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1.Whatiselectrictraction?
Electrictractionmeansusingtheelectricpowerfortractionsystem(i.e.forrailways,trams,trolleysetc).
Electrictractionmeansuseoftheelectricityforalltheabovemachines.Nowadays,magnetictractionisalsousedforbullettrains.andbasic
dcmotorsareusedforelectrictractionsystems.

2.Howcanyoustartupthe40wtubelitewith230vAC/DCwithoutusinganychoke/Coil?
ItspossiblebymeansofElectronicchokes,otherwiseitsnotpossibletoionizetheparticlesintubelightwithnormalvoltage.

3.Whatispuinelectricalengineering?
Pustandsforperunitandthiswillbeusedinsinglelinediagramofpowerdistributionanditislikeahugeelectricalcircuitwithnoof
components(generators,transformers,loads)withdifferentratings(inMVAandKV).Tobringalltheratingsintocommonplatformweuse
conceptinwhich,ingenerallargestMVAandKVratingsofthecomponentisconsideredasbasevalues,thenallothercomponentratingsw
backintothisbasis.Thosevaluesarecalledaspuvalues.(p.u=actualvalue/basevalue).

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4.OperationcarriedoutinThermalpowerstations?
Thewaterisobtainedintheboilerandthecoalisburntsothatsteamisobtainedthissteamisallowedtohittheturbine,theturbinewhich
coupledwiththegeneratorgeneratestheelectricity.

5.Whylinkisprovidedinneutralofanaccircuitandfuseinphaseofaccircuit?
LinkisprovidedataNeutralcommonpointinthecircuitfromwhichvariousconnectionaretakenfortheindividualcontrolcircuitandsoi
giveninalinkformtowithstandhighAmps.ButinthecaseofFuseinthePhaseofACcircuititisdesignedsuchthatthefuseratingiscalcu
fortheparticularcircuit(i.eload)only.Soifanymalfunctionhappenthefuseconnectedintheparticularcontrolcircuitalonewillblowoff.

6.Howtubelightcircuitisconnectedandhowitworks?
Achokeisconnectedinoneendofthetubelightandastarterisinserieswiththecircuit.Whensupplyisprovided,thestarterwillinterrupt
supplycycleofAC.Duetothesuddenchangeofsupplythechockwillgeneratearound1000volts.Thisvoltwillcapableoftobreaktheelect
insidethetubetomakeelectronflow.oncethecurrentpassesthroughthetubethestartercircuitwillbeoutofpart.nowthereisnochange
supplycauseschokevoltagenormalizedandactasminimizethecurrent.

7.whatsisMARXCIRCUIT?

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Itisusedwithgeneratorsforcharginganumberofcapacitorinparallelanddischargingtheminseries.Itisusedwhenvoltagerequiredfort
ishigherthantheavailable.

8.Whatisencoder,howitfunction?
Anencoderisadeviceusedtochangeasignal(suchasabitstream)ordataintoacode.Thecodemayserveanyofanumberofpurposessuc
compressinginformationfortransmissionorstorage,encryptingoraddingredundanciestotheinputcode,ortranslatingfromonecodeto
another.Thisisusuallydonebymeansofaprogrammedalgorithm,especiallyifanypartisdigital,whilemostanalogencodingisdonewith
analog
circuitry.

9.Whataretheadvantagesofspeedcontrolusingthyristor?
Advantages:1.FastSwitchingCharactersticsthanMosfet,BJT,IGBT2.Lowcost3.HigherAccurate.

10.WhyHumanbodyfeelElectricshock??ninanElectrictrainduringrunning,WedidntfeelanyShock?why?
Unfortunatelyourbodyisaprettygoodconductorofelectricity,ThegoldenruleisCurrenttakesthelowestresistantpathifyouhaveinsula
toourfeetasthecircuitisnotcomplete(wearingrubberfootwearwhichdoingsomerepairsisadvisableasourfootwearisahighresistance
notmuchcurrentflowsthroughourbody).Theelectrictrainiswellinsulatedfromitselectricalsystem.

11.whatistheprincipleofmotor?
Wheneveracurrentcarryingconductorisplacedinanmagneticfielditproduceturningortwistingmovemntiscalledastorque.

12.Why,whenbirdssitontransmissionlinesorcurrentwiresdoesntgetshock?
Itstruethatifbirdstouchthesingleoneline(phaseorneutral)theydontgetelectricalshockifbirdstouch2linesthanthecircuitisclose
theygetelectricalshock..soifahumantouchsingleoneline(phase)thenhedoesntgetshockifheisintheair(nottouchingstandingon
groundifheisstandingonthegroundthentouchingtheline(phase)hewillgetashockbecausethegroundonwhatwestandingislikeline
(groundbedlikeneutral)?andinthemostofelectriclinestheneutralisgrounded..sothatmeansthathumanwhotouchthelineclosesth
circuitbetweenphaseandneutral.

13.whatismeantbyarmaturereaction?
Theeffectofarmatureflutomainfluxiscalledarmaturereaction.Thearmaturefluxmaysupportmainfluxoropposesmainflux.

14.whathappenifwegive220voltsdcsupplytodbulbrtubelight?
Bulbs[devices]forACaredesignedtooperatesuchthatitoffershighimpedancetoACsupply.Normallytheyhavelowresistance.WhenDC
supplyisapplied,duetolowresistance,thecurrentthroughlampwouldbesohighthatitmaydamagethebulbelement.

15.WhichmotorhashighStartingTorqueandStaringcurrentDCmotor,InductionmotororSynchronousmotor?
DCSeriesmotorhashighstartingtorque.WecannotstarttheInductionmotorandSynchronousmotorsonload,butcannotstarttheDCs
motorwithoutload.

16.whatisACSRcableandwhereweuseit?
ACSRmeansAluminiumconductorsteelreinforced,thisconductorisusedintransmission&distribution.

17.Whatisvaccumcurrcuitbreaker.definewithcauseandwherebeuseitDevice?
Abreakerisnormallyusedtobreakaciruit.whilebreakingthecircuit,thecontactterminalswillbeseparated.
Atthetimeofseperationanairgapisformedinbetweentheterminals.Duetoexistingcurrentflowtheairinthegapisionisedandresults
arc.variousmediumsareusedtoquenchthisarcinrespectiveCBs.butinVCBthemediumisvaccumgas.sincetheairintheCBishaving
vaccumpressurethearcformationisinterrupted.VCBscanbeuseduptokv.

18.Whatwillhappenwhenpowerfactorisleadingindistributionofpower?
Iftheirishighpowerfactor,i.eifthepowerfactorisclosetoone:
1.lossesinformofheatwillbereduced,
2.cablebecomeslessbulkyandeasytocarry,andverycheaptoafford,&

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3.italsoreducesoverheatingoftranformers.

19.whatstheonemaindifferencebetweenUPS&inverter?Andelectricalengineering&electronicsengineering?
uninterruptpowersupplyismainlyuseforshorttime.meansaccordingtoupsVAitgivesbackup.upsisalsotwotypes:onlineandoffline
onlineupshavinghighvoltandampforlongtimebackupwithwithhighdcvoltage.butupsstartwith2vdcwith7amp.butinverterisstart
2v,24,dcto36vdcand20ampto80ampbatterywithlongtimebackup.

20.Whatis2phasemotor?
Atwophasemotorisamotorwiththethestartingwindingandtherunningwindinghaveaphasesplit.
e.gacservomotor.wheretheauxiliarywindingandthecontrolwindinghaveaphasesplitof90degree.

21.AdvantagesofvvvfdrivesovernonvvvfdrivesforEOTcranes?
1.smoothstartandstop.
2.nojerkingofload.
3.exactposiitoning
4.betterprotectionformotor.
5.high/lowspeedselection.
6.reliabilityofbreakshoe.
7.programmablebreakcontrol.
8.easycircutry
9.reductionincontrols
10.increasesmotorlife

22.WhatisthesignificanceofvectorgroupinginPowerTransformers?
Everypowertransformerhasavectorgrouplistedbyitsmanufacturer.Fundamentallyittellsyoutheinformationabouthowthewindingsa
connected(deltaorwye)andthephacedifferencebetweentthecurrentandvoltage.EG.DYNmeansDeltaprimary,WyeSecondryandthe
currentisatoclockrefferedtothevoltage.

23.WhichtypeofA.Cmotorisusedinthefan(ceilingfan,exhaustfan,padestalfan,bracketfanetc)whicharefindinthehouses?
ItsSinglePhaseinductionmotorwhichmostlysquirrelcagerotorandarecapacitorstartcapacitorrun.

24.GivetwobasicspeedcontrolschemeofDCshuntmotor?
Byusingfluxcontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossthefieldwindingtocontrolthefieldcurrent.sobychangingthe
currentthefluxproducedbythefieldwindingcanbechanged,andsincespeedisinverselyproportionaltofluxspeedcanbecontrolled.arm
controlmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossarmaturewindingbyvaryingtheresistancethevalueofresistivedrop(IaRa)ca
varied,andsincespeedisdirectlyproportionaltoEbIaRathespeedcanbecontrolled.

25.whatistheprincipleofmotor?
Wheneveracurrentcarryingconductorisplacedinanmagneticfielditproduceturningortwistingmovementiscalledastorque.

26.whatismeantbyarmaturereaction?
Theeffectofarmatureflutomainfluxiscalledarmaturereaction.Thearmaturefluxmaysupportmainfluxoropposesmainflux.

