linkage of phase

a per unit length:

0 1 1 1

a = I a ln + I b ln + I c ln (1.50)

2 re D12 D13

between the currents on the three phases is given by relationships:

I a = I a ; I b = a2 I a ; I c = aI a (1.51)

where

1 3 1 3

a = e j 2 / 3 = + j ; a 2 = e j 2 / 3 = j

2 2 2 2

Substituting expressions (1.51) into (1.50) obtain:

0 1 1 3 1 1

+ j 3 ln 1 =

a = I a ln + I a j ln + I

2 D12 2 2 D13

a

2 re 2

0 D12 D13 3 D13

= I a ln j ln

2 re 2 D12

Therefore, the inductance per kilometre of phase a get the form:

La = = ln j ln La jL"a (1.52)

I a 2 re 2 D12

Observation: For the case when D12 = D13 = D the imaginary part becomes

zero, so that an expression similar with (1.40), corresponding to the case of the

two-conductor system, is obtained.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 43

From (1.52) we can draw the conclusion that in the expression of inductance,

an imaginary part appears which leads to a supplementary resistance on phase:

( )

Z a = R + jL a = R + j L'a jL"a = R + L"a + jL'a (1.53)

By increasing the real part of the impedance, supplementary active power and

energy losses on the line appear. In order to avoid this, for symmetry of the circuit

and equilateral spacing between phases, the phase transposition method is used for

an electric line of length l (Fig. 1.34).

a c b

Ia

Fig. 1.34. Transposition

of the phases, without Ib b a c

return to the initial state, c b a

for a single-circuit three- Ic

phase overhead line. Section 2 Section 3

Section 1

Transposition cycle

Therefore, if apply equation (1.46), the average linkage flux of phase a is:

1 1 1 1

a , av = 0 ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +

3 2 re D12 D13

(1)

0 1 1 1

+ ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +

2 re D23 D21

(2 )

1 1 1

+ 0 i a ln + ib ln + ic ln =

2 re D31 D32

(3 )

0 1 1 1

= ia ln + ib ln + ic ln =

2 re GMD GMD

0 GMD

= ia ln (1.54)

2 re

where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 is the geometric mean distance between positions 1, 2

and 3.

44 Basic computation

becomes:

0 GMD

La , av = ln (1.55,a)

2 re

Knowing 0 = 410 7 H/m and considering the unit length of l = 1000 m, the

inductance per phase and kilometre is obtained:

GMD GMD

L0 = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase] (1.55,b)

re re

GMD

x0 = L0 = 0.1445 lg [/km phase]

re

Inductance of a double-circuit three-phase overhead electric line

Consider a double-circuit electric line with phase transposition, as shown in

Figure 1.35.

Considering that the two circuits are identical from manufacturing and

loading point of view then i a = i a ' , ib = ib ' , ic = ic ' .

The total linkages flux of phase conductor a from the circuit abc and of phase

conductor a' from the circuit a'b'c' on all the three transposition sections, is:

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a1) = i a ln + ib + i c ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '

2 re D12 D13 D11' D12' D13'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a1') = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic

2 re D1'2' D1'3' D1'1 D1'2 D1'3

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a2 ) = i a ln + ib + i c ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '

2 re D23 D21 D22' D23' D21'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a2' ) = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic

2 re D 2 '3 ' D2'1' D2 ' 2 D 2 '3 D2'1

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a3) = i a ln + ib + ic ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '

2 re D31 D32 D33' D31' D32'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

(a3') = i a ' ln + ib ' + i c ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic

2 re D3'1' D3 ' 2 ' D3 ' 3 D3'1 D3'2

(1.56)

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 45

a c b

Ia

b a c

Ib

c b a

Ic

c b a

Ic

b a c

Ib

a c b

Ia

1 3 1 3 1 3

2 a 2 2 b 2 2 b a 2

b 3 1 b a 3 1 a c 3 1

a b a b

Section1 Section 2 Section 3

Transposition cycle

Fig. 1.35. Double-circuit line with phase transposition. The position of transposition

sections 1, 2 and 3.

The average linkage flux of any of the two phase conductors a or a' is:

(1) (1) (2 ) (2 )

1 a + a ' a + a ' (a3) + (a3') 1 (1)

a , av = a ', av =

3 2

+

2

+

2 3

(

= a , av + (a2, )av + (a3,)av )

(1.57)

(1) (1)

a + a ' 0 1 1

(a1,)av = (a1'), av = = i a ln 2 2 +

2 2 2 re D11'

1 1

+ ib ln + ic ln

D12 D1'2' D12' D1'2 D13 D1'3' D13' D1'3

(a2 ) + (a2' ) 0 1 1

(a2, )av = (a2',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +

2 2 2 re D22'

1 1

+ ib ln + ic ln

D23 D2'3' D23' D2 '3 D21D2'1' D21' D2 '1

(a3) + (a3') 0 1 1

(a3,)av = (a3',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +

2 2 2 re D33'

1 1

+ ib ln + ic ln

D31D3'1' D31' D3'1 D32 D3'2' D32' D3'2

The following notations are adopted:

46 Basic computation

GMRa = re D11'

GMRb = re D22'

GMRc = re D33'

Taking into account that i a + ib + ic = 0 , we obtain:

GMD

a , av = a ', av = 2 10 7 ia ln [H/m phase] (1.58)

GMR

where geometric mean distance GMD is defined by:

GMD = 3 Dab , eq Dbc , eq Dac , eq (1.59)

GMR = 3 GMRaGMRbGMRc (1.60)

becomes:

GMD GMD

La , av = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase] (1.61)

GMR GMR

Inductance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line, with

bundle conductors

In the case of extra high voltage powered electric lines, power losses due to

corona discharge and their influence on telecommunication lines become

excessively high if a single conductor per phase is used. The voltage gradient is

considerable decreased if instead of a single conductor per phase more conductors

are used, and the distance between the conductors of each phase is small as

compared with the distance between phases. Such conductors are called bundled

conductors.

Assume that instead of a single conductor, there are f conductors on each

phase, also called sub-conductors. In the following we consider the case of a phase

consisting of f = 5 sub-conductors, as shown in Figure 1.36,a [1.14].

The following assumptions are considered:

all the sub-conductors from the bundle have the same radius r, and the

current in each phase splits equally among the f parallel sub-conductors;

the distance D between bundle centres is much greater than the distance df

between the sub-conductors of the same phase.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 47

6 7 r 3

10 8 2

9

13

D

D D

2

D1

1 12 2/n

D1

5 2 D 11

13

3

1 A

df 4 3 15 14

a. b.

Fig. 1.36. Electric line with bundled conductors: a. Phase spacing for the case of line

with 5 sub-conductors per bundle; b. sub-conductors spacing for the case of line with

f sub-conductors per bundle.

For the calculation of the total linkage flux of sub-conductor 1, from phase a,

by applying expression (1.46) it results:

0 ia 1 1 1 1 1

t 1 = ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +

2 5 re D12 D13 D14 D15

ib 1 1 1 1 1

+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +

5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10

ic 1 1 1 1 1

+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln = (1.62)

5 D1,11 D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15

0 ia 1 i 1

= ln + b ln +

2 5 (re D12 D13 D14 D15 ) 5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10 ( )

ic 1

+ ln

5 (

D1,11D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15 )

where D1j is the distance from the sub-conductor 1 to sub-conductor j, j = 2, 3, ..., 15.

0 1 1 1

t1 = ia ln + ib ln + ic ln (1.63)

2 GMR f GMD1b GMD1c

GMR f = 5 re D12 D13 D14 D15 is geometric mean radius of the bundle;

GMD1b = 5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1 10 geometric mean distance from conductor 1 to

phase b;

GMD1c = 5 D1,11D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15 geometric mean distance from conductor 1 to

phase c.

48 Basic computation

GMD1b = GMD1c = D , and ia + ib + ic = 0 , the expression (1.63) becomes:

0 D

t 1 = ia ln (1.64)

2 GMR f

account the fact that the intensity of current passed through the conductor 1 is 1/5

from the total current per phase. Thus:

t1 5 0 D

L1 = = ln (1.65)

ia 2 RMG f

5

Next, calculating the total linkage flux t 2 of conductor 2, we find the same

geometric mean radius GMRf. Due to the large distances between phases, we can

consider that the inductances of the five parallel conductors of a phase are

approximately equal L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 , so that:

L1 0 D D

La = = ln = 2 10 4 ln [H/km phase] (1.66)

5 2 GMR f GMR f

circle of radius A, the distances between the sub-conductors of a phase, from

equation (1.62), can be calculated with:

D12 = 2 A sin

f

2

D13 = 2 A sin

f

#

( f 1)

D1 f = 2 A sin

f

respectively

2 ( f 1)

D12 D13 " D1 f = A f 1 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin = A f 1 f (1.67)

f

f

f

where the following trigonometric identity has been used:

2 ( f 1)

2 sin 2 sin " 2 sin = f (1.68)

f f f

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 49

Therefore, in this case, for the geometric mean radius and geometric mean

distances, the following expressions are obtained:

GMR f = f re A f 1 f

GMD1b = f D1, f +1D1, f + 2 " D1, 2 f (1.69)

GMD1c = f D1, 2 f +1D1, 2 f + 2 " D1,3 f

Considering that practical, the distances D1,f+1 . . . D1,2f . . . D1,3f are equal to the

distance between bundles centres, for the inductance La the same expression as in

(1.66) is obtained, where GMRf and GMDs are given by (1.69).

Application

Calculate the reactance of 750 kV single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line.

Each phase consists of Al-Ol conductors of 5300/69 mm2, and the conductors of bundles

are of radius r = 2.515 / 2 cm . The distance between the conductors of bundles, situated in

the corners of a pentagon, is df = 40 cm (Fig. 1.36,a). The mean distance between the

bundle centres of two different phases is D =17500 mm. Thus:

D12 = D15 = 40 cm , D13 = D14 = 2 40 cos 36 = 64.72136 cm

1/ 5

2.515 1 / 4

GMR f = e 40 2 64.72136 2 = 23.09 cm

2

Therefore, the inductance per kilometre, noted by La 0 , is:

17500

La 0 = 2 10 4 ln = 0.86559 mH km

230.9

Considering the distances D between bundles centres are not equal and perform

phase transposition, obtain an average reactance of 0.2861 /km.

Underground electric lines have the same parameters as overhead electric

line: series impedance consisting of a resistance and an inductive reactance and

shunt admittance consisting of a conductance and a susceptance.

As compared with overhead lines there are some important differences such as:

cables are much closer to each other;

in the most cases the cross-section of underground cables is not of circle

form, being of circle sectors form more or less regular;

conductors are surrounded by other metallic objects (usually grounded),

such as screens, protection sheaths or steel tubes;

insulation material between conductors is solid (in the most cases) or gas.

This insulation material is mostly mixed than uniform because, in fact, it

consists of each phase insulation, as well as the filling material between

phases.

50 Basic computation

constants.

The closeness between phase conductors and the irregular forms of cross-

sectional areas tend to make non-uniform the distribution of field lines into cross-

sectional area as well as the displacement currents around the dielectric surface.

The non-uniform distribution of currents, eddy currents, secondary currents

induced in screens, sheaths, tubes, etc., modify the inductive, respectively

capacitive reactance, and adds supplementary active power losses. When the cables

have a mixed insulation, in addition to power losses by corona discharge that occur

in insulating gas, power losses in dielectric also occur. The complexity of

constants line calculation for underground cables is compensate by the fact that all

dimensions are kept at standard values and thus, the constants once determined are

available in tables and charts.

Therefore, if for overhead lines, in terms of the voltage level, the average

inductive reactance ranges in the interval:

x0 = 0.306 0.45 /km

for underground lines this value is:

x0 = 0.074 0.154 /km

Two conductors of an overhead electric line, have a capacitance, which once

connected to an alternating voltage leads to the appearance of a current even for

no-load conditions. This current is bigger at the sending-end of the line and

decrease to zero towards the receiving-end of the line. Consequently, the receiving-

end of an electric line operating under no-load conditions has a capacitive power

factor.

An electric line has an intricate structure, such as the double-circuit three-

phase overhead line, with two bundled conductors, forming an assembly of 12

conductors, one or two shield conductors as well as the ground, which has

capacitances between pairs of conductors and between conductors and ground.

No matter how intricate is the geometry of a line an effective capacitance to

ground can be obtained. The determination manner of this effective capacitance is

presented in the following.

The capacitive susceptance per phase of a multi-phase line, is given by

formula:

B = C = 2fC (1.70)

where: f is frequency, [Hz];

C effective capacitance per phase, [Farad].

Consider first the case of an infinite straight conductor of radius r (Fig. 1.37),

belonging to an electric line, and then define a Gaussian cylindrical surface coaxial

with conductor axis, charged with instantaneous electric charge q.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 51

E

r

D

R ds

Fig. 1.37. Cylindrical surface coaxial with conductor centre.

intensity E [Volt/metre] and the electric field density D [Coulomb/metre2], is given

by relationship:

D = E (1.71)

where: = 0 r is electric permittivity, [F/m];

1

0 permittivity of vacuum, 0 = F/m;

4 9 109

r relative permittivity of medium, r = 1 F/m for dry air.

The value of electric flux density D, called also electric field induction, is

determined by applying the electric flux law along the cylindrical surface of radius

R, surrounding the conductor, as shown in Figure 1.37:

D d s = D 2Rh = q

A

(1.72)

with

q = ql h

where: D is electric flux density vector, [C/m2];

ds element area vector (perpendicular to the surface A), [m2];

A closed surface area, [m2];

q algebraic sum of all the line charges enclosed within surface A, [C];

ql charge density per unit length, [C/m];

h length of conductor, [m].

For R r , from expression (1.72) it results the magnitude of per length

electric flux density:

q

D= l (1.73)

2R

Let us imagine two points A and B located at the distance d A and d B

respectively from the centre of conductor in question. The point A is farther away

52 Basic computation

than B relative to the conductor. The potential difference between the two points A

and B is the line integral of the electric field E along any curve path joining the two

points (the potential difference is independent on the path followed in irrotational

field):

dB

VBA = VB VA = E d s

dA

(1.74)

dB

ql ql dA

VBA = VB VA = 2R dR = 2 ln d

dA B

(1.75)

located at the distance D from each other (Fig. 1.38).

electric field

lines

equipotential

lines

qa qb

r r

V =0

contribution of the electric charge from each conductor:

qa D q r

Vab = ln + b ln (1.76)

2 r 2 D

Since the two conductors are charged with electric charges of equal values

but opposite in sign, that is qa = qb , obtain:

qa D r q D

Vab = ln ln = a ln (1.77,a)

2 r D r

If consider that conductor b is the image of conductor a then the potential of

conductor a relative to the point of potential zero (or to ground), that is at the half

distance between the two conductors (Fig. 1.38), is:

Vab q D

Va = = a ln (1.77,b)

2 2 r

The capacitance between the two conductors is given by:

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 53

qa

Cab = = (1.78,a)

Vab ln D

r

We can also express the capacitance to ground:

qa 2

CaN = CbN = = Fm (1.78,b)

Va ln D

r

The real situations consists of multiphase systems so that let us consider the

case of n parallel conductors that carry the line charges q1 , q2 , , qn , located

above a perfectly conducting earth plane as shown in Figure 1.39.

conductor 2

M

q2 conductor k

DM1

DM2 DMk DMn

q1

qn

qk

conductor 1

conductor n

V=0

Fig. 1.39. n conductors system.

the distance between conductors is much greater than their radius; in

consequence, the distribution of a charge on a conductor is not influenced

by the presence of the charges from the other conductors;

charges are uniformly distributed on conductors;

the dielectric is assumed to be linear, so that superposition for fields and

potentials can be applied;

the sum of instantaneous values of the n electric charges from the n

conductors is zero:

q1 + q 2 + ... + q k + ... + q n = 0 (1.79)

because the regime studied is assumed to be normal steady state.

The real overhead electric lines have the parallel conductors so that the cross

sections are located in the same plane (two-dimensional space), therefore, we may

define the potential of a point M relative to the n conductors system by formula:

54 Basic computation

1 n 1

VM =

2 k =1

qk ln

DMk

(1.80)

potentials and can be viewed as the individual contributions of each conductor

charge to the total potential of point M [1.8, 1.18]. Notice that the theory of the

logarithmic potential is valid in a plane-parallel space.

The main application of (1.80) is to calculate the transmission line

capacitance in terms of potentials and electric charges of conductors. For example,

the voltage of a point on the surface of conductor 1 with respect to the whole

system of charges is easily determined if consider that the point M is located on

conductor 1:

1 1 1 1 1

V1 = q1 ln + q2 ln + ... + qk ln + ... + qn ln (1.81)

2 r D12 D1k D1n

D12 distance from the considered point on conductor 1, to the centre of

conductor 2, and so on.

A similar expression as (1.81) can be written for any from the n conductors

(Fig. 1.39). Therefore, for the general case, we obtain n expressions as in (1.81),

which can be written as matrix form:

[V ] = [] [q] (1.82)

where: [V] is column vector of potentials with components V1, V2, ..., Vn;

[q] column vector of electric charges with components q1 , q2 , , qn ;

[] matrix of Maxwells potential coefficients having the terms:

1 1 1 1

jj = ln ; jk = ln (1.83)

2 r 2 Dij

[q ] = [ ]1 [V ] = [C ] [V ]

Notice that the matrix [C ] includes off-diagonal terms, that is, there are also

mutual capacitances. Under symmetrical and balanced steady state conditions, the

capacitance of one conductor in the presence of the others can be expressed as an

equivalent capacitance.

Capacitance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line

For better understanding of calculation of electric lines capacitance consider

now the simple case of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line with

transposed conductors (Fig. 1.34).

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 55

transposition cycle:

1

(

Va , av = Va(1) + Va(2 ) + Va(3 )

3

) (1.84)

where Va(1) is the potential in a point situated on conductor a from the first

transposition section.

The conductors radii of the three phases are equal each other and equal to r.

1 1 1 1

Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln +

3 2 r D12 D13

1 1 1 1 1 1

+ qa ln + qb ln + qc ln + qa ln + qb ln + qc ln

r D23 D21 r D31 D32

or

1 1 1 1

Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln (1.85)

2 r 3 D D D 3 D D D

12 23 31 13 21 32

Under normal steady state conditions the per unit length electric charges qa ,

qb and qc of phases a, b and c satisfy the equality:

qa + qb + qc = 0 , that is qa = (qb + qc ) (1.86)

so we obtain:

1 GMD

Va , av = qa ln (1.87)

2 r

where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 .

Therefore, the per length unit average capacitance to ground is given by:

qa 2

Ca , av = = (1.88)

Va , av ln GMD

r

1

Knowing that 0 = F/m, r = 1 , length l = 1000 m and using lg

4 9 10 9

instead of ln, expression (1.88) becomes:

0.02415

Ca , av = 10 6 [F/km] (1.89)

GMD

lg

r

In a similar manner the average capacitance for a single-circuit or double-

circuit electric line with bundle conductors can be determined. In all these cases the

same mean distances and radii are used as for inductance calculation. The only one

56 Basic computation

difference is that the radius r of the conductor is replaced with an equivalent radius

Rf .

Application

For the same example of the 750 kV single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line

with bundled conductors let us calculate now the capacitive susceptance.

The average capacitance of phase a is given by:

0.02415

Ca , av = Cb, av = Cc , av = 10 6 (1.90)

GMD

lg

Rf

where the equivalent radius Rf is:

1/ 5

2.515

R f = (rD12 D13 D14 D15 )1 5 = 40 2 64.72136 2 = 242.7398 mm

2

Hereby obtain:

314 0.02415 6

ba , av = bb, av = bc , av = Ca , av = 10 = 4.0765 10 6 S/km

17500

lg

242.7398

that is a value very closed to the recommended one for an 750 kV overhead electric line, of

4.12 10 6 S/km, evaluated taking into account the inequality of the distances between

bundle centres and using the geometric mean distances.

Effect of earth on the capacitance

Consider also the case of single-circuit overhead electric line (Fig. 1.40). The

effect of earth can be taken into account by using the method of electric charges

images. These have a charge equal but opposite in sign and are symmetrically

located below the surface of earth. By applying the phase transposition in sections

2 and 3 of the line, only the conductors change their positions, the distances

remaining the same.

By applying expression (1.81), the potential of the conductor phase a,

throughout the section 1, is:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Va(1) = qa ln qa ln + qb ln qb ln + qc ln qc ln =

2 r H1 D12 H12' D13 H13'

1 H H H

= qa ln 1 + qb ln 12' + qc ln 13' (1.91,a)

20 r D12 D13

sections 2 and 3, can be obtained:

1 H H H

Va(2 ) = q a ln 2 + q b ln 23' + q c ln 21' (1.91,b)

2 0 r D23 D21

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 57

1 H H H

Va(3) = q a ln 3 + q b ln 31' + q c ln 32' (1.91,c)

2 0 r D31 D32

qa 1 1

1

Cab a qa qc qb

Cac 2 2 2

qb b qb qa qc

qc 3 3 3q

Ccb c qc qb a

Cb0

Ca0 Cc0

H2 H1 H3

H12 H13 H2 H1 H 3 H2 H1 H3

ground

c c b a

qc 3 3 3

qb b b a c

2 2 2

a a c b

qa 1 1 1

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3

considering the influence of earth.

(1.84) and (1.86), is given by:

3 D D D 3 H H H

qa 12 23 31 1 2 3

Va , av = ln (1.92)

2 0 r H12 ' H13' H 23'

3

as:

20

Ca =

GMD 3 H1H 2 H 3

ln

r 3 H12 ' H13' H 23'

H mean, s = 3 H1H 2 H 3

(1.93)

H mean, m = 3 H12' H13' H 23'

it results:

20

Ca = (1.94)

GMD H mean, s

ln + ln

r H mean, m

or

58 Basic computation

20

Ca = (1.95)

GMD H mean, m

ln ln

r H mean, s

bigger value for capacitance compared with (1.88) is obtained, since

H mean, m > H mean, s .

Likewise, we can determine the influence of earth on service capacitance, of

a double-circuit line, of a line with bundled conductor, etc.

For the determination of service capacitance of a three-phase underground

line, the equipotential surface of conductors (plumbum or aluminium cover

surrounding the three phases) is replaced with a system of charges qa ' , qb ' , qc ' (the

images of charges qa , qb , qc with respect to a surface S), so that, in the resulted

electric field of the real charges and of their images, the surface S to remain

equipotential. The calculation goes on using the method presented earlier. The

service capacitance of a three-phase overhead line is much smaller than the service

capacitance of a three-phase underground line.

If the average capacitance per unit length for a single-circuit overhead line is:

C = (8 9.5) F/km

then for a three-phase underground electric line this has a value of:

C 23 F/km

1.2.2.4. Conductance

The conductance is the shunt parameter from the equivalent circuit of an

electric line and it corresponds to shunt active power losses, due to imperfect

insulation and corona discharge [1.1]. If note these losses by Pins , respectively by

Pcor , and line nominal voltage by U n , the conductance G L of the line is

determined with formula:

Pins + Pcor

GL = [S] (1.96)

U n2

a) Active power losses due to imperfect insulation

In the fixing points of the conductor on the electric tower, current leakages

through insulation towards ground occur, being more intensive as the atmospheric

conditions are worst.

Consider an insulators chain from an overhead electric line of nominal phase-

to-phase voltage Un = 220 kV that can be replaced with an insulating resistance,

under normal atmospheric conditions, of about 2.4109 /phase. Taking into

consideration that such line is equipped along one kilometre with 3 support chains,

it results that the insulating resistance is 0.8109 /phase, and the corresponding

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 59

2

9 220 103

per phase of Pins = GLU 2f = 1.25 10 20 W/km.

3

During unfavourable atmospheric conditions (rain, moist), the values of

losses increase 5-6 times, but remain negligible for calculations of operating

regimes. In polluted areas, due to intensive dirt deposition on the lines elements,

the conductance increases very much, up to 20 40 nS/km, but, taking into

consideration that by designing insulators chain that do not favour dirt deposition

are chosen, with self-cleaned glazed surface, or are periodically washed, in practice

the value of Pins is negligible.

b) Power losses due to corona discharge

These losses must be taken into account from the designing stage of the line.

Corona phenomenon is an incomplete and autonomous electric discharge and

occurs at the conductors surface, as a luminous corona accompanied by a

characteristic noise. This electric discharge appears when the electric field intensity

among conductors surface exceeds the critical value Ecr=21.1 kVrms/cm. It must be

mentioned that local increments of electric field may occur due to non-uniform

surface of conductors caused by mechanical damages, dust deposition, spots of

rain, wires spiralling or even by roughness of conductors surface.

Corresponding to critical electric field intensity, the critical phase-to-phase

voltage at which corona phenomenon occurs can be calculated with the following

formula:

GMD

U cr = 84 m1 m2 r n lg [ kV ] (1.97)

re

where: m1 is coefficient that take into account the conductors surface state,

being equal to 1 for smooth surface, 0.88 0.99 for roughness

surface and 0.72 0.89 for stranded conductor;

m2 coefficient that takes into account the atmospheric conditions; is

equal to 1 for nice weather and 0.8 for moisture and rainy

weather;

air relative density; under standard conditions of temperature and

pressure ( t = 25 C, p = 760 mmHg), =1;

r conductor radius;

n number of conductors from bundle;

GMD geometric mean distance between phases, [cm];

re equivalent radius of the conductor, [cm].

Expression (1.97) is valid when phases are equilateral spaced in the corners

of a triangle. Whether the conductors are placed in the same plane, the critical

voltage for the conductor from middle is with 4% less than, and for the conductors

from exterior is with 6% greater than the value calculated with expression (1.97).

In designing of overhead electric lines, corona discharge is verified for

operating regimes at voltages above 60 kV. The standards indicate that on dry

60 Basic computation

weather, the condition for which there are no power losses by corona discharge is

formulated as U n < U cr .

The calculation of power losses due to corona discharge, by using

experimental empiric formula is performed. For voltages above 110 kV and large

diameters, Peeks formula is the most used in this evaluation:

241

Pc = ( f + 25) re (U U cr )2 105 [kW/km] (1.98)

GMD

where: f is the frequency of electric network, [Hz];

U, Ucr the phase-to-phase network voltage and critical voltage, [kV],

respectively.

Peeks formula provides good results only for overhead lines operating at

voltages up to 110 kV and with not too large diameters of conductor. For voltages

above 110 kV and large diameters, the Petersons formula is used:

U2

Pc = 14,7 10 6 f F [kW/km] (1.99)

GMD

ln

re

where F is Petersons function and is dependent on the value of U/Ucr ratio. For

400 kV lines, the power losses due to corona discharge reach 5 7 % from Joules

losses, and for 750 kV lines, these are 4 times bigger compared with 400 kV lines.

Corona phenomenon leads to:

increase in power and energy losses;

decreasing of life time of conductors, fittings, clamps, caused by the

corrosion process, high frequency disturbances and slight hissing noises.

The avoidance of corona discharge appearance needs increasing of critical

voltage Ucr by:

increasing in conductors radii, leading to assembling and operating

difficulties of the line;

using bundle conductors, obtaining on this approach the increasing of

apparent surface of the sub-conductors group and the decreasing of the

critical field intensity at the conductors surface; this is the most used

method being the most widespread.

For cables, the conductance appears due to the power losses by ionization

phenomenon in the dielectric of cables, current leakages due to imperfect insulation

or to power losses due to magnetic hysteresis loop. For power losses assessment in

dielectric material the tangent of the angle of dielectric losses tan is used. For

110 kV and 220 kV cables the power losses in insulation increase up to

5 10 kW/km.

From the above presented issues, results that the conductance GL is a value

that can be determined only through experimental approaches; it varies generally

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 61

along the line, caused by line state, meteorological conditions and the voltage

variations as well.

In practice, the value of the conductance is considered within the interval:

(

GL = 0.97 10 8 27 10 8 ) S/km

So far, the calculation manner of electrical lines parameters on length unit

has been shown, instead, the total impedance and admittance of the line is

calculated in terms of length l and the number of circuits n operating in parallel:

1

z= (r0 + jx0 )l = R + jX

n (1.100)

y 0 = n(g 0 + jb0 )l = G0 + jB0

The electric lines are classified by voltage level, its length as well as the

environment. In the modelling of electric line the most used is four-terminal

network, where the shunt admittance, which represents corona losses, leakage

current and shunt capacitive currents, is split equal to both input and output ends of

the equivalent circuit.

i R X k

B G B G

2 2 2 2

ground

lines, for which the conductance and capacitive susceptance can be neglected

without influencing the accuracy of operating regimes of power systems

calculation. Thereby, the equivalent circuit of electric line is:

i zik=Rik+jXik k

Vi Vk

For medium and long lines, due to high value of shunt capacitive currents or

for the cases when corona losses become significant, the shunt admittance is no

62 Basic computation

longer neglected. Obtain thus the equivalent circuit, which represents, with good

accuracy, the electric line.

i zik k

yik0 yki0

Vi Vk

2 2

Chapter 3.

The existence of electric transformers and autotransformers in the electric

networks makes possible obtaining different voltage levels. In actual electric power

systems, the transmitted power can suffer 4-5 voltage and current transformations

that make the rated power of all transformers from the system be 4-5 times bigger

than the rated power of all generators.

An important part of the transformers and autotransformers are manufactured

with two or more three-phase windings disposed either on common magnetic cores

constituting three-phase units or on magnetic cores individual to each phase,

constituting single-phase units.

Many transformers from the system are used for voltage and reactive power

control and because of that one winding is tapped.

In Figure 1.44, the simplified equivalent circuits of transformer and

autotransformer are presented.

V1 N1 V1 N1

N2 V2 N2 V2

a. b.

Fig. 1.44. Simplified equivalent circuits of transformers (a) and autotransformers (b).

Autotransformers are used when the transformer turns ratio is small. These

have also a third winding of small rated power, delta-connected, constituting

closing path for currents of the 3rd harmonic and multiple of 3, reducing on this

way the flowing of these harmonics in the network. Often, the third winding of

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 63

power compensation.

Nowadays electric power systems, high voltage and ultra high voltage loops

often occur. The power flow control in these loops and preventing of electric

lines overloading are performed by means of special transformers with complex

turns ratio that modifies not only the voltage magnitude but also voltage phase

angle.

The transformers from electric power systems can be ordered on three

categories [1.11]:

step-up transformers, by means of which the generators are connected to

transmission network and transformers supplying auxiliary services;

coupling transformers which links different parts of the transmission

network, usually with different voltage levels, or which links the

transmission and distribution networks;

distribution step-down transformers which decrease the voltage level

according to the desired consumers voltage level.

To study the two-winding three-phase transformers the model of a single-

phase transformer can be considered. This approach is based on the fact that the

magnetic core and the electric circuits are symmetrically manufactured, so that the

study of three-phase transformers, under symmetrical regime of phases a, b and c

can be performed by using the direct-sequence equivalent circuit of a single-phase

transformer.

Let us consider the magnetic circuit of a transformer with two windings

disposed on a common magnetic circuit called magnetic core (Fig. 1.45). One part

from the magnetic field lines are focused in the magnetic core, made from

ferromagnetic material with magnetic permeability > 0, constituting the utile

magnetic flux, and one part of them are closing through air constituting leakage

magnetic flux. By convention the winding that receive the energy from the network

is called primary winding and the one that send is toward the network is called

secondary winding.

Ni Nk

Ii i k Ik

Vi Vk

Ei Ek

64 Basic computation

Ei and Ek respectively, crossing the paths of primary and secondary windings,

obtain:

d

E ds=

dt

(1.101)

E

Applying (1.101) for the two paths corresponding to the two windings and

taking as reference the direction of current I i , for instantaneous quantities the

following system of equations can be written:

d i

vi + Ri ii = d t

(1.102)

v + R i = d k

k k k

dt

The magnetic fluxes i , k are the sum of the utile and leakage fluxes:

i = N i + Li , ii

(1.103)

k = N k + Lk , i k

where: Ni, Nk are number of primary and secondary turns;

Ri, Rk resistances of primary and secondary windings;

Li , , Lk , leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings;

fascicular flux common to the two windings.

Considering the sinusoidal steady state and expressing (1.102) as phasor

form, obtain:

( )

V i + Ri I i = j N i + Li , I i

(1.102')

(

V k + Rk I = j N k + Lk , I k )

The mathematical model of the electric transformer, under sinusoidal steady

state conditions, is described by the phasor equations of the two electric circuits:

V i + z i I i = N i E

(1.102'')

V k + z k I k = N k E

where E = j is e.m.f. (electromagnetic force) per turn of winding, and the

impedances of the windings are:

z i = Ri + j Li ,

(1.104)

z k = Rk + j Lk ,

of the two-winding transformer (Fig. 1.46).

