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# Chapter-4

## Performance of Transmission Line

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The important consideration in the design and operation of
transmission line are the determination of voltage drop, line losses
and efficiency of transmission.

## These values are greatly influenced by the line constants R, L and

C of the transmission line.

For instant, the voltage drop in the line depends on the values of
the above three line constants.

## Similarly, the resistance of transmission line conductors is the

most important cause of transmission loss in the line and
determines the transmission efficiency.

## In this chapter we shall develop formulas by which we can

calculate voltage regulation, line losses and efficiency of
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transmission lines.
Current and voltage relation ship in transmission line

## o In the previous chapter, the parameters of transmission line

are examined there by making us ready to consider a
transmission line as an element of power system.

## o An important problem in the design and operation of power

system keeping the voltage within a specified limits at various
points in the system.

## o In this chapter, formulas shall be developed to calculate the

voltage, current and power at any point in the transmission
line provides these values are known at one point, usually at
one end of line.
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Representation of line
Transmission lines roughly classified as
1.Short lines
lines less than 80Km (50 miles) and the line voltage less
than 20Kv.
here shunt capacitance is so small ,it can be omitted.
2.Medium lines
lines within length b/n 80Km(50 miles) and 240Km(150
miles) and the line voltage is b/n 20Kv and 100Kv.
The shunt admittance (capacitance) will be considered.
3. Long lines
lines longer than 240Km (150 miles) and the line voltage
greater than 100Kv.
transmission line parameters are distributed one along the
entire length.
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Important terms
While studying the performance of transmission line, it is desirable
to determine its voltage regulation and transmission efficiency.
i) Voltage regulation:
o when a transmission line is carrying current, there is a voltage
drop in the line due to resistance and inductance of the line.
o The result is that receiving end voltage (VR) of the line is
generally less than the sending end voltage(Vs).
o this voltage drop(VS-VR)in the line is expressed as a percentage
of receiving end voltage(VR) and is called voltage regulation.
o The difference in voltage at the receiving end of transmission line
regulation and is expressed as a percentage of the receiving end
voltage.
o At no load, there is no drop in the line so that at no load, VR = Vs.
However, at full load there is a drop in the line so that receiving
end voltage is VR.
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ii)Transmission efficiency:
o The power obtained at the receiving end of the transmission line is
generally less than the sending end power due to losses in the line.
o The ratio of the receiving end power to the sending end power of the
transmission line is called transmission efficiency of the line.

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1. SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE
Short transmission line is a transmission of a distance less than
80Km and operating voltage lower than 20 kV. Due to smaller
distance and lower line voltage, in the case of a short transmission
line the effects of capacitance and conductance may be neglected
Leaving only the series resistance and inductance to be taken into
consideration.
Though in actual line, the resistance and the inductance are
distributed along the whole length, but in case of short lines the
total resistance and inductance are assumed to be lumped at one
place.
In single phase, the total loop inductance and resistance is to be
taken in to account, but in three phase system per phase (line to
neutral) parameter is to be taken in to account.

## Fig.3 .1a Equivalent circuit of a short line

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Transmission lines are normally operated with a balanced three-
phase load; the analysis can therefore proceed on a per phase
basis. A transmission line on a per phase basis can be regarded
as a two-port network, wherein the sending end voltage Vr and
current are related to the receiving-end voltage Vo and current Io
through ABCD constants as:

## Also the following identity holds for ABCD constants:

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The current entering the line at the sending-end
termination is equal to the current leaving at the
receiving-end, and the same current flows through all the
line sections. The R and L parameters may therefore be
regarded as ' lumped '.

## The ckt is solved as simple ac circuit since there is no shunt

arms.

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The following equation can be derived from the above
equations:

## The effect of the variation of the power factor of the load on

the voltage regulation of the line is most easily understand for
the short line

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B. Unity power factor

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From the above figure, depending on the receiving end
power factor(R) in (a) a large value of Vs is required to
maintain a given VR than (B).In (C)still smaller sending
end voltage Vs is required to keep the given VR.

## In practice, transmission-line decrease when heavily

the voltage maintained 5 of rated voltage.

## The voltage drop limit 0.95 safe operating practice.

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Example-1
A three-phase line delivers 3 MW at 11 KV for a distance of 15 Km. Line
loss is 10 % of power delivered, load power factor is 0.8 lagging.
Frequency is 50 Hz, 1.7 m equilateral spacing of conductors. Calculate
the sending-end voltage and regulation.

11,000
Solution Receiving-end phase voltage = 6.360 VR
3

3,000 103
= 197 A
3 11 103 0.8

10
= 3, 000 10 3
100

300 103
R
3 197 2
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2.58 by Sisay
ohms F.
Example -1 contd

## Assuming that the conductors are manufactured from copper having a

resistance of 0.0137 ohms per meter for a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2, the
conductor cross-section is 80 mm2 corresponding to a radius of 5 mm.
1 d
Inductance =L (1 4 log c ) 107 H / metre
2 r
X L L length
1 1.7 103
= 314 (1 4 log c ) 10 7 15 10 3
2 5
=5.75 ohms
VS VR I R R cos R I R X L sin R
= 6,350 + ( 197 2.58 0.8) + ( 197 5.75 0.6)
= 6,350 + 1057
= 7,407 V per phase
= 12,780 V line
( R cos R X L sin R ) VS VR
Regulation =I R =
VR VR
1,057
= 16.7 %
6,350 Prepared by Sisay F.
Problem-1
A single phase overhead transmission line delivers 1100 kW at 33 kV at 08
p.f. lagging. The total resistance and inductive reactance of the line are 10
and 15 respectively. Determine : (i) sending end voltage (ii) sending
end power factor and (iii) transmission efficiency.

