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Chapter 1

The subject of study of
the Tourist Resources
1.1 Introduction to the TRM
1.2 The position in the system of economic and
geographical sciences
1.3 Principles, methods, and means of study
1.4 The categories of the TRM
1.5 The factors of influencing the tourist
1.1 Introduction to the Tourism Resources

Key Words:
Tourism, tourists, tourist phenomenon, tourism Industry, smokeless industry

Learning Objectives:
O1. The definition of tourism
O2. The phenomenon of mass tourism
O3. The importance of tourism

O1. The definition of tourism

Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or
the provision of services to support this leisure travel. The World Tourism
Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places
outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism has become a popular
global leisure activity.

Tourism is vital for many countries, due to the income generated by the
consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on
businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in
the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries
include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis,
accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues,
and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts.

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World

Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in
places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours
and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other
purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within
the place visited".
Tourism can be defined as the science, art, and business of attracting and
transporting visitors, accommodating them, and graciously catering to their
needs and wants. All progressive countries throughout the world are
interested in tourism. Political and industrial leaders almost universally have
recognized the economic advantages of tourism. However, what these
countries have done to make tourism a viable, growing segment of their
economy diverges widely from virtually nothing to creating superbly
organized, highly productive tourism plans.

O2. The phenomenon of mass tourism

Tourism, both as a phenomenon and as an industry has made rapid
advances. Tourism phenomenon includes all activities related to tourism
industry. It familiarizes us with, history, evolution, nature, growth global and
international aspects of tourism. Skills required for tourism career,
opportunities, awareness and varied aspects of tourism are also included in
tourism phenomenon.

Different authors have taken different approaches when proposing

definitions, but one thing that most seem to agree on is the difficulty they
attach to defining tourism. Further difficulties exist in defining precise forms
of tourism. Holloway (1994) describes as problematic establishing clear
lines between shoppers and tourists, for example.
There is no universally agreed definition of the tourism industry. Indeed,
there is no agreement that tourism can be described as an industry. Mill and
Morrison (1998), for example, argue that it is hard to describe tourism as an
industry given that there is a great deal of complementarity as well as
competition between tourism businesses. They place definitions of tourism
in context by highlighting the link between travel, tourism, recreation and
leisure. However, they go on to describe this link as fuzzy and to make
the distinction that all tourism involves travel yet all travel is not tourism.
Nevertheless, tourism is often described merely as an activity:
Tourism is an activity. It is an activity that takes place when, in international
terms, people cross borders for leisure or business and stay at least 24 hours
but less than one year. (Mill and Morrison, 1998)
The WTOs definition of tourism is now the one that is most widely
accepted around the world. The definition, provided at the International
Conference on Travel and Tourism Statistics in Ottawa in 1991, is
The activities of a person outside his or her usual environment for less than
a specified period of time and whose main purpose of travel is other than
exercise of an activity remunerated from the place visited. (Chadwick, 1994)
O3. The importance of tourism
Tourism, nowadays is one of the most popular ways of spending free
time. It is higly developed in almost all countries, mainly because of
material profits it brings. But unfortunately, there is the other side of the coin
too, especially if it comes about foreign tourism.
From educational point of view, travelling lets people to see world, other
peoples, culture and traditions. It is said, that traveling broadens and most
people consider, it does. At the same time, tourists who do not have
knowledge about World, can see the grass greener on the other side of the
fence. It causes danger of discontent with country that person live in, what
entail complaints and dissatisfaction.
Also economical aspect plays huge role in domestic market economy. Lots
of people work in tourist branches what is often their only source of income.
What is more, there are some countries - like Malta for example - where
tourism is basis of all its revenue. Howewer, if all field are tourist-minded,
prices are inflated what is huge drawback for natives.
Thirdly, tourism can have influence on tourist religious viewpoint. Seeing
place which is some religion root, surely strengthens pilgrims faith. On the
other hand, showing ones faith can meet with incomprehension or even

Conclusion: Tourism plays an important role in peoples lives as well

as in the economic sector and it will sooner become, following the general
tendency of human social evolution, the most effective economic field.(the
smokeless industry)
1.2 The position in the system of economic and
geographical sciences

Key Words:
The tourist system, geographical approach, economical approach

Learning Objectives:
O1. The tourism system
O2. Economic Approach
O3. Geographical Approach

O1.The tourism system

Tourism is acknowledged as a high growth industry globally with

over 700 million tourist arrival internationally, the sector accounts for more
than US $ 500 billion by way of receipt. Besides, the sector possesses
immense income, employment and foreign exchange generation potential,
thereby, providing a multiplier effect to the economy. The tourism industry is
widely regarded as having the ability to generate high levels of economic
output with relatively lesser levels of capital investment.