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 65

Ii zi zk Ik

Vi Ni E Nk E Vk

transformer are obtained:

V i 0 = N i E

(1.105)

V k 0 = N k E

Based on the equations (1.105) it can be defined the transformer turns ratio

Nik, which is equal to the ratio between the number of turns of the two windings or

to the ratio of the no-load voltages at the two terminals:

N i V i0

N ik = = (1.106)

Nk V k0

The transformer turns ratio defined by (1.106) is, in this case, real; normally,

this is complex because there is a phase shift between secondary and primary

voltages.

In practice, the two-winding transformer is represented either as equivalent

circuit with magnetic coupling (Fig. 1.47,a) or as equivalent circuit with

transformer operator (Fig. 1.47,b).

Ii zi zk Ik Ii zi Nik zk Ik

Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk

a. b.

Fig. 1.47. Two-winding transformer equivalent circuit: a. circuit with magnetic coupling;

b. circuit with transformer operator.

Further, if the Kirchhoffs theorem for magnetic circuits is applied along the

contour linking the magnetic circuit (Fig. 1.45):

H ds =

M

66 Basic computation

ik = N i I i + N k I k (1.107)

core is assumed infinite, for the load regime ( I k 0 ) as well as for no-load regime

( I k = 0 ), we can write ik N i I i 0 and ik N k I k 0 respectively. In the previous

relationships I i 0 is the no-load current if the transformer is supplied at the winding

i, and I k 0 is no-load current if the transformer is supplied at winding k.

Because the no-load current can be negligible compared with the load

current, we achieve:

Ni I i N k I k

and the turns ratio get the expression

Ni I

N ik = k (1.108)

Nk Ii

or

Nk I

N ki = i (1.108')

Ni Ik

If the first equation from (1.102'') is divided to the second one, and taking

into consideration (1.108) and (1.108'), the mathematical equations of the two-

winding transformer becomes:

z ik I i V i = N ik V k

(1.109)

z ki I k V k = N ki V i

where:

z ik = z i + N ik2 z k

(1.110)

z ki = z k + N ki2 z i

through an impedance series with an ideal transformer, for which two cases are

defined:

a. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator Nik and impedance z ik

referred to winding i (impedance z ik is galvanically connected to node i)

(Fig. 1.48,a);

b. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator Nki and impedance z ki

referred to winding k (impedance z ki is galvanically connected to node k)

(Fig. 1.48,b);

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 67

i z ik Nik k i Nki z ki k

Vi V i0 Vk Vi Vk0 Vk

a. b.

a. step-up transformer; b. step-down transformer.

characterised by two parameters: either impedance z ik and turns ratio Nik or

impedance z ki and turns ratio Nki satisfying the system of equations (1.110). In

literature, the turns ratio is also defined as a:1 where a = N ik , respectively 1:a

1

where = N ki . Conventionally, the transformer operator replaces the ideal

a

transformer (without power losses).

If express z k from the second equation of (1.110) and substitute it in the first

one, obtain:

( )

z i + N ik2 z ki N ki2 z i = z ik

impedances and admittances referred to the two windings:

z ik = N ik2 z ki

(1.111,a)

z ki = N ki2 z ik

and

y = N ki2 y

ik ki

2

(1.111,b)

y ki = N ik y ik

where z ik = 1 y ik and z ki = 1 y ki .

which represents the no-load power losses, is connected on the primary winding

side of the ideal transformer, then the turns ratio becomes (Fig. 1.49):

Ni Ik

N ik = (1.112)

Nk I i I i0

68 Basic computation

i

zi i i0 zk k

i0

Vi y i0 Vk

in the two-winding transformer.

Further, if the admittance y i 0 is moved from the ideal transformer terminals

at the real transformer terminals, the product z i I i 0 can be negligible as compared

with the product z i I i . Keeping the no-load admittance y i 0 connected at i 0

terminals, then we obtain the equivalent circuit of two-winding single-phase

transformer (Fig. 1.50).

i zik Nik k i Nki z ki k

Vi yi0 Vk Vi y i0 Vk

a. b.

Fig. 1.50. Equivalent circuit of two-winding transformer, with transformer operator:

a. step-up transformer; b. step-down transformer.

Into large electric power systems, into transformers from connecting

substation, during different operating regimes, the power flow can change its

direction. In this case, for more accurate assessment of power losses, the equivalent

circuit of transformer is used, where the admittance modelling the power losses

is located at the input and output terminals (Fig. 1.51). The two shunt admittances

have different values because the admittance y ik 0 will be referred to winding i

while the admittance y ki 0 will be referred to winding k.

i z ik N ik k

Vi yik 0 yki 0 Vk

2 2

with transformer operator.

Autotransformers are usually installed into electric network loops where the

direction of power flow can be changed. Three-phase transformers and

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 69

and phase angle regulation.

Phase-shift transformers provide a phase angle shift of secondary vectors

V k , I k related to the primary ones V i , I i (Fig. 1.52). Under these conditions, a

transformer has complex turns ratio N ik and provides phasor shift of angles

determined by the connection class:

N ik = N ik e j ik = N ik (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.113)

Vi ,n

N ik = (1.114)

Vk ,n

wmax ik

wc

wn

V

wmin

Vregulated

V

Phase shift transformers (known also as phase shifters), having a particular

connection of windings, are installed into electric network loops in order to change

the active and reactive powers flows.

Two cases are defined [1.12]:

a) Step-up transformer, with the secondary winding k tapped, having the

possibility to modify the number of turns (regulated winding), the regulated voltage

and the turns ratio values being calculated with formula:

V

V k , regulated = Vk + (wa wn )Vk (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.115,a)

100

Vi ,n

N ik = (1.116,a)

V k , regulated

possibility to modify the number of turns (regulated winding), the regulated voltage

and the turns ratio values being calculated with formula:

70 Basic computation

V

V i , regulated = Vi + (wa wn )Vi (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.115,b)

100

V i , regulated

N ik = (1.116,b)

Vk ,n

and k;

wa actual tap label;

wn median tap label;

V percentage voltage step size.

If ik = 0 , transformer provides only voltage control;

If ik = 2 , transformer provides only shift in phase angle control and

thus active power redispatching;

If 0 < ik < 2 , transformer provides both active power and voltage

control.

To be mentioned that, usually, the winding with voltage control possibilities

is that of higher voltage because this is more accessible, and the current is lower.

For a better understanding of drawing manner of the two-winding transformer

equivalent circuit, let us consider the equivalent circuit case with impedance z ik ,

referred to i node, and complex turns ratio N ik , being the case of step-up

transformer, then we can design the generalised equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.53).

Ii i m z ik N ik (1-m) Nik2 z ik k Ik

yik 0 y ki 0

Vi Vk

2 2

of an ideal transformer with complex turns ratio N ik , in series with an impedance

or admittance. The series impedance consists of two terms: m z ik , referred to

winding i, and (1 m ) N ik2 z ik which is proportional with the impedance z ik ,

referred to winding i.

It can be seen that by using the generalised equivalent circuit we can achieve

the transformer equivalent circuits corresponding to the two cases: m = 1 for step-

up transformer and m = 0 for step-down transformer.

For easier implementation of two-winding transformer mathematical model

into professional software for load flow calculation, galvanic equivalent circuit can

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 71

transformer, with real turns ratio Nik (Fig. 1.48,a,b) and equations (1.109).

If the current I i is expressed from the first equation of (1.109) to which we

add and subtract the term y ik N ik V i , after rearranging the terms we obtain:

I i = y ik (1 N ik )V i + y ik N ik (V i V k ) I i 0 + I ik (1.117)

current I k to which we add and subtract the term y ik N ik V k , then we obtain:

I k = y ik N ik (N ik 1)V k + y ik N ik (V k V i ) I k 0 + I ki (1.118)

Following the equations (1.117) and (1.118), the galvanic equivalent circuit

of two-winding transformer is achieved (Fig. 1.54).

yik Nik

Ii i k Ik

Two-winding transformer

Let us consider the equivalent circuit with transformer operator of the

transformer with parameters referred to winding i, for which we consider the two

operating regimes: no-load and short-circuit (Fig. 1.50,a).

Transformer parameters, series impedance z ik = Rik + jX ik and shunt

admittance y i 0 = Gi 0 jBi 0 respectively, are calculated in terms of its

manufacturing parameters.

In general, in catalogues the following specific parameters of the transformer

are given:

Sn is rated power of transformer, respectively autotransformer;

Ui,n rated phase-to-phase voltage of winding i;

Uk,n rated phase-to-phase voltage of winding k;

Psc active power losses under short-circuit test;

nom

P0 active power losses under no-load test;

72 Basic computation

u p percentage voltage variation on tap;

wn median tap label.

In order to calculate the equivalent resistance Rik of the transformer consider

the short-circuit test, that is k 0 winding is short-circuited and the transformer is

supplied at i 0 terminals, so that the current from winding i is equal to the rated

current I i ,n . Based on the above-mentioned hypothesis, we obtain the expression

of active power losses:

Pscnom = 3 Rik I i2, n

Sn Sn

Ii, n = =

3Vi , n 3 U i, n

U i2, n

Rik = Pscnom [] (1.119)

S n2

depart from the short-circuit voltage value:

usc [%]

Vsc = Vi , n

100

and taking into consideration that:

Vsc = zik I i , n

it results:

2

usc [%] U i , n 1 u [%] U i , n

zik = = sc [] (1.120)

100 3 Ii, n 100 S n

Knowing the two terms Rik and zik we can obtain the equivalent reactance of

transformer with expression:

Observation: For transformers of large rated power zik >> Rik , so the

reactance X ik is identified by impedance zik .

In the case of autotransformers with tapped windings, in the calculation of the

short-circuit percentage voltage, the tap position is considered:

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 73

u sc = A(wn wa ) + B(wn wa ) + C

2

Concerning the equivalent conductance Gi of the transformer, consider the

no-load test characterised by the fact that k 0 winding operates under no-load

conditions and at i 0 terminals the voltage Vi , n = U i , n 3 is applied. For this

regime, the three-phase active power losses are given by:

2

U i, n

P0 = 3 Gi 0 Vi ,2n = 3 Gi 0 = Gi 0 U i2, n

3

from where it results the conductance of the two-winding transformer:

P0

Gi 0 = [S] (1.122)

U i2, n

from the transformer magnetising losses, therefore:

yi 0 = = 0 Ii, n = 0 = [S] (1.123)

Vi , n 100 U i, n 100 U i2, n 100 U i2, n

3

and the susceptance is determined with formula:

Three-winding transformer

In the catalogues of these transformers the following characteristics are

given: rated powers of the three windings SnI, SnII, SnIII, power losses under no-load

conditions P0, rated power losses under short-circuit test Pscnom nom

I II , Psc II III ,

Pscnom

I III , percentage short-circuit voltages u sc I II [%] , u sc II III [%] , u sc I III [%] .

powers of the three windings must be taken into account. Hereby, three types of

transformers are defined [1.1]:

Type a. Case S n I = S n II = S n III

At this type of transformer, the winding resistances are referred to the same

voltage level and are calculated departing from the expression of power losses

under short-circuit test Pscnom , that are maximum at the rated loading of windings I

and II, winding III being no-loaded:

74 Basic computation

Pscnom = 3 R I I I2 + 3 R II I II 2

level;

I I , I II rated currents of windings I and II referred to the same voltage

level.

Since the rated powers of the two windings (I and II) are equal, the secondary

current I II referred to the primary winding is equal to the primary current.

Therefore, the expression of the rated power losses under short-circuit conditions

becomes:

Pscnom = 2 3 RT I n2

Pscnom U n2 U n2

RT = = Pscnom = Pscnom (1.125)

6I2 2 ( 3Un In )

2

2 S n2

2

Type b. Case S n II = S n I , S n III =

Sn I

3

At this type of transformer, the rated power losses under short-circuit test

Psc are maximum when the transformer is full loaded on the windings I and II,

nom

while the winding III operates under no-load conditions. The winding resistances

get the expression:

U n2

R I = R II = RT = Pscnom (1.126)

2 S n2

and

2

R III = RI (1.127)

3

Type c. This case is defined by two situations:

2 2

S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I

3 3

or

2 1

S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I

3 3

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 75

Pscnom = 3 I I2 R I + 3 I II 2 R II + 3 I III

2 R III

=

2 2

2 3 I 3

= 3 I I2 RI + 3 I I RI + 3 I RI =

3 2 3 2

4 23 I I2 3 1 11

= 3 I I2 R I + 3 I I RI + 3 R I = I I2 R I 3 + 2 + = I I2 R I

9 2 9 2 2 2

The resistance of the primary winding RI is given by:

RI =

2 Pscnom 2

= Pscnom

( 3Un )

2

=

6 U2

Pscnom n2 (1.128)

11 I I2 11 ( 3Un In )

2

11 Sn

and

2

R II = R III

= RI (1.129)

3

It should be mentioned that in the case of three-winding transformers, RI, RII,

RIII define the winding resistances (primary, secondary and tertiary windings),

referred to the same voltage level, different by the case of two-winding

transformers were R define the total resistance of the two windings per one phase

referred to the same voltage level.

In calculation of inductive reactance, in catalogues are given the percentage

short-circuit voltages between two terminals being determined as follows: short-

circuit voltage between the terminals I and III ( u sc I III ) is obtained by supplying

the primary winding, the tertiary one being short-circuited, and the secondary one

operating under no-load conditions. Similarly, short-circuit voltages u sc I II and

u sc II III are determined. By analogy with the two-winding transformers, the

inductive reactances of the transformer windings can be expressed as:

u sc I II [%] U n2

X I II =

100 Sn

usc I III [%] U n2

X I III = (1.130)

100 Sn

u sc II III [%] U n2

X II III =

100 Sn

where: Un is voltage level at which the transformer parameters are referred;

Sn rated apparent power of the winding with the greatest value.

Knowing that:

X I II = X I X II ; X I III = X I X III and X II III = X II X III

76 Basic computation

it results:

X I II + X I III X II III

XI =

2

X + X I II X I III

X II = II III (1.131)

2

X + X II III X I II

X III = I III

2

The conductance and the susceptance of these types of transformers are

calculated in the same manner as for two-winding transformers.

The electric generators are synchronous machines that represent the main

source of energy from the electric power plants. These can be divided into two

categories by the design model: hydro-generators, with isotropic rotor on the

directions of d and q axes, and turbo-generators, with anisotropic rotor on the

directions of the two axes. To simplify, we next consider a turbo-generator where

the synchronous reactances along the direct and quadrature axes are equal,

X S = X d = X q . The synchronous reactance of the generator is calculated with

formula:

x[%] U n2

XS = [ ] (1.132)

100 S ng

where: x[%] is percentage synchronous reactance;

Un phase-to-phase rated stator voltage, [kV];

Sng rated apparent power of generator, [MVA].

The synchronous generator is represented, in the direct-sequence circuit,

through an impedance, where the armature resistance is neglected, in series with an

electromotive force (Fig. 1.55,a). By optimum operating reasons in the system, the

generator is represented, under steady state conditions, through constant active

power, P = ct. , and constant terminal voltage, U = ct. (Fig. 1.55,b).

jXS jXS

P

I

E U E U

a. b.

Fig. 1.55. Direct-sequence circuit representation of electric generator:

a. XS = ct., E = ct.; b. XS = ct., P = ct. and E = ct. or U = ct.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 77

E = U + jX S I (1.133)

Based on this equation, the phasor diagram is drawn, where the terminal

voltage of the generator is taken as reference (Fig. 1.56) [1.12].

P

A N

N C (I=ct)

E I UnEn

XS

Pn

jXS I UnIn

CE (E=ct)

U

O O Un2 O O

I XS

Qn

a. b.

Fig. 1.56. Phasor diagram of the synchronous generator under normal steady state.

voltage lags the current by degrees. Under the hypothesis of constant terminal

voltage, a semicircle CE of centre O' and radius O'N is drawn, which represents the

geometric locus of the operating points with constant electromotive force.

Likewise, the circle CI of centre O and radius ON, which represents the geometric

locus of the operating points with constant stator current I = I or with constant

apparent power, is drawn.

Considering the rated operating regime, the powers diagram is obtained by

multiplying each of phasors, U n , X S I n and En by U n X S , where the phasor ON

becomes equal to the rated apparent power Sn. The intersection point of the two

circles represents the rated operating point, for which both the internal voltage E

and the armature current I are maximum. In order to draw the powers diagram, the

Cartesian coordinates system of axes P and Q of centre O, where the imaginary

axis is overlapped on the phasor U = U , has been chosen. The projections of Sn on

the horizontal and vertical axes represent the rated reactive power Qn , and the

rated active power Pn , having the expressions (Fig. 1.56,b):

EnU n

Pn = U n I n cos n = sin n (1.134)

XS

EnU n U2

Qn = U n I n sin n = cos n n (1.135)

XS XS

The main electric quantities that characterise a synchronous generator are

rated (active or apparent) powers, rated voltage and rated power factor. When the

78 Basic computation

generator operates under a given regime different from the rated one, the previous

enumerated quantities are large scaled, and comprised in a domain constrained by

the loading limits (Fig. 1.57) referred to as loading capability curve of the

synchronous generator. This is important to the power plant operators who are

responsible for proper loading operation of the generator [1.11, 1.13].

Mechanical limit

of turbine (L3)

P

Field current

Underexcitation Pmax (L2)

limit (L4) N

Armature

current (L1)

Minimum active

power limit n

(L5)

Pmin Q

Qmin O Qmax

O

Leading Lagging

Taking into consideration the complexity of the processes from inside the

synchronous machine, in order to draw the loading capability curve of synchronous

generator, the following hypothesis are considered [1.19]:

Armature resistance R=0 is neglected;

The magnetising characteristic is assumed linear E0 = f (I ex ) ;

Power losses by Joules effect in the armature windings as well as the

power losses in the armature core are neglected;

Synchronous reactance is constant X S = ct.

synchronous generator are defined.

a) Armature current limit (L1), Is,max, imposed by the heating limit of stator

windings. This limit is a circle of centre O and of radius UnIn that represents the

geometric locus of the operating points given by the expression:

(1.136)

Taking into account that the apparent power S must not exceed the rated

value, that is S S n , the operating point must be situated inside or on the limit

circle L1.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 79

For a value of armature current greater than the limit value, the generator can

operate under secure conditions for a short period of time depending on the

measure of how much the limit value is exceeded.

b) Field current limit (L2), Ir,max. Providers of electric equipments specify

the maximum value of the excitation current Iex, imposed by the heating limit of

rotor windings. Likewise, there is also a limit value of the excitation voltage equal

to the rated one. Also, by secure operating reasons at motor torque shocks a

minimum value of the excitation current is imposed. The limit curve of field

current is a circle of centre O' and of radius proportional to the rated internal

voltage En.

As it can be seen in Figure 1.57, for an active power less than the rated power

Pn, field current limit is more restrictive than the armature current limit. The rated

operating point of the generator is the intersecting point of the two limits L1 and

L2 when the generator is used at maximum from the generated apparent power

point of view.

c) Mechanical limit of turbine (L3), Pmax, imposed by the maximum shaft

torque of turbine. Taking into consideration that, in general, the mechanical power

of turbine is greater than the electric power of generator, this limit is a horizontal

line drawn at an active power value greater than the rated power output Pn of the

generator.

Under leading regime, the operating domain of the synchronous generator is

constrained by another three limits:

core end heating limit which is a curve determined through experimental

tests;

static stability reserve chosen so that a certain value of the internal angle

is maintained;

minimum excitation current limit that ensure a motor torque reserve to the

generator.

The generator operating point near to the three limits previous defined can be

avoided by using the underexcitation limiter so that the 4th limit can be defined:

d) Underexcitation limit (L4). By means of automatic control systems of the

generator, the operating at leading power factor is constrained by the characteristic

shown in Figure 1.57.

e) Minimum active power limit (L5), Pmin. In thermal power plants a minimal

power, Pmin, is required by combustion reasons.

If the operating point is different from the rated one, under lagging regime,

due to the limits L2 and L3, the maximum reactive power is determined with

formula:

1/ 2

E U

2

U n2

Q = Qmax = n n P2 when P Pn (1.137)

X s Xs

80 Basic computation

[ 2

Q = Qmax = S n Pn ]

2 12

when P Pn (1.138)

If information about En and XS are not available, an approximate limit of the

maximum reactive power is calculated: Qmax = 0.9 Qn where Qn = S n sin n .

Appendix

Table A1

Average values of the per kilometre parameters of the overhead electric lines

fn Un r0 x0 b0 ZC PN

[Hz] [kV] [/km] [/km] [S/km] [] [MW]

220 0.070 0.421 2.920 380 127

50 400 0.034 0.328 3.611 300 535

(Romania) 750 0.017 0.275 4.082 260 2160

230 0.050 0.488 3.371 380 140

60 345 0.037 0.367 4.518 285 420

(USA) 500 0.028 0.325 5.200 250 1000

765 0.012 0.329 4.978 257 2280

1100 0.005 0.292 5.544 230 5260

Note: the quantities ZC and PN are explained in Chapter 3.

Chapter references

[1.1] Poeat, A., Arie, A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, A., Buta, A.

Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Electric energy transmission and

distribution), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.

[1.2] Crian, O. Sisteme electroenergetice (Electric power systems), Editura Didactic

i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1979.

[1.3] Ionescu, T.G., Pop, O. Ingineria sistemelor de distribuie a energiei (Energy

distribution systems engineering), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1998.

[1.4] Meslier, F., Persoz, H. Rseaux de transport et dinterconnexion, D070,

Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.

[1.5] Carrive, P. Rseaux de distribution. Structure et planification, D4210,

Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.

[1.6] Gros, M., Righezza, P. Rseaux de distribution. Exploitation, D4230,

Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.

[1.7] Bergen, A.R. Power Systems Analysis, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs,

New Jersey, 1986.

[1.8] Elgerd, O.I. Electric energy systems theory: An introduction, McGraw-Hill, 1971.

[1.9] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (Electric

networks. Electric Calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1974.

[1.10] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power Systems Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[1.11] Mackowski, J., Bialek, J.W., Bumby, J.R. Power Systems Dynamics and

Stability, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York, 1997.

Electric power systems configuration and parameters 81

of electric power systems), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1977.

[1.13] Adibi, M.M., Milanicz, D.P. Reactive Capability limitation of synchronous

machine, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No.1, February 1994.

[1.14] El-Hawary, M. Electrical power systems. Design and analysis (Revised

printing), IEEE Press, New York, 1995.

[1.15] Persoz, H., Santucci, G., Lemoine, J.C., Sapet, P. La planification des rseaux

lectriques, Edition Eyrolles, 1984.

[1.16] Morgan, V.T., Findlay, F.D. The effect of frequency on the resistance and

internal inductance of bare ACSR conductors, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery,

Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. l391l396, July 1991.

[1.17] Morgan, V.T., Zhang, B., Findlay, R.D. Effect of magnetic induction in a steel-

cored conductor on current distribution, resistance and power loss, IEEE Trans.

on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, pp. 12991308, July 1997.

[1.18] Mocanu, C.I. Teoria cmpului electromagnetic (The theory of electromagnetic

field), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1984.

[1.19] Ghi, C. Maini i acionri electrice (Electric machines and operation),

Volume I, Institutul Politehnic din Bucureti, Bucureti, 1992.

Chapter 2

RADIAL AND MESHED NETWORKS

In order to ensure a proper operation of the load, a certain level of power

quality is required, respectively the continuity in supplying, keeping the frequency

and voltage near the nominal values and a waveform of the voltage as sinusoidal as

possible as well. One of the restrictive conditions for the networks operation is the

magnitude voltage deviation with respect to the reference voltage, called nominal

voltage. Of importance is how much the voltage in a point of the network is

deviated from the nominal value, and also the voltage drop between two nodes,

galvanically connected to an electric network. In this respect, there are two notions

used: phasor voltage drop and algebraic voltage drop.

The phasor voltage drop refers to the phasor difference of two voltages, from

two different nodes of the network.

The algebraic voltage drop refers to the algebraic difference between the rms

voltages into two nodes of the network, of the same nominal voltage. For

simplicity, in this paperwork, the algebraic voltage drop is further called voltage

drop and will not be underlined.

In terms of the type and the importance of the load, the admissible deviations

of the voltage in a node of the network are given in standards. These deviations

must not be exceeded during exploitation, because they would lead to an unsuitable

operation of the load.

The electric networks operation is strongly influenced by the loads behaviour

to different changes. The load modelling through static characteristics presents

importance for network analysis. In this respect, some simplifying hypotheses are

used [2.1]:

a. Constant impedance (the values of the impedance will be constant in time

and independent of the currents passed through them or the terminal

voltage). The active and reactive powers absorbed by these loads are

proportional with the square of the terminal voltage;

b. Constant active and reactive powers (these are independent of the terminal

voltage and current passing through the load);

c. Constant active and reactive currents.

84 Basic computation

characteristics are ideal conditions. In practical cases, the network loads are

complex, including electric engines, arc furnaces, rectifiers, illumination, etc.,

which leads to a non-linear load characteristic.

Generally, the network calculation under constant impedance hypothesis

leads to more optimistic results than the real ones. Instead, the hypothesis of

constant powers leads to more pessimistic results than the real ones. For short

electric lines, the third hypothesis of the load modelling through constant current

leads to results closer to reality.

The modelling of the power sources generators, in the calculation of the

normal operation regime, by using one of the following simplifying hypotheses can

be performed:

Constant electromotive voltage characteristic;

Constant current characteristic. In this case, the network must have a

specific node equilibrium node where the currents generated or

absorbed into different nodes of the network are closing;

Furthermore, in one of the networks nodes, must be fixed a voltage related

to the neutral conductor. This node, called reference node, can coincide or

not with the equilibrium node;

Constant active power and constant voltage magnitude characteristic. In

this case, in one of the network nodes must be applied a voltage source,

constant as magnitude and phase angle, which is considered reference

voltage. If in this node the active and reactive powers generated by the

source are left to vary freely, this node coincides with the equilibrium

node;

Constant reactive power characteristic.

If the constant voltage or current characteristics for the power sources as well

as for the loads are used, then systems of linear equations for the steady state

calculation are obtained. This type of modelling does not express the real situation,

where the generators from the power system operates according to a characteristic

Pg = ct. and V g = ct .

For the other hypotheses, closer to reality for large power systems, systems of

non-linear equations (of second degree) result. For short electric networks the

linear hypothesis that leads to results closer to reality are used.

The electric lines can be classified, in terms of their length, into short lines

respectively long lines (generally longer than 250 km). The long electric lines

operate at 220 kV, 400 kV or 750 kV and serve for the transmission of the electric

energy. The short electric lines usually operate at voltages below 110 kV being

used for the repartition and distribution of electric energy.

Consider a three-phase electric line that satisfies the conditions of

homogeneity and symmetry as well as symmetric voltages and balanced currents

on all the three phases. Under these conditions it is sufficient to study the operation

of a single phase, with a double-wire circuit, where the going conductor represents

Radial and meshed networks 85

the conductor of the phase, with the service parameters, and the return conductor is

a fictitious neutral conductor, which ensures the closing of the current.

For the short overhead lines, powered at low nominal voltages, the intensities

of the shunt currents the capacitive currents as well as the leakage ones have

low values as compared with those of the conduction current that passes through

the phase conductor. Therefore, in the case of short lines, the shunt currents can be

neglected and the corresponding equivalent circuit is a dipole with lumped

parameters (Fig. 2.1,a), where the shunt admittances have been neglected. For

more accurate results, the equivalent (or T) circuit, with lumped parameters, is

used (Fig. 2.1,b).

Z

Z

Y Y

2 2

a. b.

Fig. 2.1. Equivalent circuits for short lines.

For the underground electric lines, powered at high nominal voltages, even

for small length cases, the leading leakage currents should be taken into account so

a proper circuit, either of lumped or uniformly distributed parameters, is chosen.

under symmetric regime

Assume a radial electric network operating at alternating voltage, supplying

only one load, represented through a dipole with the impedance Z = R + jX

(Fig.2.2,a). Being given the current at the receiving end i B , of i B = ct. and source

voltage V A = ct. characteristic, it is required to determine the current I A at the

sending end and the voltage at the receiving end V B , which can be kept within

admissible limits only if the voltage drop does not exceed the recommended

values. In Figure 2.2,b the fundamental phasor diagram of the voltage drop is

plotted.

86 Basic computation

+j

C

VA

I VAB

VA

B

IA A B

I

VB

jX

0 Ia

Z=R+jX D E

IB=iB A R

I

-jIr B

VA VB

iB=IB=I

VAB

DVAB

a. b.

Fig. 2.2. The radial electric network supplying one load:

a. equivalent circuit; b. fundamental phasor diagram of the voltage drops.

(lagging load) lags behind the voltage with an angle B = . Due to the current

passing through the line, an active phase-to-neutral voltage drop R I in phase with

I occurs, and an inductive voltage drop jX I , which leads the current by 90 as

well.

The sum of these two phase-to-neutral voltage drops is the phasor voltage

drop represented in the diagram by the segment AC , which represents the phasor

difference between the voltage at the sending and at the receiving end of the line,

that is:

V AB = V A V B = Z I (2.1)

Its projections on the two axes correspond to the segments AD = VAB and

CD = VAB , and represent the longitudinal and the transversal components of the

voltage drop, having the following expressions:

VAB = RI cos + XI sin = RI a + XI r (2.2)

where: I a = I cos is active component of the current passing through the line;

I r = I cos reactive component of the current passing through the line;

R ohm resistance of the line;

X inductive reactance of the line.

Consider the circle sector of radius equal to the supply voltage VA , which

intersects the horizontal axis in the point E. The algebraic difference between the

voltages magnitudes (or the effective values)

Radial and meshed networks 87

DVAB = VA VB (2.4)

is called voltage drop (phase-to-neutral).

For lower values of the phase angle between the two voltages, the

transversal component of the phasor voltage drop can be neglected, and the

longitudinal component is identified with the voltage drop:

DVAB V AB

If the phase angle has great values, the voltage drop can be determined

directly, with the expression:

Since VAB << VB + VAB , if the expansion of the square root by means of

Newtons binomial theorem is performed, the voltage drop expression become:

( )

2

1 VAB 1 ( VAB )

4

2 VB + VAB 8 (VB + VAB )3

For the lines powered at medium voltages, only the first two terms of the

relation (2.5) can be hold, with good accuracy. Taking into account the expressions

(2.2) and (2.3) and the fact that VAB for normal operating conditions of the line

should not exceed a few percentages out of the voltage VB , the term in the

denominator of the expression (2.5) can be neglected, resulting:

1 (VAB )

2

DVAB VAB +

2 VB

or

( XI cos RI sin )2 (2.6)

2VB

where the voltage at the receiving end of the line ( V B ) is unknown. Therefore, to

simplify, the voltage V B will be approximated with the line-to-neutral nominal

voltage Vn . For the single-phase system, consisting of two conductors, Vn = U n / 2 ,

and for the three-phase system Vn = U n / 3 .

In this case, the expression of the voltage drop becomes:

DV AB RI cos + XI sin +

( XI cos RI sin )2 (2.7)

2 Vn

For electric lines powered at low voltage, the following expression can be

used, with good accuracy:

88 Basic computation

If the loads are replaced with their single-phase active and reactive powers,

then the expressions of the line-to-neutral voltage drops become:

RP0 + XQ0

V AB (2.9)

Vn

XP0 RQ0

VAB (2.10)

Vn

2

DV AB + (2.11)

Vn 2Vn3

In terms of the total powers P and Q carried on the line, the powers

P0 = P / 2 and Q0 = Q / 2 for the single-phase system respectively P0 = P / 3 and

Q0 = Q / 3 for the three-phase system are used.

The relationship between the phasor voltage drop V AB and the longitudinal

and transversal components, VAB and VAB , is defined as:

V AB = VAB + jVAB (2.12)

Therefore, the voltage drop DVAB given by (2.6) can be expressed in terms

of the components of the phasor voltage drop:

1

DVAB = Re{V AB } + (Im{V AB })2 (2.13)

2Vn

Once the value of the voltage drop DVAB is obtained, it should be compared

with the maximum admissible phase-to-neutral voltage drop Vadm :

%

DVAB Vadm = Vn (2.14)

100

In order to determine the phase shift between the phasor V A and phasor V B ,

which for short lines is usually relatively small, the fundamental phasor diagram of

the voltage drops (Fig. 2.2,b) is also used:

CD V AB XI a RI r XI RI r

tan = = = a (2.15)

OD VB + V AB VB + RI a + XI r Vn

Note that between the phase-to-neutral voltage drop DVAB and the phase-to-

phase voltage drop DU AB , in the case of the single-phase system, there is the

following relationship:

DU AB = 2 DVAB (2.16,a)

Radial and meshed networks 89

DU AB = 3 DVAB (2.16,b)

nodes A and B.