27.GivetwobasicspeedcontrolschemeofDCshuntmotor?
Byusingfluxcontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossthefieldwindingtocontrolthefieldcurrent.sobychangingthe
currentthefluxproducedbythefieldwindingcanbechanged,andsincespeedisinverselyproportionaltofluxspeedcanbecontrolled.arm
controlmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossarmaturewdg.byvaryingtheresistancethevalueofresistivedrop(IaRa)canbe
varied,andsincespeedisdirectlyproportionaltoEbIaRathespeedcanbecontrolled.

28.whatisthedifferencebetweensynchronousgenerator&asynchronousgenerator?
Insimple,synchronousgeneratorsupplysbothactiveandreactivepowerbutasynchronousgenerator(inductiongenerator)supplysonlyac
powerandobservereactivepowerformagnetizing.Thistypeofgeneratorsareusedinwindmills.

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29.WhatisthePolarizationindexvalue?(pivalue)andsimpledefinitionofpolarizationindex?
Itsratiobetweeninsulationresistance(IR)i.emeggarvaluefor0mintoinsulationresistanceformin.Itrangesfrom57fornewmotors&
normallyformotortobeingoodconditionitshouldbeGreaterthan.5.

30.Whysyn.generatorsareusedfortheproductionofelectricity?
synchronousmachineshavecapabilitytoworkondifferentpowerfactor(orsaydifferentimaginarypowervaryingthefieldemf.Hencesyn.
generatorsrusedfortheproductionofelectricity.

31.Whatisthedifferencebetweensynchronousgenerator&asynchronousgenerator?
Insimple,synchronousgeneratorsupplysbothactiveandreactivepowerbutasynchronousgenerator(inductiongenerator)supplysonlyac
powerandobservereactivepowerformagnetizing.Thistypeofgeneratorsareusedinwindmills.

32.1tonisequaltohowmanywatts?
1ton=12000BTU/hrandtoconvertBTU/hrtohorsepower,12,000*0.000929=4.715hptherefore1ton=4.715*.746=.5KW.

33.whysyn.generatorsrusedfortheproductionofelectricity?
synchronousmachineshavecapabilitytoworkondifferentpowerfactor(orsaydifferentimaginarypowvaryingthefieldemf.Hencesyn.
generatorsrusedfortheproductionofelectricity.

34.Enlisttypesofdcgenerator?
D.C.Generatorsareclassifiedintotwotypes:
1)separatlyexictedd.c.generator
2)selfexictedd.c.generator,
whichisfurtherclassifiedinto1)series2)shuntandcompound(whichisfurtherclassifiedintocumulativeanddifferential).

35.WhatisAutomaticVoltageregulator(AVR)?
AVRisanabbreviationforAutomaticVoltageRegulator.ItisimportantpartinSynchronousGenerators,itcontrolstheoutputvoltageofthe
generatorbycontrollingitsexcitationcurrent.ThusitcancontroltheoutputReactivePoweroftheGenerator.

36.Whatisanexciterandhowdoesitwork?
Therearetwotypesofexciters,staticexciterandrotoryexciter.purposeofexcitoristosupplytheexcitationdcvoltagetothefixedpolesof
generator.Rotoryexcitorisanadditionalsmallgeneratormountedontheshaftofmaingenerator.ifitisdcgenerator,itwillsupplydctoth
rotorypolesthroughslipringandbrushes(conventionalalternator).ifitisanacexcitor,outputofacexcitorisrectifiedbyrotatingdiodes
supplydctomainfixedpoles.acexcitoristheacgeneratorwhosefieldwindingarestationaryandarmaturerotates.initialvoltageisbuiltup
residualmagnetism.Itgivesthestartingtorquetothegenerator.

37.Differencebetweenafourpointstarterandthreepointstarter?
Theshuntconnectioninfourpointstaterisprovidedseparatelyformthelinewhereasinthreepointstateritisconnectedwithlinewhichis
drawbackinthreepointstater

38.WhyusetheVCBatHighTransmissionSystem?WhycantuseACB?
ActuallythethingisvacuumhashigharcquechingpropertycomparetoairbecauseinVCB,thedieelectricstrengthsequalto8timesofair
yalwaysvaccumusedasinHTbreakerandairusedasinLT.

39.Whatisthedifferencebetweensurgearrestorandlightningarrestor?
LAisinstalledoutsideandtheeffectoflightningisgrounded,whereassurgearrestorinstalledinsidepanelscomprisingofresistorswhich
consumestheenergyandnullifytheeffectofsurge.

40.Whathappensificonnectacapacitortoageneratorload?
Connectingacapacitoracrossageneratoralwaysimprovespowerfactor,butitwillhelpdependsupontheenginecapacityofthealternator,
wisethealternatorwillbeoverloadedduetotheextrawattsconsumedduetotheimprovementonpf.Secondly,dontconnectacapacitora
analternatorwhileitispickinguporwithoutanyotherload.

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41.Whythecapacitorsworksonaconly?
Generallycapacitorgivesinfiniteresistancetodccomponents(i.e.,blockthedccomponents).itallowstheac
componentstopassthrough.

42.Explaintheworkingprincipalofthecircuitbreaker?
CircuitBreakerisonewhichmakesorbreaksthecircuit.Ithastwocontactsnamelyfixedcontact&movingcontact.undernormalcondition
movingcontactcomesincontactwithfixedcontacttherebyformingtheclosedcontactfortheflowofcurrent.Duringabnormal&faulty
conditions(whencurrentexceedstheratedvalue)anarcisproducedbetweenthefixed&movingcontacts&therebyitformstheopencircui
isextinguishedbytheArcQuenchingmedialikeair,oil,vaccumetc.

43.Howmanytypesofcollingsystemittransformers?
1.ONAN(oilnatural,airnatural)
2.ONAF(oilnatural,airforced)
3.OFAF(oilforced,airforced)
4.ODWF(oildirect,waterforced)
5.OFAN(oilforced,airforced)

44.Whatisthefunctionofantipumpingincircuitbreaker?
whenbreakeriscloseatonetimebyclosepushbutton,theantipumpingcontactorpreventreclosethebreakerbyclosepushbuttonafterif
alreadyclose.

45.whatissteppermotor.whatisitsuses?
Steppermotoristheelectricalmachinewhichactuponinputpulseappliedtoit.itisonetypeofsynchronousmotorwhichrunsinstepsine
directioninsteadofrunningincompletecycle.so,inautomationpartsitisused.

46.Howtocalculatecapacitorbankvaluetomaintainunitypowerfactorwithsomesuitableexample?
KVAR=KW(TAN(COS(1)#e)TAN(COS(1)#d))
#e=EXISTINGP.F.
#d=DESIREDP.F.

47.Tellmeindetailaboutc.t.andp.t.?(Company:reliance)
ThetermC.Tmeanscurrenttransformer,andthetermP.Tmeanspotentialtransformer.Incircuitwheremeasurementsofhighvoltageand
currentisinvolvedtheyareusedthere.Particularlywhenameasuringdevicelikevoltmeterorammeterisnotabletomeasuresuchhighval
quantitybecauseoflargevalueoftorqueduetosuchhighvalueitcandamagethemeasuringdevice.so,CTandPTareintroducedinthecirc
Theyworkonthesameprincipleoftransformer,whichisbasedonlinkageofelectromagneticfluxproducedbyprimarywithsecondary.They
ontheratiototheyaredesigned.E.gifCTisofratio50005Aandithastomeasuresecondarycurrentof8000A.thenANS=8000*55000=8A
thisresultwillbegiventoammeter.andaftermeasuring8Awecancalculatetheprimarycurrent.sameistheoperationofPTbutmeasuring
voltage.

48.ThereareaTransformerandaninductionmachine.Thosetwohavethesamesupply.Forwhichdevicetheloadcurrentwillbemaximum
Andwhy?
Themotorhasmaxloadcurrentcomparetothatoftransformerbecausethemotorconsumesrealpower..andthetransformerisonlyprodu
theworkingfluxanditsnotconsuming..hencetheloadcurrentinthetransformerisbecauseofcorelosssoitisminimum.

49.whatispowerfactor?whetheritshouldbehighorlow?why?
Powerfactorshouldbehighinordertogetsmoothoperationofthesystem.Lowpowerfactormeanslosseswillbemore.itistheratiooftrue
powertoapparentpower.ithastobeideally1.ifitistoolowthencableoverheating&equipmentoverloadingwilloccur.ifitisgreaterthan
thenloadwillactascapacitorandstartsfeedingthesourceandwillcausetripping.(ifpfispoorex:0.17tomeetactualpowerloadhastodra
morecurrent(Vconstant),resultinmorelossesifpfisgoodex:0.95tomeetactualpowerloadhastodrawlesscurrent(Vconstant),resultin
losses).

50.WhatisthedifferencebetweenIsolatorandCircuitBreaker?
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Isolatorisaoffloaddevicewhichisusedforisolatingthedownstreamcircuitsfromupstreamcircuitsforthereasonofanymaintenanceon
downstreamcircuits.itismanuallyoperatedanddoesnotcontainanysolenoidunlikecircuitbreaker.itshouldnotbeoperatedwhileitish
load.firsttheloadonitmustbemadezeroandthenitcansafelyoperated.itsspecificationonlyratedcurrentisgiven.Butcircuitbreakeris
onloadautomaticdeviceusedforbreakingthecircuitincaseofabnormalconditionslikeshortcircuit,overloadetc.,itishavingthree
specification1isratedcurrentand2isshortcircuitbreakingcapacityand3isinstantaneoustrippingcurrent.

51.whatisboucholzrelayandthesignificanceofitintothetransformer?
Boucholzrelayisadevicewhichisusedfortheprotectionoftransformerfromitsinternalfaults,itisagasbasedrelay.wheneveranyintern
faultoccursinatransformer,theboucholzrelayatoncegivesahornforsometime,ifthetransformerisisolatedfromthecircuitthenitstop
sounditselfotherwiseittripsthecircuitbyitsowntrippingmechanism.