That tourism spans a variety of fields of business and study has already
been discussed.
This has clear implications for the provision of organizational frameworks
for tourism
Many different frameworks have been developed in relation to particular
orientations as well as some which offer a more holistic view.

O2. The Economic Approach

Because of its importance to both domestic and world economies,
tourism has been examined closely by economists, who focus on supply,
demand, balance of payments, foreign exchange, employment, expenditures,
development, multipliers, and other economic factors. This approach is
useful in providing a framework for analyzing tourism and its contributions
to a countrys economy and economic development. The disadvantage of the
economic approach is that whereas tourism is an important economic
phenomenon, it has noneconomic impacts as well. The economic approach
does not usually pay adequate attention to the environmental, cultural,
psychological, socio-logical, and anthropological approaches.

O3.The Geographical Approach

Geography is a wide-ranging disciple, so it is natural that geographers
should be interested in tourism and its spatial aspects. The geographer
specializes in the study of location, environment, climate, landscape, and
economic aspects. The geographers approach to tourism sheds light on the
location of tourist areas, the movements of people created by tourism
locales, the changes that tourism brings to the landscape in the form of
tourism facilities, dispersion of tourism development, physical planning, and
economic, social, and cultural problems. Since tourism touches geography at
so many points, geographers have investigated the area more thoroughly
than have scholars in many other disciplines. Because the geographers
approach is so encompassing- dealing with land use, economic aspects,
demographic impacts, and cultural problems a study of their contributions
is highly recommended. Recreational geography is a common course title
used by geographers studying this specialty. Because tourism, leisure, and
recreational are so closely related, it is necessary to search for literature
under all these tiles to discover the contribution of various fields.
Geographers were instrumental in starting both the Journal of Leisure
Research and Leisure sciences, which should be read regularly by all serious
students of tourism.

Conclusion: Tourism has grown to be an activity of worldwide

importance and significance. It has grown rapidly to become a major social
and economic force in the world.
Directly or indirectly, tourism is part of the fabric of most of the worlds
industries, including transportation, retailing, advertising, sports, sporting
goods and equipment, clothing, the food industry, and health care.
1.3 Principles, methods and means of study

Key Words:
The principle of spatiality
The principle of causality
The principle of integration

Learning Objectives:
O1. The principle of spatiality
O2. The principle of causality
O3. The principle of integration

O1. The principle of spatiality

The principle of spatiality, according to which the research of the
tourist phenomenon makes use as a key method of observation, and as mean
of representation of discipline. Due to this pattern the descriptive model is
being widely used to inform potential tourists.

It is generally used in geography and , and especially in regional geography.

Any geographical phenomena takes a places that is defined.

O2. The principle of causality

The principle of causality, whose aim is the study of appearance,
assertion, and development of tourist process. As activity method, it has
recourse to the detailed analysis of phenomena, carried out by means of
explanation that can be accomplished by a mathematical model (formula,

In this way, tourism is represented as an effect of some known causes


All the geographical phenomena have cause that has to be identified.

Due to the components of the system, the explanation of the principle of
causality gets a touristic point of analysis.
O3.The principle of integration
The principle of integration of characteristic phenomena is logistical
structures, designed to show the objective aspects(activity method-
synthesis, operation means- graphic representations(cartographic models).
The cartographic model is the final stage of any scientific demarche.

The touristic regional phenomena cannon exist independently, isolated by

other touristic products, or without mutual connections.

Conclusion : Between the principles there is a close link. The first

principle serves as a basis for the second one, while the latter for the third
1.4 The categories of the TRM

Key Words:
Tourist resources, tourist infrastructure, tourist potential, tourist flow

Learning Objectives:
O1. Tourist resources and their classification
O2. Tourist infrastructure
O3. The tourist potential and tourist flow

O1. Tourist resources and their classification

Tourist resources represent all the attractive elements of a territory
without taking into account their origin and the connection between them.
There can be distinguished two groups of objects that make up the tourist

Tourist natural resources

Tourist human resources

The tourist natural resources are: relief, climate, hydrography, vegetation,

fauna, etc. And the human resources are: museums, religious erections, and
so on.

O2. The tourist infrastructure

Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures

needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and
facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to
the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply,
sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally,
infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example,
roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the
distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may
also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals. In military
parlance, the term refers to the buildings and permanent installations
necessary for the support, redeployment, and operation of military forces.
Developing tourism is a goal for many countries. But for parts of the world
affected by conflict, the income that tourism can provide may seem a far-off
dream. But it is clear that some previously war-torn countries have managed
to build a growing tourism base, earning revenue and, in some cases,
employing in tourist activities those who had been involved earlier in

O3. The tourist potential and tourist flow

You can identify tourism potential in several ways:

Location of the destination or country

Accommodation availability

Special features


Tourist potential It consists of tourist resources and infrastructure.