The components of the phase-to-phase voltage drop can be determined with

the expressions:

U AB = 3 VAB (2.17,a)

U AB = 3 VAB (2.17,b)

By substituting the currents in terms of the three-phase powers carried on the

line PB and QB and the nominal voltage of the line U B U n corresponding to the

phase-to-phase voltage, results:

P QB RPB + XQB RPB + XQB

U AB = 3 R B + X = (2.18,a)

3U B 3U B UB Un

U AB = 3 X R = (2.18,b)

3U B 3U B UB Un

2

DU AB B + (2.19)

Un 2U n3

Next, consider the general case where a three-phase radial line supplies n

concentrated loads (Fig. 2.3).

Zn

Z2

Z1

A I1 1 I2 2 In n

z1=r1+jx1 z2=r2+jx2 zn=rn+jxn

VA i1 i2 in V

n

supplying n concentrated loads.

In Figure 2.3 the following notations have been used: i k (k = 1, 2,, n) for

nodal currents, I k (k = 1, 2, , n) for the currents flowing through the line

sections, z k = rk + jxk for the impedances of the line sections, respectively Z k

90 Basic computation

(k = 1,2, , n) for the cumulated impedances of the line sections between the

source node and each other node.

On the basis on the Kirchhoffs first theorem, written for each node, the

currents passed through the line sections can be expressed in terms of the nodal

currents:

n

I1 = i

k =1

k ; I 2 = I 1 i1 and so on.

n n n

V An =

k =1

zk I k = (rk I ka + xk I kr ) + j (xk I ka rk I kr )

k =1 k =1

(2.20,a)

and

n n n

V An =

k =1

Z k ik = (Rk ika + X k ikr ) + j ( X k ika Rk ikr )

k =1 k =1

(2.20,b)

respectively.

Note that the product Z k i k can be identified with the electric moment of a

load related to the supplying end of the line.

Taking into account that the electric network loads are expressed in terms of

the active and reactive powers, the expression of the phase-to-neutral voltage drop

DVAn , for n loads, becomes:

2

n n

( rk Pk 0 + xk Qk 0 ) ( xk Pk 0 rk Qk 0 )

DVAn = k =1 + k =1 (2.21)

Vn 2Vn3

2

n n

r P x Q

( k k k k ) ( xk Pk rk Qk )

+

DU An = k =1 + k =1 3

(2.22)

Un 2U n

powers of the loads;

Vn, Un nominal phase-to-neutral, respectively phase-to-

phase voltage.

If the electric network is homogeneous, that is, it is designed with conductors

of the same cross-sectional area, of the same material, and by design the

conductors are spaced symmetrically between them and related to ground, the next

relationships are defined:

Radial and meshed networks 91

2

n n n n

r0 l P k k0 + x0 l Q k k0

x0 lk Pk 0 r0 lk Qk 0

DVAn = k =1 k =1

+ k =1 k =1 (2.23)

Vn 2Vn3

respectively

2

n n n n

r0 lk Pk + x0 lk Qk 0

x l P

k k r0

lk Qk

DU An = k =1 k =1

+ k =1 3

k =1 (2.24)

Un 2U n

For determination of the voltage drops expression, only series parameters of

the line have been considered. This is possible for the lines of nominal voltages

less than 110 kV (when the capacity and the conductance of the lines have low

influences).

The calculation formula for the voltage drops from paragraph 2.2.1

referred to balanced three-phase lines powered at alternating voltage, assumption

that has allowed studying the behaviour of a single phase. The results can be

generalized.

There are situations when the line is differently loaded on the three phases,

which leads to an asymmetrical operating regime. In these cases, the electric lines

are designated with four conductors, three of them being active conductors and the

other one neutral, as is the case of the low voltage powered networks.

Next, consider a low voltage powered network of unbalanced loads. Let us

first consider a particular case where the currents are in phase with the voltages and

the network is equally loaded on two phases (b, c), and on the other phase (a) the

loading is bigger (Fig. 2.4).

The phasor diagram of the voltage drops for such a network is represented in

Figure 2.4. As a consequence of the unbalanced load on phases, in the neutral

conductor a current I 0 appears, corresponding to the geometrical sum of the three

currents from the active phases and the phase-to-neutral voltage drops

V a = Z a I a , V b = Z b I b , V c = Z c I c are numerically not equal. By this effect,

the neutral point at the loads will change its position from O to O', and will have a

potential which corresponds to the voltage drop in the neutral conductor

V 0 = Z 0 I 0 , corresponding to the OO' segment. This voltage drop is called the

displacement of the neutral.

The voltage drop on each phase can be obtained by adding the phasor voltage

drop on the corresponding phase to the voltage drop on the neutral conductor:

V m = Z m I m + Z 0 I 0 (2.25)

92 Basic computation

I0 the current passing through the neutral conductor;

Zm impedance of the phase;

Z0 impedance of the neutral conductor.

Va

Va

Va

Fig. 2.4. The phasor diagram of the

voltage drops for unbalanced three-

Ia phase line and cos =1;

O Va, Vb, Vc sending end voltages;

V'a, V'b, V'c receiving end voltages.

O V0

Ic Ib

Vc Vb

Vc Vb

Ic+Ib

Vc Vb

cos = 1 , the voltage drop on each phase (in the phase conductor and the neutral

conductor) becomes:

n

Vm = r0 l I

k =1

k k + r0L0 I 0 (2.26)

conductors and to the neutral conductor.

If the loads are expressed in terms of powers, expression (2.26) becomes:

n

lk Pk 0 P

Vm = r0

k =1 Vn

+ r0L0 0

Vn

where: Pk 0 is active single-phase power flowing into the line sections of the

phases a, b or c;

P0 active power flowing through the neutral conductor;

Vn phase-to-neutral nominal voltage;

lk , L0 lengths of the line sections and neutral conductor, respectively.

Particular cases deriving from the three-phase unsymmetrical system are

single-phase and double-phase ramifications often used in practical. These lines

Radial and meshed networks 93

represent ramifications from a three-phase line with four conductors that supply

single-phase loads.

Assume the case of a two-phase line with two active conductors a, b and

one neutral conductor loaded with equal currents in phase with the voltages. The

phasor diagram of this line with active balanced loads is shown in Figure 2.5.

Va

of the voltage drops for a

double-phase line with

active balanced loads. O

Ic Ib

V0

O

I0

Vc Vc O Vb Vb

Vc Vb

For unity power factor, the voltage drops due to the currents I b and I c are:

V b = Rb I b

V c = Rc I c

The current passing through the neutral conductor corresponds to the

geometrical sum of the currents from the b and c phases, and give rise to a voltage

drop V 0 = R0 I 0 , which also represents the displacement voltage of the neutral

point from O to O'. From the graphical design results that the effective value of the

current passing through the neutral conductor is equal to the value of the currents

from the other phases, that is I 0 = I b = I c . Taking this into account, the total

voltage drop on the phase conductor b (or c) and on the neutral conductor has the

following value:

n

I0

Vm = Vb + V0 cos 60 = r0 l I

k =1

k k + r0L0

2

or, if the loads are expressed in terms of powers:

n

lk Pk 0 LP

Vm = r0

k =1 V n

+ r0 0 0

2Vn

In the case of the single-phase ramification, the phase conductor and the

neutral conductor have the same cross-sectional area because the current from the

94 Basic computation

ramification is the same through both conductors. The voltage drop on the going

and return conductors is:

n n

lk Pk 0

Vm = 2 r0 k =1

lk I k = 2 r0

k =1 Vn

Consider a short electric line that links the nodes A and B, of given voltages

VA and VB, respectively. If assume the line to be symmetric, homogeneous, and

powered by symmetric voltages and supplying itself symmetric loads, then the

equivalent circuit for calculation is the one shown in Figure 2.6, where the phase

conductor and the fictitious neutral conductor have been represented.

Z Zn+1=Z

Z2 Z2 Z2

Z1 Z1 Z1

IA k IB IA B

A B A

I1 I2 Ik Ik IB I1 I2 In In+1

VA VB VA

i1 i2 ... ik ... in i1 i2 ... in-1 in in+1=-IB VB

Vk

a. b.

k Z

IA A B IB IA A IAB B IB

VA VB iA iB

i1 i2 ... ik ik ... in-1 in VA VB

c. d.

Fig. 2.6. Electric circuit for calculation of current flows and of voltage drops into

short electric lines powered from two sources: a. initial electric circuit;

b. considering of source from node B as a load powered with a negative current;

c. representation of the network powered from both ends as two radial

networks; d. electric circuit with charges thrown to nodes.

flows through the line sections and the voltage drops. Also, of interest is to

determine of node k, where the service voltage V k has the lowest value, the load

from this node being supplied from both sources.

To determine the current flows through the line sections, it is necessary and

sufficient to know one of the intensity currents supplied by the sources,

respectively I A or I B . Thus, for example, knowing the current I B and taking into

account that the intensities of the currents i k absorbed by the loads are given, the

Radial and meshed networks 95

the following formula:

n

IA = i

k =1

k IB (2.27)

theorem in each of the nodes 1, 2, , n (Fig. 2.6,a).

The network powered from both ends, A and B, can be considered as a radial

network, powered from only one end, for instance from source A, source B being

considered as a load powered through the respective network with a negative

current (Fig. 2.6,b), that is I B = i n +1 .

Phasor voltage drop, corresponding to this case, can be expressed in terms of

the cumulated impedances (referred to source A) Z k and the derived currents i k ,

resulting:

n +1

V AB = V A V B = Z

k =1

k ik (2.28)

Knowing the value of phasor voltage drop V AB , one may want to determine

the current i n +1 = I B . Taking this into consideration, the equation (2.28) can be

written as:

n

V AB = Z

k =1

k ik + Z n +1 i n +1 (2.28')

where Z n +1 = Z is the total impedance of the line. From the relationship (2.28') the

calculation expression of the current I B = i n +1 can be determined:

n

Z

k =1

k ik

V A V B

IB = (2.29,a)

Z Z

In a same manner, the calculation formula for the current intensity IA can be

established:

n

Z

k =1

'

k ik

V A V B

IA = + (2.29,b)

Z Z

'

Taking into account that Z k + Z k = Z (Fig. 2.6,b) we see that the formulae

(2.29,a) and (2.29,b) verify the relationship (2.27).

Once the currents I A and I B are calculated, the current flows I 1 , I 2 , , I n

into the considered network can be determined and thus we seek for node k of

96 Basic computation

minimum voltage. Analysing the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) it can be noticed

that each of them has two terms:

' '

I A = i A + I AB ; I B = i B I AB (2.30)

where:

n n

1 1

'

iA =

Z

k =1

'

Z k ik ;

'

iB =

Z

Z

k =1

k ik (2.31)

1

I AB = (V V B ) (2.32)

Z A

Observations:

' '

The terms i A and i B depend only upon the values of the load currents and

'

upon the cumulated impedances Z k and Z k of the network, in relation with

' '

supplying nodes A and B respectively. The currents i A and i B substitute the load

currents i k . It is as if the currents had been moved at the supplying nodes A and B

'

(Fig. 2.6,d). Thus, the current i B represent the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in

relation with node A, divided to the total impedance Z of the line. Likewise, the

' ' '

current i A represents the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in relation with node B,

divided to the total impedance Z of the line.

The additional term I AB determined only by the difference between the

voltages applied at nodes A and B, which does not depend on the load currents,

represents the balancing current or no-load current, through the branch considered

between nodes A and B. If V A V B , the current I AB exists even when the line

operates under no-load conditions. This balancing current cause, apart from

changes in load values, overloading of a power source compared with the other,

thus increasing the energy losses. Therefore, in exploitation it required, as much as

possible, the existence of the same voltage at the supplying nodes.

If the loads are expressed in terms of power and the power losses on the line

sections are not taken into consideration S 0 being the apparent complex power

carried on a phase and S = 3S 0 being the power carried by the three-phase system

then from the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) the approximate distribution of

the powers can be obtained:

n

s

k =1

0k

'

Zk

V V B

S0A = + A Vn (2.33,a)

Z Z

n

s

k =1

0k Zk

V V B

S 0B = A Vn (2.33,b)

Z Z

Radial and meshed networks 97

loads i = 1, 2, , n.

Analysing the current flows given by the relations (2.29,a,b) or the power

flows given by (2.33,a,b), we see that some of the loads are supplied from source

A, and another part from the source B. There will also be a load supplied from end

' ''

A (with I k ) and from end B (with I k ) as well. The connection point of the load is

called point of powers separation and is shown in the circuit as k (Fig. 2.6,c). In

this point, the electric line can be sectioned obtaining two radial lines A-k and B-k,

where the voltage drops are calculated with the relations established for the cases

of radial networks or the lines powered from one end. It is possible to obtain two

points of separation, one for the active powers and the other for the reactive

powers. In the point of powers separation, line voltage is the lowest and because of

that it is necessary to perform voltage drops verification up to the points of powers

separation.

The radial configurations are specific to the distribution electric networks of

medium and low voltage. These networks, especially the urban ones, can be

strongly meshed, but, for technical and economical reasons, under normal

conditions they operate radially. During short periods of time, these networks can

operate in meshed configuration, especially when usual manoeuvres are done for

configuration changes.

The radial electric networks have some particularities, which make possible

the use of some appropriate analysing methods of their operation, among which the

load flow calculation can be mentioned.

The main particularity of the radial electric networks is related to the power

(current) flow through branches. Assuming that within a radial network there are

no local generators (distributed generation), the network is supplied from only one

power injection point, called source node. Under these conditions, the power flow

through network branches has a well-determined character, the flow being

unidirectional in any natural operating state. In conclusion, in a radial network, any

node k called derivation (parent) node, except the source node, receives electrical

energy from only one node, called up stream node, through only one branch called

ingoing branch and can transmit electrical energy to one or more next nodes, or to

none of them, case in which the node k is called end node (Fig. 2.7).

When a meshed network is subjected to radial operation (the case of

distribution networks), the network opening is done in a well determined number

of points, obtaining one or more distinct radial sub-networks. Every sub-network

consists of a source node and one or more load nodes, including also the derivation

nodes, which may have no consumption.

98 Basic computation

node node

End

node

In operation Out of service

branch branch

Fig. 2.7. Notations used for distribution networks with meshed topology.

The following assumptions are considered for the modelling of the electric

networks elements [2.3]:

the three phase voltages form a positive-sequence symmetrical system;

the currents form a balanced three-phase system;

the network parameters are homogeneous, constant in time and

independent of the supply voltage or currents;

the network operates under steady state conditions.

Under these conditions, the positive-sequence one-line diagram is used for

the load flow calculation. The electric lines (overhead and underground cables) can

be represented by equivalent circuits with lumped parameters. Taking into

account the unidirectional character of the power flows, the transformers can be

represented by equivalent circuit with transformer operator (see Figure 1.50,

section 1.2.3.2).

In the absence of distributed generation, for the load flow calculation of

radial electric networks, only two of the three types of nodes existing in complex

meshed networks are considered:

load nodes, modelled through complex powers, obtained by combining

three components [2.1]:

S = ( Pc + jQc ) + 3 ( I ac + jI rc )U + ( Gc + jBc )U 2 (2.34)

where: Pc and Qc represents the components of a constant complex power,

I ac and I rc are the components of a constant complex current, Gc and Bc

are the components of a constant admittance, and U is the phase-to-phase

voltage magnitude of the node;

the slack node, representing the point of power injection into the radial

network (the source node), where the specified quantities are the voltage

magnitude and phase angle.

In the case of a radial (arborescent) electric network, with n nodes and l

branches and only one injection node, the number of closed loops (independent

cycles) is equal to zero, all branches being of tree type. Under these conditions

Radial and meshed networks 99

network are: the voltages of the n 1 load nodes and the currents (powers) flowing

through the l = n 1 branches. Therefore, there are 2 ( n 1) unknown quantities,

whose determination requires an equal number of equations. By applying the

Kirchhoffs current law in the n 1 load nodes, considered as being independent,

the currents flowing through branches can be obtained. The Kirchhoffs voltage

law cannot be applied because l n + 1 = 0 . Instead, by applying Ohms law on the

l = n 1 tree branches, the voltage drops at their ends can be obtained. Considering

the voltage at the source node as reference, and using the voltage drop on network

branches, the voltages at the load nodes can be calculated.

Based on the previous issues, the load flow calculation in radial electric

networks can be performed using a specific method, known in literature as the

backward/forward sweep [2.10], [2.11]. Basically, this method consists of two

steps:

Backward sweep, where, starting from the end nodes and going toward the

source node S, using the Kirchhoffs current law, the current at each load

node as well as the current flowing through its ingoing branch are

calculated (Fig. 2.8,a);

Forward sweep, where, starting in the opposite direction, from the source

node S (whose constant voltage is taken as reference) and going toward the

end nodes, using the Ohms law, the voltage drop on each branch as well

as the voltage at each load node are calculated (Fig. 2.8,b).

1 14

S 2 S 13

7 5 8 10

4 11

6 3 9 12

a. b.

Fig. 2.8. The steps of the load flow calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep:

a. calculation of the currents through branches; b. calculation of the nodal voltages.

1) When the electric network consists of more arborescent sub-networks,

the backward/forward algorithm is independently applied for each sub-network,

considering its source node as reference;

2) The load flow calculation in radial electric networks can be also

performed by means of the nodal voltages method. Solving the equations (2.74),

having the form [Y nn ][U n ] = [ I n ] , for the linear model (see 2.3.2.1), or

[Y nn ][U n ] = S *n U n for the non-linear model, the voltages of the independent

*

nodes are obtained, and finally the powers (currents) flowing through branches are

calculated. Using the backward/forward sweep, the unknown quantities are

simultaneous obtained after performing the two steps.

100 Basic computation

The load flow solution, by the backward/forward sweep, for the linear

network model (the loads represented through constant currents, the lines and

transformers modelled through series impedances) is obtained processing only

once the two steps. In the case of the non-linear model of the network (the loads

represented in the form given in (2.34), the electric lines modelled by equivalent

circuits, and the power transformers by circuits), the load flow solution is

obtained by iterative calculations. The convergence criterion consists in comparing

the modulus of the complex power at the source node or the voltage magnitude at

the load nodes between two successive iterations.

The load flow calculation algorithm using the backward/forward sweep

consists in the following steps [2.12]:

1. Ordering the network (indexing the ingoing node and ingoing branch

for each load node) and setting the voltages at the load nodes to the

value of the sources node voltage (S):

(0)

U k = U S , k = 1, 2,K, n, k S (2.35)

2. Set the initial iteration index: p = 1 ;

3. Backward sweep: traversing the network from the end nodes toward the

source node and performing the following operations:

3.1. Calculation of the current at the node k using the expression of the

load power given by formula (2.34):

*

( p) Sk

Ik = (2.36)

3U (k

p 1)*

node k:

1 ( p)

( p)

I ik = Ik +

N ik

( p)

I kj

(2.37)

jNext ( k )

where: i is the index of the node up stream to the node k;

Next ( k ) the set of nodes next to the node k;

N ik the turns ratio of the i k branch ( N ik = 1 for

lines).

4. Forward sweep: the calculation of voltages at the nodes, traversing the

network from the source node toward the end nodes. For the actual

iteration p, considering the traversing direction of a branch from node i

toward node k, the calculation is performed in the following manner:

4.1. Calculation of the voltage drop on the i k branch:

( p) ( p)

U ik = 3 Z ik I ik (2.38)

4.2. Calculation of the voltage at the node k:

( p)

Uk =

1

N ik

(

( p) ( p)

U i U ik ) (2.39)

Radial and meshed networks 101

5. Calculation of the power injected into the network by the source node:

( p)

S S = 3U S

jNext ( S )

*( p )

I Sj (2.40)

p p 1

7. Calculation of power losses through the network branches.

In literature, there are also others calculation algorithms for the unknown

state quantities by means of the backward/forward sweep. The principle of one of

these algorithms consists in the use of a recursive set of equations to calculate all

the unknown state quantities (nodal voltages and power flows) after processing the

forward and backward sweeps [2.13]. In order to test this algorithm, consider the

radial network with n loads in Figure 2.9, with the line sections represented by

series impedances z k = rk + jxk , and the loads by complex constant powers

s k = pk + jqk . The powers Pn and Qn represents the components of the complex

power flowing through a fictive branch outgoing from the node n. The voltage V A

of the source node of the network is constant.

A 1 ... k-1 k k+1 n

z1 zk zk+1

UA

VA= s1 sk-1 sk sk+1 sn

3

a.

Pgk+jQgk

PA+jQA Pk-1+jQk-1 Pk+jQk Pk+1+jQk+1 Pn+jQn

A 1 ... k-1 k+1 n

k

z1 zk zk+1

UA

VA= s1 sk-1 sk sk+1 sn

3

b.

Fig. 2.9. Distribution electric network:

a. simple radial network b. radial network with one distributed generator.

In the forward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk of the node k are

used to calculate the state quantities at the node k + 1 using the set of equations:

Pk2 + Qk2 Pk2 + Qk2

Pk +1 = Pk rk +1 p k +1 ; Qk +1 = Qk xk +1 qk +1

3Vk2 3Vk2

2 2

(2.41)

3V 2 = 3V 2 2 r P + x Q + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk

k +1 k ( k +1 k k +1 k ) k +1( k +1

3Vk2

)

102 Basic computation

Considering that the state quantities PA , QA and VA at the node A are known

or estimated, the state quantities at the other nodes can be calculated by successive

applications of equations (2.41) starting from the first node and going toward to the

node n.

In the backward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk at the node k are

used to calculate the state variables at the node k 1 , using the set of equations:

Pk'2 + Qk'2 Pk'2 + Qk'2

Pk 1 = Pk + rk + pk +1 ; Qk 1 = Qk + xk + qk +1

3Vk2 3Vk2

'2 '2

(2.42)

3V 2 = 3V 2 + 2 r P ' + x Q ' + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk

( ) ( )

k 1 k k k k k k k

3Vk2

where Pk' = Pk + pk and Qk' = Qk + qk .

Similarly to the forward sweep, in the backward sweep, considering the state

quantities Pn , Qn and Vn at the node n as known, the state quantities at the others

nodes can be calculated by successive applications of equations (2.42) starting

from the node n 1 and going toward the node A.

By successive applications of the backward and forward sweeps the load flow

solutions are achieved. The following boundary constraints are considered during

the calculation process [2.10]:

to voltage magnitude VA at the sources node A is known, and considered

constant;

the components of the apparent power flowing through a hypothetical

branch outgoing from the node n are: Pn = 0 and Qn = 0 .

distributed generation

Usually, the distributed generators are used to produce locally, in

consumption areas, relatively reduced amounts of power and are connected in

medium and low voltage distribution networks. The main differences with respect

to the classical power plants (thermal, nuclear, and hydro) are related to the

location and the installed capacity.

These sources can generate active power and sometimes can generate or

consume reactive power, having the possibility to maintain the nodal voltage at a

set value by means of an automatic voltage regulator. The distributed generators

capable to vary their output active power can contribute to the frequency control

into the power system. Taking into account these considerations, the nodes to

which these generators are connected can be classified in:

PQ nodes, to which the specified quantities are the generated active Pgsp

and reactive Qgsp (capacitive or inductive) powers, and the unknown

quantities are the components of the complex voltage U ;

Radial and meshed networks 103

PU nodes, to which the specified quantities are the generated active power

Pgsp and voltage magnitude U sp , and the unknown quantities are the

generated reactive power Qg and the voltage phase ;

U nodes, to which the specified quantities are the components of the

sp

complex voltage U (magnitude U sp and phase sp ), and the unknown

quantities are the generated active Pg and reactive Qg powers.

the radial electric networks which include distributed generators, some

specifications and adaptations are necessary. Therefore, the distributed generators

should be modelled by PQ nodes, where the specified quantities Pgsp and Qgsp are

considered as being components of a constant complex power with negative sign

S = ( Pgsp + jQgsp ) , because the backward/forward sweep, presented above, cannot

be applied for the PU and U nodes. This inconvenience is due to the fact that for

these types of nodes, one or both components of the voltage are specified, which is

not appropriate to the backward/forward sweep algorithm where the voltage

components are specified only at the source node. Starting from the voltage of this

node, chosen as reference, the voltages of the others nodes are calculated in terms

of the voltage drops on the line sections. However, in order to apply the

backward/forward sweep algorithm for the PU and U nodes, some adaptations are

required, which are based on the decoupling of the four state quantities, i.e. the

interdependences P and Q U, respectively. These adaptations are presented

below.

As previously explained, the PU nodes are characterized by the specification of

the generated active power Pgsp and the voltage magnitude U sp . In the load flow

calculation process, by backward/forward sweep, these nodes are assimilated with

PQ type nodes. The active and reactive powers are equal to the specified values

Pgsp and Qg , considered with negative sign. To maintain the nodal voltage at the

specified value U sp , the interdependence relationship between the voltage and the

reactive power is used, i.e. appropriate change of the reactive power Qg , between

the limits Qgmin and Qgmax , is adopted. Depending on the model used for the nodes,

two situations could be encountered:

in the case of modelling by constant currents, the reactive component of

the complex current I gr is determined based on the condition that the

nodal voltage should be equal to the specified value U sp [2.24]; for the

backward/forward sweep algorithm, the nodal current is considered as

(

I = I ga

sp

)

+ jI gr , where I ga

sp

represents the specified value of the

generated active current;

104 Basic computation

Qg is determined based on the condition that the nodal voltage should be

equal to the specified value U sp ; in the backward/forward sweep

algorithm, the nodal power is considered as S = Pgsp + jQg . ( )

The use of the second model for the load modelling requires a non-linear

mathematical model for load flow calculation. Like the global load flow calculation

methods, for the backward/forward sweep algorithm, the calculation of the

generated reactive power and its comparison with the capability limits at every step

is performed.

For better understanding of the modified backward/forward method applied

when PU nodes are present within the network, a radial electric network with only

one generator located at the node k is considered (2.9,b). The calculation steps are

presented in the following:

1. Initialise the iterative step p = 0 and establish the initial value of the

0 (0)

(

reactive power Qg( ,k) = 0 , so that S k = Pc ,k + jQc ,k Pgsp, k + jQg( , k) ,

0

)

where Pc ,k and Qc ,k are the components of a complex constant power

consumed at the node k, and Pgsp,k is the specified active power

generated at the node k;

2. Update the iterative step p = p + 1 ;

3. Perform load flow calculation by backward/forward sweep;

4. If U k( ) U ksp < U the iterative process stops;

p

, k necessary to achieve the

specified voltage U ksp at the node k. Establish the new value of the

generated reactive power Qg( ,k) in terms of its value with respect to the

p

min max

capability limits Qg,k and Qg,k :

, k if Qg , k Qg , k Qg , k

( p) min calc min

Qg , k = Qg ,k if Qg ,k < Qg , k (2.43)

Qg( p, k) = Qgmax calc max

, k if Qg , k > Qg , k

6. Calculate the new value of the complex power at the node k by formula

( )

S k = Pc ,k + jQc ,k Pgsp,k + jQg( ,k) and go to step 2.

( p) p

There are several possibilities to calculate the value of the generated reactive

sp

power Qgcalc

, k necessary to achieve the specified voltage U k at the node k, i.e.:

Radial and meshed networks 105

obtained from the sensitivity matrix:

Qgcalc ( p 1)

= Qg , k +

(U ( ) U )

k

p sp

k

,k ( p)

U k

Qk

(ii) using the secant method [2.25]:

( ) ( )

p 1 p2

( p 1) Qg , k Qg , k

Qgcalc

,k = Qg ,k + ( p 1)

Uk ( p 2)

Uk

U k( ) U ksp

p

( )

(iii) using a calculation formula based on the generated reactive current I gr , k ,

calculated by considering the constant currents model for the load:

( p 1)

Qgnec

, k = 3U k I gr ,k

distribution electric network

The backward/forward algorithm presented earlier can be used only for load

flow calculation of arborescent networks. By convenient changes that imply

additional computation, the method can be expanded for load flow calculation of

simple or complex meshed electric networks.

Consider a simple meshed electric network, supplied at two ends (Fig.2.10,a).

A 1 2 k-1 k n B

z1 z2 zk zn zn+1

VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk sn VB

a. Ik-1,k

A 1 2 k-1 k n B

z1 z2 zk zn zn+1

VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk sn VB

b.

A 1 2 k-1 k' k'' n B

z1 z2 zk zn zn+1

VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk' sk'' sn VB

c.

Fig. 2.10. Calculation steps for a simple meshed electric network.

106 Basic computation

To apply the backward/forward sweep for the load flow calculation of this

network, one of the loops nodes is split (for example node k) obtaining two radial

sub-networks [2.14]. After splitting the node k, we require that the total consumed

power at the two resulted nodes k and k to be constant and equal to the power at

the node k before splitting:

s k ' + s k" = s k (2.44)

of the balancing current that appears at the loop closing, given by the relation:

V k 1 V k

I k 1,k = (2.45)

Z AB

where Z AB is the cumulated impedance between nodes A and B, and the voltages

V k 1 and V k correspond to the operating state when the branch between the nodes

k 1 and k is in out of service state (Fig. 2.10,b). These voltages are calculated

by successively applying of the backward/forward sweep for the sub-networks

supplied from the source nodes A and B, respectively.

The load flow calculation is iteratively performed, by setting at each iteration

the power consumed at each node resulted after splitting and by calculating the

load flow for each radial sub-network. The iterative process goes on until the

difference between the voltages of the two nodes k and k is less than an specified

value .

The steps followed for load flow calculation of a simple meshed network are:

1. One of the loops branches is switched to out of service state (for

instance, the branch between the nodes k 1 and k, Fig. 2.10,b), and for

the new configuration the load flow is calculated by means of the

backward/forward sweep;

2. The node k is split into nodes k and k and a new branch is introduced

between nodes k 1 and k, having the same parameters as the branch

between the nodes k 1 and k (Fig. 2.10,c). The voltages and the

powers consumed at the split nodes are set to:

V k ' = V k 1 ; V k '' = V k

(2.46)

s k ' = 0; s k '' = s k

V k ' - V k ''

I k ', k '' = (2.47)

Z AB

n +1

where Z AB = Z

i=1

i is the total impedance of the loop;

Radial and meshed networks 107

(2.48)

s k '' = s k - s k '

5. The load flow is calculated for the network configuration in Figure 2.10,c;

6. If V k ' V k '' > then go to step 3, else return to the initial configuration

(Fig. 2.10,a) considering V k = V k '' and I k 1,k = I k 1,k ' .

When the network has a complex meshed configuration, the load flow

calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep is performed by introducing a

number of supplementary nodes (resulted after splitting) equal to the number of

loops. At each step, the equality of voltages at the split nodes for one single loop

has to be achieved. The calculation is repeated until the differences of the voltage

magnitudes at the split nodes in all loops is less than the specified value .

The backward/forward sweep load flow algorithm has some advantages as

compared to the global methods based on the nodal voltages:

for the nonlinear model of the network, the number of the iterations is

smaller than the one required by Seidel-Gauss and Newton-Raphson

methods, and the calculation effort during each iteration is smaller, too;

the calculation of the nodal admittance matrix is not necessary;

the introducing of switches and shunts (elements of reduced impedance) do

not cause convergence problems.

Application

Consider the radial electric network from Figure 2.11,a, given that:

the voltage at the source node U 1 = 20 kV ;

the complex powers at the loads: s 2 = 0 kVA , s 3 = ( 250 + j150 ) kVA and

s 4 = ( 75 + j 50 ) kVA .

The one-line diagram of the electric network and the branch parameters are shown in

Figure 2.11,b.

The voltages at the load nodes, and current flows for this network have to be

determined.

For simplicity, the phase-to-phase voltages are used. The initial values of voltages at

the load nodes are:

U (0) (0)

2 = U 3 = U 1 = 20 kV

U (0)

4 = N 42 U 1 = 0.02 20 = 0.4 kV

Only the calculation of the first iteration is detailed below, the results of the whole

iterative process being presented in Table 2.1.

108 Basic computation

S1 1 2 3 s3

4

s4

a.

S1 1 I12 (1.4+j0.1) 2 I23 (2.1+j0.15) i3 3

j30 S j30 S j45 S j45 S

I240

I24 (0.8-j8.72) S

N42=0.02

I'24

(0.028+j0.058)

4

s4 =(75+j50) kVA

b.

Fig. 2.11. Radial electric network: a. one-line diagram; b. equivalent circuit.