52.WhatisSF6CircuitBreaker?
SF6isSulpherhexaFlouridegas..ifthisgasisusedasarcquenchingmediuminaCircuitbreakermeansSF6CB.

53.Whatisfranticeffect?
Outputvoltageisgreaterthantheinputvoltageorreceivingendvoltageisgreaterthanthesendingendvoltage.

54.Whatismeantbyinsulationvoltageincables?explainit?
Itisthepropertyofacablebyvirtueofitcanwithstandtheappliedvoltagewithoutrupturingitisknownasinsulationlevelofthecable.

55.Whywedo2typesofearthingontransformer(ie:)bodyearthing&neutralearthing,whatisfunction.iamgoingtoinstallaookva
transformer&380kvaDGsetwhatshouldtheearthingvalue?
ThetwotypesofearthingareFamiliarasEquipmentearthingandsystemearthing.InEquipmentearthing:
body(nonconductingpart)oftheequipmentshoulddbeearthedtosafegaurdthehumanbeings.systemEarthing:Inthisneutralofthesup
source(TransformerorGenerator)shouldbegrounded.Withthis,incaseofunbalancedloadingneutralwillnotbeshifted.sothatunbalanc
voltageswillnotarise.Wecanprotecttheequipmentalso.Withsizeoftheequipment(transformeroralternator)andselectionofrelyingsys
earthingwillbefurtherclassifiedintodirectlyearthed,Impedanceearthing,resistive(NGRs)earthing.

56.WhatisthedifferencebetweenMCB&MCCB,Whereitcanbeused?
MCBisminiaturecircuitbreakerwhichisthermaloperatedanduseforshortcircuitprotectioninsmallcurrentratingcircuit.MCCBmould
casecircuitbreakerandisthermaloperatedforoverloadcurrentandmagneticoperationforinstanttripinshortcircuitcondition.undervo
andunderfrequencymaybeinbuilt.Normallyitisusedwherenormalcurrentismorethan100A.

57.Whereshouldthelightingarrestorbeplacedindistributionlines?
Neardistributiontransformersandoutgoingfeedersof11kvandincommingfeederof33kvandnearpowertransformersinsubstations.

58.DefineIDMTrelay?
Itisaninversedefiniteminimumtimerelay.InIDMTrelayitsoperatingisinverselyproportionalandalsoacharacteristicofminimumtime
whichthisrelayoperates.Itisinverseinthesense,thetrippingtimewilldecreaseasthemagnitudeoffaultcurrentincrease.

59.Whatarethetransformerlosses?
TRANSFORMERLOSSESTransformerlosseshavetwosourcescopperlossandmagneticloss.Copperlossesarecausedbytheresistance
wire(I2R).Magneticlossesarecausedbyeddycurrentsandhysteresisinthecore.Copperlossisaconstantafterthecoilhasbeenwoundan
thereforeameasurableloss.
Hysteresislossisconstantforaparticularvoltageandcurrent.Eddycurrentloss,however,isdifferentforeachfrequencypassedthroughth
transformer.

60.WhatisthecountofhvdctransmissionlinesinIndia?
Resolution:Atpresenttherearethreehvdctransmissionlinesinindia
1)chandrapurtopadghe(mumbai)(100MWat00kVDC)
2)rehandtodelhi(100MWat00kVDC)
3)talchaltokolar(200MW)

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61.Whatismeantbyregenerativebraking?
Resolution:Whenthesupplyiscuttoffforarunningmotor,itstillcontinuerunningduetoinertia.Inordertostopitquicklyweplacea
load(resitor)acrossthearmaturewindingandthemotorshouldhavemaintainedcontinuousfieldsupply.sothatbacke.m.fvoltageismade
applyacrosstheresistorandduetoloadthemotorstopsquickly.ThistypeofbreakingiscalledasRegenerativeBreaking.

62.WhyisthestartingcurrenthighinaDCmotor?
Resolution:InDCmotors,VoltageequationisV=EbIaRa(V=Terminalvoltage,Eb=BackemfinMotor,Ia=Armaturecurrent,Ra=Aramt
resistance).Atstarting,Ebiszero.Therefore,V=IaRa,Ia=V/Ra,whereRaisverylesslike0.01ohm.i.e,Iawillbecomeenormouslyincrease

63.Whataretheadvantagesofstardeltastarterwithinductionmotor?
Resolution:
(1).Themainadvantageofusingthestardeltastarterisreductionofcurrentduringthestartingofthemotor.Startingcurrentisreducedto
timesOfcurrentofDirectonlinestarting.
(2).Hencethestartingcurrentisreduced,thevoltagedropsduringthestartingofmotorinsystemsarereduced.

64.WhyDeltaStarTransformersareusedforLightingLoads?
Resolution:Forlightingloads,neutralconductorismustandhencethesecondarymustbestarwinding.andthislightingloadisalways
unbalancedinallthreephases.Tominimizethecurrentunbalanceintheprimaryweusedeltawindingintheprimary.Sodelta/startransf
isusedforlightingloads.

65.Whyinathreepinplugtheearthpinisthickerandlongerthantheotherpins?
Resolution:ItdependsuponR=rhol/awherearea(a)isinverselyproportionaltoresistance(R),soif(a)increases,Rdecreases&ifRisless
leakagecurrentwilltakelowresistancepathsotheearthpinshouldbethicker.ItislongerbecausetheTheFirsttomaketheconnectionand
todisconnnectshouldbeearthPin.ThisassuresSafetyforthepersonwhousestheelectricalinstrument.

66.Whyseriesmotorcannotbestartedonnoload?
Resolution:Seriesmotorcannotbestartedwithoutloadbecauseofhighstartingtorque.SeriesmotorareusedinTrains,Craneetc.

67.WhyELCBcantworkifNinputofELCBdonotconnecttoground?
Resolution:ELCBisusedtodetectearthleakagefault.OncethephaseandneutralareconnectedinanELCB,thecurrentwillflowthroughp
andthatmuchcurrentwillhavetoreturnneutralsoresultantcurrentiszero.Oncethereisagroundfaultintheloadside,currentfrompha
directlypassthroughearthanditwillnotreturnthroughneutralthroughELCB.Thatmeansoncesidecurrentisgoingandnotreturningan
hence
becauseofthisdifferenceincurrentELCBwiltripanditwillsafeguardtheothercircuitsfromfaultyloads.Iftheneutralisnotgrounded,fa
currentwilldefinitelyhighandthatfullfaultcurrentwillcomebackthroughELCB,andtherewillbenodifferenceincurrent.

68.HowelectricalpowerisgeneratedbyanA.CGenerator?
Forthegenerationofelectpowerweneedaprimemoverwhichsuppliesmechanicalpowerinputtothe
alternator,canbesteamturbines,orhydroturbines.Whenpolesoftherotormovesunderthearmature
conductorswhichareplacedonthestator,fieldfluxcutthearmatureconductor,thereforevoltageisgenerated
andisofsinusoidalinnatureduetopolaritychangeofrotorpoles(i,e)NSNS.

69.Whyanacsolenoidvalveattracttheplungereventhoughweinterchangestheterminal?Willthepoleschanges?
YesbecausethepoleschangesforeveryhalfcycleofacvoltagesothepolarityofACvoltageiscontinuouslychangingforeveryhalfcycle.so
interchangingofterminalsinacsystemdoesnotshowanydifference.Thatswhytheacsolenoidattracttheplungereventhoughitstermin
interchanged.

70.Whatisderating?,whyitisnecessary,itissameforallmeansfordrives,motors,andcables.
Thecurrentcurryingofcableswillchangedependinguponthesitetemperature(locationofsite),typeofrun(itwillrunthroughduct,trenc
buriedetc.),numberoftray,depthoftrench,distancebetweencables.Consideringthisconditionactualcurrentcurryingcapacityofcablere
thancurrentcurryingcapacity(whichgiventocableCatalogue)thisiscalledderating.

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71.Whytemperatureriseisconductedinbusbarsandisolators?
Busbarsandisolatorsareratedforcontinuouspowerflow,thatmeanstheycarryheavycurrentswhichrisestheirtemperature.soitisnece
totestthisdevicesfortemperaturerise.

72.Whenvoltageincreasesthencurrentalsoincreasesthenwhatistheneedofovervoltagerelayandovercurrentrelay?Canwemeasureo
voltageandovercurrentbymeasuringcurrentonly?
No.Wecantsensetheovervoltagebyjustmeasuringthecurrentonlybecausethecurrentincreasesnotonlyforovervoltagesbutalsoforu
voltage(Asmostoftheloadsarenonlinearinnature).So,theovervoltageprotection&overcurrentprotectionarecompletelydifferent.Ove
voltagerelaymeantforsensingovervoltages&protectthesystemfrominsulationbreakdownandfiring.Overcurrentrelaymeantforsens
any
internalshortcircuit,overloadcondition,earthfaulttherebyreducingthesystemfailure&riskoffire.So,forabetterprotectionofthesyste
shouldhavebothovervoltage&overcurrentrelay.

73.Ifonelampconnectsbetweentwophasesitwillglowornot?
Ifthevoltagebetweenthetwophaseisequaltothelampvoltagethenthelampwillglow.Whenthevoltagedifferenceisbigitwilldamageth
lampandwhenthedifferenceissmallerthelampwillglowdependingonthetypeoflamp.