Tourist flow It represents the movement of the visitors from their place of
residence to the place visited. It is a dynamic category, which considers
human factor by its number and financial opportunities.

The special features of the tourist flow are:

The direction

The rhythm

The intensity

Conclusion: The tourist phenomenon is defined by a series of

notions. The most important are: tourist, tourism, tourist infrastructure,
tourist potential, tourist flow, tourist product, etc.
1.5 The factors influencing the tourist phenomenon

Key Words:
Demographic factors, economic factors, political factors, psychological
factors, social factors

Learning Objectives:
O1. Demographic factors
O2. Economic factors
O3. Political factors
O4. Psychological factors
O5. Social factors

O1. Demographic factors.

The tourist phenomenon is a process in which the presence of the
human being is necessary. This phenomenon appears due to the humans
necessity of recovery and relaxation and of gaining knowledge, which is the
main purpose of tourism. The demographic factors influence by the
numerical increase of population, and this influence represents the most
important cause of the increasing number of tourists. Other factors that lead
to the development of tourism industry are: the increasing number of young
people who want to explore the world, and the older ones who want to travel
for the purpose of relaxation and recovery.
If the population number grows, the tourist demand also grows, and on the
contrary, if the population number decreases, the tourist demand also

This is also an indirect factor that contributes to the development of tourism,

because in the case people live in a specific dens area, they feel the
necessity of taking a tour to some quiet place, especially this in referred to
the older people.
Another factor is tourism among the youth who travel in order to gain
information about some countries, they want to find out more about the
countries they study at school deciding to take trips to those countries
O2. Economic factors
Economic factors have a big influence on tourism, because it has
become, first of all, a practiced activity by the people who have provided
for themselves at least the minimal costs of living. This means that they have
to provide for their lives a high level of standard of living in this way that he
or she could save money for other necessities like traveling.
These factors can influence directly and indirectly the tourism industry.
The direct means is by the increase of cost of product, the increase of
income and of the leisure time.
The tourism phenomenon takes place only in the case in which the humans
financial resources is bigger than the necessity for the consumer needs.
The history of the tourism development is increasing through the years, due
to the increasing of peoples income and leisure time.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, the tourism phenomenon has been
an activity for the reach people. Only after the growing up of the general
level of standard of living, different favorable conditions for traveling in the
developed countries have appeared.
The income effect influences directly the development of tourism, and it
decides the tour form: long or short, and also the quality of the offered
services during the trip.

O3. Political factors

Political factors can often influence the increase or the decrease of the
tourism development between the states that are in conflict or with different
social dispositions. They can be exemplified by the circulation limits during
the Cold War for the URSS population and the Easter European countries
with the Western European Countries. There are still some political problems
in the Republic of Moldova that have a negative impact on the circulation
towards the European countries.
The tourist phenomenon is a products that should keep the good relations
between countries and contribute to the free circulation throughout the
Some armed conflicts from some specific areas, the insecurity provoked by
terrorism have a negative impact on the touristic circulation in the specified
O4. Psychological factors
Psychological factors have the special role in the promotion of the
recreational activities. In case the economic factors are meant to provide the
material conditions, the psychological elements determine humans necessity
for travel, which means the pressure influence on peoples mind by the day
by day stress, the density of population In some specific areas, the isolation
from nature, and so on.
We should also keep in mind that another indirect influence on the
development of tourism for the psychological factors is the biological
necessity of recreation and the psychological factors are actively involved
during the trip taken. People are really sensible to the bad quality of the
infrastructure, and they prefer to take trips for recreation and relaxation.

O5. Social factors

Social factors tell us about the leisure time of the population. The
notion of leisure time appears as a general value only after transforming the
national economy into an industrial one.
The industrial world has lead the people to a easier work and much leisure
time which means the shortness of the working time. In their leisure time
many people prefer to travel throughout the world. Of course not all the free
time is dedicated to tourism, but at least a part of it is. The time period that is
used for traveling depends on the social interests of every person., on the
way he or she organizes and understands his or her life.

Conclusion: All the factors play a major role in the development of

the tourist phenomenon and have a big influence on the process of the
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introductory text, Kendall Hund Publishing
Company, 1998
2. McIntosh, Goeldner, Ritchie, Tourism: Principles,
Practices, Philosophies, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
3. Sofia Celeste E. Sarino, Tourism Principles
4. Routledge, Encyclopedia of Tourism, 2000
5. Lesley Pender and Richard Sharpley, The
Management of Tourism, 2005