Backward sweep

Calculation of the current in the branch 2 3

i 3(1) = = = ( 7.217 j 4.330 ) A

3U 3(0)* 3 20 103

U 3(0) 20 103

(1)

I 320 =y = j 45 106 = j 0.520 A

320

3 3

23 = i 3 + I 320 = ( 7.217 j 3.810 ) A

I (1) (1) (1)

i (1)

s*4 ( 75 j50 ) 103 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A

4 = =

3U (0)*

4

3 0.4 103

24 = i 4 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A

I '(1) (1)

I (1) '(1)

Radial and meshed networks 109

s*2

i (1)

2 = =0A

3U (0)*

2

U (0) 20 103

I (1)

210 = y

2

= j 30 106 = j 0.346 A

210

3 3

U (0) 20 103

I (1)

230 = y

2

= j 45 106 = j 0.520 A

230

3 3

U (0) 20 103

I (1)

240 = y

2

= ( 0.8 j8.72 ) 106 = ( 0.009 j 0.101) A

240

3 3

2 + I 23 + I 230 + I 24 + I 240 + I 210 = ( 9.391 j 4.488 ) A

(1)

I 12 = i (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

Forward sweep

Calculation of the voltage at the node 2

(1)

U 12 (1)

= 3 z12 I 12 = 3 (1.4 + j 0.1)( 9.391 j 4.488 ) 103 = ( 0.024 j 0.009 ) kV

U (1) (1)

3

U (1) (1)

U 3(1) = U (1) (1)

3

U (1) '(1)

U (1) (1) (1)

U1 20 103

(1)

I 120 =y = j 30 106 = j 0.346 A

120

3 3

( )

*

S 1(1) = 3U 1 I 12

(1) (1)

+ I 120 = 3 20 ( 9.391 j 4.142 ) = ( 325.314 + 143.483) kVA

Table 2.1

Results of the iterative process

Quantity Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3

0 1 2 3 4

i3 A 7.217 j 4.330 7.240 j 4.334 7.240 j 4.334

I 320 A j 0.520 0.001 + j 0.518 0.001 + j 0.518

I 23 A 7.217 j 3.810 7.241 j 3.816 7.241 j 3.816

110 Basic computation

0 1 2 3 4

I '24 = i 4 A 108.253 j 72.169 113.498 j 72.728 113.681 j 72.430

I 24 A 2.165 j1.443 2.270 j1.455 2.274 j1.455

i2 A 0 0 0

I 210 A j 0.346 j 0.346 j 0.346

I 230 A j 0.520 j 0.519 j 0.519

I 240 A 0.009 j 0.101 0.009 j 0.101 0.009 j 0.101

I 12 A 9.391 j 4.488 9.520 j 4.507 9.524 j 4.507

U 12 kV 0.024 j 0.009 0.024 j 0.009 0.024 j 0.009

U2 kV 19.976 + j 0.009 19.976 + j 0.009 19.976 + j 0.009

U 23 kV 0.027 j 0.012 0.027 j 0.012 0.027 j 0.012

U3 kV 19.949 j 0.021 19.949 j 0.021 19.949 j 0.021

U 24 kV 0.013 + j 0.007 0.013 + j 0.008 0.013 + j 0.008

U4 kV 0.386 j 0.007 0.386 j 0.008 0.386 j 0.008

S1 kVA 325.314 + 143.483 329.782 + 144.141 329.921 + 144.141

S1 kVA 355.551 359.907 360.021

Notes: The load flow results were achieved after 3 iterations by applying the

backward/forward sweep. The difference between voltages at the last two iterations is less

than 0.001 kV, and the difference between apparent powers at the source node is 0.1 kVA.

The same results were achieved using Seidel-Gauss (12 iterations) and Newton-Raphson

(3 iterations) methods.

In the following, several commonly used transfiguration methods will be

presented.

a) The reduction of a conductor of a certain length and cross-sectional

area, to an equivalent conductor of a different length and cross-sectional area.

In calculation of a network, sometimes it is advantageous that portions of line with

different cross-sectional areas be transformed into sections of line with the same

cross-sectional area. Thus, the conductor of cross-sectional area s1 and length l1 can

be substituted with another conductor of cross-sectional area s2 and length l2,

provided that the distribution of the loads and the voltage drop along the

conductors remains the same. In other words, the resistances of the two conductors

must remain unchanged; thereby the equivalencing condition emerges:

Radial and meshed networks 111

s1

l1 = l2

s2

As equivalencing cross-sectional area, the most frequent cross-sectional area

from the respective network will be chosen.

b) Loads throwing at the nodes. Composing branches in parallel needs the

loads to be situated only at their ends, in nodes. If the loads are connected

everywhere along the branches, first their throwing (moving) at the ends is

performed, with the condition of keeping the voltage drop constant, in the initial

circuit as well as in the transformed circuit. In Figure 2.12 an electric line to which

the loads i1 and i 2 are connected is represented.

Z

Z2 Z2

Z1 Z1 Z

A 1 2 B A B

VA i1 i2 VB VA iA iB VB

a. b.

Fig. 2.12. Electric network diagram for the throwing of the loads at the nodes:

a. initial circuit; b. transfigured circuit.

For instance, to throw at the ends the two currents i1 and i 2 from Figure

2.12, a, two loads i A and i B applied at the lines ends in the transformed network

(Fig. 2.12,a) will be determined, such that the same voltage drop as in the initial

network is obtained:

V AB = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i B

' '

V BA = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i A

from where it results:

n

'

Z 1 i1 +

'

Z 2 i2

Z

k =1

'

k ik

iA = =

Z Z

n

(2.49)

Z i + Z 2 i2

Z

k =1

k ik

iB = 1 1 =

Z Z

' ' '

where Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k and respectively Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k represents the impedances

from the two ends to the connection points of the k loads.

112 Basic computation

In the particular case of moving only one load, the consumed current

component, moved at one of the ends, is proportional to the impedance of the line

from the point of consumption to the other end, and inversely proportional to the

line impedance.

From the expression (2.49) results that load throwing at the nodes is

performed according to the rule determined for distribution of the currents

(powers) in the case of the networks supplied from two ends, that is considering the

electric moments of the loads referred to the supplying points. For the case of the

homogenous network, in the relationships of transformation, the impedances are

substituted with the corresponding lengths.

c) Composing of several branches of different supplying voltages which

debit into a node, in a single equivalent branch. Consider the branches A, B, C

of an electric network that has different phase-to-neutral voltages V A , V B , V C at

the ends and debits into a node O (Fig. 2.13).

VA

A IA

VE YA

IE

E YE

O IE

Fig. 2.13. Ramified electric

network with different VB

voltages at the ends. IB YB

B

Y VO

VC I C

C

C

admittance Y E and voltage V E at the end E. In order to determine the quantities of

the equivalent branch E-O, the relations of equivalencing between the real circuit

with three branches and the equivalent circuit with a single branch are written:

IE = I A + IB + IC (2.50)

Kirchhoffs first theorem will be written as:

(V E V O )Y E = (V A V O )Y A + (V B V O )Y B + (V C V O )Y C

or

V E Y E V O Y E = V A Y A + V B Y B + V C Y C V O (Y A + Y B + Y C )

n

Y E =Y A +Y B +YC = Y

k =1

k

respectively

Radial and meshed networks 113

V Y +V BY B +V CY C

V

k =1

kYk

VE = A A = (2.51)

Y A +YB +YC n

Y k =1

k

equivalent branch is possible only if along them there are no derivations with

supplementary loads.

Instead, in the case of inverse transformations, the current passed through the

equivalent branch is known and the currents passed through the branches of the

initial network, not transfigured, are required. In this case, voltage drops

expressions are written:

I I I I

V A V O = A ; V B V O = B ; V C V O = C ; V E V O = E

YA YB YC YE

From the last relationship, the voltage of the node O can be determined:

I

VO =VE E

YE

which, after substituting in the other three equations, enable us to determine the

currents passed through the component branches:

Y

I A = I E A + (V A V E )Y A (2.52,a)

YE

YB

IB = IE + (V B V E )Y B (2.52,b)

YE

YC

IC = I E + (V C V E )Y C (2.52,c)

YE

It is obvious that if the voltages of the branches are equal, the relations are

still correct, with the observation that the voltage of the equivalent branch is equal

to that of the component branches. In this case, in expressions (2.52) the second

term of the right side will disappear.

d) Star delta transformation. Another structure, which comes as a sub-

assembly into a meshed network, is the star structure, in the simplest case powered

from three nodes (Fig. 2.14).

The condition of equivalencing of the two circuits (Fig. 2.14,a,b): the

impedances measured at the pairs of terminals 1 2, 2 3 and 3 1 of the star-

shape network must be equal to the impedances measured at the same pairs of

terminals of the delta-shape network:

Z 12 (Z 23 + Z 31 ) Z (Z + Z 12 ) Z (Z + Z 23 )

Z1 + Z 2 = ; Z 2 + Z 3 = 23 31 ; Z 3 + Z 1 = 31 12

Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31

114 Basic computation

I1 I1

1 1

Z1

Z31 Z12

I12

I31

Z3 Z2

I23

3 2 3 2

I3 I2 I2

I3 Z23

a. b.

Fig. 2.14. Star and delta circuits.

Z3 :

Z 12 Z 13 Z 23 Z 12 Z 31 Z 23

Z1 = ; Z2 = ; Z3 = (2.53)

Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31

Z 23 , Z 31 obtain:

Z1 Z 2 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z 3

Z 12 = Z 1 + Z 2 + ; Z 23 = Z 2 + Z 3 + ; Z 31 = Z 1 + Z 3 + (2.54)

Z3 Z1 Z2

In terms of admittances, from the equations (2.53) and (2.54) we obtain the

transformation relationships of a delta-shape network into a star-shape network

with three branches:

Y 12 Y 13 Y 12 Y 23 Y Y

Y 1 = Y 12 + Y 13 + ; Y 2 = Y 12 + Y 23 + ; Y 3 = Y 31 + Y 23 + 31 23 (2.53')

Y 23 Y 31 Y 12

transformation:

Y 1Y 2 Y 2Y 3 Y 3Y1

Y 12 = ; Y 23 = ; Y 31 = (2.54')

Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3

2, , n supplying terminals, can be transformed into a polygon with n(n 1) 2

branches, connecting its terminals two by two.

Since the two networks (Fig. 2.15,a,b), initial and transformed, are

equivalent, it results that the terminal voltages V 1 , V 2 , ..., V n and the currents I 1 ,

I 2 , ..., I n , which enter into the terminals, must be identical in the two cases.

Radial and meshed networks 115

Y1 Y2 I1

O I1n 3

V1 Yn Y3 V2

Instar 3 I3star Y1n

n VO

Vn V3 Inp 3 I3p

a. b.

Fig. 2.15. The general transformation of a network from star into a polygon:

a. star-shape network; b. polygon-shape network.

For instance, for the current injected at the node 1 into the polygon-shape

network:

I 1 p = I 12 + I 13 + K + I 1n = Y 12 (V 1 V 2 ) + Y 13 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + Y 1n (V 1 V n ) (2.55)

respectively, into the star-shape network:

Y Y Y Y Y Y

I 1 star = Y 1 (V 1 V O ) = n1 2 (V 1 V 2 ) + n1 3 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + n1 n (V 1 V n )

Yk

k =1

Yk Yk

k =1

k =1

(2.56)

where

n

Y

k =1

kV k

VO = n

Y

k =1

k

Y 1Y j

Y1 j = n

Yk k =1

or, in the general case

Y iY j

Y ij = n

(2.57)

Y

k =1

k

Notice that the polygon has not all its branches independent. Thus,

considering the transformed admittance between nodes i and j, given by (2.57), and

dividing Y ij to Y i , where:

Y iY

Y i = n

Y

k =1

k

116 Basic computation

Y ij Yj

=

Y i Y

Therefore, it results that:

Y1j Y2j Y nj Yj

= =K= =

Y 1 Y 2 Y n Y

Now, we can draw the conclusion that any complete polygon, having all

branches independent from each other, cannot be transformed into a star. The

triangle (delta) is the only polygon that allows this transformation, having all

branches dependent from each other.

e) Electric networks equivalencing by using Kron elimination. In some

cases, of interest is to hold only certain nodes in calculation (for instance: 1, 2

which are source nodes), whereas the other non-essential nodes (passive nodes,

loads passivized through Z=ct.), since not of interest, are eliminated/reduced

through star-delta transformation, taking benefit of the zero value of the current

injected into the non-essential nodes (for instance: nodes 3 and 4) (Fig. 2.16,b).

1 Y14 Y42 2 1 Y14 Y42 2

4 4

Y43 Y43

3 3

Y30

0

a. b.

1 2 1 2

4

0 0

c. d.

Fig. 2.16. Exemplification of the non-essential nodes elimination:

a. initial network; b. the network with the load from node 3 replaced with an

impedance Z=ct.; c. the circuit after the elimination of node 3; d. the circuit after the

elimination of nodes 3 and 4.

For the electric network from Figure 2.16,b, where node 4 was non-essential,

and node 3 became passive, by replacing the consumption with an impedance

Z=ct., the equation from the nodal voltages method) becomes:

I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1

I

2 = Y 22 Y 24 U 2

(2.58)

I 3 = 0 Y 33 Y 34 U 3

I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y 43 Y 44 U 4

)

As it can be seen in 2.4.2., in the framework of nodal voltages method, phase-to-phase

voltage is used.

Radial and meshed networks 117

In the first stage the node 3 is eliminated. In this regard, from the equation

corresponding to the current from node 3, where I 3 = 0 , U 3 is obtained and then

substituted in the equation of the current from node 4, resulting:

I 4 = 0 = Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43U 3 + Y 44 U 4 =

Y

= Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43 34 U 4 + Y 44 U 4

Y 33

or

Y Y

Y 41U 1 + Y 42U 2 + Y 44 34 43 U 4 = 0

Y 33

It can be noticed that by eliminating node 3, the term 44 has been modified:

' Y 34 Y 43

Y 44 = Y 44

Y 33

resulting the reduction of the number of equations with one unit (Fig. 2.16,c):

I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1

I = Y 22 Y 24 U 2 (2.59)

2

I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y '44 U 4

Next, in order to eliminate the node 4, U 4 is obtained from the new equation

corresponding to it and substituted in the first two equations in (2.59):

Y Y Y Y

I 1 = Y 11 14 ' 41 U 1 14 ' 42 U 2

Y 44 Y 44

Y Y Y Y

I 2 = 24 ' 41 U 1 + Y 22 24 ' 42 U 2

Y 44 Y 44

or

I 1 Y 11

'

Y 12 U 1

'

2 Y 21 Y 22 U 2

where:

Y 14 Y 41 ' Y 14 Y 42

; Y 12 =

'

Y 11 = Y 11 ' '

Y 44 Y 44

' Y 24 Y 41 ' Y 24 Y 42

Y 21 = '

; Y 22 = Y 22 '

Y 44 Y 44

respectively the new electric circuit from Figure 2.16,d.

118 Basic computation

the nodes must not be random. Thus, first are eliminated the non-essential nodes

with the smallest number of connections, that is with the smallest number of terms

in the nodal admittance matrix; the nodes with many connections will be

considered at the end of the elimination process. In the example shown, the

elimination first of node 3 has been performed by connecting two admittances

(Y 34 + Y 30 ) , followed by a transformation star-delta. If would have been eliminated

first node 4, two transformations star-delta would have been necessary, which

means an increased calculation effort.

In the general case, by using the method of partitioning into blocks, the

equation (2.58) can be written as:

[I r ] [A] [B ] [U r ]

[I ] = [C ] [D ] = [U ] (2.61)

e e

[I r ] =

I1

[I e ] =

I3

[U r ] =

U1

where: ; for the preserved nodes, and ,

I 2 U 2 I 4

[U e ] =

U3

for the nodes that are being eliminated.

U 4

From (2.61) results:

[I r ] = [A][U r ] + [B][U e ]

[I e = 0] = [C ][U r ] + [D][U e ]

If [U e ] is expressed from latter equation and substituted into the previous

equation, it results:

[I r ] = [A][U r ] [B][D]1[C ][U r ] = [Y rr ][U r ]

where the admittance matrix reduced to the preserved nodes can be calculated with

the expression:

[Y rr ] = [A] [B][D]1[C ] (2.62)

consideration the expanding of the partitioning method in the case of expressing

the nodal currents, from the nodal voltages method, in terms of nodal powers and

reduction or equivalencing only a certain zone from the whole network, the

reduced zone can contain load (consumer) and/or generator nodes.

The electric network is divided into two sub-networks (Fig. 2.17):

Internal sub-network (having I nodes), where all quantities are known in

real time (voltage Ui and phase angle i , current flows on electric lines, generated

powers Pg , Qg , consumed powers Pc , Qc , network structure);

Radial and meshed networks 119

where there is a lack of on-line information (only the power flow on

interconnection tie-lines, electric lines state and the most important generators are

known);

A number of frontier nodes (F), connected to nodes I and E, from both

sub-networks; there are no connections between nodes I and E.

Internal External

System System

I E

F

Fig. 2.17. The division of the electric network.

Because the state of the external sub-network is not fully known, its reducing

or equivalencing is performed. The matrix equation from the nodal voltages

method applied in the divided network is:

[Y EE ] [Y EF ] [0] U E [ I E ]

Y

[ FE ] [Y FF ] [Y FI ] U F = [ I F ]

(2.63)

[ 0] [Y IF ] [Y II ] U I [ I I ]

complex powers. In this regard, the vector [S ] is written as:

[ S ] = U d I * = U d ([Y nn ]U n )

*

(2.64)

where [U d ] is a diagonal matrix whose elements correspond to the elements of the

vector [U n ] , but grouped into I, F and E:

(U E )

d

U d = (U F )d

(2.65)

(U I )d

By using (2.63) and (2.65), equation (2.64) becomes:

S E (U E )d

Y *

EE

Y *EF

[0] U *

E

S F = (U F )d

Y *FE

Y *FF Y *FI

U * F (2.66)

S I (U I )d [ 0] Y IF Y II

* *

U I

*

Note:

If [A] is a square matrix with only diagonal terms, [X] being a vector,

x1 0 L 0 x1

0 x2 L 0 x

[A] = ; [X ] = 2 and noting through [Xd] the diagonal matrix

L L L L M

0 0 0 xn xn

120 Basic computation

whose elements are those of the matrix [A], it can be shown that the vector

x1 y1

x y

[W ] = 2 2 can be rewritten as

xn y n

[W ] = [X d ][y ] = [Yd ][X ]

The matrix equation (2.66) can be rewritten as a system of three vector

equations:

S E = (U E )d [Y EE ] U E + [Y EF ] U F

*

(2.67,a)

S F = (U F )d [Y FE ] U E + [Y FF ] U F + [Y FI ] U I

*

(2.67,b)

S I = (U I ) d [Y IF ] U F + [Y II ] U I

*

(2.67,c)

(2.67,a):

(U E )d

1

S E = Y U *E + Y *EF U *F

*

(2.68)

EE

or

1

U *E = Y *EE (U E )1 S E Y *EF U *F (2.69)

d

Component i of the term (U E )d [S E ] is given by

1

S Ei S Ei *

= U Ei

U Ei U E2i

If we define the vector:

S E1

U 2

E1

[wE ] = M

S En

U 2

E n

then the expression from (2.68) takes another form:

(U E )d

1

( )

S E = U E

*

d

w E = (W E )d U E

*

(2.70)

( )

1

U *E = Y *EE (W ) U * Y * U *

E d E EF F

Radial and meshed networks 121

or by conjugating:

1

U E = (Y EE ) W E

*

( ) d

U E [Y EF ] U F

If in the latter relation we multiply to the left with [Y EE ] we obtain:

[Y EE ] U E = (W *E )d U E [Y EF ] U F

or

( ( ))

1

U E = [Y EE ] W E [Y EF ] U F

*

(2.71)

d

1

*

or

( ( ))

*

1

S F = (U F )d [Y FF ] [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W E d [Y EF ] U F + Y FI U I

* * * *

If in the latter equation we let [Y FF ] stand for the term that modifies the

initial matrix, then:

( ( ))

1

Y eq = [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W *E [Y EF ] (2.72)

d

If assume that the voltage magnitudes at the external nodes and the injected powers

remain constant, then (W E )d = S E / U E2 is constant. As a consequence, the

injections at the external nodes can be represented by equivalent admittances given

by:

*

Si

yi = i (external network) (2.73)

U i2

Observations: for the validity of the resulted equivalent it is necessary that all

the terms Wi remain constant after considering a contingency inside the network.

But this contradicts the classical approach where the load injections into the

external nodes were represented through constant impedances.

2.3.2.1. Formulation of the load flow problem

The load flow defines the state of a power system at a certain instant of time

and corresponds to a given generation and consumption pattern. Taking into

122 Basic computation

consideration that the load varies from moment to moment, the values of the

electric variables, characteristic of this state, vary also from scenario to scenario.

The results obtained after the load flow calculation, being the starting point

for any analysis of transmission and distribution networks, represent [2.4]:

Necessity in the planning strategies of electric networks development for

the determination of the optimal configuration as well as in the exploitation

activity for establishing the operating regime (overloading possibilities,

voltage level, weak network areas identification, etc.);

Input data in the following activities:

(i) contingency analyses, for testing the unavailability of an electric line,

transformer or synchronous generator, known as security criteria with

(N 1) or (N 2) availabilities;

(ii) transmission capacity analysis, for testing the limits of transfer powers

(thermal limit Imax adm);

(iii) VAr voltage analysis, for assessment of necessity of VAr voltage

equipment and its regulation manner;

(iv) on-line control, of power system operation, using state estimators and

process computers.

Starting point in the study and the selection of the protection relays and

automations, also for static, transient and voltage stability analysis, the

optimisation of operating regimes, etc.

The mathematical model for steady state analysis is based on nodal voltages

method using either nodal admittance matrix

*

[Y nn][U n] = [I n] = S n * (2.74)

U n

or nodal impedance matrix:

[Z nn][I n]=[U n] (2.75)

For steady state analysis, assume that the electric network is symmetrical,

load balanced, and there are no magnetic couplings between its elements. In

consequence, the electric network can be modelled through a single-line diagram.

In the framework of load flow calculations phase-to-phase voltage is used,

which also represents the rated voltage of the networks elements given in catalogues.

Generally, an electric network consists of branches electric lines,

transformers and nodes to which the generators and/or loads are connected. The

branches are represented through impedances/admittances, the generators through

injected currents/powers at nodes and the loads through impedances or

currents/powers coming out from the nodes.

Radial and meshed networks 123

parameters and the structure of their elements the so-called system matrix is used

nodal admittance matrix ([Ynn]) or nodal impedance matrix ([Znn]).

(i) Nodal admittance matrix in the case of the network without

transformers

Consider the single-line diagram and the equivalent circuit of an electric

network, respectively (Fig. 2.18).

1 y13 3

I1 1 3 I

3 I1 y130 y310 I3

2

V2 I2 y210 y230

I2 2

a. b.

Fig. 2.18. Three-node network: a. Single-line diagram; b. Equivalent circuit.

In order to obtain the nodal admittance matrix [Ynn] and the equations from

nodal voltages method, respectively, we apply the Kirchhoffs first theorem at the

independent nodes, conventionally adopting the sign + for injected nodal

currents and the sign for consumed nodal currents:

12 13

(

y (V 1 V 2 ) + y (V 1 V 3 ) + y + y V 1 = I 1

120 130

)

( )

y 21 (V 2 V 1 ) + y 23 (V 2 V 3 ) + y 210 + y 230 V 2 = I 2 (2.76)

31 32

(

y (V 3 V 1 ) + y (V 3 V 2 ) + y + y V 3 = I 3

310 320

)

If we group the latter system of equations in terms of the nodal voltages then:

( 13 120 130

)

y + y + y + y V 1 y V 2 y V 3 = I1

12 12 13

( )

y 21V 1 + y 21 + y 23 + y 210 + y 230 V 2 y 23V 3 = I 2 (2.76')

(

y 31V 1 y 32 V 2 + y 31 + y 32 + y 310 + y 320 V 3 = I 3 )

or, as matrix form:

Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 V 1 I 1

Y

21 Y 22 Y 23 V 2 = I 2

Y 31 Y 32 Y 33 V 3 I 3

or

[Y nn ][V n ] = [I n ] (2.77)

124 Basic computation

where:

Y 11 = y12 + y13 + y120 + y130 ; Y 12 = y12 ; Y 13 = y13 ;

Y 21 = y ; Y 22 = y + y + y +y ; Y 23 = y ;

21 21 23 210 230 23

Y 31 = y ; Y 32 = y ; Y 33 = y + y + y +y

31 32 31 32 310 320

transformers [2.9, 2.22]

Consider the case of the series ik branch of a transformer (shunt losses are

neglected) with complex transformer turns ratio N ik (Fig. 2.19,a) where

V

N ik = i ' is the complex transformer turns ratio.

Vk

z ik i

N ik k Ik Ii i N ki z ki

Ii i Iik k Ik

Si Sk

Vi Vi Vk Vi Vk

a. b.

Fig. 2.19. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator.

If apply Kirchhoffs second theorem for the loop in Figure 2.19,a, obtain:

V i + z ik I ik + V i ' = 0

V ik = V i N ik V k (2.78)

In order to establish the relationship between currents we start from the

equality between the complex apparent powers from the input and those at the

output terminals of the ideal transformer:

* *

S i = 3V i ' I ik = S k = 3V k I k (2.79)

*

Vi I

= N ik = k

(2.80)

Vk I ik

respectively

I k = N *ik I ik

(2.80')

I i = I ik

Radial and meshed networks 125

V V

V ik = [1 N ik ] i = [ Aik ] i (2.78')

V k V k

where [ Aik ] is known as quasi-incidence matrix of the ik branch to i and k nodes.

In this case, when the branch is directional from i to k, that is the ideal

transformer (of transformer turns ratio N ik ) is connected to the k node, the quasi-

incidence matrix is written as:

i k

[ Aik ] = ik [1 N ik ]

Expressing the relationship between currents as matrix form:

Ii 1

I = N * I ik = [ Aik ] t I ik

*

k ik

and taking into account that I ik = y ik V ik and considering the expression (2.78') of

V ik , obtain:

Vi V

= [Y ik ] i

V k V k

where:

[Y ik ] = [Aik ] *t y ik [Aik ] =

1

* y ik [1 N ik ]

N ik

The nodal admittance matrix of the branch representing a transformer can

be written as:

'

Y ik y ik

' y ik N ik

[Y ik ] = Y 'ii '

= * (2.81)

Y ki Y kk y ik N ik y ik N ik2

If the branch is directional from k to i, that is the ideal transformer (of

transformer turns ratio N ki ) is connected to i node (Fig. 2.19,b),

[ Aki ] = ik [ N ki 1] , then nodal admittance matrix becomes:

y N2 y ki N ki

*

[Y ik ] = ki ki (2.81')

y ki N ki y ki

It is clear that, in the case of a transformer with complex transformer turns

' '

ratio ( N ik or N ki ), the matrix [ Y ik ] is asymmetrical since Y ik Y ki , and for a

126 Basic computation

' '

since Y ik = Y ki .

(iii) General rules for writing the nodal admittance matrix [Ynn]

Any diagonal term Y ii is equal to the sum of the series and shunt

admittances of the branches (lines, transformers, others) galvanically connected to i

node. If at the respective node a transformer branch is connected, we have two

cases:

if the ideal transformer is connected to i node, the series admittance of the

transformer is multiplied by the square of transformer turns ratio:

Y ii = (y ik

) y

+ y ik 0 + ki

N ki2 (2.82)

where the first sum stands for lines elements, and the second sum stands for

transformer elements;

if the series admittance of the transformer is galvanically connected to i

node, the diagonal term is:

Y ii = y +y ik ik 0

(2.82')

where y ik

corresponds to series admittances of lines and transformers as well.

If we do not neglect the shunt components of the transformer, these are added

to the term Yii since by hypothesis these are connected on the primary winding side.

The non-diagonal terms in the case of transformer branch are expressed as

follows:

if the transformer operator N ik is connected to k node:

' ' *

Y ik = y ik N ik ; Y ki = y ik N ik (2.82")

' * '

Y ik = y ki N ki ; Y ki = y ki N ki (2.82"')

The non-diagonal terms, in the case of line branch, are equal to the minus

sign value of admittance of the incident line to the two i and k nodes.

The non-diagonal term can be zero ( Y ik = 0 ) if there is no connection

between i and k nodes.

First, for a network without transformers, this is a square and symmetrical

matrix of size equal to the number of independent (n) nodes.

Second, the module of self-admittance of the nodes diagonal term is

bigger or at least equal to the sum of the modules of the non-diagonal terms:

Radial and meshed networks 127

Y ii Y

ik

ik

the lines it is possible that the previous inequality is not true. If we neglect the

shunt components then Y ii = Y ik .

ik

The number of null terms on rows and columns is equal to the number of

branches incident to node plus 1 (corresponding to the self-admittance of the node).

Third, in the real networks, the number of non-zero elements from matrix

[Ynn] is low, being about 2%. The matrix [Ynn] is said to have a high degree of

sparsity or to be a sparse matrix.

Considering for instance a power system of 1000 nodes the number of

incident branches to a node does not exceed 1015 (electric lines and

transformers). In consequence from 1000 terms of any row or column only

11...16 terms are non-zero the others 989...984 being equal to zero.

For general case, of electric network, the relationship between nodal voltages

and currents are expressed as:

[Y nn ][V n ] = [I n ] (2.77)

In practice, in power systems operation analysis, three-phase powers and

phase-to-phase voltages are used. In this respect, the expression (2.77) is

multiplied by 3 resulting:

[Y nn ] 3 [V n ] = 3 [I n ]

Taking into consideration the relationship between phase-to-neutral voltages

and phase-to-phase voltages U = 3 V , and noting I = 3 I , it results the known

form of matrix equation (2.74) from nodal voltages method.

Under these conditions, the expression of three-phase apparent power

becomes:

* * *

S = 3V I = 3 V 3 I = U I (2.83)

mentioning that the currents I are 3 times bigger than the real ones I.

The nodal voltages method in the case of the three-phase models of the

electric lines

To calculate the asymmetrical load regimes of the phases it is useful to

consider the equivalent circuit, thus emphasizing the self and mutual parameters

(Fig. 2.20,a,b).

Note that in the equivalent circuit from Figure 2.20,c, the hypothesis from

equation (2.83) with phase-to-phase voltage and currents multiplied by 3 has

been applied.

128 Basic computation

i k

a

Ii a z aa

ik a

a

Ik

b z bb z ab

ik b

Ii b z acik ik

b Ik

c z ccik z bc

ik c

Ii c c Ik

yab ybc yab ybc

yac yac

y aa

ik

y bb

ik

y ccik y aa

ik

y bb y cc

ik

ik

a.

a a

I i i z aa z ab z ac k

Ik

b b

[I i ] = I i z ba z bb z bc [I k] = I k

c c

I i

z ca z cb z cc Ik

a y aa y ab y ac [Z ik] y aa y ab y ac V

a

Vi

y ba y bb y bc = [Y ik]

k

[Y ik]

[V i] = V i

b = y ba y bb y bc [V k] = V b

2 y ca y cb y cc y ca y cb y cc 2 k

c

V

c

i

V k

b.

[I i] i [Z ik] k [I k]

[Y ik] [Y ik]

[U i]= 3 [V i] [U k]= 3 [V k]

2 2

c.

Fig. 2.20. Equivalent circuit of a three-phase electric line.

Using direct writing rules of the nodal admittance matrix, the relationship

between the nodal voltages and currents is (Fig. 2.20,c):

[Y ik ] [Z ]1

[I i ] [Z ik ] + 2

1

ik [U i ]

[I ] = [Y ik ] [U k ]

(2.84)

k [Z ik ]1 [Z ik ] +

1

2

Radial and meshed networks 129

Transmission line [2.3]

In this section the expressions for the active and reactive power flows in

transmission lines are derived. In this respect, consider the equivalent circuit

from Figure 2.21.

transmission line.

For the power flow calculation on a branch, we first consider the phase-to-

neutral voltages V i and V k and the current passed through the branch I ik ,

respectively.

The apparent power at the sending-end has the expression:

* * *

S ik = 3V i I ik = 3V i 3 I ik = U i I ik (2.85)

where I ik is the value of current at the sending-end, determined by

I ik = V i y ik 0 + (V i V k ) y ik =

1

3

[

U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik ] (2.86)

resulting:

not

3 I ik = U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = I ik (2.87)

Next, we express the voltages as polar coordinates:

ji

U i = Uie = U i (cos i + j sin i )

(2.88,a)

jk

U k = Uke = U k (cos k + j sin k )

and the series and shunt admittances as Cartesian or polar coordinates:

y ik = g ik + jbik = yik e j ik = yik (cos ik + j sin ik )

(2.88,b)

y ik 0 = y ki 0 = g ik 0 + jbik 0

( )

* *

S ik = U i I ik = U i U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = U i2 y ik 0 + y ik

* * *

U i U k y ik =

= U i yik ( cos ik j sin ik ) + gik 0 jbik 0

2

130 Basic computation

or

S ik Pik + jQik (2.85)

Equating the real and imaginary parts, the active and reactive powers flowing

on the transmission line from node i to node k are obtained:

Pik = U i2 ( g ik 0 + yik cos ik ) U iU k yik cos(i k ik )

(2.89,a)

Qik = U i2 (bik 0 + yik sin ik ) U iU k yik sin (i k ik )

The expressions of active and reactive powers flowing in opposite direction

are:

Pki = U k2 (g ki 0 + yki cos ki ) U kU i yki cos( k i ki )

(2.89,b)

Qki = U k2 (bki 0 + yki sin ki ) U kU i yki sin ( k i ki )

Transformer

Consider the case of equivalent circuit with transformer operator and real

turns ratio (Fig. 2.19,a,b) for which power losses, represented only through shunt

admittance y i 0 located on the primary winding side, are taken into consideration.