74.Howdoyouselectacablesize(Cu&Al)foraparticularload?
Atfirstcalculatetheelectricalcurrentoftheload,afterthatderatetheelectricalcurrentconsideringderatingfactor(dependingonsitecond
andlayingofcable)afterchoosethecablesizefromcablecatalogconsideringderatingelectricalcurrent.Afterthatmeasurethelengthofcab
requiredfromsupplypointofloadtoloadpoin.Calculatethevoltagedropwhichwillmax3%(resistanceandreactanceofcablefoundfrom
cablecatalogofselectingcable)ifvoltagedrop>3%thenchoosenexthighersizeofcable.

75.WhatareHRCfusesandwhereitisused?
HRCstandforhighrupturingcapacityfuseanditisusedindistributionsystemforelectricaltransformers.

76.Whichpowerplanthashighloadfactor?
Allbaseloadpowerplantshaveahighloadfactor.Ifweusehighefficiencypowerplantstosupplythebaseload,wecanreducethecostof
generation.Hydelpowerplantshaveahigherefficiencythanthermal&nuclearpowerplants.

77.Mentionthemethodsforstartinganinductionmotor?
Thedifferentmethodsofstartinganinductionmotor
DOL:directonlinestarter
Stardeltastarter
Autotransformerstarter
Resistancestarter
Seriesreactorstarter

78.Whatisthedifferencebetweenearthresistanceandearthelectroderesistance?
Onlyoneoftheterminalsisevidentintheearthresistance.Inordertofindthesecondterminalweshouldrecoursetoitsdefinition:Earth
Resistanceistheresistanceexistingbetweentheelectricallyaccessiblepartofaburiedelectrodeandanotherpointoftheearth,whichisfar
Theresistanceoftheelectrodehasthefollowingcomponents:
(A)theresistanceofthemetalandthatoftheconnectiontoit.
(B)thecontactresistanceofthesurroundingearthtotheelectrode.

79.Whatisuseoflockoutrelayinhtvoltage?
Alockoutrelayisgenerallyplacedinlinebeforeoraftertheestopswitchsothepowercanbeshutoffatonecentrallocation.Thisrelayis
poweredbythesameelectricalsourceasthecontrolpowerandisoperatedbyakeylockswitch.Therelayitselfmayhaveupto24contactp
withintheunititself.Thisallowsthecontrolpowerformultiplemachinestobelockedoutbytheturnofasinglekeyswitch.

80.Whatisthepowerfactorofanalternatoratnoload?
AtnoloadSynchronousImpedanceofthealternatorisresponsibleforcreatingangledifference.Soitshouldbezerolagginglikeinductor.
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81.Howtodeterminecapacitortolerancecodes?
Resolution:Inelectroniccircuits,thecapacitortolerancecanbedeterminedbyacodethatappearsonthecasing.Thecodeisaletterthatoft
followsathreedigitnumber(suchas130Z).Thefirsttwoarethe1stand2ndsignificantdigitsandthethirdisamultipliercode.Mostofthe
thelastdigittellsyouhowmanyzerostowriteafterthefirsttwodigitsandthesearereadasPicoFarads.

82.Whymostofanalogo/pdeviceshavingo/prange4to20mAandnot0to20mA?
Resolution:420mAisastandardrangeusedtoindicatemeasuredvaluesforanyprocess.Thereasonthat4maischoseninsteadof0mAis
failsafeoperation.Forexampleapressureinstrumentgivesoutput4mAtoindicate0psi,upto20mAtoindicate100psi,orfullscale.Du
anyproblemininstrument(i.e)brokenwire,itsoutputreducesto0mA.Soifrangeis020mAthenwecandifferentiatewhetheritisduet
broken
wireordueto0psi.

83.Twobulbsof100wand40wrespectivelyconnectedinseriesacrossa230vsupplywhichbulbwillglowbrightandwhy?
Resolution:Sincetwobulbsareinseriestheywillgetequalamountofelectricalcurrentbutasthesupplyvoltageisconstantacrossthe
bulb(P=V^2/R).Sotheresistanceof40Wbulbisgreaterandvoltageacross40Wismore(V=IR)so40Wbulbwillglowbrighter.

84.Whatismeantbykneepointvoltage?
Resolution:KneepointvoltageiscalculatedforelectricalCurrenttransformersandisveryimportantfactortochooseaCT.Itisthevoltagea
whichaCTgetssaturated.(CTcurrenttransformer).

85.Whatisreversepowerrelay?
Resolution:ReversePowerflowrelayareusedingeneratingstationssprotection.Ageneratingstationsissupposedtofedpowertothegrid
casegeneratingunitsareoff,thereisnogenerationintheplantthenplantmaytakepowerfromgrid.Tostoptheflowofpowerfromgridto
generatorweusereversepowerrelay.

86.WhatwillhappenifDCsupplyisgivenontheprimaryofatransformer?
Resolution:Mainlytransformerhashighinductanceandlowresistance.IncaseofDCsupplythereisnoinductance,onlyresistancewillacti
>electricalcircuit.Sohighelectricalcurrentwillflowthroughprimarysideofthetransformer.Soforthisreasoncoilandinsulationwillbu
out.

87.Whatisthedifferencebetweenisolatorsand>electricalcircuitbreakers?Whatisbusbar?
Resolution:Isolatorsaremainlyforswitchingpurposeundernormalconditionsbuttheycannotoperateinfaultconditions.Actuallytheyus
isolatingtheCBsformaintenance.WhereasCBgetsactivatedunderfaultconditionsaccordingtothefaultdetected.Busbarisnothingbuta
junctionwherethepowerisgettingdistributedforindependentloads.

88.WhataretheadvantageoffreewheelingdiodeinaFullWaverectifier?
Resolution:Itreducestheharmonicsanditalsoreducessparkingandarchingacrossthemechanicalswitchsothatitreducesthevoltagespi
seeninainductiveload

89.Whatisthefunctionofinterposingcurrenttransformer?
Resolution:Themainfunctionofaninterposingcurrenttransformeristobalancethecurrentssuppliedtotherelaywheretherewouldother
beanimbalanceduetotheratiosofthemaincurrenttransformers.
Interposingcurrenttransformerareequippedwithawiderangeoftapsthatcanbeselectedbytheusertoachievethebalancerequired.

90.WhatareMotorGeneratorSetsandexplainthedifferentwaysthemotorgeneratorsetcanbeused?
Resolution:MotorGeneratorSetsareacombinationofanelectricalgeneratorandanenginemountedtogethertoformasinglepieceof
equipment.Motorgeneratorsetisalsoreferredtoasagenset,ormorecommonly,agenerator.
Themotorgeneratorsetcanusedinthefollowingdifferentways:
1.Alternatingcurrent(AC)todirectcurrent(DC)
2.DCtoAC
3.DCatonevoltagetoDCatanothervoltage
4.ACatonefrequencytoACatanotherharmonicallyrelatedfrequency
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91.Whatispowerqualitymeter?
PowerQualitymetersarecommoninmanyindustrialenvironment.Smallunitsarenowavailableforhomeuseaswell.Theygiveoperators
abilitytomonitorthebothperturbationsonthepowersupply,aswellaspowerusedwithinabuilding,orbyasinglemachineorappliance.
somesituations,equipmentfunctionandoperationismonitoredandcontrolledfromaremotelocationwherecommunicationisviamodem
highspeed
communicationlines.Sowecanunderstandtheimportanceofpowermeasurementthroughpowerqualitymeters.

92.Whatisthedifferentbetweendigitalphaseconverterandordinaryphaseconverter?
Digitalphaseconverterarearecentdevelopmentinphaseconvertertechnologythatutilizesproprietarysoftwareinapowerfulmicroproces
controlsolidstatepowerswitchingcomponents.Thismicroprocessor,calledadigitalsignalprocessor(DSP),monitorsthephaseconversion
process,continuallyadjustingtheinputandoutputmodulesoftheconvertertomaintainperfectlybalancedthreephasepowerunderallloa
conditions.

93.Explaintheoperationofvariablefrequencytransformer?
Avariablefrequencytransformerisusedtotransmitelectricitybetweentwoasynchronousalternatingcurrentdomains.Avariablefrequenc
transformerisadoublyfedelectricmachineresemblingaverticalshafthydroelectricgeneratorwithathreephasewoundrotor,connected
ringstooneexternalacpowercircuit.
Adirectcurrenttorquemotorismountedonthesameshaft.Changingthedirectionoftorqueappliedtotheshaftchangesthedirectionofp
flowwithnoappliedtorque,theshaftrotatesduetothedifferenceinfrequencybetweenthenetworksconnectedtotherotorandstator.The
variablefrequencytransformerbehavesasacontinuouslyadjustablephaseshiftingtransformer.Itallowscontrolofthepowerflowbetween
networks.

94.Whatisthemainuseofrotaryphaseconverter?
Rotaryphaseconverterwillbeconvertingsinglephasepowerintotruebalanced3phasepower,soitisoftencalledassinglephasetothreep
converter.Oftentheadvantagesof3phasemotors,andother3phaseequipment,makeitworthwhiletoconvertsinglephaseto3phaseso
smallandlargeconsumersneednotwanttopayfortheextracostofa3phaseservicebutmaystillwishtouse3phaseequipment.

95.Useofswitchmodepowerconverterinrealtimebasis?
Switchmodepowerconvertercanbeusedinthefollowing5differentways
1)stepdownanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutputvoltageusingacircuitknownasBuckConverterorStepDow
SMPS,
2)stepupanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutputvoltageusingacircuitknownasBoostConverterorStepUpSM
3)stepuporstepdownanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutputvoltage,
4)inverttheinputdcvoltageusingusuallyacircuitsuchastheCukconverter,and
5)producemultipledcoutputsusingacircuitsuchastheflybackconverter.