## Taking receiving end voltage VR as the reference Phasor

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Problem -1 contd

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Problem-2
An overhead 3-phase transmission line delivers 5000 kW at 22 kV at 08
p.f. lagging. The resistance and reactance of each conductor is 4 and
6 respectively. Determine : (i) sending end voltage (ii) percentage
regulation (iii) transmission efficiency.

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Problem -2 contd

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2. MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINE
Medium lines can be represented sufficiently well by R, L and C
as lumped parameters with half the capacitance to neutral of the
line lumped at each end of the equivalent ckt(-model) or half
of the series impedance lumped at each side of the line(T-
model).
A medium length line can thus be represented by
A) -model B) T-model
A) Nominal -model

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charging current

=
2
charging current

=
2
the sending end current
= +
and = +

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Sending end voltage
= + = + ( + )
= + +

= +( )+
2

= (1 + ) + *
2
= ( + ) +

= + +
2 2
Substitute from *

= (1 + ) + (1 + )
4 4

1+
2
=

(1 + ) 1 +

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And

1+
2
=
(1 + )

1 +

4 4

B) -model

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Capacitance Voltage

= +
2
Sending end voltage

= + **
2
Where = +
=

= + = Y( + ) +
2

= Y + (1+ )
2
From (**)

= +
2
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= ( + )+ (Y + (1+ ) )
2 2 2

= (1+ ) + Z(1+ )
2 4

1+ (1 + )
2 4
=
1+

2

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Example-1
A three-phase, 50 Hz, 150 km line operates at 110 Kv between the lines at
the sending-end. The total inductance and capacitance per phase are (0.2
H) and (1.5 F). Neglecting losses calculate the value of receiving-end load
having a power factor of unity for which the voltage at the receiving-end
will be the same as that at the sending-end. Assume one-half of the total
capacitance of the line to be concentrated at each end.
Solution

110 1000
Vr Vs 63510 v
3
Inductive reactance per phase,

Z =jX L j 62.8
Example-1 contd

4.71 104 siemins
Y=j 4.71 104

Vr Vr j 0

Example-1 contd

## Current in the load-end capacitor, Y 4.71

Iab Vr j 104 63510 j14.96 A
2 2

Let the load current be Ir. Since the load power factor is unity,

Ir I s0 I s j0

## Current through the inductive reactance,

I =Ir Iab
Ir j14.96
Example-1 contd

Sending-end voltage,
Vs Vr I Z
=Vr j 0 ( Ir j14.96)( j 62.8)
=(Vr -939.5)+j 62.8 I r

## Vs2 =(Vr -939.5)2 (62.8 I r )2

(63510)2 =(63510-939.5)2 (62.8 I r )2
(62.8 I r )2 118 106

10862
Ir 173 A
62.8
Problem-2
A 3-phase, 50-Hz overhead transmission line 100 km long has the following
constants :
Resistance/km/phase = 0.1
Inductive reactance/km/phase = 02
Capacitive susceptance/km/phase = 004 10 4 siemen
Determine (i) the sending end current (ii) sending end voltage (iii) sending
end power factor and (iv) transmission efficiency when supplying a balanced
load of 10,000 kW at 66 kV, p.f. 08 lagging. Use nominal T method.
Solution. Figs. 10.13 (i) and 10.13 (ii) show the circuit diagram and phasor
diagram of the line respectively.
Problem-2 contd
Problem-2 contd
Long transmission line (length > 240km)
The nominal model or the T-model do not represent a
transmission line exactly because it does not account for the
parameter of the line being uniformly distributed.
In order to account for the distributed nature of the
transmission line constants(R,C,L,G),consider the circuit
shown below.

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Where: dx- an elemental section of the line at a distance
x from the receiving end voltage having a series
impedance zdx and shunt admittance ydx.
The rise in voltage to neutral over the elemental section
in the directions of increasing x is dvx

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Differentiate equ(1) w.r.t x
2
( ) = = Z .(3)
2

Substituting the values of Z = y in equ(3)

2
2 = zy

This is a linear differential equation whose general
solution can be written as
=v(x)=1 +2 (4)
Where = ; 1 and 2 arbitrary constants to be
evaluated from boundary /end conditions.
- propagation constant in 1 .
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Differentiate equ(4) w.r.t x

( )= 1 - 2 = z (4.1)

1 2
= I(x)= -

1 2
= -

Where = characteristic impedance

## The integration constants 1 and 2 may be evaluated by

using the end conditions i.e
when x=0, =
and I = I

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= 1 + 2 (5)
1 2
= -

At x = 0
= 1 + 2
1
= (1 - 2 )

then
1
1 = ( + )
2
1
2 = ( )
2

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Substituting 1 and 2 in equ(5)
+
= ( ) + ( )
2 2
incident voltage reflected voltage
.(6)

+

= ( ) + ( )
2 2

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= = + j propagation constant
Where the attenuation constant in nepers/unit length
- the phase constant in radian/unit length
Knowing and and the parameters of the line, using equ (6) complex
rms values of and at any distance x along the line can easily find out.
A more convenient way obtained by introducing hyperbolic function.
+
= ( ) + ( )
2 2

+
= ( ) + ( )
2 2
Then
= cos + sin
1
= cos + sin

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Where A(x)= D(x) = cos
B(x) = sin
1
C(x) = sinh

A(x) B(x)
= C(x) D(x)
When x= l , =
=
And A= D = cos
B = sin
1
C= sin

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A B
=
C D

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