The expressions of complex powers flowing through transformer depend on

the side the taps are located.

Consider first the case of the step-up transformer (Fig. 2.22,a) where the taps

are located on the secondary winding side, and the series parameters are referred to

the lower voltage side. Adopting the same convention as for transmission line, it

can be written:

[

S ik = U i I i = U i y i 0 U i + y ik (U i N ik U k ) *=

*

]

= U i2 ( g i 0 jbi 0 + yik ) U i U k y ik N ik

* * *

where: y i 0 = gi 0 jbi 0 .

k

Sik Ski Sik Ski

Vi yi0 Vi Vk Vi yi0 V k Vk

a. b.

Fig. 2.22. Equivalent circuits of transformer with shunt admittance.

a. Step-up transformer; b. Step-down transformer.

[ ]

Pik + jQik = U i2 (g i 0 + jbi 0 ) + yik e j ik U iU k yik N ik e j ( i k ik )

Radial and meshed networks 131

Separating the real and imaginary parts of the latter expression yields the

active Pik and reactive Qik power flow expressions:

(2.90,a)

Qik = U i2 ( bi 0 + yik sin ik ) U iU k yik N ik sin (i k ik )

The expressions of active Pki and reactive Qki powers flowing in opposite

direction are:

*

[ ]

S ki = U i ' I k = N ik U k y ik (N ik U k U i ) *= U k2 y ik N ik2 U k U i y ik N ik

* * *

then it results:

Pki = U k2 yik N ik2 cos ik U kU i yik N ik cos( k i ik )

(2.90,b)

Qki = U k2 yik N ik2 sin ik U kU i yik N ik sin ( k i ik )

Likewise, if consider the case of the step-down transformer (Fig. 2.22,b),

where the taps are located on the primary winding side, the expressions of active

and reactive powers for both directions are:

( )

Pik = U i2 g i 0 + yki N ki2 cos ki U iU k yki N ki cos(i k ki )

(2.91,a)

( )

Qik = U i2 bi 0 + yki N ki2 sin ki U iU k yki N ki sin (i k ki )

(2.91,b)

Qki = U k2 yki sin ki U kU i yki N ki sin ( k i ki )

Analysing the expressions of powers flow through both step-up and step-

down transformers observe that these are identical, taking also into consideration

the relationships (1.111,b). Furthermore, if consider the transformer operates on the

median tap, and introducing the quantities in per units, that is N ik N ki 1 , obtain

the expressions of powers flow similar to the ones for transmission line.

By definition, the nodal power is the difference between the generated and

consumed powers into a node.

Taking into consideration that one set of generator units (noted by g) and one

set of loads (noted by c) are connected at i node, the expression of the nodal

complex power is (Fig. 2.23):

S i = Pi + jQi = S gi S ci (2.92)

132 Basic computation

node i

Sgi=Pgi+jQgi

k (i)

Sci=Pci+jQci

Si S

k ( i )

ik =0

or

Pi = P

k ( i )

ik ; Qi = Q

k ( i )

ik

Taking into account the expressions of powers flow on a branch (2.89), the

exchanged powers between the i node and remaining part of the network through

the nodes directly connected with it, are:

n n

Pi = U i2 (gik 0 + yik cos ik ) U i U k yik cos(i k ik )

k =1 k =1

(2.93)

n n

Qi = U i2 (b

k =1

ik 0 + yik sin ik ) U i U

k =1

k yik sin (i k ik )

elements. According to Figure 2.23, the terms of nodal admittance matrix are:

(y ) [( y

n

Y ii = ik

+ y ik 0 = ik cos ik + g ik 0 ) + j ( yik sin ik + bik 0 )]

k ( i ) k =1 (2.94,a)

= Yii e j ii Gii + jBii

n

Pi = U i2 Re{Y ii } + U i U Yk =1

k ik cos(i k ik )

(2.95)

n

Qi = U i2 Im{Y ii } + U i U Y

k =1

k ik sin (i k ik )

Radial and meshed networks 133

If equations (2.88,a) and (2.94) are used, the expression of nodal power

becomes:

n

Si =U i Ii =U i

*

Y

k =1

* *

ik U k Pi + jQi

or

n

Si = U U e

k =1

i k

j ( i k )

(Gik jBik ) =

n

= U U {G [cos(

k =1

i k ik i k ) + j sin (i k )] (2.96)

The expressions for active and reactive power injections are obtained by

identifying the real and imaginary parts of equation (2.96), yielding:

n

Pi (U m , m ) = U U [G

k =1

i k ik cos(i k ) + Bik sin (i k )] =

n n

(2.97,a)

= U U GG

k =1

i k ik = GiiU i2 + U U GG

k =1, k i

i k ik

respectively

n

Qi (U m , m ) = BiiU i2 U U BB

k =1, k i

i k ik (2.97,b)

where:

GGik = Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin (i k )

(2.98)

BBik = Bik cos(i k ) Gik sin (i k )

From (2.92) and (2.97) results the mathematical model of steady state:

Pgi Pci = Pi (U m , m )

(2.99)

Q gi Qci = Qi (U m , m )

For a branch i-k, the total power losses are simply calculated with formula:

S ik = S ik + S ki (2.100)

or, by separating the real and imaginary parts obtain the active and reactive power

losses:

134 Basic computation

Qik = Qik + Qki (2.101,b)

For the transmission line, the reactive power losses can have negative sign,

due to the capacitive shunt currents, that means the line generates reactive power.

Problem variables

The load flow problem can be formulated as a set of non-linear algebraic

equality/inequality constraints. These constraints represent both Kirchhoffs

theorems and network operation limits. In the basic formulation of the load flow

problem, four variables are associated to each node i: Ui voltage magnitude (node i);

i voltage angle; Pi and Qi net active and reactive powers (algebraic sum of

generation and load).

Basic node types

Depending on which of the above four variables are known (given) and

which ones are unknown (to be calculated), three basic types of nodes can be

defined (Table 2.2).

The major problem in the definition of node types is to guarantee that the

resulting set of power flow equations contains the same number of equations and

unknown quantities, as are normally necessary for solvability. For each node we

have four unknown state quantities P, Q, U, , and only two equations (for active

and reactive power balance). This requires that two of the state quantities to be

specified, the other two resulting after the steady state calculation.

Table 2.2

Node types

Quantities

Node type Symbol

Specified Unknown

P, U

Generator node G G min , Q

pure

or (Q , Q max )

hybrid

P,Q P(Q)

C C

Load node or BC(GC) P, Q , U

C

Passive node YC P = 0, Q = 0 , U

Slack (swing)

Us, s = 0 P, Q

node S

Radial and meshed networks 135

At generator node (PU node), active power P, voltage magnitude U as

well as reactive power limits (Qmin and Qmax) are specified. Fixing a certain voltage

level U sp at this type of node is possible due to the control possibilities through

reactive power support from generators. After calculation, the generated reactive

power Qg and the angle voltage are determined.

At hybrid generator node, the injected power is equal to the algebraic sum

of the power produced by the generator unit and the power absorbed by local load.

Load node (PQ node) must have either both active and reactive powers

specified or only one of the powers plus a parameter such as conductance (Gc) or

susceptance (Bc). The passive nodes of zero injected powers are also included in

this category. In these nodes there are no connected loads or, if any, they are

represented through constant admittance (Yc) or impedance (Zc).

Slack (swing) node (U node), where the voltage magnitude Us and the

phase angle s = 0 are specified, has a double function in the basic formulation of

the power flow problem: it serve as the voltage angle reference and since power

losses S are unknown in advance, the active and reactive powers generation of

the U node are used to balance generation, load and losses, and are determined at

the end of steady state calculation. The apparent power at the slack node should be:

Ss = S

jc

cj + S S

i g

gi

Therefore, the slack node must be chosen so that it can undertake the

inaccuracies introduced by the power losses in the network. Usually, this role is

performed by the most important power plant of the system.

Let us consider the expression of the injected current in i g c node [2.9]:

* n

Si

Ii=

Ui

*

= Y

k =1

ik U k (2.102)

namely i node, it becomes:

n

I i = Y ii U i + Y

k =1, k i

ik U k , i = 2,..., n ; i s (= 1)

1 n

Ui =

Y ii

Ii

Y ik U k , i = 2,..., n

(2.102')

k =1, k i

which represents the fundamental equation of Gauss iterative method.

136 Basic computation

voltages are equal to the nominal ones, except for the specified voltages, as

magnitude, at the slack node and generator nodes, which are constant during the

calculation process. For the (p+1) step following any given p step in the iterative

process, the linear relationship (2.102') becomes:

1 ( p) n

( p)

Ui

( p +1 )

=

Y ii

Ii

Y ik U k , i s

(2.102")

k =1; k i

where

( p )*

( p) Si ( p)

Ii = ; Si = Pi + jQi( p )

( p )*

Ui

In the framework of Seidel Gauss method, the finding of solution is

accelerated, by using in the (p+1) step the values of all the nodal voltages U k , with

k<i, already calculated in the same iterative step, according to the relationship:

1 Pi jQi( p ) i 1 n

Y ik U k , i s

( p +1 ) ( p +1) ( p)

U i , calc = Y U (2.103)

Y ii U ( p )

* ik k

i k =1 k = i +1

The convention of the current and powers flow is important. Currents

entering the nodes are considered positive, and thus the power into the node is also

positive. A load draws power out of the node and thus the active and inductive

reactive powers are entered in expression (2.103) with negative sign.

The iterative calculation goes on until the voltages magnitude difference

obtained after two successive iterations becomes smaller than a value imposed as

convergence test:

( p +1) ( p)

Ui U i

instead, it can be improved through convergence acceleration, under the hypothesis

of a non-periodic evolution of the process (Fig. 2.24).

U

real value

Ui

p+1

p+1 U i, acc

Ui p+1 p Fig. 2.24. Exemplification

Ui Ui of the convergence process

p

Ui acceleration.

calculation step

p p+1

Radial and meshed networks 137

voltage expression gets the form:

( p +1) ( p)

( ( p +1)

U i , acc = U i + U i , calc U i

( p)

), i s (2.104)

Usually (12), with moderate values, being preferred for the regimes

calculation, since large values could lead to divergence. The acceleration in the

initial phase can be unfavourable if the tendency towards the solution is oscillating.

It is recommended to use 3-4 iterations without acceleration, that is = 1 , then,

according to the number of nodes and parameters of the electric network,

= 1.2 K 1.75 , and every 10 iterations to use = 2.2.

The non-linear relations (2.103) are applied in a different manner in terms of

node types:

(i) Voltage calculation at the slack node is omitted, the voltage at this node

is specified in magnitude and phase angle, being maintained constant during the

entire iterative process;

(ii) For the load node, the reactive power Qi( p ) = Qi is considered constant,

and the voltage is updated every iteration by using equation (2.103);

(iii) A generator node is treated differently; the voltage to be controlled at the

node is specified and the generator voltage regulator varies the reactive power

output of the generator within its reactive power capability limits to regulate the

terminal voltage.

In order to maintain the voltage at the specified value we must proceed to its

correction:

( p)

( p) U i , calc

U i , cor = U isp ( p)

(2.105)

U i , calc

( p)

U i , cor becomes equal to the specified voltage U isp .

For the calculation of reactive power at iteration (p), as support to maintain the

voltage at generator terminals to the specified value, the most updated values of

voltages are used:

*

( p ) ( p )

( )

i 1 n

Qi( p) ( p) 2 *

k =1

( p +1)

= Im U i , cor Y ii + U i , cor Y ik U k +

Y ik U k

(2.106)

k = i +1

For a PU node the upper and lower limits of VAr generation to maintain the

nodal voltage constant are also given. The calculated reactive power is checked for

the specified limits:

Qimin < Qi( p ) < Qimax

138 Basic computation

taken into account in defining the capability limits.

If the calculated reactive power Qi( p ) falls within the specified limits

( p) ( p)

(between Qimin and Qimax ), then at iteration (p) the voltage is set to U i = U i , cor ,

( p +1)

then at iteration (p+1) the new value of voltage U i , calc is calculated by using the

expression (2.103);

If the calculated reactive power Qi( p ) is outside the specified limits ( Qgmin

,i ,

Qgmax

, i ), then the ig node, of PU type, is transferred to the set of c nodes of PQ

type. The reactive power Qi is fixed at one of the violated limits as follows:

(i) if Qi( p ) < Qimin , then Qi( p ) = Qimin ;

(ii) if Qi( p ) > Qimax , then Qi( p ) = Qimax .

That means the reactive power support is not sufficient to maintain the

voltage at the specified value, and the voltage at iteration (p) is the calculated value

( p) ( p)

U i = U i , calc .

Note that after the convergence test is satisfied, generator nodes must be

again treated accordingly, that is depending on the reactive power calculated, the

final voltages are established as explained earlier.

Also, in the end of the calculation process, after the (p+1) iteration when the

convergence test is satisfied, the apparent complex power at the slack node s is

calculated with the expression:

n

( p +1) ( p +1)*

Ss

final

=Ss

*

= U s2 Y ss + U s

k =1,k s

*

Y sk U k (2.107)

Observations [2.4]:

a) If the calculated real power generation violates generator limits, the excess

(or deficiency) of slack node generation is distributed among the remaining units,

and more load flow iteration are carried out. This adjustment is repeated until slack

node generation is within acceptable limits;

b) Also, if slack node reactive power generation violates generator limits,

then a number of possibilities may be considered. One possibility is to change the

slack node to a different generator. Another is to change slack node voltage

appropriately without violating its voltage limits. A third possibility is to introduce

reactive generation and/or load by means of the switching of appropriate capacitor

and/or inductor banks.

In practice, for the control of the convergence of iterative process, there are

also other criteria to use, the most common consisting in testing the module of the

difference between the apparent powers at the slack node, calculated at two

successive iterations:

( p +1) ( p)

Ss Ss

Radial and meshed networks 139

Once the state vector is calculated we could determine the injected powers

and the load flow on the network branches.

In chapter 8 Performance methods for power flow studies, methods of

Newton-Raphson type for steady state calculation are presented.

Usually, the urban distribution electric networks consist of underground

cables. These cables rise some problems concerning the repairing of insulation

damages or braking of conductors. The time necessary to detect and repair the

damages can be important, time in which many loads can remain not supplied. In

order to cope with this inconvenient, a back-up supply is recommended, which

implies the existence of at least two supply paths for each consumption point, from

the same source or from different sources. In order to limit the number of loads

affected by a short circuit emerging into the electric networks with such

configurations, the networks are operated in radial configuration.

The rural distribution electric networks mainly consist of overhead electric

lines. This type of lines do not present special problems in detecting and repairing

the damages. In addition, the density of the loads supplied by these networks is

much smaller than the one in urban networks. A reserve in the power supply of

these loads is not economically justified, the structure of the rural distribution

electric network being usually arborescent or radial. Although these networks have

a meshed structure they are operated in radial configuration.

In practice, for short periods of time, the distribution electric networks can de

operated in a meshed configuration, especially when reconfiguration manoeuvres

are performed within the network.

Generally, by reconfiguration of a physical system is understood the

modification of the operational connections that exist among its components, in

order to improve the system operation as a whole or just a part of it, without

modifying the characteristic parameters of the system components.

In the particular case of distribution electric networks, the reconfiguration

aims at improving and optimising the operating state by changing only the

topological state in operation / out of service of some electric lines. The

network reconfiguration is possible only for meshed networks, for which the

arborescent operation is recommended. For such configuration, the set of electric

lines in operation and out of service have a well determined number of

elements, the number of the electric lines in operation being equal to the number

of load nodes. The elements of these two sets can be exchanged subject to the

arborescent operation of the network. The advantage is the possibility of achieving

the most suitable configuration in order to improve or optimise the operating state,

in terms of the strategy of network configuration and of the electricity demand. For

140 Basic computation

example, consider a simple meshed electric network, which supplies n loads (Fig.

2.25). The arborescent configuration allows us to achieve n + 1 possible

arborescent configurations in operation.

Source A Source B

1 2 ... k ... n Base

network

Network

sectionalization

Configuration 1

...

Configuration k

...

Configuration n+1

Fig. 2.25. Possible arborescent configurations for a simple meshed electric network.

The reconfiguration process can be applied for all the possible operating

conditions of a distribution electric network:

normal conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network

elements, the state quantities being within the admissible operating limits;

critical conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network

elements, with some of the state quantities being at the limit of normal

operation (the thermal limit, the voltage stability limit, etc.);

emergency operation, characterized by the unavailability of one or more

elements of the network, due to operation under critical conditions on

expanded period of time or to some accidental damages emerged from

outside the network.

For the normal and critical conditions, finding the optimal configuration of an

electric network actually implies network reconfiguration, but for the emergency

operation the process becomes one of reconstruction. Usually, under normal

conditions, the purpose is to reach an optimum in operation in order to minimize

the active power losses and energy losses and to improve the security in supplying

the loads. For the critical conditions the goal of the reconfiguration process is to

restore the network normal operating state, by load reducing and balancing the

lines load as well as by reducing the voltage drops and also by obtaining uniformity

of the voltage level at the loads. For the emergency operation the goal is to supply

as many as possible loads after the detection and isolation of the fault. In this case,

the optimisation is of lower interest, more important being the restoration of the

power supply of all loads in a time as short as possible and the reducing of the

financial penalties for the electricity not supplied.

Radial and meshed networks 141

the operating state of the network can be improved by a reduced

coordination effort, achieving considerable results. The advantages mainly

consist in decreasing the active power losses and, in most cases, in

decreasing the reactive power losses as well as the decreasing of the line

load, the decreasing of the voltage drops and the improvement of the

voltage level at loads. The effort done for network reconfiguration is

related to the cost of the manoeuvres necessary to change the present

configuration and, eventually, the cost of the electricity not supplied during

these manoeuvres;

a second aspect refers to the dynamics of the power energy demanded by

the loads. The load curve can be significantly changed either for long or for

shorter periods of time, causing the change of the load gravity centre and

thus of the operating state of the network. Therefore, specific (normal)

operating configurations can be defined for each period of time in terms of

the season and the characteristics of the consumer activity during the

week-days.

The reconfiguration process of a distribution electric network can be seen as

an optimisation problem. To define the mathematic model, we start from the

observation that to any electrical network, consisting of n nodes and l branches, a

graph G ( X, A ) can be assigned, where X is the set of nodes and A is the set of

branches. To these sets, state or operational quantities can be also assigned, which

characterize the operating state of the network.

Therefore, to the set A of the branches it can be assigned:

the set I of state quantities, representing the branches currents;

the set C of decision quantities, representing the topological states of the

branches; for any branch l from the set A , the topological state can be:

cl = 1 , if the branch l is in operation;

cl = 0 , if the branch l is out of service.

the set U of state quantities representing the nodal voltages;

the set F of quantities representing the reliability indices of the nodes.

Based on these notations, the mathematical model of the reconfiguration

optimisation problem has the general form [2.15], [2.16]:

OPTIM f ( U, I, C, F ) (2.108)

142 Basic computation

g ( U, I, C, F ) = 0

(2.109)

h ( U, I, C, F ) > 0

the general case, it can be written as:

f ( U, I, C, F ) = 1 f1 ( U, I, C, F ) + 2 f 2 ( U, I, C, F ) + K + n f n ( U, I, C, F ) (2.110)

1 , 2 ,K, n weight coefficients of every criterion.

The criteria that can be used in the objective function for the electric

distribution network reconfiguration problem are:

real power losses decrease;

decrease and balancing the branch load;

voltage drops decrease;

improve the safety in power supply of the loads;

decrease the manoeuvres cost.

Analysing the criteria shown above, it can be seen that, in most of the cases,

for the mathematic model solution, the main goal is the minimization of the

objective function. There can be also situations when the goal is to find the

maximum of the objective function.

In terms of the number of criteria taken into account, the objective function is

of single-criterion type, when only one criterion is considered, or multi-criterion

type, when two or more criteria are considered.

The constraints can be related to the network exploitation or operation:

the network connectivity or the supply of all loads, constraint checked by

applying the Kirchhoffs current law in all load nodes;

the arborescent configuration of the network;

the security in operation, which refers to branch load, voltage drops as well

as nodal voltage level;

the reliability level in the power supply of the loads;

the possibility of the network branches to be subjected to manoeuvres;

the maximum number admitted for manoeuvres to change the network

operating configuration.

A synthesis on the issues that can be taken into consideration in the

reconfiguration process is presented in Table 2.3.

Of the many issues presented above, that can be taken into account in the

mathematical model of the reconfiguration problem, only the following aspects are

of interest in operation:

active power losses ( P );

branch load ( I I adm );

voltage drops ( U );

Radial and meshed networks 143

duration of the supply restoration ( Tdint ).

Table 2.3

Issues used currently in the reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks

Operating state

Issue

Normal Critical Emergency

Power losses Criterion - -

Manoeuvres cost Criterion - -

Criterion/ Criterion/

Security in power supply Criterion

Constraint Constraint

Criterion/ Criterion/

Branch load Constraint

Constraint Constraint

Criterion/ Criterion/

Voltage drops Constraint

Constraint Constraint

Arborescent configuration Restriction Restriction Restriction

Configuration connectivity Restriction Restriction Restriction

Executing manoeuvres on certain

Restriction Restriction Restriction

electric lines and transformers

Admitted number of manoeuvres Restriction Restriction -

P = R I

lA

2

l l cl ;

lA

{

I I adm = max I l I ladm ;} U = max

kX

Zl Il ; (2.111)

lDk

kX kX

I ladm the admissible current (thermal limit) of the branch l;

Dk the path between the node k and the source node;

e k the equivalent failure rate of the node k with respect to the source

node;

e k the inverse of the mean time to repair of the node k with respect to

the source node.

The reconfiguration process constraints can be written under the form:

144 Basic computation

ik = I c , k X;

lA k

l l lR = l n + nC ;

I l I ladm , l A; Z

lDk

l I l U adm , k X; (2.112)

adm

N man N man ;

adm

N int N int ; Tdint Tdadm

max

Ak the set of branches adjacent to the node k;

lR the number of out of service branches;

nC the number of load nodes;

U adm the admissible voltage drop in the network;

N man the number of manoeuvres necessary to obtain the final

configuration;

adm

N man the maximum admissible number of manoeuvres necessary to

obtain the final configuration;

adm

N int maximum yearly number of interruptions in the load supply;

Tdadm

max

maximum admissible duration of the supply restoration.

In order to identify the theoretical and practical possibilities for

reconfiguration problem solution we start from some remarks regarding the

mathematical model. In the case when the problem solution does not involve the

voltage change at the source node, the size of the sets U , I and F implicitly

depend on the quantities of the set C , so that the objective function can be written

as:

OPTIM f ( U ( C ) , I ( C ) , F ( C ) ) (2.113)

is to explicitly determine the decision variables cl , l A . These are discrete binary

variables, which can be equal to 1 or 0. Under these conditions, the mathematical

model has the form of a general mathematical programming problem with discrete

variables. Furthermore, for the previously discussed issues, the functions assigned

to each criterion, as well as the ones that describe the constraints, have a convex

character. Hereby, the mathematical model takes the form of a convex

programming problem with discrete variables.

Out of the previous remarks, the conclusion that comes out is that a

theoretical possibility to solve the mathematical model consists in the use of tools

specific to the mathematical programming: linear programming, convex

programming, dynamic programming, etc.

Radial and meshed networks 145

optimisation problem is based on artificial intelligence techniques, such as decision

trees, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, expert systems, Petri nets, etc.

A practical possibility to obtain the solution to the reconfiguration process

consists in searching within the solutions space, which is the set of all arborescent

configurations that can be generated for an electric network with a meshed

structure. The number of elements of the solutions space is directly influenced by

the complexity and the geographical spread of the electric network.

Only a small part of the possible arborescent configurations of an electric

network, that form the solutions space, fulfil the inequality constraints, and they

form what is called the set of allowed operating configurations. Because the

optimum is related to various issues, the final configurations obtained after the

reconfiguration process can be different. The goal of reconfiguration is to identify

those optimal configurations which fulfil all the technical and operational

constraints.

The methods based on searching within the solutions space, used for

reconfiguration problem solution, can be systematic or heuristic.

In the frame of the systematic methods (uninformed searching methods) all

the possible arborescent configurations of a distribution electric network are

individually generated and analysed. The configuration corresponding to the

optimal operation subjected to the main objective is further considered. As far as

this principle is concerned, the systematic search methods are optimal methods,

which ensure finding the global optimal solution. This is the main advantage of the

systematic searching methods. Although there are only two possible values for

each variable, it is rather difficult to apply this kind of methods for most of the

distribution networks because of the very large number of arborescent

configurations which have to be generated and analysed. This is the main

disadvantage on the systematic methods.

Mathematical Programming Artificial Intelligence Techniques Searching inside the Solution Space

Expert Systems

Petri Networks

decrease the number of configurations that should be analysed to achieve the

146 Basic computation

filtering for analysing only the intermediary configurations that lead to a final

solution close to or even identical to the optimal global solution. The advantage

consists in a considerable reduced computation time and effort to the detriment of

the fact that they are not optimal.

The theoretical and practical possibilities of solving the reconfiguration

optimisation problem are synthetically presented in Figure 2.26.

A heuristic method is a searching procedure that allows for an easy solving of

a combinative problem. The existence of the heuristic methods is based on the use

of a set of observations, rules and knowledge, gained from previous experience or

theoretically developed, that allow filtering for analysis only the solutions that lead

to a final solution close to or even identical to the optimal global one.

For the reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks, the main issue

that allows the use of heuristic methods is related to the variation of the currents

curve within network branches for different arborescent configurations. For a

simple meshed network consisting of an electric line supplying n loads (Fig. 2.27),

consider that the network splitting is performed by opening the line between the

nodes k 1 and k, the currents flowing through the other line sections increase

toward the source nodes A and B. The increase of these currents has a convex form.

When the line section chosen for network splitting is changed, the currents curve is

moved up or down, whilst preserving the shape.

Ik Ik

| In+1|

| I1|

| I2| | In|

| In-1|

| Ik-1|

| Ik+1|

of a simple meshed network that operates radially.

Radial and meshed networks 147

specific requirements, and scan for improved configurations. If there is at least one

improved configuration, the selection criterion replaces the actual configuration

with the improved one. The procedure ends when no improved configuration ca be

found by applying the searching mechanism for the actual configuration. An

improved configuration of the actual one is defined as being that configuration

which leads to the evolution of the objective function value in the desired direction.

The heuristic reconfiguration methods of the distribution electric networks

are based on three strategies [2.15], [2.17]:

constructive strategy, in which all the branches of the initial

configuration are in out of service state. By successively transitions to the in

operation state of some branches, the desired arborescent configuration is

achieved (Fig. 2.28). Because each load node can be supplied by just one branch,

the number of intermediary steps necessary to achieve the final configuration is

equal to the number of the load nodes.

in operation state. By successive transition to the out of service state of some

branches the desired arborescent configuration is achieved (Fig. 2.29). The number

of intermediary steps necessary to achieve the final configuration is equal to

difference between the total number of branches and the number of the load nodes.

(1) (2)

configuration and preserves the arborescent character during the process. For the

transition from one configuration to another, a branch is switched in operation

and than another one, from the loop resulted from this manoeuvre, is switched out

148 Basic computation

of service (Fig. 2.30). While for the previous strategies the number of

intermediary steps necessary for achieving the final configuration is well defined,

for this strategy the number of steps depends on many factors, out of which the

most important are the searching manner of the substituting configuration and its

selection criterion.

Since for the branch exchange reconfiguration strategy, the path between

the initial and the final configuration is not unique, for identifying improved

configurations, several strategies can be applied (Fig. 2.31).

Local Descending

Ordered Dynamic

of improved configurations

Random Maximal

Irrevocable Tentative

(irreversible) (reversible)

General

reversible Backtracking

Taking into account the convex variation of the curve of the branch currents

for a simple meshed network, for the criteria based on these currents, the searching

process is simplified. Therefore, starting from an out of service branch, branch

exchange is subsequently performed with the two adjacent branches. If an

improved configuration is found for one of these exchanges the search continues in

this direction with the next branch, until no improved configurations can be found.

Depending on the fact that the searches continue or not, the search is called

descending or local.

Radial and meshed networks 149

greater or equal to 2. Examination of out of service branches can be random or

ordered; in the second case various ordering criteria can be used, such as: the

voltage drop at the terminals of these branches, the resistance of the loop to which

the branch is assigned, etc.

If for a complex meshed network, starting from the actual configuration,

different improved configurations can be found, the substitution configuration can

be decided upon by choosing the best of them (maximal strategy) or the first

configuration encountered (dynamic strategy).

The main disadvantage of the heuristic methods consists in the fact that the

global optimal solution is not guaranteed. The search around local optimums is

avoided by returning to a previous improved configuration and restarting the search

on a different path. For this procedure the search strategies can be irrevocable

(irreversible) or tentative (reversible) [2.18]. In an irreversible search once a

certain improved configuration is found the search mechanism does not return to

previous improved configurations. A tentative search strategy returns to a previous

configuration by following either exactly the path between the initial and the final

configuration (backtracking search) or any other path (general reversible search).

Reducing the active power losses is the main objective of the reconfiguration

process of the distribution electric networks operated under normal conditions. The

improved configurations are strictly subjected to the inequality constraints,

especially to those referring to line load, nodal voltage level and voltage drops.

Power losses include three components, namely (see Chapter 7):

own technologic consumption;

technical losses;

commercial losses.

The reduction that can be achieved by reconfiguration is aimed at Joule

losses, that belong to own technologic consumption, the objective function of this

criterion having the form:

MIN [ P ] = MIN Rl I l2 cl

lA

(2.114)

irrespective of the strategy employed, to start from an initial configuration and

adopting some intermediary configurations to reach the final configuration.

Theoretically, the analysis of the objective function while passing from one

configuration to another is performed by load flow calculation and evaluating the

total active power losses of the network. For the linear model of the network, the

evaluation of the active power losses variation can be performed without load flow

calculation. In this regard, the results obtained in Appendix 2.2 are used further on

to describe some heuristic methods for active power losses reduction.

150 Basic computation

Consider a simple meshed electric network supplying n loads (Fig. 2.32,a).

The initial radial configuration from which the branch exchange strategy starts is

the one in which the splitting is done between the nodes k and k + 1 (Fig. 2.32,b).

IA A 1 2 k-1 k k+1 n B IB

z1 z2 zk-1 zk zk+1 zn zn+1

VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

a.

A I1 1 I2 2 Ik-1 k-1 Ik k k+1 In n In+1 B

z1 z2 zk-1 zk zn zn+1

VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

b.

Fig. 2.32. Simple distribution electric network:

a. meshed network; b. meshed electric network with radial operation.

The local load transfer of one load or of a group of loads between two

neighbouring feeders is performed by doing an elementary exchange for an out of

service branch. The selection of this branch exchange is based on using the

equation. (A2.2.8) to estimate the active power losses variation P generated by

the load transfer from one feeder to another. The condition for the load transfer is

P < 0 . For the network shown in Figure 2.32,b, consider the transfer of the load

from the node k located on the feeder supplied from node A to the feeder supplied

from node B (Fig. 2.33).

ik=-ik ik=+ik

z1 z2 zk-1 zk+1 zn zn+1

VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

of the node k from the feeder A to the feeder B.

After the load transfer the currents through the line sections between the

nodes A and k will decrease with the value of i k , and the currents through the line

sections between the nodes B and k will increase with the same value. By applying

equation (A2.2.8) for the mentioned line sections, for the current flows

Radial and meshed networks 151

corresponding to the situation previous to the load transfer, and considering that

i k = i k , one obtains:

k k k

PA,k = 3 ik2 ri 2ika ri I ia 2ikr ri I ir

i =1 i =1 i =1

(2.115)

n n +1 n +1

PB ,k = 3 ik2 ri + 2ika ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir

i = k +1 i = k +1 i = k +1

By summing up the above relations, the active power losses variation, as a

result of the transfer of the node k from the feeder A to the feeder B, is [2.19]:

n +1 k

n +1 k

P = 3 ik2 RAB + 2ika ri I ia ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir ri I ir (2.116)

i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1

where RAB is the resistance between nodes A and B.

The optimal currents pattern represents the current flows through the

branches of a simple meshed electric network for which the active power losses are

minimised, in comparison with any other operating state. For a simple meshed

electric network, the optimal currents pattern corresponds to the natural repartition

of currents through the line sections, considering only their resistances, given that

the voltages at the two ends are equal [2.1, 2.14, 2.20].