96.Whichtypeofoilisusedasatransformeroil?
Transformeroil,orinsulatingoil,isusuallyahighlyrefinedmineraloilthatisstableathightemperaturesandhasexcellentelectricalinsula
properties.Itisusedinoilfilledtransformers,sometypesofhighvoltagecapacitors,fluorescentlampballasts,andsometypesofhighvolta
switchesandcircuitbreakers.Itsfunctionsaretoinsulate,suppresscoronaandarcing,andtoserveasacoolant.
Wellintothe170s,polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB)swereoftenusedasadielectricfluidsincetheyarenotflammable.Theyaretoxic,andu
incompletecombustion,canformhighlytoxicproductssuchasfuran.
Startingintheearly170s,concernsaboutthetoxicityofPCBshaveledtotheirbanninginmanycountries.
Today,nontoxic,stablesiliconbasedorfluoridatedhydrocarbonsareused,wheretheaddedexpenseofafireresistantliquidoffsetsadditio
buildingcostforatransformervault.Combustionresistantvegetableoilbaseddielectriccoolantsandsyntheticpentaerythritoltetrafattya
(C7,C8)estersarealsobecomingincreasinglycommonasalternativestonaphthenicmineraloil.Estersarenontoxictoaquaticlife,readily
biodegradable,andhavealowervolatilityandhigherflashpointsthanmineraloil.

97.Ifwegive2334A,540VonPrimarysideof1.125MVAstepuptransformer,thenwhatwillbetheSecondaryCurrent,IfSecondaryVoltag
KV?
AsweknowtheVoltage&currentrelationfortransformerV1/V2=I2/I1

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WeKnow,VI=540VV2=11KVor11000VI1=2334Amps.
ByputtingthesevalueonRelation
540/11000=I2/2334
So,I2=114.5Amps

98.whatarethepointstobeconsiderforMCB(miniaturecircuitbreakerselection?
I(L)*1.25=I(MAX)maximumcurrent.Mcbspecificationaredoneonmaximumcurrentflowincircuit.

99.whatisthefullformofKVAR?
WeknowtherearethreetypesofpowerinElectricalasActive,apparent&reactive.SoKVARisstandforKilo
VoltAmpswithReactivecomponent.

100.Whatisexcitation?
ExcitationisapplyinganexternalvoltagetoDCshuntcoilinDCmotors.

101.Inthreepinplug6Amp.220vACrating.whyearthpindiameterishigherthanothertwopin?whatitspurpose?
BecauseCurrentflowintheconductorisinverselyproportionaltotheconductordiameter.Soifanyshortcircuitsoccurinthesystemfirsth
currentsbypassedintheEarthlingterminal.(R=Pl/aareaoftheconductorincreasesresistancevaluedecreases)

102.Differencebetweenmeggertestequipmentandcontactresistancemetertestinstruments?
Meggertestequipmentusedtomeasurecableelectricresistance,conductorcontinuity,phaseidentificationwhereascontactresistancemet
instrumentsusedtomeasurelowresistancelikerelays,contactors.

103.Whenweconnectthelargecapacitorbankinseries?
weconnectlargecapacitorbankinseriestoimprovethevoltagepowersupplyattheloadendinbalancedtransmissionlinewhenthereis
considerablevoltagedropalongthebalancedtransmissionlineduetohighimpedanceoftheline.Soinordertobringthevoltageattheload
terminalswithinitslimits(i.e(+or%6)oftheratedhighterminalvoltage)thelargecapacitorbankisusedinseries.

104.Whatiselectricaldiversityfactorinelectricalinstallations?
Electricaldiversityfactoristheratioofthesumoftheindividualmaximumdemandsofthevarioussubdivisionsofasystem,orpartofasys
tothemaximumdemandofthewholesystem,orpartofthesystem,underconsideration.Electricaldiversityfactorisusuallymorethanone

105.Whyfieldrheostatiskeptinminimumpositionwhilearmaturerheostatatmaximumposition?
Inmotorsatthetimeofstartingthearmatureresistanceisintroducedtoreducethehighstartingcurrentandthefieldresistanceiskept
minimumtohavehighstartingtorque.

106.WhycomputerhummingsoundoccurredinHTtransmissionline?
Thiscomputerhummingsoundiscomingduetoionization(breakdownofairintochargedparticles)ofairaroundtransmissionconductor.
effectiscalledasCoronaeffect,anditisconsideredaspowerloss.

107.Whatisratedspeed?
Atthetimeofmotortakingnormalcurrent(ratedcurrent)thespeedofthemotoriscalledratedspeed.Itisaspeedatwhichanysystemtake
smallcurrentandgivemaximumefficiency.

108.Whatisdifferentbetweenresistancegroundingsystemandresistanceearthingsystem?
Resistancegroundingsystemmeansconnectingtheneutralpointoftheloadtothegroundtocarrytheresidualcurrentincaseofunbalance
conditionsthroughtheneutraltothegroundwhereasresistanceearthingsystemisdoneinanelectricequipmentinordertoprotecthe
equipmentinoccurrenceoffaultinthesystem.

109.Whyshouldbethefrequency50Hz60Hzonlywhynototherslike45,9556oranything,whyshouldwemaintainthefrequencyconsta
sowhyitisonly50Hz60Hz?
Wecanhavethefrequencyatanyfrequencyyoulike,butthanyoumustalsomakeyourownmotors,highvoltagetransformersoranyother

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equipmentyouwanttouse.Wemaintainthefrequencyat50hzor60hzbecausetheworldmaintainsastandardat50/60hzandtheequipm
arearemadetooperateatthesefrequency.

110.Howtodeterminealternatingcurrentfrequency?
Zerocrossingsofthesinewavetotriggeramonostable(pulsegenerator)isawaytodeterminealternatingcurrentfrequency.Afixedwidth
isgeneratedforeachcycle.Thustherearenpulsespersecond,eachwithwithaconstantenergy.Themorepulsestherearepersecond,th
moretheenergy.Thepulsesareintegrated(filteredoraveraged)togetasteadyDCvoltagewhichisproportionaltofrequency.Thisvoltage
thenbedisplayedonananalogueordigitalvoltmeter,indicatingfrequency.Thismethodismoresuitablethanadirectcounter,asitcanget
accuracyinasecondorso.

111.WhyelectricityinIndiaisinthemultiplesof11like11kv,22kv,33kv?
TransformerInducedvoltageequationcontains4.44factor.
E=4.44*f*T*phi
EInducedemfperphase
Tnumberofturns
ffrequency
phimaximumfluxperpole
FromtheequationweseethatEisproportionalto4.4anditisinturnmultipleof11.
Soalwaystransmissionvoltageismultipleof11

112.WhyweuseacsysteminIndiawhynotdc?
Firstly,theoutputofpowerstationscomesfromarotaryturbine,whichbyitsnatureisACandthereforerequiresnopowerelectronicstoc
toDC.SecondlyitismucheasiertochangethevoltageofACelectricityfortransmissionanddistribution.thirdlythecostofplantassociated
ACtransmission(circuitbreakers,transformersetc)ismuchlowerthantheequivilantofDCtransmissionACtransmissionprovidesanumb
technicaladvantages.Whenafaultonthenetworkoccurs,alargefaultcurrentoccurs.InanACsystemthisbecomesmucheasiertointerup
thesinewavecurrentwillnaturallytendtozeroatsomepointmakingthecurrenteasiertointerrupt.

113.Whichtypeofmotorisusedintrains,whatistheratingofsupplyusedexplainWorkingprincipal?
Dcseriesisinthetrainstogethighstartingtorquewhilestartingofthetrainsandoperatingvoltageis1500vdc.

114.Batterybanksareinconnectedinseriesorparallelandwhy?
BatterybanksarealwaysconnectedinseriesinordertogetamultipliedvoltagewheretheAHorcurrentcapacityremainingsame.Ex:24n
2V,200Ahbatteriesconnectedinserieswillgive48V,200Ahoutput(AH=Amperehours)

115.Whatisinrushcurrent?
Inrushcurrentisthecurrentdrawnbyapieceofelectricallyoperatedequipmentwhenpowerisfirstapplied.ItcanoccurwithACorDCpo
equipment,andcanhappenevenwithlowsupplyvoltages.

116.InaTapchangingtransformerwhereisthetapconnected,isitconnectedintheprimarysideorsecondaryside?
Tapingsareconnectedtohighvoltagewindingside,becauseoflowcurrent.Ifweconnecttapingstolowvoltageside,sparkswillproducewh
tapchangingoperationduetohighcurrent.

117.Whytransformerratingsareinkva?
SincethepowerfactoroftransformerisdependentonloadweonlydefineVAratinganddoesnotincludepowerfactor.Incaseofmotors,p
factordependonconstructionandhenceratingofmotorsisinKWattsandincludepowerfactor.

118.Whatisdifferencebetweenfuseandbreaker?
Fusesareburnedatthetimeofovercurrentflowsinthecircuitbutbreakersarejustopen(notburn)atthetimeofovercurrentflow.Fusesa
usedinonlyonetimebutbreakersareusedbymultiplenumberoftimes.

119.Whatisthedifferencebetweendeltadelta,deltastartransformer?
DeltadeltatransformerisusedatgeneratingstationorareceivingstationforChangeofVoltage(i,e)generallyitisusedwheretheVoltagei

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&Currentislow.Deltastarisadistributionkindoftransformerwherefromsecondarystarneutralistakenasareturnpathandthis
configurationisusedforStepdownvoltagephenomena.

