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NUMBER AND ALGEBRA NUMBER AND PLACE VALUE

3A Index notation
An index is a shorthand way of writing a repeated multiplication.
The base is the number that is being multiplied and the index (or power) is the number of
times it is multiplied.
index (or power)
2 2 2 2 = 24
base

WORKED EXAMPLE 1

Write the following using index notation.


a 5555555 b 333377

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the multiplication. a 5555555


2 Write the number being multiplied as the base = 57
and the number of times it is written as the index.
b 1 Write the multiplication. b 333377
2 Write the number being multiplied as the base = 34 72
and the number of times it is written as the index.

By using place value, you can write numbers in expanded form with index notation.
2700 = 2000 + 700 = 2 10 10 10 + 7 10 10 = 2 103 + 7 102

WORKED EXAMPLE 2

Write the following numbers in expanded form using index notation.


a 59 176 b 108 009

THINK WRITE

a 1 Read the number to yourself, stating the place a


values.
2 Write the number as the sum of each place value. 59 176 = 50 000 + 9000 + 100 + 70 + 6

3 Write each place value in multiples of 10. 59 176 = 5 10 10 10 10 + 9 10


10 10 + 1 10 10 + 7
10 + 6
4 Write each place value in index notation. 59 176 = 5 104 + 9 103 + 1 102 + 7
101 + 6
b 1 Read the number to yourself stating the place b
values.
2 Write the number as the sum of each place value. 108 009 = 100 000 + 8000 + 9
3 Write each place value in multiples of 10. 108 009 = 1 10 10 10 10 10
+ 8 10 10 10 + 9
4 Write each place value in index notation. 108 009 = 1 105 + 8 103 + 9

Chapter 3 Indices and primes 69


NUMBER AND ALGEBRA NUMBER AND PLACE VALUE

WORKED EXAMPLE 3

Simplify each of the following by first writing as a repeated multiplication and then using index
notation.
a 34 36 b (43)3 c (3 5)2

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the question. a 34 36


2 Write the question using repeated multiplication = (3 3 3 3) (3 3 3 3 3 3)
(that is, in expanded form). =3333333333
3 Write the repeated multiplication using index notation. = 310
Note: 34 36 = 310.
b 1 Write the question. b (43)3

2 Write the question using repeated multiplication = 43 43 43


(that is, in expanded form). = (4 4 4) (4 4 4) (4 4 4)
=444444444
3 Write the repeated multiplication using index notation. = 49
Note: (43)3 = 49.
c 1 Write the question. c (3 5)2
2 Write the question using repeated multiplication = (3 5) (3 5)
(that is, in expanded form). =3535
=3355
3 Write the repeated multiplication using index notation. = 32 52
Note: (3 5)2 = 32 52.

REMEMBER

1. Index notation is a shorthand way of writing a repeated multiplication.


2. The number being multiplied is the base of the expression; the number of times it has
been written is the index (or power).
EXERCISE
3A Index notation
INDIVIDUAL FLUENCY
PATHWAYS 1 WE1a Write 7 7 7 7 using index notation.
eBoo
eBookk plus 2 Write each of the following using index notation.
a 2222
Activity 3-A-1
Famous astronomer b 888888
doc-1675 c 10 10 10 10 10
Activity 3-A-2 d 333333333
Famous e 6666666
mathematician
doc-1676 f 13 13 13
Activity 3-A-3 g 12 12 12 12 12 12
Famous physicist h 99999999
doc-1677
3 WE1b Write 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 using index notation.

70 Maths Quest 7 for the Australian Curriculum