Consider that the meshed electric network in Figure 2.32,a has equal voltages

at both ends. The current flows through the network branches is determined

starting from the current I A or I B and subsequently applying Kirkhoffs current

law in nodes 1, 2,K, n , or in the nodes n,K , 2,1 , respectively. The currents injected

by the two supplying nodes are calculated with the relations (2.29,a) and (2.29,b)

adapted for the situation in which only the branches resistances are considered:

n

R i

k k n +1

IA = k =1

RAB

; Rk = r

i = k +1

i

n

(2.117)

R i k k k

IB = k =1

; Rk = ri

RAB i =1

To obtain the radial configuration from Figure 2.33, the line section between

nodes k 1 and k from the meshed network is switched out of service state

(Fig. 2.33). The currents through the line sections between nodes A and k decrease

with the value of I k , and the currents through the line sections between nodes B

and k increase with the same value. By applying the relation (A2.2.8) for the

mentioned line sections, corresponding to the current flows in meshed operation

and considering that i k = I k , the active power losses variation, after

transforming the simple meshed networks into two radial sub-networks, is:

152 Basic computation

n +1 k

n +1 k

P = 3 I k2 RAB + 2 I ka ri I ia ri I ia + 2 I kr ri I ir ri I ir (2.118)

i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1

Taking into account that the current flows for the line sections of the simple

meshed network has been calculated considering only the branch resistances, the

voltage drops of the nodes A and B with respect to the node k can be written as:

k k k

V Ak = ri ( I ia + jI ir ) = ri I ia + j ri I ir

i =1 i =1 i =1

n +1 n +1 n+1

(2.119)

V Bk = r (I

i = k +1

i ia + jI ir ) = rI

i = k +1

i ia + j ri I ir

i = k +1

nodes A and B with respect to the node k are identical V Ak = V Bk , and

subtracting the first row of equation (2.119) from the second one, one obtains:

n +1 k

n +1 k

i ia ri I ia +

r I j ri I ir ri I ir = 0 (2.120)

i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1

which leads to:

n +1 k

rI

i = k +1

i ia ri I ia = 0

i =1

n +1 k

(2.121)

r I r I

i = k +1

i ir

i =1

i ir =0

P = 3I k2 RAB (2.122)

The previous equation shows that by transforming a simple homogeneous

meshed network, which operates with equal voltages at both ends, into two radial

sub-networks, the active power losses increase. The smallest increase is recorded

on the line section with the smallest current. Consequently, applying the optimal

current pattern method, in order to reduce the active power losses, three steps are

necessary:

a) Closing a loop by switching a line section from the out of service state

to the in operation state;

b) Calculating the optimal currents pattern in the closed loop achieved

previously;

c) Identifying the line section from the loop whose current magnitude is

minimum and switching it in the out of service state.

B. Destructive strategy

Employment of the destructive type strategy for active power losses

reduction is based on the notion of optimal currents pattern in a loop. As presented

Radial and meshed networks 153

loops within a complex meshed network, until the final radial configuration is

achieved. The selection criterion at each computation step of the branch of a loop

that should be switched out of service is based on the conclusions provided by

equation (2.122). The following steps are required:

a) Load flow calculation, considering only the branch resistances;

b) All closed loops are individually analysed, by identifying the origin

nodes and calculating the cumulative resistance of the line sections

between them;

c) Identifying for each loop, the branch with the minimal current and

calculating the power losses variation after switching the branch out of

service;

d) Selecting the branch for which the variation of the power losses P has

the lowest value and switching it out of service.

C. Constructive strategy

Employment of this strategy in the reconfiguration process for active power

losses reducing is based on the results obtained in Appendix A2.2. This strategy

consists in subsequently switching in operation some network branches, until the

final arborescent configuration is achieved. The selection of the branch that should

be switched in operation among the candidate branches at each computation step,

is based on the active power losses increase minimization criterion [2.15], [2.17].

Consider the electric network in Figure 2.32, for which, at a certain

computation step, a choice between introducing either the line section between the

nodes k 1 and k or the line section between the nodes q and q + 1 is necessary

(Fig. 2.34).

z1 zk-1 zk zq+1 zq+2 zn+1

VA i1 ik-1 ik iq iq+1 in VB

Fig. 2.34. Selecting the branch that has to be added to the network.

Figure 2.34, the active power losses variation for both cases becomes:

k k 1 k 1

PA,k = 3 ik2 ri + 2ika ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir

i =1 i =1 i =1

(2.123)

n +1 n +1 n +1

PB ,q = 3 iq2 ri + 2iqa ri I ia + 2iqr ri I ir

i = q +1 i =k + 2 i=k +2

154 Basic computation

This criterion is employed within the reconfiguration process for critical

operating conditions, characterized by the fact that the power flows through

branches closely to the technical capacity, which is the maximum load of the

network branches (I I adm )max , has exceeded a specified value, usually equal to

unity.

The objective function for the branch load reducing criteria can be expressed

as follows:

[

MIN (I I adm )max ] (2.124)

If the objective is the balancing of branch loads, the objective function is

expressed as follows:

1 l I

MIN (2.125)

l k =1 I adm k

While reducing the branch loads is a local criterion, when applied for a single

branch of the network the load balancing on branches is a global criterion, which is

used for the whole network. In the last case the goal is equivalent to obtaining more

or less the same load for all branches. This can be represented mathematically as

[2.21]:

I I I 1 l I

=

I adm 1 I adm 2

= L = =

I adm l l k =1 I adm k

(2.126)

Theoretically, for branch load reduction, elementary branch exchanges for all

branches in out of service state can be performed. To perform only the branch

exchanges that leads to the proposed goal we consider the fact that at an elementary

branch exchange in a certain loop only the current flow through the line sections of

the loop in question will change (Fig. 2.35).

Im

m

k

n

a.

-Im m

k

n

+Im

b.

Fig. 2.35. Variation of currents in a meshed network:

a. before the branch exchange; b. after the branch exchange.

Radial and meshed networks 155

branch load, the necessary condition is to perform branch exchanges only in the

loops that include that branch. Since for each out of service branch only two

elementary exchanges are possible, the second necessary condition is that the

chosen branch exchange should lead to the decrease of current flows through the

branch in question.

The sufficient conditions that ensure this objective are that, by a branch

exchange, a non-zero load should be transferred from a feeder to a neighbouring

one, and on the feeder to which the transfer was performed, no branch load

exceeding the admissible value or the existing load of the branch in question

should emerge. For the network in Figure 2.35, the second sufficient condition is

given by [2.12]:

I l + I m I adml ; l = k + 1,K , n

(2.127)

I m I admmn

necessary to reduce the load of the branch in question, are presented.

I > Iadm

Fig. 2.36. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the branch load.

This criteria is employed in the reconfiguration process for critical operating

conditions, characterized by the fact that the voltage drop occurring along some

branches is bigger than the admissible value, or that the minimum voltage node has

a voltage level too low with respect to the voltage of the source node which

supplies it. In this case, by performing branch exchanges, the goal is to achieve the

reduction of the voltage drops along the branches on the path between the source

node and the minimum voltage node. Likewise to the previous method,

theoretically, in order to fulfil this objective, elementary exchanges for all out of

service branches can be performed. In order to perform only those branch

exchanges that can lead to this objective, it should be taken into account that, when

performing an elementary exchange, the current values will change only for the

branches of the loop to which the exchanged branches belong, which leads to

voltage change for all nodes in the arborescent sub-networks that include the

branches of the respective loop. Based on this observation, we conclude that the

first necessary condition to reduce the voltages drop in a network is to perform a

branch exchange that will include at least one of the branches on the path between

the minimum voltage node and the source node that supplies it. From the same

reason as the one when reducing the branch loads, the second necessary condition

156 Basic computation

is that the chosen branch exchange should lead to a voltage drop decrease on the

path considered. The sufficient conditions that ensure this objective are: for a

branch exchange, a non-zero load should be transferred from a feeder to a

neighbouring one, and in the arborescent sub-network for which the transfer was

performed no voltage drops exceeding the admissible value or the existing voltage

drops occurring on the path in question should emerge [2.12].

For a better understanding, the possible branch exchanges performed in the

Figure 2.37 to reduce the voltage drop between the source node and the node in

question, are presented.

Umin

Fig. 2.37. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the maximum voltage drop.

Appendix 2.1

EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THE FORWARD/BACKWARD

SWEEP SOLUTION

Consider a simple electric network consisting of a source node and a load node,

linked by an electric line (Fig. A2.1.1).

SA A Z=R+jX 1 S1

VA V1

For this network, the voltage V A at the source node and the complex power S 1 at

the load node are known, and the goal is to establish the operating conditions in which, by

applying the backward/forward sweep, to achieve the load flow results as well as the proof

of their uniqueness.

For the load flow calculation of this network, the voltage at the load node is first

(0)

initialised, V 1 = V A , and then the following calculations are iteratively performed:

S 1*

I ( p) =

3V 1( p 1)*

V 1( p ) = V A Z I ( p ) (A2.1.1)

S (Ap ) = 3V A I ( p )*

where I represents the line current, and p stands for the iteration index.

Radial and meshed networks 157

necessary to know the complex power S 1 . Because for the general equation (2.34) finding

these conditions is extremely difficult, two particular load modelling cases will be

considered in the following: by constant current or by constant power (these are the most

frequently used models in electric network studies). Therefore:

(1) In the case of load modelling by constant complex current, the line current I ,

obtained from the first relation of (A2.1.1), is constant and independent on the voltage level

at the node 1. Under these conditions, the mathematical model is linear, and the load flow

results are achieved after just a single iteration. Mathematically, V 1 and S A exist and are

well determined for any value taken by the current I . Technically, low or negative values

of the active component of the voltage V 1 , due to a too large voltage drop on the line, are

not accepted.

(2) For the case of load modelling by complex constant power, consider that the

power has the expression S 1 = P1 + jQ1 , with P1 and Q1 constant. Therefore, the

mathematical model is no longer linear, and in order to achieve the load flow results an

iterative computation should be performed. In order to establish the conditions for which

PA , Q A and V1 exist, we start from the relationship between the powers at the two nodes:

PA2 + QA2

PA = P1 + R

3VA2

(A2.1.2)

PA2 + QA2

QA = Q1 + X

3VA2

The voltage V 1 at the load node can be calculated in terms of the voltage V A at the

source node, by means of the relationship:

P1 jQ1

V 1 = V A ( R + jX ) (A2.1.3)

3V 1*

The following relationship exists between the magnitudes of voltages V A and V 1 at

the two ends of the line:

P12 + Q12

3VA2 = 3V12 + 2 ( RP1 + XQ1 ) + R 2 + X 2 ( ) 3V12

(A2.1.4)

2

R X V

r= ; x= ; v= 1 (A2.1.5)

3VA2 3VA2 VA

obtaining thus the system of equations that describes the network operation, in the form:

A 1 (

P = P + r P2 + Q2

A A )

(

QA = Q1 + x PA + QA

2 2

) (A2.1.6)

(

v 2 1 2 ( rP1 + xQ1 ) v + r 2 + x 2 )( P 1

2

)

+ Q12 = 0

158 Basic computation

The previous system is non-linear, having the unknown variables PA , QA and v. The

first two equations of the set (A2.1.6) define two curves in the system of PA QA co-

ordinates. The crossing points ( PA1 , QA1 ) and ( PA2 , QA2 ) of these curves are in fact the

solutions for the unknown variables PA and QA (Fig. A2.1.2).

of the single-load network [2.10].

To determine the solutions analytically, from the first two equations in (A2.1.6) we

express the power losses on the line as:

(

P = PA P1 = r PA2 + QA2 ) (A2.1.7)

Q = QA Q1 = x ( PA2 + QA2 )

and, by dividing the two equations, it results:

P r

= (A2.1.8)

Q x

From equations (A2.1.7), the power losses in terms of the load power components

and the power losses components, are:

P = r ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )

2 2

(A2.1.9)

Q = x ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )

2 2

Using the equation (A2.1.8) and substituting the unknown variable Q from the

second equation in (A2.1.9) into the first one, we obtain a second order equation where the

variable is P :

r2

P 2 2

r +x

r

2

(1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) P +

r + x2

2 (P

1

2

)

+ Q12 = 0 (A2.1.10)

r (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )

P11,2 = (A2.1.11)

(

2 r 2 + x2 )

Radial and meshed networks 159

x (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )

Q11,2 = (A2.1.12)

(

2 r +x2 2

)

Solving the third equation in (A2.1.6), the solutions for the voltage v are obtained:

1 1

v1,2 = rP1 xQ1 (A2.1.13)

2 2

The existence of these solutions is conditioned by the sign of the quantities under to

be square-rooted, i.e:

On the boundary, the above relation describes a parabola. Considering also the

restriction P1 0 (node 1 being of load type), the existence domain of the solutions of the

system of equations (A2.1.1) is given by the hatched area in Figure A2.1.3.

Q1

1

2 1

2 2

4 P'1 r + x

P1

1

2

2 2

Q'1 r + x

P1 = ( rP1 + xQ1 ) 2

r +x 2

and Q1 = ( xP1 rQ1 ) 2 2

r + x , representing components of a

rotation of angle = atan ( x r ) , of the system of axes P1 Q1 around the origin.

For technical and psychical reasons [2.9, 2.22, 2.23], of the two values of the

voltage v, only the value with the sign + is accepted. The quantities PA and QA depend

upon the existence and the uniqueness of the quantity v, as expressed in equations (A2.2.1).

The proof of existence and uniqueness of the load flow solution for the general case

of a radial (arborescent) network consisting of n nodes can be obtained by generalizing the

results previously achieved. Applying iteratively the process described earlier, it can be

160 Basic computation

demonstrated that for each branch i of the electric network there is a unique relationship

between the active Pi and reactive Qi power entering (injected) into the branch and the

voltage magnitude U i +1 at the other end of the branch.

Appendix 2.2

THE ACTIVE POWER LOSSES VARIATION AS A RESULT OF A LOAD

VARIATION IN A RADIAL NETWORK

Consider a radial electric network that supplies n loads, whose one-line diagram is

illustrated in Figure A2.2.1. The loads are modelled by constant currents and the lines

sections by series impedances.

A I1 1 I2 2 k-1 Ik k n-1 In n

z1 z2 zk zn

VA

i1 i2 ik-1 ik in-1 in

For this network, the active power losses variation to a change of the load current at

any node k is of interest. In this respect, the complex power losses are firstly expressed with

the relation:

n n n n

S = 3 [ I ]t [ Z ][ I ] = 3 x I

*

z k I k I *k = 3 z k I k2 = 3 rk I k2 + j 2

k k (A2.2.1)

k =1 k =1 k =1 k =1

where z k is the impedance of the branch k, between the nodes k 1 and k, and I k is the

complex current flowing through the branch k.

In the previous relation the active power losses can be expressed as:

n n

P = 3

k =1

rk I k2 =3 r (I

k =1

k

2

ka + I kr2 ) (A2.2.2)

where I ka and I kr are the active and reactive components of the complex current I k .

The current I k ca be expressed in terms of the load currents as:

n

Ik = i

i=k

i (A2.2.3).

Expanding the equation (A2.2.2) and considering the equation (A2.2.3), it results:

{

P = 3 r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K +

2 2

(A2.2.4)

+ rk ( ika + K + ina ) + ( ikr + K + inr )

2

2 2

+ K + rn ina ( 2

+ inr )}

In the previous equation the line sections resistances are considered to be constant.

Also, consider that the load currents are constant, except the current at the load connected

Radial and meshed networks 161

to the node k. In order to calculate the power losses variation in the whole network for a

variation of the current i k , the expansion of expression of P from equation (A2.2.4)

using Taylor series is performed in the vicinity of the operating point, in terms of the

quantities ika and ikr [2.12]:

Not ( P ) ( P ) 1 ( P ) 2

2

( P ) = P = ika + ikr + ika +

ika ikr 2

2 ika

(A2.2.5)

( P )

2

( P ) 2 2

+2 ika ikr + ikr + K

ika ikr 2

ikr

The partial derivatives that emerges in this expansion have the expressions:

( P )

= 3 2r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rk ( ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rn ina

ika

( P )

= 3 2r1 ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rk ( ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rn inr

ikr

2 ( P )

2

= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn

ika

(A2.2.6)

2 ( P )

=0

ika ikr

2 ( P )

2

= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn

ika

p ( P )

= 0 () p 3, q p

q

ika ikrp q

Replacing the equations from (A2.2.6) in (A2.2.5) and taking into account (A2.2.3),

it results:

(A2.2.7)

(

+ ( r1 + r2 + K + rk ) ika

2 2

+ ikr )

The latter equation express the active power losses variation in the network due to

the change of current in node k, of the form i k = ika + j ikr :

2 k k k

(

P = 3 ika 2

+ ikr ) r + 2i r I

i ka i ia + 2ikr r I i ir

(A2.2.8)

i =1 i =1 i =1

Likewise, the expression of the reactive power losses variation due to the change of

current in node k is:

162 Basic computation

2 k k k

(

Q = 3 ika 2

+ ikr ) xi + 2ika xi I ia + 2ikr x I i ir (A2.2.9)

i =1 i =1 i =1

Neglecting the reactance of the line sections, the voltage drop V Ak between the

nodes A and k becomes:

k k

V Ak = VAk + jVAk =

i =1

ri I ia + j r I

i =1

i ir (A2.2.10)

and the expression of the active power losses variation becomes [2.19]:

k

P = 3 ik2

r + 2 Re {i V }

i k

*

Ak (A.2.2.11)

i =1

where Re stands for the real part, and * indicates the complex conjugate.

Chapter references

[2.1] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (in

Romanian) (Electric networks. Electric calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,

1974.

[2.2] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power systems analysis, Mc Graw-Hill, 1994.

[2.3] Eremia, M., Trecat, J., Germond, A. Rseaux lectriques. Aspects actuels,

Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 2000.

[2.4] Debs, A. Modern power systems control and operation: A study of real time

operation of power utility control centers, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

[2.5] Guill, A.E., Paterson, W. Electrical power systems. Volume one. 2nd Edition,

Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1979.

[2.6] Weedy, B.M. Electrical power systems. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons,

Chichester, New York, 1979.

[2.7] Poeat, A., Arie, A.A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, V., Buta, A.

Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Transmission and distribution of

electric energy), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.

[2.8] El-Hawary, M. Electrical power systems. Design and analysis (Revised

printing), IEEE Press, New York, 1995.

[2.9] Eremia, M., Criciu, H., Ungureanu, B., Bulac, C. Analiza asistat de calculator

a regimurilor sistemelor electroenergetice (Computer aided analysis of the

electric power systems regimes), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1985.

[2.10] Chiang, H.D., Baran, M. On the Existence and Uniqueness of Load Flow

Solution for Radial Distribution Power Network, IEEE Transactions on Circuits

and Systems, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1990.

[2.11] Bart, A. Reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution en rgime critique et

dfaillant, Thse 1176, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, 1993.

[2.12] Tritiu, I. Reconfigurarea reelelor electrice de distribuie de medie tensiune

(Reconfiguration of distribution electric networks of medium voltage), Ph.D. Thesis,

Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 1998.

Radial and meshed networks 163

[2.13] Baran, M., Wu, F. Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems for Loss

Reduction and Load Balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.4,

No.2, April 1989.

[2.14] Goswami, S.K., Bassu, S.K. A new Algorithm for the Reconfiguration of

Distribution Feeders for Loss Minimisation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,

Vol.7, No.3, July 1992.

[2.15] Cherkaoui, R. Mthodes heuristiques pour la recherche de configurations

optimales d'un rseau lectrique de distribution. Thse 1052, Ecole Polytechnique

Fdrale de Lausanne, 1992.

[2.16] Tritiu, I., Eremia, M., Ulmeanu, P., Bulac, C., Bulac, A.I., Mazilu, G. Un

nouveau mode daborder la reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution urbaine,

CIGRE, Black Sea El Net Regional Meeting, Suceava, 10-14 June 2001.

[2.17] Cherkaoui, R., Germond, A. Structure optimale de schma dexploitation dun

rseau lectrique de distribution. Energetica Revue, Nr.5 B, 1994.

[2.18] Florea, A.M. Elemente de Inteligen Artificial, Vol. I, Principii i Modele.

(Elements of artificial intelligence. Vol. I, Principles and models) Litografia

Universitii Politehnica din Bucureti, Bucureti, 1993.

[2.19] Cinvalar, S., Grainger, J.J., Yin, H., Lee, S.S.H. Distribution feeder

reconfiguration for loss reduction, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.3,

No.3, April 1988.

[2.20] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W. Reconfiguration on electric distribution

networks for loss reduction and load balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery, Vol.4, No.2, April 1989.

[2.21] Kashem, M.A., Ganapathy, V., Jasmon, G.B. Network reconfiguration for load

balancing in distribution networks, Generation, Transmission and Distribution,

IEE Proceedings, Volume: 146 Issue: 6, Nov. 1999.

[2.22] Potolea, E. Calculul regimurilor de funcionare a sistemelor electroenergetice

(Calculation of the operating regimes of the power systems), Editura Tehnic,

Bucureti 1977.

[2.23] Barbier, C., Barret, J.P. Analyse des phnomnes dcroulement de tension sur

un rseau de transport, Revue Gnrale dElectricit, Tome 89, No.10, October

1980.

[2.24] Augugliaro, A., Dusonchet, L., Favuzza, S., Ippolito, M.G., Riva Sanseverino, E.

A new model of PV nodes in distribution networks backward/forward analysis,

39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference UPEC 2004, 6-8

September 2004, Bristol, England.

[2.25] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W., Semlyen, A., Luo, G.X. A compensation-

based power flow method for weakly meshed distribution and transmission

networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.2, May 1988.

Chapter 3

AC TRANSMISSION LINES

DC, long lines powered at high (HV) and extra high voltages (EHV) are used.

These lines present a set of operating peculiarities and therefore their modelling is

different from distribution short lines modelling (with respect to wavelength).

Accurate analysis of phenomena that occur on EHV transmission long lines

does not have to consider the line parameters as lumped, as performed in the case

of medium or low voltage powered lines, instead of uniformly distributed along the

line.

The following assumptions can be made in this regard [3.1]:

a) The leakage current and conduction current through dielectric are

approximately equal to the value of current flowing through the series impedance

and therefore they cannot be neglected anymore;

b) For no-load conditions of the line, the conduction current at the source is

non-zero. The no-load current is capacitive and varies from a cross-section to

another: the current increases from the receiving-end (load) toward the sending-end

(source), and the voltage increases from the source toward the receiving-end. This

increase in voltage is known as Ferranti phenomenon and is more pronounced as

the length of line increases (i.e. for L = 4 = 1500 km , the voltage for no-load

conditions could theoretically reach infinite values).

Therefore, if a transmission line with uniformly distributed parameters is

supplied with a sinusoidal voltage, in every point of the line the voltage and current

have a sinusoidal variation in time, but their magnitude depends on the position of

the considered point along the line.

Consider a very short section x, from a line of length L, at a distance x

measured from the receiving-end (Fig. 3.1). By applying Kirchhoffs theorems

obtain:

Voltage drop in section x is:

V (x + x ) V (x ) = z 0 x I (x ) (3.1)

166 Basic computation

I (x + x ) I (x ) = y 0 xV ( x ) (3.2)

I(0)

I(L) x x

L x=0

Source Load

V (x + x ) V (x )

= z 0 I (x )

x

In the limit, when x 0 ,

V (x + x ) V (x )

lim = z 0 I (x )

x 0 x

or

dV (x )

= z 0 I (x ) (3.3)

dx

for current respectively obtain:

d I (x )

= y 0 V (x ) (3.4)

dx

Differentiating with respect to x it results:

d V (x ) d I (x )

2

2

= z0

dx dx

d I ( x ) y dV ( x )

2

= 0

dx 2 dx

or taking into account equations (3.3) and (3.4) obtain:

d V (x )

2

= z 0 y 0 V (x ) (3.5)

dx 2

d I (x )

2

= z 0 y 0 I (x ) (3.6)

dx 2

AC transmission lines 167

y 0 = g 0 + jb0 = g 0 + jc0 per length complex admittance of the line.

Equations (3.5) and (3.6) are known as telegraph equations, which define the

electromagnetic energy transfer along the long lines.

The voltage V (x ) and current I (x ) are unique solutions of a second-order

differential equation with constant coefficients. Knowing the form of a solution for

V (x ) and I (x ) , we can deduce the other solution. The general solution for V (x )

from (3.5) can be written in exponential form as:

V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)

d V (x ) 2

= (A1 e x + A2 e x ) = V (x )

2

2

(3.8)

dx 2

and equating with (3.5) we obtain:

2

= z0 y0

2

= z 0 y 0 or = z 0 y 0 = (r0 + jx0 )(g0 + jb0 ) (3.9)

= + j (3.9')

current magnitude variation on the line;

the phase coefficient, [rad/m], expressing the voltage or current

phase variation in two points on the line.

By substituting (3.7) in (3.3) obtain:

dV ( x ) d

= (A1 e x + A2 e x ) = (A1 e x A2 e x ) = z 0 I (x )

dx dx

respectively:

I (x ) = (A1 ex A2 e x ) = 1

(A1 ex A2 e x ) (3.10)

z0 ZC

If consider

168 Basic computation

z0 z0 z r0 + jx0

= = 0 =

z0 y y0 g0 + jb0

0

so the ratio

z0

ZC = + (3.11)

y0

Observation: For a lossless electric line, r0 0 and g 0 0 , the characteristic

impedance has the dimension of a resistance. The minus sign has no meaning

because there is no negative resistance.

The propagation coefficient and the characteristic impedance Z C of the

line reflect the geometrical and material properties (of the conductor and dielectric

environment) and characterize the electromagnetic energy propagation. They do

not depend on the line length. Parameters , , and Z C are called secondary

parameters of the electric line and they can be inferred from the primary

parameters r0, l0, c0, g0.

In order to determine the constants A1 and A2, the conditions in the limit

imposed at the input and output terminals of the circuit are used. Therefore:

At the receiving-end, for x = 0, obtain:

V (0 ) = V B = A1 + A2

1

I (0 ) = I B = ( A1 A2 )

ZC

resulting in:

A1 = 1 2 (V B + Z C I B ) (3.12')

A2 = 1 2 (V B Z C I B ) (3.12'')

x x x x

V (x ) =

1

(V B + Z C I B )ex + 1 (V B Z C I B )e x = V B e + e + Z C I B e e

2 2 2 2

or

( ) (

V ( x ) = cosh x V B + Z C sinh x I B ) (3.13)

( ) (

I (x ) = Y C sinh x V B + cosh x I B ) (3.14)

The matrix equation that gives the voltage and current in terms of the output

quantities, in a point placed at the distance x, is:

AC transmission lines 169

V (x ) cosh x Z C sinh x V B

I (x ) = Y sinh x cosh x I B

C

At the sending-end, for x = L, obtain:

V A cosh L Z C sinh L V B

I = Y sinh L cosh L I B

(3.15)

A C

The coefficients of the long lines equations are:

A = D = cosh L ; B = Z C sinh L ; C = Y C sinh L

terminal network, that is:

AD BC = cosh 2 L sinh 2 L = 1

it results that any electric long line can be represented through an equivalent four-

terminal network (Fig.3.2).

IA IB

A=coshL B= ZCsinhL

VA VB

C =Y CsinhL D=coshL

In the case when the input quantities V A , I A are given and output quantities

V B , I B are required we obtain:

1

V B cosh L Z C sinh L V A cosh L Z C sinh L V A

I = Y sinh L =

cosh L I A Y C sinh L cosh L I A

B C

(3.16)

on a transmission line

In order to emphasize the physical aspect of propagation of the voltage and

current waves on a line, the following equations are written again:

170 Basic computation

V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)

I (x ) =

1

(A1 ex A2 e x ) (3.10)

ZC

where the constant A1 will be determined in terms of the input quantities, that is for

x=L:

V A = A1 e L + A2 e L

Z C I A = A1 e L A2 e L

Adding these equations the following expression results:

1

A1 = (V + Z C I A)e L (3.17)

2 A

For the constant A2 the value from (3.12''), determined in terms of the output

quantities, will be kept. Substituting (3.17) and (3.12'') in (3.7) obtain:

1

V (x ) = (V A + Z C I A)e Lex + 1 (V B Z C I B )e x

2 2

or taking into consideration Figure 3.3,a:

V ( x ) = V A e x ' + V B e x

' '

(3.18)

where

1

'

VA = (V + Z C I A) = V A' e j a

2 A

1

'

VB = (V B Z C I B ) = VB' e j b

2

Taking into account that = + j it results that:

V (x ) = V A e j (a x ) e x + V B e j (b x ) e x

' '

V (x,t ) = 2VA' sin (t x + a )e x + 2VB' sin (t x + b )e x (3.19)

or

V (x, t ) = Vd ( x' ,t ) + Vr ( x,t )

Thus, in any point and any instant of time, the voltage is a sum of two waves

of decreasing phase angle:

AC transmission lines 171

direct travelling wave, which propagates from the source toward the

consumer, of preponderant magnitude, V A = (V A + Z C I A ) 2 and which is

'

L

x

x=L x=0

x'=L-x

a.

Vd t t+t

2 VA e-x -x

Vr

2 VB e

v v

x' x

x'=vt

b. c.

Fig. 3.3. Travelling waves propagation along a transmission line: a. defining of line

section, b. direct travelling wave propagation, c. reflected travelling wave propagation.

source (in the opposite direction of the energy transfer), of lower magnitude

V B = (V B Z C I B ) 2 with respect to the direct waves, and which is exponentially

'

In any point x, there is a superposition of travelling waves resulting in a

stationary wave.

Velocity and direction of propagation

In order to determine the velocity and direction of propagation of the waves,

two successive points along the line, having the same phase angle, are considered.

If the voltage phase angle at the instant t and the distance x' is equal, by definition,

to the voltage phase angle at the instant ( t + t ) and the distance ( x'+ x' ), then it

can be written:

t x' + a = (t + t ) (x'+x')+ a

from where it results:

t x' = 0

or in the limit:

x'

= =

t

where v is the velocity of propagation of the wave.

172 Basic computation

It results that the direct travelling wave Vd (x' , t ) is moving in the positive

direction along the x-axis, with the same velocity = / ; for this reason Vd (x' , t )

is called direct wave.

Likewise, for the second travelling wave, obtain:

x

= =v

t

that is Vr (x, t ) is moving in the positive direction along the x-axis, thus in the

opposite direction from the direct travelling wave, with the same velocity = / .

Therefore, Vr (x, t ) is a reflected or inverse wave.

For lossless electric lines, that is for r0 0 and g 0 0 , from equation of

propagation coefficient (3.9), it results:

where = l0c0 .

obtain:

1

v= = (3.21)

l 0 c0

Returning to the equation (3.9) and taking into account (3.21) obtain:

j 2f 2 2

= j = j = j (3.20')

T

It should be mentioned that in the case of lossless overhead lines, the velocity

of propagation of the waves is independent on the frequency and it is equal to the

velocity of the light in vacuum, which is 300.000 km/s. In all the other cases, the

velocity of propagation of the waves is lower than the velocity of the light. As a

consequence, the wavelength of the AC powered electric lines (with frequency

of 50 Hz) is equal to:

v 300.000 km/s

= = = 6000 km

f 50 Hz

Therefore, the propagation phenomenon is periodical in space after every

6000 km. Generally, of interest are the lines with lengths of l/4=1500 km and

l/2=3000 km

Proceeding in a similar manner for current travelling waves, obtain:

AC transmission lines 173

I (x ) = I A e x I B e x = I A' e j a e ( + j )x I B' e j b e ( + j )x

' '

Observations:

The reflected waves of current have opposite sign with respect to the direct

current waves as compared to the voltage waves that bear the same sign;

The damping factor attached to both the direct waves ( e x ' ) and the

reflected waves ( e x ) shows that the propagation phenomenon on real lines, with

resistance and shunt admittance, operates with electric energy losses.

(SIL surge impedance loading)

The operation of an electric line without reflected wave is more favourable,

from the economic point of view, because in this case energy losses decrease and

in consequence the transmission efficiency improves. Under these circumstances,

'

the term V B from equation (3.18) becomes zero, that is:

1

VB =

'

(V B Z C I B ) = 0

2

so that

VB V

IB = = B

Z C Z load

impedance of the consumer from the point B for which there can be no reflected

waves, that is with minimum losses on the line. Thus, when the receiving-end B of

the line is closed on an impedance of value equal to the characteristic impedance,

the propagation phenomenon occurs as if the considered line is of infinite length ).

In this case, the impedance measured at the sending-end of the line (source) is also

equal to the characteristic impedance Z C , respectively to the impedance measured

at the receiving-end of the line (load).