120.Capacitorisloadfreecomponentbutwhyamperemetershowscurrentwhencapacitorbankbreakerclose?
AsweknowthatElectricalishavingtwotypeofload,ActiveandReactive.Capacitorisareactiveloadwhichisnotconsideringasaload,&it
factorisIsin@.MeterisdesignbasedonCurrentRMSvaluebecauseofitmeterisshowingthecurrentRMSvalue.

121.Whatselectrictraction?
Tractionimplieswiththeelectricpowerfortractionsystemi.e.forrailways,trams,trolleysetc.electrictractionimpliesuseoftheelectricity
allthese.Nowaday,magnetictractionisalsoutilisedforbullettrains.Essentiallydcmotorsareutilizedforelectrictractionsystems.

122.WhatispuinEE?
Pustandsforperunitinpowersystem.(pu=actualvalue/basevalue)

123.Definesteppermotor.Whatistheuseofsteppermotor?
Themotorwhichworkoractontheappliedinputpulseinit,iscalledassteppermotor.Thissteppermotorisunderthecategoryofsynchron
motor,whichoftendoesnotfullydependofcompletecycle.Itlikestoworksineitherdirectionrelatedtosteps.forthispurposeitmainlyus
automationparts.

124.Whatisadifferentialamplifier?Also,explainCMRR.
DifferentialAmplifier:Theamplifier,whichisusedtoamplifythevoltagedifferencebetweentwoinputlinesneitherofwhichisgrounded,i
calleddifferentialamplifier.Thisreducestheamountofnoisewhichisinjectedintotheamplifier,becauseanynoiseappearingsimultaneou
boththeinputterminalsastheamplifyingcircuitryrejectsitbeingacommonmodesignal.
CMRR:Itcanbedefinedastheratioofdifferentialvoltagegaintocommonmadevoltagegain.Ifadifferentialamplifierisperfect,CMRRw
infinitebecauseinthatcasecommonmodevoltagegainwouldbezero.

125.Whatisuseoflockoutrelayinhtvoltage?
Alockoutrelayisgenerallyplacedinlinebeforeoraftertheestopswitchsothepowercanbeshutoffatonecentrallocation.Thisrelayis
poweredbythesameelectricalsourceasthecontrolpowerwhichisoperatedbyakeylockswitch.Therelayitselfmayhaveupto24contact
pointswithintheunititself.Thisallowsthecontrolpowerformultiplemachinestobelockedoutbytheturnofasinglekeyswitch.

126.Howcanyoustartupthe40wtubelitewith230vAC/DCwithoutusinganychoke/Coil?
ItspossiblewithElectronicchoke.otherwiseitsnotpossibletoionizetheparticlesintube.light,withnormalvoltage.

127.WhattypesdomainofLaplacetransforms?WhatbehaviorcanLaplacetransformpredicthowthesystemwork?
TypesdomainofLaplacetransformsissdomain,Laplacetransformsprovideamethodtofindposition,accelerationorvoltagethesystemw
have.

128.Inthemagneticfluxes,whatistheroleofarmaturereaction?
Thearmaturefluxhasanimportantrolefortherunningcondition.Thisarmaturefluxcanopposethemainfluxoritmaysupportthemain
forbetterrunningcondition.Thiseffectofsupportingandopposingofmainfluxtoarmaturefluxiscalledarmaturereaction.

129.Explainthinfilmresistorsandwirewoundresistors
ThinfilmresistorsItisconstructedasathinfilmofresistivematerialisdepositedonaninsulatingsubstrate.
Desiredresultsareobtainedbyeithertrimmingthelayerthicknessorbycuttinghelicalgroovesofsuitablepitchalongitslength.Duringthi
process,thevalueoftheresistanceismonitoredcloselyandcuttingofgroovesisstoppedassoonasthedesiredvalueofresistanceisobtain
Wirewoundresistorslengthofwirewoundaroundaninsulatingcylindricalcoreareknownaswirewoundresistors.Thesewiresaremad
materialssuchasConstantanandManganinbecauseoftheirhighresistivity,andlowtemperaturecoefficients.Thecompletewirewoundre
iscoatedwithaninsulatingmaterialsuchasbakedenamel

130.whatstheonemaindifferencebetweenUPS&inverter?Andelectricalengineering&electronicsengineering?
uninterruptpowersupplyismainlyuseforshorttime.meansaccordingtoupsVAitgivesbackup.upsisalsotwotypes:onlineandoffline

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onlineupshavinghighvoltandampforlongtimebackupwithwithhighdcvoltage.butupsstartwithvdcwith7amp.butinverterisstartw
v,24,dcto36vdcand0ampto180ampbatterywithlongtimebackup.

131.WhataretheoperationcarriedoutinThermalpowerstation?
Thewaterisobtainedintheboilerandthecoalisburntsothatsteamisobtainedthissteamisallowedtohittheturbine,theturbinewhichi
coupledwiththegeneratorgeneratestheelectricity

132.WhatisthedifferencebetweenElectronicregulatorandordinaryrheostatregulatorforfans?
Thedifferencebetweentheelectronicandordinaryregulatoristhefactthatinelectronicreg.powerlossestendtobelessbecauseaswemin
thespeedtheelectronicreg.givethepowernecessaryforthatparticularspeedbutincaseofordinaryrheostattypereg.thepowerwastagei
sameforeveryspeedandnopowerissaved.Inelectronicregulatortriacisemployedforspeedcontrol.byvaryingthefiringanglespeedis
controlledbutinrheostaticcontrolresistanceisdecreasedbystepstoachievespeedcontrol.

133.Whatis2phasemotor?
Atwophasemotorisoftenamotorwiththethestartingwindingandtherunningwindinghaveaphasesplit.
e.gacservomotor.wheretheauxiliarywindingandthecontrolwindinghaveaphasesplitof90degree.

134.Whatdoesqualityfactordependoninresonance?
Qualityfactorqdependsonfrequencyandbandwidth.

135.Whatarethetypesofpowerinelectricalpower?
Therearenormallythreetypesofpowerarecountedinelectricalpower.Theyare,
Apparentpower
Activepower
Reactivepower

136.WhataretheadvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystem?
AdvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystemare:
Nocomplexpitchchangingmechanismisneeded.
Aeroturbinealwayskeepsgoingatmaximumefficiencypoint.
Extraenergyinthehighwindspeedregionofthespeeddurationcurvecanbeextracted
Significantreductioninaerodynamicstresses,whichareassociatedwithconstantspeedoperation.

137.Whatisslipinaninductionmotor?
Slipcanbedefinedasthedistinctionbetweenthefluxspeed(Ns)andtherotorspeed(N).Speedoftherotorof
aninductionmotorisalwayslessthanitssynchronousspeed.Itisusuallyexpressedasapercentageof
synchronousspeed(Ns)andrepresentedbythesymbolS.

138.Whylinkisprovidedinneutralofanaccircuitandfuseinphaseofaccircuit?
LinkisprovidedataNeutralcommonpointinthecircuitfromwhichvariousconnectionaretakenfortheindividualcontrolcircuitandsoi
giveninalinkformtowithstandhighAmps.ButinthecaseofFuseinthePhaseofACcircuititisdesignedsuchthatthefuseratingiscalcu
fortheparticularcircuit(i.eload)only.Soifanymalfunctionhappenthefuseconnectedintheparticularcontrolcircuitalonewillblowoff.

139.Statethedifferencebetweengeneratorandalternator?
Generatorandalternatoraretwodevices,whichconvertsmechanicalenergyintoelectricalenergy.Bothhavethesameprincipleof
electromagneticinduction,theonlydifferenceisthattheirconstruction.Generatorpersistsstationarymagneticfieldandrotatingconductor
whichrollsonthearmaturewithslipringsandbrushesridingagainsteachother,henceitconvertstheinducedemfintodccurrentforexter
loadwhereasanalternatorhasastationaryarmatureandrotatingmagneticfieldforhighvoltagesbutforlowvoltageoutputrotatingarmat
andstationarymagneticfieldisused.

140.WhatisACSRcableandwhereweuseit?
ACSRmeansAluminiumconductorsteelreinforced,thisconductorisusedintransmission&distribution.

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141.Whystardeltastarterispreferredwithinductionmotor?
Stardeltastarterispreferredwithinductionmotorduetofollowingreasons:
Startingcurrentisreduced34timesofthedirectcurrentduetowhichvoltagedropsandhenceitcauseslesslosses.
Stardeltastartercircuitcomesincircuitfirstduringstartingofmotor,whichreducesvoltage3times,thatiswhycurrentalsoreducesupt
timesandhencelessmotorburningiscaused.
Inaddition,startingtorqueisincreasedanditpreventsthedamageofmotorwinding.

142.Statethedifferencebetweengeneratorandalternator
Generatorandalternatoraretwodevices,whichconvertsmechanicalenergyintoelectricalenergy.Bothhavethesameprincipleof
electromagneticinduction,theonlydifferenceisthattheirconstruction.Generatorpersistsstationarymagneticfieldandrotatingconductor
whichrollsonthearmaturewithslipringsandbrushesridingagainsteachother,henceitconvertstheinducedemfintodccurrentforexter
loadwhereasanalternatorhasastationaryarmatureandrotatingmagneticfieldforhighvoltagesbutforlowvoltageoutputrotatingarmat
andstationarymagneticfieldisused.

143.WhyACsystemsarepreferredoverDCsystems?
Duetofollowingreasons,ACsystemsarepreferredoverDCsystems:
a.ItiseasytomaintainandchangethevoltageofACelectricityfortransmissionanddistribution.
b.PlantcostforACtransmission(circuitbreakers,transformersetc)ismuchlowerthantheequivalentDCtransmission
c.Frompowerstations,ACisproducedsoitisbettertouseACthenDCinsteadofconvertingit.
d.Whenalargefaultoccursinanetwork,itiseasiertointerruptinanACsystem,asthesinewavecurrentwillnaturallytendtozeroatsom
pointmakingthecurrenteasiertointerrupt.

144.Howcanyourelatepowerengineeringwithelectricalengineering?
Powerengineeringisasubdivisionofelectricalengineering.Itdealswithgeneration,transmissionanddistributionofenergyinelectricalfo
Designofallpowerequipmentsalsocomesunderpowerengineering.Powerengineersmayworkonthedesignandmaintenanceofthepow
gridi.e.calledongridsystemsandtheymightworkonoffgridsystemsthatarenotconnectedtothesystem.

145.Whatarethevariouskindofcablesusedfortransmission?
Cables,whichareusedfortransmittingpower,canbecategorizedinthreeforms:
Lowtensioncables,whichcantransmitvoltageupto1000volts.
Hightensioncablescantransmitvoltageupto23000volts.
Supertensioncablescantransmitvoltage66kVto132kV.

146.Whybackemfusedforadcmotor?highlightitssignificance.
Theinducedemfdevelopedwhentherotatingconductorsofthearmaturebetweenthepolesofmagnet,inaDCmotor,cutthemagneticflux
opposesthecurrentflowingthroughtheconductor,whenthearmaturerotates,iscalledbackemf.Itsvaluedependsuponthespeedofrotat
thearmatureconductors.Instarting,thevalueofbackemfiszero.

147.Whatisslipinaninductionmotor?
Slipcanbedefinedasthedifferencebetweenthefluxspeed(Ns)andtherotorspeed(N).Speedoftherotorofaninductionmotorisalways
thanitssynchronousspeed.Itisusuallyexpressedasapercentageofsynchronousspeed(Ns)andrepresentedbythesymbolS.

148.Explaintheapplicationofstoragebatteries.
Storagebatteriesareusedforvariouspurposes,someoftheapplicationsarementionedbelow:
Fortheoperationofprotectivedevicesandforemergencylightingatgeneratingstationsandsubstations.
Forstarting,ignitionandlightingofautomobiles,aircraftsetc.
Forlightingonsteamanddieselrailwaystrains.
Asasupplypowersourceintelephoneexchange,laboratoriesandbroadcastingstations.
Foremergencylightingathospitals,banks,ruralareaswhereelectricitysuppliesarenotpossible.

149.Explainadvantagesofstoragebatteries

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Fewadvantagesofstoragebatteriesarementionedbelow:
Mostefficientformofstoringenergyportably.
Storedenergyisavailableimmediatelybecausethereisnolagoftimefordeliveringthestoredenergy.
Reliablesourceforsupplyofenergy.
Theenergycanbedrawnatafairlyconstantrate.

160.Whatarethedifferentmethodsforthestartingofasynchronousmotor.
Startingmethods:Synchronousmotorcanbestartedbythefollowingtwomethods:
Bymeansofanauxiliarymotor:Therotorofasynchronousmotorisrotatedbyauxiliarymotor.Thenrotorpolesareexcitedduetowhich
rotorfieldislockedwiththestatorrevolvingfieldandcontinuousrotationisobtained.
Byprovidingdamperwinding:Here,barconductorsareembeddedintheouterperipheryoftherotorpolesandareshortcircuitedwithth
shortcircuitingringsatbothsides.Themachineisstartedasasquirrelcageinductionmotorfirst.Whenitpicksupspeed,excitationisgive
therotorandtherotorstartsrotatingcontinuouslyastherotorfieldislockedwithstatorrevolvingfield.

161.Namethetypesofmotorsusedinvacuumcleaners,phonographicappliances,vendingmachines,
refrigerators,rollingmills,lathes,powerfactorimprovementandcranes.
Followingmotorsareused:
VacuumcleanersUniversalmotor.
PhonographicappliancesHysteresismotor.
VendingmachinesShadedpolemotor.
RefrigeratorsCapacitorsplitphasemotors.
RollingmillsCumulativemotors.
LathesDCshuntmotors.
PowerfactorimprovementSynchronousmotors.

162.StateTheveninsTheorem:
Accordingtotheveninstheorem,thecurrentflowingthroughaloadresistanceConnectedacrossanytwoterminalsofalinearactivebilater
networkistheratioopencircuitvoltage(i.e.thevoltageacrossthetwoterminalswhenRLisremoved)andsumofloadresistanceandinter
resistanceofthenetwork.ItisgivenbyVoc/(Ri+RL).

163.StateNortonsTheorem
TheNortonstheoremexplainsthefactthattherearetwoterminalsandtheyareasfollows:
Oneisterminalactivenetworkcontainingvoltagesources
Anotheristheresistancethatisviewedfromtheoutputterminals.Theoutputterminalsareequivalenttotheconstantsourceofcurrentan
allowsgivingtheparallelresistance.
TheNortonstheoremalsoexplainsabouttheconstantcurrentthatisequaltothecurrentoftheshortcircuitplacedacrosstheterminals.Th
parallelresistanceofthenetworkcanbeviewedfromtheopencircuitterminalswhenallthevoltageandcurrentsourcesareremovedand
replacedbytheinternalresistance.

164.StateMaximumpowertransfertheorem
TheMaximumpowertransfertheoremexplainsabouttheloadthataresistancewillextractfromthenetwork.
Thisincludesthemaximumpowerfromthenetworkandinthiscasetheloadresistanceisbeingisequaltotheresistanceofthenetworkan
alsoallowstheresistancetobeequaltotheresistanceofthenetwork.Thisresistancecanbeviewedbytheoutputterminalsandtheenergy
sourcescanberemovedbyleavingtheinternalresistancebehind.

165.Explaindifferentlossesinatransformer.
Therearetwotypesoflossesoccurringintransformer:
ConstantlossesorIronlosses:Thelossesthatoccurinthecoreareknownascorelossesorironlosses.
Twotypesofironlossesare:
oeddycurrentloss
oHysteresisloss.

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Theselossesdependuponthesupplyvoltage,frequency,corematerialanditsconstruction.Aslongassupplyvoltageandfrequencyisconst
theselossesremainthesamewhetherthetransformerisloadedornot.Thesearealsoknownasconstantlosses.
Variablelossesorcopperlosses:whenthetransformerisloaded,currentflowsinprimaryandsecondarywindings,thereislossofelectrica
energyduetotheresistanceoftheprimarywinding,andsecondarywindingandtheyarecalledvariablelosses.Theselossesdependuponth
loadingconditionsofthetransformers.
Therefore,theselossesarealsocalledasvariablelosses.

176.ExplaindifferenttypesofD.Cmotors?Givetheirapplications
DifferenttypeofDCmotorsandtheirapplicationsareasfollows:
Shuntmotors:Ithasaconstantspeedthoughitsstartingtorqueisnotveryhigh.Therefore,itissuitableforconstantspeeddrive,whereh
startingtorqueisnotrequiredsuchaspumps,blowers,fan,lathemachines,tools,beltorchainconveyoretc.
Servicemotors:Ithashighstartingtorque&itsspeedisinverselyproportionaltotheloadingconditionsi.e.whenlightlyloaded,thespeed
highandwhenheavilyloaded,itislow.Therefore,motorisusedinlifts,cranes,tractionwork,coalloaderandcoalcutterincoalminesetc.
Compoundmotors:Italsohashighstartingtorqueandvariablespeed.Itsadvantageis,itcanrunatNILloadswithoutanydanger.Thism
willthereforefinditsapplicationinloadshavinghighinertialoadorrequiringhighintermittenttorquesuchaselevators,conveyor,rollingm
planes,presses,shearsandpunches,coalcutterandwindingmachinesetc.

177.Explaintheprocessofcommutationinadcmachine.Explainwhatareinterpolesandwhytheyarerequiredinadcmachine.
Commutation:Itisphenomenonwhenanarmaturecoilmovesundertheinfluenceofonepolepairitcarriesconstantcurrentinonedirec
Asthecoilmovesintotheinfluenceofthenextpolepair,thecurrentinitmustreverse.Thisreversalofcurrentinacoiliscalledcommutat
Severalcoilsundergocommutationsimultaneously.Thereversalofcurrentisopposedbythestaticcoilemfandthereforemustbeaidedin
fashionforsmoothcurrentreversal,whichotherwisewouldresultinsparkingatthebrushes.

Theaidingemfisdynamicallyinducedintothecoilsundergoingcommutationbymeansofcompolesorinterpoles,whichareseriesexcited
armaturecurrent.Thesearelocatedintheinterpolarregionofthemainpolesandthereforeinfluencethearmaturecoilsonlywhentheseun
commutation.

178.Commentontheworkingprincipleofoperationofasinglephasetransformer.
WorkingprincipleofoperationofasinglephasetransformercanbeexplainedasAnACsupplypassesthroughtheprimarywinding,acurre
willstartflowingintheprimarywinding.Asaresult,thefluxisset.Thisfluxislinkedwithprimaryandsecondarywindings.Hence,voltage
inducedinboththewindings.Now,whentheloadisconnectedtothesecondaryside,thecurrentwillstartflowingintheloadinthesecond
winding,resultingintheflowofadditionalcurrentinthesecondarywinding.Hence,accordingtoFaradayslawsofelectromagneticinducti
emfwillbeinducedinboththewindings.Thevoltageinducedintheprimarywindingisduetoitsselfinductanceandknownasselfinduced
and
accordingtoLenzeslawitwillopposethecausei.e.supplyvoltagehencecalledasbackemf.Thevoltageinducedinsecondarycoilisknown
mutuallyinducedvoltage.Hence,transformerworksontheprincipleofelectromagneticinduction.