The apparent power demanded by the consumer, under such circumstances

regime without reflected waves is called characteristic apparent power ( S C ). The

expression of the single-phase characteristic apparent power at the consumer is:

)

The ratio of voltage to current at any point along an infinite line is a constant equal to the

characteristic impedance of the line [3.2].

174 Basic computation

* VB2

S B 0,C = V B I B = *

ZC

VB2 VB2 V2

S B 0,C = = = B (cos + j sin )

[ZC (cos + j sin )]* Z C (cos j sin ) Z C

(3.13) and (3.14) become:

(

V (x ) = V B cosh x + sinh x = V B e x )

( )

I (x ) = I B sinh x + cosh x = I B e x

determined from expression:

S 0,C (x ) = V ( x )I ( x ) = V B I B e( + )x = S B 0,C e 2x

*

* *

impedance having a high resistive component, the dominant term of the

characteristic apparent power S B 0, C will be the active characteristic power:

VB2

PB 0,C = cos

ZC

respectively:

P0,C ( x ) = PB 0,C e 2 x

Since the attenuation coefficient has a small value, the active power

P0,C ( x ) does not vary much along the line, being almost of the same value as

characteristic active power absorbed by the consumer P0,C (x ) PB 0,C .

Furthermore, in the case of lossless electric lines the attenuation coefficient is

zero, that is = 0 and thus j , and the characteristic impedance becomes a

resistance; under these circumstances PB 0,C is conserved along the line, being a

characteristic constant called natural power or surge impedance loading:

VB2

PB 0,C = P0, N =

ZC

AC transmission lines 175

For a transfer of active power, the voltage is the same along the entire length of

the line and assuming this is equal to the nominal voltage, then P0, N = Vn2 Z C . The

three-phase natural power is:

PN = 3 P0, N = U n2 Z C

ZC characteristic impedance of the lossless line.

The three-phase natural power is an index in designing the transmission

capacity of the lines. In Table 3.1, several natural power values corresponding to

different operating nominal voltages are given.

Table 3.1

Un [kV] 20 110 220 400 750

Overhead

1 30 120 400500 1800

PN lines

[MW] Underground

10 300 12001400 20002500 40005000

lines

the equivalent impedance of the line and of the consumer, determined in

every point of the line, is the same and equal to the characteristic impedance;

the phase angle between current and voltage in every point of the line has

the same value. If consider a lossless line, then the voltage and current are in phase

at the receiving-end of the line as well as in any point of the line;

the voltage and current values do not change much along the line, and if

the line is without losses, they remain constant; instead only phase angle will shift

in proportion to the line length;

the power transmitted on the line under this regime has a strong active

characteristic.

A phenomenon specific to long lines will appears: although on the line there

are inductive and capacitive reactive power losses, the line absorbs from the source

only active power. The explanation is as follows: the inductive reactive power

losses occurring on the line reactance are compensated by the capacitive reactive

power generated by the line. In this respect, for the line without losses on resistance

and conductance ( r0 0 , g 0 0 ) consider the inductive and capacitive losses per

length unit:

Qind = I 2 x0 ; Qcap = V 2b0

2

Qind I 2 x0 I x0

2

1

= 2 = = 2 Z C2 = 1

Qcap V b0 V b0 ZC

176 Basic computation

powers are reciprocally compensated. Thus, under natural power regime the line

does not absorb reactive power at its ends; it is said that the line is self-

compensated.

For the numerical solving of long lines equations (3.15) the determination of

coefficients cosh L , sinh L , Z C sinh L , Y C sinh L is needed. Since the

quantity is a complex number, the coefficients of long lines, equations are

hyperbolic functions of complex quantities.

In order to determine the numerical values of the complex propagation

coefficient for underground cables and overhead lines, either algebraic method or

trigonometric method can be used.

Algebraic method enables us to determine the constants and by

considering the real parts of the square equation (3.9) and the magnitude square of

coefficient. The following equations are obtained:

r0 g 0 x0 g 0 = 2 2

(r

0

2

)( )

+ x02 g 02 + b02 = 2 + 2

then

=

1

(r 0

2

)( )

+ x02 g 02 + b02 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =

2

1

= z 0 y 0 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 )

2

=

1

(r 0

2

)( )

+ x02 g 02 + b02 (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =

2

1

= z 0 y 0 (r0 g 0 x0b0 )

2

Trigonometric method. In this respect, the expression of complex propagation

coefficient is considered:

= z0 y0 = (r0 + j x0 )(g0 + j b0 ) = + j

AC transmission lines 177

By expressing:

z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0'

where

tan = x0 r0 ; tan ' = b0 g0

it results

'

= z 0 y 0 + =

2 2

The magnitude of propagation coefficient can be expressed as follows:

r 2 g 2

= 4 (r 2

2

+ 0 0 0

x g 2

+)(

b 2

= )x b 1 + 0 1 + 0

x0 b0

0 0 0 4

(3.23)

= x0b0 4 (1 + cot 2 )(1 + cot 2 ) = x0b0

1

sin sin

Taking into account (3.20'), the expression of magnitude becomes:

= 2 / (3.23')

where

= 0 sin sin (3.24)

is the equivalent wavelength of the line with losses, and 0 the wavelength

corresponding to the electromagnetic waves of T period, propagating on a lossless

line.

In order to simply the calculation, the following assumption can be taken into

consideration:

If neglect the shunt power losses ( g 0 0 that is tan ' , ' = 90 ,

sin ' = 1 ) the expression (3.23') becomes:

2 2

= (3.23'')

0 sin '

where

' = 0 sin (3.24')

0 0

' = 0 sin = =

4

1+ cot 2 r

2

4 1 + 0

x0

178 Basic computation

denominator by means of binomial theorem is made and keeping only a reduced

number of terms, achieve:

0

2

1 r0

1 +

2 x0

2

2 1 r

1 + 0 (3.23''')

0 2 x0

2 6.28

vacuum = = 1.05 103

0 6000

losses are neglected ( g 0 0 , that is ' = 90 ). It results:

+ + 90

= = or 2 = + 90

2 2

then

r0

tan 2 = tan ( + 90) = cot =

x0

positive angle, that means 2 is in the interval from 2 to . Consequently, we

can write:

2 = atan (r0 x0 )

r0 x0 , that is:

r0

2 2 x0

Therefore:

r r r

= cos cos 0 = sin 0 0 [Nepers/km] (3.25)

2 2 x0 2 x0 2 x0

AC transmission lines 179

respectively

OEL = sin = 1.05 103 [rad/km]

since r0 2 x0 << 1 and 90 .

In the case of lossless electric lines, from (3.25) and taking into account

(3.20) obtain:

r0 1 b 1 r0

= x0b0 = r0 0 (3.25')

2 x0 2 x0 2 Z C

reactance varies from x0 = 0.28 [/km] (4 bundled sub-conductors) to

x0 = 0.42 [ / km] (one conductor per phase) obtain:

r0 r r

OEL = = 0 K 0 [nepers/km]

2(280K 420) 560 840

For lossless underground lines, the velocity of propagation is theoretically

300.000 km/s

equal to = , where r is the relative permittivity of dielectric. For

r

cables insulated with impregnated paper, r = 3.6 K 4 , which leads to a

wavelength of [3.1]:

300.000 km/s

0 = = 3000 K 3150 [km]

f 50 3.6 K 4

Assume the reactance of three-phase underground lines lies in the interval

from 0.06 to 0.13 /km. This means:

2

UEL = (2.09 K 2 ) 10 3

3000K3150

r0 r0

UEL = UEL = [nepers/km]

2 x0 60 K 130

By definition, the expression of characteristic impedance has the form:

z0

ZC = = Z C = Z C' + j Z C"

y0

180 Basic computation

where

z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0 '

respectively the characteristic impedance angle:

= ( ') 2

Characteristic impedance magnitude

2

r

2 2

1+ 0

z0 r0 + x0 x x0 = x0 1 + cot 2

ZC = =4 2 2

= 0 4 2

4

y0 g 0 + b0 b0 g0 b0 1 + cot 2 '

1+

b0

x0 sin ' x sin sin '

= = 0

b0 sin sin x0b0

x0 2

z0 = ; = x0b0 =

sin 0

sin sin

Z C z0 = z0 0

2

or

' 6000

Z C z0 = z0 1000 z0

2 2

In terms of the value of the per length impedance z0 = (0.28 K 0.4) /km,

we obtain for overhead lines the following values Z C = (280 K 400) .

Characteristic impedance angle

Let

= ( ') 2 ( 90) 2

or

2 = 90 = (90 )

respectively

tan 2 = tan (90 ) = cot = r0 x0

AC transmission lines 181

= 1 2 atan (r0 x0 )

= r0 2x0

In the case of overhead lines when ' = 2 and r0 << x0 it results that is

negative and close to zero, that is in the interval from -15 to 0.

The components Z C' and Z C'' of the characteristic impedance are obtained as

follows:

Z C' = Z C cos Z C = z0 ( ' 2 ) = 280K 400

where have been taken into consideration that is very small, thus cos = 1 ; the

values close to 280 correspond to lossless overhead lines, with twin conductors;

the values close to 400 correspond to the lines with only one conductor per

phase.

1 r 1 r 1 r0

Z C" = Z C sin Z C sin 0 0 Z C = =

2 x0 2 x0 2 x0b0

1 6000

= r0 0 = r0 = 477 r0 []

4 4 3.14

Notice that:

the real part Z C' is dominant, the characteristic impedance behaves like a

resistance;

the imaginary part Z C'' has the minus sign, therefore it is a capacitive

reactance.

Underground electric lines have characteristic impedance much smaller than

the overhead lines. Therefore, the impedance value varies in a wider range in terms

of the cable type and the insulating material. For cables insulated with paper having

the reactance in the interval from 0.06 /km to 0.130 /km and for

0 = 3000K3150 [km] , then Z C = 30 K 65 [] .

As it has been shown in paragraph 3.2, the transmission lines coefficients

are:

A = D = cosh L ; B = Z C sinh L ; C = Y C sinh L

hyperbolic functions is used:

182 Basic computation

( zy) + ( zy) + ( zy) K

2 4 6

2! 4! 6!

that is

2 2 4 4

zy z y z y

A = D = cosh z y = 1 + + + +K

2 24 720

zy

B = Z C sinh L = Z C sinh z y = Z C +

( zy) + ( zy)

3 5

+ K =

1! 3! 5!

(3.26)

=

z

zy +

( zy) ( )

3

+

zy

5

z y z 2 y 2 z3 y3

+ K = z 1 + + +

+ K

y 6 120

6 120 5040

2 2

zy z y

3 3

z y

C = Y C sinh L = y 1 + + + + K

6 120 5040

Comments:

For OEL of L < 650 km or UEL of L < 50 km, generally, the term L is

smaller than 1 (e.g. for OEL L = 1.05 10 3 650 = 0.682 ) and only the first two

terms of the series expansion can be taken into account;

For L > 1000 km the magnitude of L becomes greater than 1 and

therefore the superior order terms cannot be neglected anymore;

For L < 250 km obtain A = 1 , B = z , C = y .

Thus, for transmission lines of usual 300 500 km lengths, the first two

terms of the expansion can be used with a good approximation.

As has been mentioned, transmission electric lines have uniformly distributed

parameters (Fig. 3.4,a).

I1 Z I2

V1 Y Y V2

2 2

a. b.

Fig. 3.4. Equivalent circuits:

a. uniformly distributed parameters; b. lumped parameters.

AC transmission lines 183

Let us consider the equivalent circuit with lumped parameters (Fig. 3.4,b)

for which the matrix equation can be written as:

V 1 1 0 1 Z 1 0 V A B V 2

I = Y

Y 2 =

1 0 1 1 I 2 C D I 2

1 2 2

where the equivalent four-terminal network coefficients are given by the

expressions:

Z Y

A = 1 + ; B = Z

2

(3.27)

Z Y Z Y

C = Y 1 + ; D = 1 +

4 2

rated impedance respectively the rated total admittance of the line. For more

accuracy Kennellys correction coefficients are determined. In this regard, let us

equate the long lines coefficients A, B, C and D with the ones of four-terminal

network:

Z Y

A = A or 1 + = cosh L

2

2 2

zy z y

B = B or Z = Z C sinh L z 1 + + + ... (3.28)

6 120

Therefore:

Z = K1 z

where the first Kennellys correction coefficient is:

2 2

zy z y

K1 = 1 + + + ...

6 120

Substituting Z = Z C sinh L in the first equation from (3.28) it results that:

Y

1 + Z C sinh L = cosh L

2

then

L

Y A 1 cosh L 1 2 sinh 2 1 L

= = = 2 = tanh (3.29)

2 B Z C sin h L L L ZC 2

2 Z C sinh cosh

2 2

184 Basic computation

If the expression

1 1 y0 y

= = =

ZC z0 z0 y0 zy

y0

zy

tanh

y zy y 2 y

Y = K

= tanh =

2 zy 2 2 zy 2 2

2

The second Kennellys correction coefficient is given by:

zy

2

zy

5

zy 2

tanh 2

2 1 zy 2 ... =

K2 = = +

zy zy 2 3 15

2 2

2 2

zy z y

=1 + ... for OEL longer than 300 km.

12 120

It results that the use of equivalent circuit leads to the same results for

voltage and current at the ends, as in the case of using long lines equations, only if

the parameters z and y are corrected with Kennellys coefficients K 1 and K 2 .

For a faster calculation of Kennellys coefficients, the expressions of A and B

coefficients obtained from series expansion of trigonometric functions can be used.

Therefore:

zy z y z2 y2

y1 + y 1

Y A 1 cosh z y 1 12 12 72

= = = y1 z y

2 B Z C sinh z y zy 2 12

1+ zy

6 1

6

In the case of the lossless line, that is r0 0 and g 0 0 , it results:

z j x ; y jb

AC transmission lines 185

zy jx jb xb

K1 = 1 + 1+ =1

6 6 6

zy jx jb xb

K 2 =1 1 =1+

12 12 12

Consider the operating equation (3.13) of a long transmission line:

( ) (

V (x ) = cosh x V B + Z C sinh x I B ) (3.13)

complex propagation coefficient has the simplified form:

2

= z 0 y 0 j x0b0 = j l0c0 = j = j

0

Taking into account the simplified expression of , the other quantities can

be obtained:

2 2

cosh x = cosh j x = cos x = cos

0 0

where = 2x 0 is the angle of the line (in degrees), corresponding to the length

x measured from the consumer node:

2 2

sinh x = sinh j x = j sin x = j sin

0 0

z0 x l

ZC = 0 = 0 = ZC

y0 b0 c0

The above equation shows that the characteristic impedance for a lossless line

becomes a simple resistance.

Under these circumstances, equation (3.13) becomes:

V (x ) = V B cos + jZ C I B sin (3.30)

L = 2L 0 :

V A = V B cos L + jZ C I B sin L

*

186 Basic computation

voltage phasor in node A can be expressed in two ways:

P jQB 0

V A = VB cos L + jZ C sin L B 0

VB

V A = V A e j = V A (cos + j sin )

Equating the real and imaginary parts, from the right side of the last two

expressions deduce the expressions of active and reactive powers at the receiving-

end B:

VA VB

PB 0 = sin (3.31)

Z C sin L

QB 0 = (3.32)

Z C sin L

VA VB

PA0 = sin (3.33)

Z C sin L

QA0 = (3.34)

Z C sin L

For short electric lines (from electrical point of view) it can be considered

that Z C sin L Z C L = X L , respectively cos L 1 and therefore, the power

expressions (3.31) (3.34) get the known approximate forms:

VA VB

PA0 = PB 0 = sin = Pe (3.35)

XL

QA0 = ; QB 0 = A B (3.36)

XL XL

Expressing as phase-to-phase values, and considering the voltages at both

ends of the transmission line are equal, U A = U B , then the simplified expressions of

the apparent complex powers are:

U A2 U2

S A = 3S A0 = PA + jQA = sin + j A (1 cos ) (3.37)

XL XL

U A2 U2

S B = 3S B 0 = PB + jQB = sin j A (1 cos ) (3.38)

XL XL

AC transmission lines 187

that is PA = PB and QA = QB .

In the particular case when U A = U B = U n , from (3.31) obtain:

U n2 sin

PB = sin = PN (3.39)

Z C sin L sin L

electric energy transmission with constant voltage along the line.

Generally, operating regimes calculation aims:

establishing of voltage and current variation along the line, in order not to

exceed the acceptable values;

determining of the electric energy transmission efficiency that means its

increasing.

Two general cases of energy transmission will arise:

a) Only active power transfer: P < PN , P = PN , P > PN and Q = 0, which

includes the particular case of no-load operating regime;

b) Active and reactive power transfer: P 0 and Q 0 , which includes the

particular case of the line with equal voltages at both ends.

To ease qualitative analysis of phenomenon let us further consider the case of

lossless electric lines. In this regard, the equations obtained in 3.4 are used:

V (x ) cos jZ C sin V B

I (x ) = jY sin cos I B

(3.40)

C

If per unit are used, it results:

V (x )

v( x ) = = cos + j i B sin

VB

I (x )

i (x ) = = j sin + i B cos

Y CV B

or as matrix form:

v(x ) cos j sin v B = 1

i (x ) = j sin

cos i B

188 Basic computation

which bear in addition the index 0, the complex single-phase apparent power is:

*

S B 0 = PB 0 + jQB 0 = V B I B

from where it results:

*

S P jQ

I B = B 0 = B 0 * B 0

VB VB

or in per unit:

IB P jQB 0 PB 0 jQ B 0

iB = = B0 = = pB j q B

YC V B YC VB2 PN 0

In the latter expression the denominator is the single-phase natural power:

2

VB2 U B 1 U2 P

YC VB2 = = = B = N = PN 0

ZC 3 ZC 3 ZC 3

Finally, obtain the equations of lossless transmission lines expressed in per

unit:

v(x ) cos j sin v B = 1

i (x ) = j sin cos pB jqB

(3.41)

v(x ) cos jsin v B = 1

i (x ) = jsin cos pB

(3.42)

In a first step, the voltage v(x ) and current i ( x ) phasors, are represented

graphically in terms of the transmission line angle.

a. The particular case when natural power is transmitted on the line:

p B = PB PN = 1 ; q B = 0 , that is the consumer is closed on the characteristic

impedance Z B = Z C . From (3.42) obtain:

v( x ) = cos + j sin = e j

i (x ) = cos + j sin = e j

It results that the geometric locus described by the peaks of the phasors v(x )

and i ( x ) are circles of radius equal to unity, the voltage and current remaining

constant along the line (Fig. 3.5).

AC transmission lines 189

j j

M M

2 x 2 x

= =

0 0

x)

)

i(x

v( 0 v= 0i=

vB iB

1

1

=

=

v(x)=vB i(x)=iB

by assuming p B = 1 and qB = 0 .

Observe that v = i = , therefore the voltage and current are in phase at the

receiving-end since the consumers impedance is a pure resistance Z B = Z C (being

a regime of natural power) and are maintained in phase along the entire line, being

shifted with angle with respect to the consumer quantities.

The fact that there is no voltage drop on the line and no current variation is

due, on one hand, to the hypothesis that line resistance is zero ( r0 0 ) and, on the

other hand, to the line self-compensation phenomenon the shunt capacitive

energy compensates locally the inductive energy stored into the series elements of

the line:

1 1

Wc = C0V 2 ; Wp = L0 I 2

2 2

that is C0 V 2 = L0 I 2 therefore

V L0

= = ZC

I C0

power: pB < 1 , qB = 0

From the basic equations (3.41) it results:

v(x ) = cos + jpB sin

i (x ) = pB cos + j sin

In order to draw the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) ,

for pB < 1 , two concentric circles are plotted: one of radius 1 = vB = 1 and another

one of radius 2 = pB < 1 (Fig. 3.6).

190 Basic computation

v(x) j i(x) j

2=pB m1 2=pB M

2 2 x

= x =

m2 0

M 0 0i

vB iB

1

0v 1=

1

1 =

v(x)<vB i(x)>iB

Fig. 3.6. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, for pB < 1 and qB = 0 .

From the centre of the circles a line of angular coefficient is drawn, which

intersects the circles in m1 and m2. By projecting m1 on the real axis and m2 on the

imaginary axis, the parametrical coordinates of v(x ) phasor are obtained:

x = 1 cos ; y = pB sin

or

x 1 = cos ; y pB = sin

In order to eliminate the variable , we can use:

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

and we obtain:

2 2

x y

+ =1

1 pB

Therefore, the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) is an

ellipse with the big semiaxis equal to 1 and the small semiaxis equal to pB < 1 .

Instead

v ( x ) = cos + jpB sin = x + jy

that is, by adding the phasors x and jy, we determine the M point of the geometric

locus of the ellipse described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) in the first quadrant.

In the second quadrant, from the source ( = 90 ) toward the consumer ( = 180 )

a similar variation is obtained.

In an analogous manner, the graphic of current intensity variation i (x ) can be

also plotted:

i ( x ) = pB cos + j sin = x' + jy'

where

x' = pB cos and y' = sin

AC transmission lines 191

The peak of the phasor i (x ) also describes an ellipse, but shifted with 90.

The diameters of the ellipse are orthogonal with the ones of the ellipse described by

v(x ) phasor.

Taking into account that v < and i > , it results that i > v, which can

explain why the line voltage increases from the source toward the receiving-end.

For an angle in the interval from 0 to /2 (that is, x 0 ... 1500 km) the voltage

decreases from the receiving-end (M ( = 0)) toward the source (M ( = 90)). This

is due to the fact that a capacitive current passes through the line, that is in every

section of the line (except for the receiving-end) the series conduction current is

shifted before the voltage.

c. The case of transmitted active power ( p B ) bigger than the natural

power: pB > 1 and qB = 0 .

In this situation the phenomenon evolves in an opposite direction compared

with the precedent case ( p B < 1 , q B = 0 ). The geometric loci described by the

peaks of the phasors v(x ) and i (x ) are ellipses with the big semiaxis equal to

pB > 1 and the small semiaxis equal to 1 (Fig. 3.7). By analyzing the geometric

loci, we notice that in this case v > and i < , resulting i < v .

j i(x) j

v(x)

M 1=1

1=1

2 x 2

= = x

0 0

0v M

vB iB

2=pB

0i

2=pB

v(x)>vB i(x)>iB

Fig. 3.7. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, in the case of p B > 1 and

qB = 0 .

electric line of length less than 1500 km the current i (x ) lags the voltage v(x ) . This

explains the voltage drop that occurs from source toward the receiving-end,

respectively the voltage increases from receiving-end toward the source.

If consider the equations (3.41) in the case pB 0 and qB = 0 ,

v(x ) = cos + jpB sin

(3.42)

i (x ) = pB cos + j sin

192 Basic computation

in the limit, the case of the no-load operating regime of the line can be obtained,

when pB = 0 and qB = 0 . It results:

v(x ) = cos

The magnitudes of the voltage and current phasors can be obtained from the

equations (3.42):

( )

v(x ) = cos 2 + pB2 sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 sin 2

i(x ) = ( )

pB2 cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 cos 2

the case pB < 1 is given.

v(x) i(x)

L L

Once v(x) and i(x) determined in per unit, it is necessary to return to V(x) and

I(x) values. In this respect, consider the voltage VA at the sending-end of the line

known, that is for

x = L, = L and V(L) = VA

From:

v A = V A V B = cos L + jpB sin L

it results:

VA VA

VB = =

v A cos L + jpB sin L

From:

v( x ) = V ( x ) V B

AC transmission lines 193

it results:

cos + jpB sin

V (x ) = v(x )V B = V A (3.43)

cos L + jpB sin L

respectively the magnitude

2

cos + pB sin

2 2

V ( x ) = VA 2

cos L + pB sin L

2 2

i (x ) = I (x ) YC V B

it results:

V A pB cos + j sin

I (x ) = i(x )YC V B =

Z C cos L + jpB sin L

respectively the magnitude

VA pB2 cos 2 + sin 2

I ( x) = 2

cos L + pB sin L

2 2

ZC

In order to compare, from qualitative point of view, the variations of the

functions V(x) and I(x), we start from the matrix equation (3.42), where the

following change of variable is performed:

' = x ' = L

where the angle L corresponds to the length L of the line, and the length x ' is

measured from source toward the receiving-end.

It results:

V ( x) 2

cos ( L ') + pB sin ( L ')

2 2

= 2

(3.44.a)

cos L + pB sin L

2 2

VA

and

= 2

(3.44,b)

cos L + pB sin L

2 2

VAYC

It is obvious that VA and pB being given, the voltage VB and the current IB

varies in terms of the length L of the line and of the angle L respectively (Fig. 3.9).

A particular case of the line operating for pB < 1 and qB = 0 is the no-load

regime ( pB = 0 and qB = 0 ). In this case, for a given voltage VA at the sending-end,

from (3.43) it results that the voltage at the receiving-end ( x = 0 ) is:

194 Basic computation

VA

V (x ) x = 0 = V B = (3.43')

cos L

V(x)

VA pB<1

pB=1

1

0 L1 x'=L-x

L2

L3

for V A = ct. , p B < 1 and q B = 0 .

receiving-end tends theoretically to infinite:

VA

VB =

0

For the long transmission lines, close to 1500 km, under no-load conditions,

dangerous overvoltages can occur. In Figure 3.10, the variation of the ratio

V (x ) VA in terms of the ratio x' / L for lines with lengths of 400, 800, 1100 and

1400 km are given. This variation is an ideal case, when line parameters are

considered constant. In reality, if high overvoltages on the line occur, corona

discharge appears. This leads to a decreasing of the voltage level with respect to

the ideal case, since corona phenomenon appearance modifies the parameters of the

line, especially line conductance and capacitance.

As an example, for a line of 1400 km operating under no-load conditions,

when corona discharge appears, the overvoltage is modified (Fig. 3.10, dotted line).

It can be noticed that initially, irrespective of the length of the line, corona

discharge leads to losses; as the length of the line increases, the capacitive effect of

the line increases faster than corona discharge losses. Thus, for a line of 1000 km

length, when L = /3, from (3.43') it results that the ratio VB /VA is practically equal

to 2.

It should be mentioned that, for lines of lengths below 1500 km, corona

phenomenon occurrence could produce due to the increasing capacity of the

affected conductor also a supplementary overvoltage, compared with the case

when corona is absent. This is why a very careful analysis of the no-load regime of

lossless long electric lines must be performed.

AC transmission lines 195

V(x)

1400 km 1400 km

VA with corona

3

1100 km

2

800 km

400 km

1

x'/L

0.15 0.5 1

Fig. 3.10. Overvoltage variation in terms of corona discharge.

v ( x ) = cos + qB sin + jpB sin = x + jy (3.45)

x = cos + qB sin ; y = pB sin

In order to eliminate the parameter from the last equations, we can express:

cos = x qB sin ; sin = y pB

and substituting in

2 2

2 y

2 y

sin + cos = + x qB =1

pB pB

obtain

qB qB2 + 1 2

x 2 2xy + y =1

pB pB2

Thus, the geometric locus of v(x ) peak of the voltage phasor is an ellipse

rotated with respect to the main coordinate axes x and y.

In a similar manner, an ellipse for the i(x) phasor is also obtained:

qB2 + 1 2 q

2

x' + 2x'y' B + y'2 = 1

pB pB

196 Basic computation

From the analysis of the two ellipses it results that for transferred power

PB < PN ( pB < 1 ) there can be cases when the voltage at the receiving-end is bigger

than the voltage at the sending-end. Besides, the inductive reactive power transfer

qB > 0 can lead to a maximum voltage value in a certain point of the line, while the

capacitive reactive power transfer qB < 0 leads to a maximum value of the current

in a certain point of the line (Fig. 3.11).

In order to determine the position of the maximum value of the voltage,

express the magnitude of v(x ) from equation (3.45):

2

( )

= 1 sin 2 + qB sin 2 + pB2 + qB2 sin 2

max

v(x)

M(0)

value

1

position

L x'=L-x

of the voltage on a transmission line.

[ ( )]

w2 = 1 1 pB2 + qB2 sin 2 + qB sin 2 (3.46)

respect to the angle :

w2

= 2w

w

[ ( )]

= 2 sin cos 1 pB2 + qB2 + 2qB cos 2 0 (3.47)

then:

cot 2 max =

(

1 pB2 + qB2 ) (3.48)

2 qB

It can be observed that:

for pB and qB given, the value of max angle does not depend on the line

length;

AC transmission lines 197

also an extreme value for the same max angle, given by the relation (3.48). As far

as the position is concerned, maximum value of the voltage on the line corresponds

to the minimum value of the current and vice-versa.

To establish the value of this voltage extreme, the equation (3.48) is used:

( )

1 pB2 + qB2 = 2qB cot 2max

and substituting in (3.46), it results:

w2 = 1 2qB cot 2max sin 2 + 2qB sin cos = 1 2qB (cot 2max sin cos )sin =

sin

= 1 2 qB (cos 2 max sin cos sin 2max ) =

sin 2 max

sin

= 1 2 qB sin ( 2max )

sin 2max

Therefore, for a point x on the real axis, the quantity v 2 (x ) can be expressed in

terms of max as:

sin

v 2 (x ) = 1 + 2 q B sin (2max ) (3.49)

sin 2max

Likewise, for i 2 (x ) obtain:

cos

i (x ) = 1 2 q B

2

cos(2 max ) (3.49')

sin 2max

By analyzing the obtained relationships, notice that:

If qB is positive, that is an inductive power is transmitted on the line, for

= max the line voltage has a maximum:

sin max

v 2 (max ) = 1 + 2qB sin (2max max ) = 1 + qB tan max

2 sin max cos max

and the current a minimum, given by:

i 2 (max ) = 1 qB cot max

If q B is negative, that is a capacitive power is transmitted on the line, the

current has a maximum and the voltage a minimum.

These observations result also from the analysis of the derivatives of v(x) and

i(x) functions in the node = 0 , that is at the receiving-end. From the equation

(3.47) it results:

w2

[ ( )]

= sin 2 1 pB2 + qB2 + 2 q B cos 2 = 2 q B

=0

198 Basic computation

respectively

i 2

= 2 q B

=0

Figure 3.12 gives the shape of curves v( x) , having on abscissa x ' = L x , and

i ( x) , having on abscissa the variable x, measured from the source. The maximum

value of the voltage corresponds to the minimum value of the current and vice-versa.

Thus, at the receiving-end the derivative has the sign of qB . For qB positive,

the voltage curves have a positive derivative in the origin; they increase up to a

maximum and then begin to decrease (Fig. 3.12,a). The current curves, for qB

positive, have a negative derivative in the origin, decrease up to a minimum and

then begin to increase (Fig. 3.12,b). In consequence, it can be said that the point

corresponding to the angle = max represents a point of separation of the reactive

power; from this point a part of the reactive power generated by the line will flow

toward the receiving-end, and the remaining part will flow toward the source.

V(x) I(x)

v(x)= V i(x)= I

A pB= 0.75 B

pB= 1

q B = 0 .2 pB= 1

1.0 1.0

pB= 1.25

pB= 0.75

0.7 0.7

0 500 1000 1500 0

x =L-x [km] x[km] 1500 1000 500

a. b.

V(x) I(x)

v(x)= V i(x)= I

A B

1.3 pB= 0.75 pB= 1.25

1.3

pB= 1 pB= 1

qB = 0.2

1.0 1.0

pB= 1.25 pB= 0.75

0.7 0.7

0 500 1000 1500 x [km] 1500 1000 500 0

x =L-x [km]

c. d.

Fig. 3.12. The variation of v(x) and i(x) quantities on long electric lines (1500 km) for

p B < 1 , p B = 1 , p B > 1 and q B = 0.2 , respectively q B = 0.2 .

For q B positive, for the line segment situated between = 0 (at receiving-

end) and = max , the voltage v(x ) leads the current i ( x ) , and for the line segment

between = max and = L (at source), the current i ( x ) leads the voltage v(x ) .

AC transmission lines 199

In order to prevent problems in operating, when two power systems are

connected through a long transmission line, it is necessary that the voltages at both

ends of the line be practically equal and close to the nominal voltage. In this

respect, it is important that for a given active power pB to determine the reactive

power qB cr so that VA = VB . For x = L , = L , this condition leads to

v A2 = v 2 (L ) = 1 ; from (3.45) obtain:

( )

v 2 (L ) = 1 = cos L +qB cr sin L 2 + pB2 sin 2 L

or

cos L + qB cr sin L = 1 pB2 sin 2 L

For lines of length L < 1500 km, that is < 90 , it results:

qB cr = (3.50)

sin L

Analysing the relation (3.50), in terms of the transferred active power pB the

character of reactive power qB cr at the receiving-end is determined:

For pB = 1 , it results that qB cr = 0 , as expected since the natural power is

transmitted on the line;

For pB < 1 , it results that qB cr is positive, that is at the receiving-end, in

order to obtain VA = VB , a compensating reactor should be installed;

For pB > 1 , it results that qB cr is a negative real number or a complex

number:

if 1 pB2 sin 2 L > 0 then qB cr is a negative real number and at the

receiving-end a capacitor bank should be installed;

if 1 pB2 sin 2 L < 0 , from (3.50) it results:

pB2 sin 2 L 1

qBcr = tan L + j = q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr

sin L

and the complex power is:

s Bcr = pB + j ( q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr ) = ( pB q ''Bcr ) jq 'Bcr

Thus, to obtain equal voltages at both ends, VA = VB , supplementary active

power ( q ''Bcr ) as well as capacitive reactive power ( q 'Bcr ) should be injected at the

receiving-end.