179.Definethefollowingterms:
Reliability,
Maximumdemand,
Reservegeneratingcapacity,
Availability(operational).
Reliability:Itisthecapacityofthepowersystemtoserveallpowerdemandswithoutfailureoverlongperiods.
MaximumDemand:Itismaximumloaddemandrequiredinapowerstationduringagivenperiod.
Reservegeneratingcapacity:Extragenerationcapacityinstalledtomeettheneedofscheduleddowntimesforpreventivemaintenanceiscal
reservegeneratingcapacity.
Availability:Asthepercentageofthetimeaunitisavailabletoproducepowerwhetherneededbythesystemornot.

180.Mentionthedisadvantagesoflowpowerfactor?Howcanitbeimproved?
Disadvantagesoflowpowerfactor:
Linelossesare1.57timesunitypowerfactor.

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Largergeneratorsandtransformersarerequired.
Lowlaggingpowerfactorcausesalargevoltagedrop,henceextraregulationequipmentisrequiredtokeepvoltagedropwithinprescribed
limits.
Greaterconductorsize:Totransmitordistributeafixedamountofpoweratfixedvoltage,theconductorswillhavetocarrymorecurrenta
powerfactor.Thisrequiresalargeconductorsize.

181.Statethemethodsofimprovingpowerfactor?
Methodsofimprovingpowerfactor:
Byconnectingstaticcapacitorsinparallelwiththeloadoperatingatlaggingpowerfactor.
Asynchronousmotortakesaleadingcurrentwhenoverexcitedandthereforebehaveslikeacapacitor.
Byusingphaseadvancerstoimprovethepowerfactorofinductionmotors.Itprovidesexcitingampereturnstotherotorcircuitofthemo
providingmoreampereturnsthanrequired,theinductionmotorcanbemadetooperateonleadingpowerfactorlikeanoverexcitedsynchr
motor.

182.Statethefactors,forthechoiceofelectricalsystemforanaeroturbine.
Thechoiceofelectricalsystemforanaeroturbineisguidedbythreefactors:
Typeofelectricaloutput:dc,variablefrequencyac,andconstantfrequencyac.
Aeroturbinerotationalspeed:constantspeedwithvariablebladepitch,nearlyconstantspeedwithsimplerpitchchangingmechanismor
variablespeedwithfixedpitchblades.
Utilizationofelectricalenergyoutput:inconjunctionwithbatteryorotherformofstorage,orinterconnectionwithpowergrid.

183.WhataretheadvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystem?
AdvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystemare:
Nocomplexpitchchangingmechanismisneeded.
Aeroturbinealwaysoperatesatmaximumefficiencypoint.
Extraenergyinthehighwindspeedregionofthespeeddurationcurvecanbeextracted
Significantreductioninaerodynamicstresses,whichareassociatedwithconstantspeedoperation.

184.Explainthetermsrealpower,apparentpowerandreactivepowerforaccircuitsandalsotheunitsused.
RealPower:Itistheproductofvoltage,currentandpowerfactori.e.P=VIcosjandbasicunitofrealpoweriswatt.i.e.ExpressedasWo
Apparentpower:Itistheproductofvoltageandcurrent.Apparentpower=VIandbasicunitofapparentpowerisvoltampere.Expresse
VAorKVA.
ReactivePower:Itistheproductofvoltage,currentandsineofanglebetweenthevoltageandcurrenti.e.
Reactivepower=voltageXcurrentXsinjorReactivepower=VIsinjandhasnootherunitbutexpressedinVARorKVAR.

185.Definethefollowing:Averagedemand,Maximumdemand,Demandfactor,Loadfactor.
AverageDemand:theaveragepowerrequirementduringsomespecifiedperiodoftimeofconsiderabledurationiscalledtheaveragedema
installation.
MaximumDemand:Themaximumdemandofaninstallationisdefinedasthegreatestofallthedemand,whichhaveoccurredduringagi
period.Itismeasuredaccordinglytospecifications,overaprescribedtimeintervalduringacertainperiod.
DemandFactor:Itisdefinedastheratioofactualmaximumdemandmadebytheloadtotheratingoftheconnectedload.
LoadFactor:Itisdefinedastheratiooftheaveragepowertothemaximumdemand.

186.Explainforwardresistance,staticresistanceanddynamicresistanceofapnjunctiondiode.
ForwardResistance:Resistanceofferedinadiodecircuit,whenitisforwardbiased,iscalledforwardresistance.
DCorStaticResistance:DCresistancecanbeexplainedastheratioofthedcvoltageacrossthediodetothedirectcurrentflowingthrough
ACorDynamicResistance:Itcanbedefinedasthereciprocaloftheslopeoftheforwardcharacteristicofthediode.Itistheresistanceoffe
byadiodetothechangingforwardcurrent.

187.HowdoesZenerphenomenondifferfromAvalanchebreakdown?
Thephenomenonwhenthedepletionregionexpandsandthepotentialbarrierincreasesleadingtoaveryhighelectricfieldacrossthejunct

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duetowhichsuddenlythereversecurrentincreasesunderaveryhighreversevoltageiscalledZenereffect.ZenerbreakdownorAvalanche
breakdownmayoccurindependentlyorbothofthesemayoccursimultaneously.Diodejunctionsthatbreakdownbelow5varecausedbyZe
Effect.
Junctionsthatexperiencebreakdownabove5varecausedbyavalancheeffect.TheZenerbreakdownoccursinheavilydopedjunctions,wh
producenarrowdepletionlayers.Theavalanchebreakdownoccursinlightlydopedjunctions,whichproducewidedepletionlayers.

191.CompareJFETsandMOSFETs.
ComparisonofJFETsandMOSFETs:
JFETscanonlybeoperatedinthedepletionmodewhereasMOSFETscanbeoperatedineitherdepletionorinenhancementmode.InaJ
ifthegateisforwardbiased,excesscarrierinjunctionoccursandthegatecurrentissubstantial.
MOSFETshaveinputimpedancemuchhigherthanthatofJFETs.Thusisduetonegligiblesmallleakagecurrent.
JFETshavecharacteristiccurvesmoreflatthanthatofMOSFETisindicatingahigherdrainresistance.
WhenJFETisoperatedwithareversebiasonthejunction,thegatecurrentIGislargerthanitwouldbeinacomparableMOSFET.

192.Explainthinfilmresistorsandwirewoundresistors
a.ThinfilmresistorsItisconstructedasathinfilmofresistivematerialisdepositedonaninsulatingsubstrate.
Desiredresultsareobtainedbyeithertrimmingthelayerthicknessorbycuttinghelicalgroovesofsuitablepitchalongitslength.Duringthi
process,thevalueoftheresistanceismonitoredcloselyandcuttingofgroovesisstoppedassoonasthedesiredvalueofresistanceisobtain
b.Wirewoundresistorslengthofwirewoundaroundaninsulatingcylindricalcoreareknownaswirewoundresistors.Thesewiresarem
materialssuchasConstantanandManganinbecauseoftheirhighresistivity,andlowtemperaturecoefficients.Thecompletewirewoundre
iscoatedwithaninsulatingmaterialsuchasbakedenamel

193.Whatisadifferentialamplifier?Also,explainCMRR.
DifferentialAmplifier:Theamplifier,whichisusedtoamplifythevoltagedifferencebetweentwoinputlinesneitherofwhichisgrounded,i
calleddifferentialamplifier.Thisreducestheamountofnoiseinjectedintotheamplifier,becauseanynoiseappearingsimultaneouslyonbo
inputterminalsastheamplifyingcircuitryrejectsitbeingacommonmodesignal.
CMRR:Itcanbedefinedastheratioofdifferentialvoltagegaintocommonmadevoltagegain.Ifadifferentialamplifierisperfect,CMRRw
beinfinitebecauseinthatcasecommonmodevoltagegainwouldbezero.

196.Whatisthedifferencebetweenelectronicregulatorandordinaryelectricalrheostatregulatorforfans?
Thedifferencebetweentheelectronicandordinaryelectricalregulatoristhatinelectronicregulatorpowerlossesarelessbecauseaswedec
thespeedtheelectronicregulatorgivesthepowerneededforthatparticularspeedbutincaseofordinaryrheostattyperegulator,thepower
wastageissameforeveryspeedandnopowerissaved.Inelectronicregulator,triacisemployedforspeedcontrolbyvaryingthefiringangle
anditiscontrolledbutinrheostatic,controlresistanceisdecreasedbystepstoachievespeedcontrol.

197.Whatisthevoltagegainortransferfunctionofamplifier?
Vout/Vin

198.WhatdoestheKVARmeans?
TheKVARindicatestheelectricalpower.KVARmeansKiloVoltAmpereswithReactivecomponents

199.WhyusetheVCBatHighTransmissionSystem?WhycantuseACB?
ActuallythethingisvacuumhashigharcquechingpropertycomparetoairbecauseinVCB,thedieelectricstrengthsequalto8timesofair
yalwaysvaccumusedasinHTbreakerandairusedasinLT.

200.WhatisthedifferencebetweenMCB&MCCB,Whereitcanbeused?
MCBisminiaturecircuitbreakerwhichisthermaloperatedanduseforshortcircuitprotectioninsmallcurrentratingcircuit.MCCBmould
casecircuitbreakerandisthermaloperatedforoverloadcurrentandmagneticoperationforinstanttripinshortcircuitcondition.undervo
andunderfrequencymaybeinbuilt.Normallyitisusedwherenormalcurrentismorethan100A.

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