For the case when 1 pB2 sin 2 L = 0 , it results that p B max = 1 sin L , that is

the maximum power which can be transmitted on the line for a capacitive

200 Basic computation

compensation power becomes:

cos L + 0

q B cr = = cot L (3.51)

sin L

The variation of the voltage curves, under the assumption VA = VB is given in

Figure 3.13. The maximum and minimum voltage values appear, due to the

symmetry of the line, for max = L 2 .

pB<1

V(x)

1 VA=VB

a line with VA = VB , under

several operating regimes.

pB>1

L x

For the calculation of maximum value let us return to the equation (3.49),

where we can make the substitution = L 2 (Fig. 3.14, a).

v(x) v(x)

L L

qBtan qBtan

1 2 2

2

v (x) 1 2

v (x)

1 1

L/2 x'

L L

a. b.

Fig. 3.14. Overvoltages on transmission lines: a. voltage curve for

compensation at the receiving-end; b. voltage curves for lines of lengths L

and L 2 under no-load conditions ( p B = 0 , q B = 0 ).

Therefore:

L

sin

v 2 ( max ) = 1 + 2q B 2 sin 2 L

L max

=

2 sin 2 max 2

L (3.52)

sin sin L

= 1 + 2q B 2 2 = 1 + q tan L

L B

2

2sin cos L

2 2

AC transmission lines 201

The most unfavourable situation occurs for the operating regime with

pB = 0 , case when the overvoltage on the line will be maximum. From the

expression (3.50) the value of qB cr results:

2 sin 2 L

1 cos 2

qB cr = = = tan L (3.53)

sin L 2

2 sin L cos L

2 2

Substituting in equation (3.52), obtain:

1

v 2 (max ) = 1 + tan 2 L =

2 cos 2 L

2

respectively

1

v(max ) = (3.54)

cos L

2

Thereby, at the operation with pB = 0 , the overvoltage occurring on a line of

length L, compensated so that VA = VB , is equal to the overvoltage that can appear

on a line of length L 2 for no-load conditions ( p B = 0 , qB = 0 ). The same

equation as in (3.43') but proved for L 2 was obtained. Equal voltages at both

ends, for pB = 0 , by means of shunt compensation with reactors are obtained. If

the overvoltage exceeds a certain permitted value, an additional reactor should be

placed at the middle of the line.

In order to decrease the rated capacity of shunt compensating reactors,

assume that, under no-load conditions of the line, pB = 0 , the ratio VA VB is

smaller than 1 (0.9 0.85), that is:

VA

= <1

VB

which leads to:

cos L

qB cr = (3.55)

sin L

There are some compensation possibilities of the transmission lines, such as:

(i) Series:

equivalent impedance of the power system reduced to the connection

node of the line;

202 Basic computation

reactance.

(ii) Shunt:

shunt reactors to compensate the capacitive susceptance of the line and

to control the voltage along the line;

shunt capacitors to increase the line transmission capacity.

(iii)Mixed.

Mention that the operating regime of transmission line was studied for the

particular case when the line is connected to a power system represented by an

infinite power busbar, when the power system short-circuit reactance XS is zero.

In reality, the power system short-circuit reactance is not zero, having a small

value (Fig. 3.15), that leads to a fictive extension of the line influence the line

voltage variation and leading to dangerous overvoltages along the line for weak

loading and no-load conditions as well.

Eg I1 L

jXS 1 2 I2

V1 V2

1' 2'

Fig. 3.15. Equivalent electric circuit.

From the physical point of view, the explanation is that the current I1, having

a capacitive character, at its passing through the lumped inductive reactance XS

generates a voltage jump Vb at the reactance terminals (Fig. 3.16,a).

v(x)

with XS

Vb without XS I1

Vb Eg Vb =jXSI1

Eg

Vb

x'

Fig. 3.16. The influence of power system reactance XS on the voltage level

on a transmission line weakly loaded.

terminal voltage Vb on the one hand, and the higher the reactance of the system XS

AC transmission lines 203

is, that is the smaller the short-circuit power of the system is, on the other hand, the

higher the voltage jump will be. This phenomenon appears as if the equivalent

generator at the connection node of the transmission line would be overexcited.

Usually, the electromotive force E g (e.m.f. reduced to the sending-end

terminals of the long electric line) is set by automatic voltage regulators, so that the

terminal voltage V b = V 1 is constant. In the case of too high V b variation, voltage

regulation could lead to important decreasing of E g thereby generating the

instability of the considered power system. Also, when sudden load shedding

occurs, transient phenomena appear, and the voltage regulation may not be fast

enough to eliminate in a short time the overvoltage that can appear.

Consider the equivalent circuit of a transmission electric line (having the line

2

angle L = L ) connected to a power system of finite power (Fig. 3.15). With

0

the assumption of lossless line, the matrix equation can be written:

E g 1 jX S cos L jZ C sin L V 2

I = cos L I 2

(3.56)

1 0 1 jYC sin L

If calculate the terms corresponding to t.e.m. Eg separately, obtain:

sin

cos L X S YC sin L = cos L sin L =

cos

cos L cos sin L sin cos( L + )

= =

cos cos

sin L cos + sin cos L sin ( L + )

jZ C (sin L + tan cos L ) = jZ C = jZ C

cos cos

where

XS X U2 P sin

tan = = S2 n = N =

ZC U n Z C Psc cos

Finally, it results:

E1 = E g cos = cos( L + )V 2 + jZ C sin ( L + ) I 2

(3.57)

I 1 = jYC sin L V 2 + cos L I 2

Notice that series reactance X S leaves the expression of current I 1 unchanged.

Instead, in the voltage equation changes appear, that is the obtained equation

corresponds to an equivalent line of length 'L = L + . It results that, as regards

the voltage, the lumped reactance XS leads to apparently extension of the line. The

angle has relatively small values for strength power systems (having high Psc

204 Basic computation

value) and high values for weak systems (having small Psc value). For example,

for a power system with Psc = PN , tan = 1 and angle = 45 (/4), an apparent

extension of the line with 750 km is obtained.

Consequently, in designing long transmission lines, the possibility or

impossibility of its connecting to an existent power system should be assessed. An

index of this possibility is the ratio PN Psc and tan respectively. In this regard,

in the relation:

E g = (cos L X SYC sin L )V 2 + jZ C (sin L + X S YC cos L ) I 2

it should be imposed the condition that, for no-load conditions, when the current at

the receiving-end of the line is zero I 2 = 0 , phenomenon of self-excitation of the

generators in the system should not appear, that is E g > 0 . It results:

or if express in the form:

sin L P

E g = V 2 1 X S YC cos L = V 2 cos L 1 N tan L > 0

cos L Psc

Taking into account that V 2 and cos L ( L < 2 ) are positive, it results the

condition:

PN

1 tan L > 0

Psc

or

PN

< cot L (3.58)

Psc

For information, voltage variation curves at the end of a long transmission

line, under no-load, are given for different short-circuit powers Psc of the

connection node to the system, obtained experimentally (Fig. 3.17) [3.4]:

V2 Psc=PN

Eg

2 Psc>PN

1 Psc=

of the connection node.

AC transmission lines 205

Notice that, for an electric line of 400 km length, if the power system to

which the line is connected is of infinite power, the overvoltage has a limited value,

of only 10%, while for a system with Psc = PN , the overvoltage is with 120%

higher.

In practice, if the condition given by (3.58) is not fulfilled, then the following

measures should be taken:

a compensation reactor should be installed at the source busbars;

for the so-called capacitive regime of generators, thermal limit under no-

load conditions of the line should be verified.

In order to compensate (diminish) the inductive reactance of a long electric

line, capacitor banks are series connected on the line. The lumped reactance of the

capacitors being negative ( X 1 = 1 / C ), the angle from tan 1 = X 1 / Z C is

negative; it is as if an apparently shortening of the line occurred.

Due to the fact that the inductive reactance of the line is diminished, the

series capacitive compensation has the following advantages:

Increases the transmission capacity of the line, that is increases the natural

power of the line. For a given line, the natural power PN = U n2 / Z C can

( )

increase by diminishing Z C = l0 c0 , either by diminishing X L (l0 ) or

by increasing Bc (c0 ) ;

Decreases the overvoltages that appear on the electric lines under the

assumption of no-load;

Increases the static stability limit of the transmission line by increasing the

V V

synchronization couple Pe = A B sin ;

X L X c

Decreases the voltage drops under normal operating conditions being

thus a voltage control method.

Notice that, series capacitors compensate both voltage increases and voltage

drops (Fig. 3.18). Therefore:

a) If inductive currents ( p2 > 1 ) pass through the capacitor banks station,

generating a voltage that decreases on the line, a voltage increasing from V1' to V2'

occurs at the output end of the capacitor banks station (Fig. 3.18,b).

The voltage variation across the capacitor banks station is V c = jX 1 I c sin .

'

The angle is the phase shift between Ic and voltage V 2 and depends on the place

where the capacitor banks are installed on the line. The higher the angle is, the

higher the compensation effect will be, as well as V c . The compensation effect is

at a minimum for = 0.

206 Basic computation

Ic jX1

0 V2

Ic 0

V1 Vc V2 V1 -jX1Ic V2 -jX1Ic

Ic

V1

a. b. c.

Fig. 3.18. Compensation of voltage variations by means of series capacitors:

a. basic circuit; b. Ic current is inductive; c. Ic current is capacitive.

'

The angle is the phase shift between Ic and voltage V 2 and depends on the place

where the capacitor banks are installed on the line. The higher the angle is, the

higher the compensation effect will be, as well as V c . The compensation effect is

at a minimum for = 0.

b) If capacitive currents flow through the line ( p2 < 1 ), generating a voltage

that increases on the line, a voltage drop occurs at the capacitor banks station

output terminals (Fig. 3.18,c).

Choosing of installing point of the capacitor banks station must be done on

the basis of a technical and economical study, where the problem of voltage and

current regulation on the line as well as maximum power transfer possibilities,

under stability conditions, must be taken into consideration.

Let us consider the equivalent circuit of an electric line, having a series

capacitor bank, connected to a power system of finite power (Fig. 3.19).

2+2 1+1

2 1

Eg jXS 1

X1= C

I1 1 2 I2

V1 V1 V2 V2

1 2

V(x) V1

p2<1

V2

p2=1

V2

p2>1

V1

'=L2

Fig. 3.19. The influence of series capacitors on voltage increases and decreases.

AC transmission lines 207

The following problem arises: where to install the capacitor banks station,

that is how big 1 should be, in order to maximize the transmitted power on the

line (3.35):

E gV 2

Pe = sin (3.59)

B

in other words, the B coefficient of the equivalent four-terminal to be minimum. In

this respect, the matrix equation is written as:

E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 jX 1 cos 1 jZ C sin 1 V 2

I = cos 1 I 2

1 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 0 1 jYC sin 1

(3.60)

Two situations can be considered:

a) When the lumped reactance of the power system is ignored ( X S 0 ), the

following coefficients are obtained:

A ' = cos L X 1YC sin 1 cos 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + X 1YC cos 1 cos 2 )

(3.61)

C ' = jYC ( sin L X 1YC sin 1 sin 2 ) ; D ' = cos L X 1YC sin 2 cos 1

where X 1 = X c = 1/ C .

b) If the lumped reactance of the power system is taken into account, the

operating equations of the whole structure become:

cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 ) cos(1 + 1 ) sin (1 + 1 )

E g jZ C jZ C V 2

=

I cos 2 cos 2 cos 1 cos 1

1 I2

jYC sin 2 cos 2 jYC sin 1 cos 1

(3.62)

where: tan 2 = X S / Z C = PN / Psc due to the power system reactance;

tan 1 = X 1 / Z C due to the series capacitor bank.

After the multiplications and equating of terms obtain the expression of

coefficient B that interests us that most:

sin (1+ 1) cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 )

B = jZ C + jZ C cos 1

cos 1 cos 2 cos 2

or, in absolute value:

B=

ZC

[sin (1+1 )cos(2+ 2 ) + sin (2 + 2 )cos 1 cos 1] =

cos 1 cos 2

cos 1 cos 2

=

ZC

[sin (L + 1+ 2 ) + sin (2+ 2 )sin 1sin 1] (3.63)

cos 1 cos 2

208 Basic computation

to obtain a maximum power transfer on the line, for V1, V2 and constant, we

differentiate the expression (3.63) of B with respect to 1 and equate to zero. The

first term in brackets being constant ( L = 1 + 2 ) , the derivative with respect to

1 is zero. Therefore:

B ZC

= 0 + sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 sin 1 + sin 1 sin 1 cos ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1

1 cos 1 cos 2

B Z C sin 1

= cos 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 cos ( 2 + 2 ) =

1 cos 1 cos 2

(3.64)

Z C sin 1

= sin ( 2 + 2 1)

cos 1 cos 2

To obtain the extreme value we equate the expression (3.64) to zero, so that:

sin (2 + 2 1 ) = 0

or

sin ( L + 2 21 ) = 0

that is:

L + 2 1 P

1 = = L + atan N (3.65)

2 2 Psc

In order to perform the compensation, we need to study several operating

regimes and among these to choose the most unfavourable situation.

The voltage and current variations occur continuously along the structure

with uniformly distributed parameters, undergoing a jump in the installing point of

the capacitor banks station. The nearer the station gets to the centre of the line, the

smaller this jump is, being zero at the very centre ( = 0 ) and changing the

direction beyond it.

The following characteristic situations are considered:

a) Transmission line under no-load conditions the maximum overvoltage

appears at the receiving-end (Fig. 3.20,a). By installing one series capacitor bank at

the sending-end, the overvoltage along the line is reduced. The capacitor installed

in the middle of the line, where = 0 , has no effect on the overvoltage!

b) Transmission line compensated with shunt reactors, having equal voltages

at both ends, when overvoltages occur in the middle of the line (Fig. 3.20,b,c). By

installing capacitor banks the overvoltage diminishes.

Observations:

For a capacitor banks station asymmetrically situated on the line, reflected

waves cannot be avoided during the operation. In other words, neither a

AC transmission lines 209

structure;

The option with capacitors installed at the ends of the line is good for

limiting the overvoltages, but it is not convenient from the maximum power

transferred under static stability conditions point of view;

In the case of two capacitor banks symmetrically situated on the line, the

expression of characteristic impedance can be established. Thereby, transmission

under natural power conditions can be performed (ideal case).

v(x) v(x)

1 1

L [km] L [km]

450 900 450 900

a. b.

v(x)

electric line, in terms of series compensation

L [km] location.

450 900

c.

capacitor banks station asymmetrically situated on the line, at a distance that allows

the transmission of a maximum power during the operation under stability

conditions.

In order to tune the natural power to the transmitted power, the control of

characteristic impedance of a transmission line by means of series or shunt

capacitors can be performed.

Compensation by series capacitors

As it has been shown, the series compensation apparently reduces the

length of the line, and the series inductive reactance (XLXc) respectively, while

keeping constant the capacitive susceptance (Bc). For the analysis of compensation

effects, the following per unit quantities are defined:

210 Basic computation

Z C , series X L Xc X

= = 1 c = 1 kseries (3.66)

ZC XL XL

XL

where: Z C = is the characteristic impedance of the line without

Bc

compensation;

XL Xc

Z C , series = characteristic impedance of the line having series

Bc

capacitors;

k series = Xc / XL series compensation degree.

L , series ( X L X c ) Bc

= = 1 k series (3.66')

L X L Bc

line.

Per unit natural power:

Bc

U n2

PN , series XL Xc 1

= =

PN Bc 1 k series

U n2

XL

impedance and line angle decreases and the natural power increases.

Compensation by shunt capacitors

The same per unit quantities are introduced:

Per unit characteristic impedance:

XL

Z C , shunt Bc + Bc Bc

= = (3.67)

ZC XL Bc + Bc

Bc

L , shunt X L (Bc + Bc ) Bc + Bc

= = (3.67')

L X L Bc Bc

AC transmission lines 211

PN , shunt Bc+Bc

= (3.67")

PN Bc

The square of (3.67") gives:

2

PN , shunt Bc

P =1+ B

N c

2

Bc PN , shunt

= 1

Bc PN

Notice that the compensation by means of shunt capacitors reduces the

characteristic impedance whereas it increases the angle and natural power

respectively.

Comparison between compensation with series and shunt capacitors

Table 3.2. summarises, in a comparative manner, the influence of compensation

type on the electric line.

Table 3.2

Compensation type Capacitors installed

Parameter series shunt

ZC

L

PN

reactive power supplied either through series compensation or shunt compensation

respectively, for the same increase in transmitted power.

Let us consider the transmitted power through an electric line, without

compensation, equal to the natural power:

U n2 U n2 Bc

PN = = = U n2 (3.68)

ZC XL XL

Bc

In the case of a transmission line shunt compensated with capacitors, the

expression of transmitted power becomes:

U n2 Bc + Bc

PN , shunt = = U n2 (3.69)

Z C , shunt XL

where Bc is the capacitive susceptance that, if is added, determines the increasing

of transmission capacity.

212 Basic computation

If consider the ratio between (3.68) and (3.69) and if make it equal to 2, then

a two-fold increase in the transmitted power is obtained ( PN , shunt = 2 PN ):

PN , shunt B c + Bc B

= = 1+ c = 2

PN Bc Bc

Bc

1+ =4

Bc

connected on the line in order to double the transmitted power would be three times

the capacitive susceptance of the line without compensation. The reactive power

produced by Bc is:

Qc = 3 BcU n2

compensation it results:

Qc 3BcU n2

= = 3 Bc X L = 3 L

PN 2 Bc

Un

XL

The case of a transmission line series compensated with capacitors

The transferred power on the uncompensated line is given by:

XL

PN = I 2 Z C = I 2 (3.70)

Bc

In order to double the transferred power at constant voltage, by means of

series compensation, the current should be doubled:

PN , series 4I 2 X L X c Bc XL Xc

= 2

=4 = 4 1 K series

PN I Bc XL XL

If we impose the above condition, PN , series = 2 PN , we obtain:

4 1 K series = 2

AC transmission lines 213

then, it results:

K series = X c / X L = 0.75

The reactive power produced by means of series compensation is:

= 0.75 X L (2 I ) = 3 X L I 2

2 2

Qc = X c I series

Bc

I 2 = PN

XL

2

Q c 3 X L I

= = 3 X L Bc = 3 L

PN PN

a result identical to the one obtained in the case of compensation by shunt

capacitors. In other words, the power obtained for both series and shunt

compensation is the same.

Similar effects with the ones obtained for series capacitors can be achieved

by installing shunt compensation reactors. The shunt compensation reactors are

used to absorb the capacitive power (the capacitive currents) generated by the line,

during off-peak load hours or no-load operation.

Let us consider an electric line AB supplied by station A (Fig. 3.21,a) that

should be maintained under no-load. When the circuit breaker a is closed, the

generators connected in node A should absorb the reactive power shock caused by

the capacity of the line.

a b

A B

A C B

a. b.

Fig. 3.21. Installing of compensation reactors.

the capacitive power of the line then the closing of a is not accompanied by a

shock for the generators connected to A; furthermore, nor will voltage in point B

214 Basic computation

insulation and to the equipment in the electric substation.

Compensation reactors are installed either at the receiving-end of the line or

along it. For lengths over 400 km line tearing appear as a necessity, in order to

perform compensation, i.e. at the middle of the line (Fig. 3.21,b).

In Figure 3.22, other possible schemes for installing compensation reactors

are presented: a. at line voltage: 1 on line without circuit breaker; 2 on busbar

without circuit breaker; 3 on line with circuit breaker; 4 on busbar with circuit

breaker; b. at secondary voltage of the transformer; c. on tertiary winding.

The installing of reactors on the electric line or on the substation busbar is not

decided only by economic reasons (reduction of expenses and energy losses), but

also by the protection measures against overvoltages due to switching and

connection of the line. In order to perform the voltage control in terms of the

loading regime of the line, several reactors are usually installed in parallel. The

installing point of the reactor on the line and its size are determined in terms of the

transferred power and overvoltages that might appear along the line.

Lines 400kV

1

3 400kV

10kV

35kV

400kV

110kV

2 4

220kV

a. b. c.

Fig. 3.22. Other possible connecting schemes of compensation reactors in substations.

line at the distance L2 from the source and L1 from the receiving-end (Fig. 3.23).

For the reactor representation we need to calculate:

1 1 R X

Yr = = Gr + jBr = = 2 r 2j 2 r 2

Zr Rr + jX r Rr + X r Rr + X r

Xr

Yr j = jBr (3.71)

Rr2 + X r2

AC transmission lines 215

L

Eg 2 1

jXS I1

I2

V1 Yr= -jBr V2

v(x)

x'

Fig. 3.23. Electrical configuration with one shunt compensation reactor.

The operating matrix equation of the whole electrical structure can be written

as:

E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 0 cos 1

jZ C sin 1 V 2

I = 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 Y r 1 jYC sin 1

cos 1 I 2

1

(3.72)

Similarly as for series compensation, two situation are considered:

a) Considering that the lumped reactance of the power system is neglected,

the following coefficients are obtained:

A ' = cos L + Br Z C cos 1 sin 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + Br Z C sin 2 sin 1 )

(3.73)

C ' = jYC ( sin L Br Z C cos 1 cos 2 ) ; D ' = cos L + Z C Br cos 2 sin 1

For line lengths smaller than the quarter wavelength ( L < / 2 ), the absolute

value of the term B' from expression (3.73) results greater than the absolute value

of the term B = Z C sin L from (3.40). Thus, when shunt compensation by means

of reactors is performed, for V1 , V2 and constant, the maximum power

transmissible on the line is smaller than the one in the case without compensation,

reaching the minimum value at 1 = 2 = L 2 .

The shunt compensation reactor leads to a current change along the line due

to the term Vr Br , hereby compensating the capacitive currents generated by the

line. The effect of this compensation leads to a decrease of overvoltages along the

line. Figure 3.24 illustrates the voltage variation, for different placement locations

of a compensation reactor, on a transmission line of 900 km length, assuming that

the line operates under no-load conditions. We see that the placement of the reactor

at the receiving-end (Fig. 3.24, curve d) allows an optimal compensation of the

overvoltage that can appear in this point. Instead, a maximum stationary

overvoltage appears at the middle of the line. The reactor placement only at the

middle of the line leads to a decrease of the maximum overvoltage but will not

216 Basic computation

solve the problem at the receiving-end. The most convenient voltage profile is

obtained when two reactors are symmetrically located, at 300 km and 600 km,

respectively, away from the source.

900 km

a

v(x)

3 a

pB= 0 450 km 450 km

d b

2

b

c 300 km 300 km 300 km

1 c

d

Fig. 3.24. Voltage variation for different positions of compensation reactors, under the

assumption of no-load conditions of the line.

appears at the line energizing, it is also necessary to install another compensation

reactor close to the source (Fig. 3.24, curve a). In this case, in order to energize the

line, the following condition should be satisfied:

PN

< cot L (3.74)

Psc + Qr

Shunt compensation reactor leads, as for series capacitor banks, to an

apparent shortening of the line. As in the case of series capacitors, when the reactor

is asymmetrically installed on the line, the considered system (reactor included)

does not admit an operation under natural power regime.

In the case of two reactors, symmetrically installed on the line, for the steady

state regime the characteristic impedance equivalent to the entire structure can be

established and therefore, a natural power regime can be achieved [3.1].

L

Eg 1 2 2 1

jXS I1

I2

V1 -jBr -jBr V2

For the electrical configuration from Figure 3.25, with two compensation

reactors symmetrically installed on the line, the line coefficients become:

AC transmission lines 217

Z C2 Br2

A = D = cos L + Z C Br sin L + sin 21 sin 22

2

B = jZ C sin L + 2 Z C Br sin 1 sin L + 2 + Z C2 Br2 sin 22 sin 2 1 (3.75)

2

C = jYC sin L 2 Z C Br cos 1 cos L + 2 Z C2 Br2 sin 22 cos 2 1

2

b) Considering the influence of the lumped reactance of the power system

(Fig. 3.23), the matrix equation (3.72) becomes:

cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 jZ C sin 1

E g jZ C V

I = cos 2 cos 2 sin ( 1 + 1 ) 2

1 jY sin Y cos 1 + jYC sin 1 I

cos 2 r sin 1 2

C 2

(3.76)

where: tan 2 = X S Z C = PN Psc due to the power system reactance;

tan 1 = X r Z C due to the shunt reactor.

terminal network, similar relations as in the case of series capacitors are obtained,

the coefficient B being of interest:

B = jZ C ( sin L + Br Z C sin 1 sin 2 ) + jX S ( cos L + Z C Br sin 1 cos 2 ) (3.77)

or

cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 )

B = jZ C sin 1 + jZ C (3.78)

cos 2 cos 2 sin 1

or, in absolute value:

ZC

B= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =

sin 1 cos 2

ZC

=

sin 1 cos 2

{ }

cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 cos 1 cos ( 1 + 1 ) + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =

ZC

= sin ( L + 1 + 2 ) cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 sin 1

sin 1 cos 2

As also showed at case a), the value of the term B increases relative to the

case without compensation, its function having an extreme value. In order to

determine to which value of corresponds this extreme, we will differentiate B

with respect to 1 , obtaining:

218 Basic computation

B ZC

= 0 + cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + cos 1 sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1

1 sin 1 cos 2

B Z C sin 1

= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 =

1 sin 1 cos 2

(3.79)

Z C sin 1

= sin ( 1 2 2 )

sin 1 cos 2

1 P

1cr = L +atan N (3.80)

2 Psc

For strength power systems (large values of Psc ), the critical installing point

of the shunt reactor gets next to the middle of the line, while for weak power

systems (small values of Psc ) the critical installing point of the shunt reactor gets

next to the source.

Taking into consideration that the angle 2 is positive, it results that the sign

of the derivative is negative for values 1 < 1cr ( 1cr being the distance in degrees,

from the receiving-end to the point where B has a maximum value), until the

extreme point is reached, beyond this point the derivative being positive.

Therefore, the function B has a maximum in the critical point 1cr where the

transmitted power is at a minimum:

EgV2

Pe = sin = minimum!

Bmax

reactor exactly in the critical point because the transmitted power would be

minimal; the installing place will be chosen nearby.

Observations:

As regards the advantages and disadvantages of using compensation reactors,

mention that:

The specific cost for line compensation by means of shunt reactor is

smaller than if using capacitors;

The use of reactors leads to a decrease in the transmission angle, whereas

increasing the transfer characteristic impedance. This leads also to a decrease in the

maximum transmission power. The decrease of both natural power and maximum

transfer power is a disadvantage compared with series capacitors compensation;

Shunt reactors leads to an increase in power losses, directly influencing the

transmission efficiency.

AC transmission lines 219

By compounding of compensation systems shunt reactors and series

capacitors an optimal transmission from the standpoint of transferred power and

operating stability can be achieved. In such a mixed structure (Fig. 3.26) notice that

the modification of parameters by means of series compensation influences the

compensation effects with shunt reactors and vice versa. In this case, line

transmission capacity becomes a nonlinear function of the line and of the

compensation device parameters.

A2 B2 A1 B1

C2 D2 C1 D1

I1 Z1=-jX1 I2

V1 Y2 =-jb2 Y3 =-jb3 V2

terminal networks chain results:

V 1 cos 2 jZ c sin 2 1 0 1 Z 1 1 0 cos 1 jZ C sin 1 V 2

I = 1 0 1 Y 3 1 jYC sin 1

1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 Y 2 cos 1 I 2

(3.81)

or

V 1 A2 B2 1 + Z 1Y 3 Z 1 A1 B1 V 2 A B V 2

I = C =

1 2 D 2 Y 2 + Y 3 + Y 2 Y 3 Z 1 1 + Y 2 Z 1 C1

D1 I 2 C D I 2

of maximum transmitted power, it is necessary to minimize the value of the

coefficient B, according to the well-known expression:

V1 V2

Pe = sin

B

In this respect, the matrix product is performed and the coefficient B is

identified:

B = [A2 (1 + Z 1Y 3 ) + B 2 (Y 2 + Y 3 + Y 2 Y 3 Z 1 )]B1 + [A2 Z 1 + B 2 (1 + Y 2 Z 1 )]D1 =

= A2 B1 + B 2 D1 + B1 B 2 (Y 2 + Y 3 ) + A2 D1 Z 1 + B 2 D1Y 2 Z 1 + A2 B1 Z 1Y 3 + (3.82)

+ B1 B 2 Y 2 Y 3 Z 1

220 Basic computation

a) The simplified case of a lossless line: Y 2 = jb2 and Y 3 = jb3 .

(3.83)

b) Furthermore, the reactors are considered to be equal sized, that is

b2 = b3 = b 2 .

[

B' = A2 B1 + B 2 D1 jb B1 B 2 jX 1 A2 D1 j (b / 2 )(B 2 D1 + A2 B1 ) b 2 / 4 B1 B 2( ) ]

(3.84)

c) The expressions of the line coefficients are substituted in the expression of

B' :

A1 = cos 1 ; B1 = jZ C sin 1 ; C1 = jYC sin 1 ; D1 = cos 1 (3.85,a)

A2 = cos2 ; B 2 = jZ C sin 2 ; C 2 = jYC sin 2 ; D 2 = cos2 (3.85,b)

It results:

B ' = jZ C ( cos 2 sin 1 + sin 2 cos 1 ) + jbZ C2 sin 1 sin 2 jX 1 [ cos 2 cos 1 +

( )

+ Z C ( b 2 )( sin 2 cos 1 + cos 2 sin 1 ) + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 cos 2 ] =

= j {Z C sin ( 1 + 2 ) + bZ C2 sin 1 sin 2 X 1 [ cos 2 cos 1 + Z C ( b 2 ) sin ( 1 + 2 ) +

( )

+Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 sin 2 ] } (3.86)

d) Let us consider the compensation at the middle of the line, that is

1 = 2 = L 2 . It results:

{

B' = j Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )

(3.87)

[ ( )

X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + Z C (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) ]}

respectively:

= Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )

X equiv

(3.88)

( ( )

X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) )

If expressed in per unit (by referring to Z C ), results:

( p.u.) = sin L + b sin 2 ( L 2 )

X equiv

( ( )

x1 cos 2 ( L 2) + (b 2)sin L + b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2) )

where x1 and b are expressed in per unit.

The latter expression can also be written as:

(

( p.u.) = k0 + k1b x1 k2 + k3b + k4b 2

X equiv ) (3.89)

AC transmission lines 221

where:

k0 = sin L ; k1 = sin 2 ( L 2 ); k2 = cos 2 ( L 2);

(3.90)

k3 = 1 2 sin L ; k4 = 1 4 sin 2 ( L 2)

In the particular case, when the mixed compensation is not performed, x1 = 0

and b = 0 , it results:

( p.u.) = k0 = sin L

X equiv (3.91)

( B = jZ C sin L ).

The influence of compensation reactor on series compensation consists in:

increasing of equivalent reactance of the electric network:

(k0 + k1b )

increasing of series compensation efficiency:

(

x1 k2 + k3b + k4b 2 )

If we analyse the expression of X equiv (p.u.), we observe that it has a

maximum that can be calculated by differentiating the expression (3.89) with

respect to b:

X equiv

= k1 k3 x1 2k4 x1bmax = 0

b

from where it results:

k1 k3 x1

bmax = (3.92)

2k4 x1

The value bmax corresponds to the maximum value of the equivalent

reactance and thus to the minimum transmitted power. This imposes the avoidance

of bmax since would otherwise lead to a resonance regime; therefore, a value close

to bmax would be suitable.

In 3.4 the maximum transmitted powers on a lossless electric line have been

determined. Taking into account that there are cases when huge amounts of power

(e.g. at least 1000 MVA) are transmitted on long distances and at extra high

voltages (400 kV and above), the power losses by Joule effect, leakage currents or

222 Basic computation

corona discharge are high enough not to be neglected and single-phase active and

reactive power expressions, both for sending and receiving ends, will be further

determined on the basis of general operating equation for long lines:

V 1 A B V 2

I = (3.93)

1 C D I 2

Let us consider the simple case of a long line where node 1 is the sending-end

and node 2 is the receiving-end. Let the receiving-end voltage be the reference

V20 , and let the sending-end voltage be V1 .

V1 V2 0