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Prepared by Sisay F.

The important consideration in the design and operation of

transmission line are the determination of voltage drop, line losses

and efficiency of transmission.

C of the transmission line.

For instant, the voltage drop in the line depends on the values of

the above three line constants.

most important cause of transmission loss in the line and

determines the transmission efficiency.

calculate voltage regulation, line losses and efficiency of

Prepared by Sisay F.

transmission lines.

Current and voltage relation ship in transmission line

are examined there by making us ready to consider a

transmission line as an element of power system.

system keeping the voltage within a specified limits at various

points in the system.

voltage, current and power at any point in the transmission

line provides these values are known at one point, usually at

one end of line.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Representation of line

Transmission lines roughly classified as

1.Short lines

lines less than 80Km (50 miles) and the line voltage less

than 20Kv.

here shunt capacitance is so small ,it can be omitted.

2.Medium lines

lines within length b/n 80Km(50 miles) and 240Km(150

miles) and the line voltage is b/n 20Kv and 100Kv.

The shunt admittance (capacitance) will be considered.

3. Long lines

lines longer than 240Km (150 miles) and the line voltage

greater than 100Kv.

transmission line parameters are distributed one along the

entire length.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Important terms

While studying the performance of transmission line, it is desirable

to determine its voltage regulation and transmission efficiency.

i) Voltage regulation:

o when a transmission line is carrying current, there is a voltage

drop in the line due to resistance and inductance of the line.

o The result is that receiving end voltage (VR) of the line is

generally less than the sending end voltage(Vs).

o this voltage drop(VS-VR)in the line is expressed as a percentage

of receiving end voltage(VR) and is called voltage regulation.

o The difference in voltage at the receiving end of transmission line

b/n conditions of no load and full load is called voltage

regulation and is expressed as a percentage of the receiving end

voltage.

o At no load, there is no drop in the line so that at no load, VR = Vs.

However, at full load there is a drop in the line so that receiving

end voltage is VR.

Prepared by Sisay F.

ii)Transmission efficiency:

o The power obtained at the receiving end of the transmission line is

generally less than the sending end power due to losses in the line.

o The ratio of the receiving end power to the sending end power of the

transmission line is called transmission efficiency of the line.

Prepared by Sisay F.

1. SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE

Short transmission line is a transmission of a distance less than

80Km and operating voltage lower than 20 kV. Due to smaller

distance and lower line voltage, in the case of a short transmission

line the effects of capacitance and conductance may be neglected

Leaving only the series resistance and inductance to be taken into

consideration.

Though in actual line, the resistance and the inductance are

distributed along the whole length, but in case of short lines the

total resistance and inductance are assumed to be lumped at one

place.

In single phase, the total loop inductance and resistance is to be

taken in to account, but in three phase system per phase (line to

neutral) parameter is to be taken in to account.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Transmission lines are normally operated with a balanced three-

phase load; the analysis can therefore proceed on a per phase

basis. A transmission line on a per phase basis can be regarded

as a two-port network, wherein the sending end voltage Vr and

current are related to the receiving-end voltage Vo and current Io

through ABCD constants as:

AD-BC=l

Prepared by Sisay F.

The current entering the line at the sending-end

termination is equal to the current leaving at the

receiving-end, and the same current flows through all the

line sections. The R and L parameters may therefore be

regarded as ' lumped '.

arms.

Prepared by Sisay F.

The following equation can be derived from the above

equations:

the voltage regulation of the line is most easily understand for

the short line

A. lagging pf load

Prepared by Sisay F.

B. Unity power factor

Prepared by Sisay F.

Prepared by Sisay F.

From the above figure, depending on the receiving end

power factor(R) in (a) a large value of Vs is required to

maintain a given VR than (B).In (C)still smaller sending

end voltage Vs is required to keep the given VR.

loaded and increase when lightly loaded. For EHV lines,

the voltage maintained 5 of rated voltage.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Example-1

A three-phase line delivers 3 MW at 11 KV for a distance of 15 Km. Line

loss is 10 % of power delivered, load power factor is 0.8 lagging.

Frequency is 50 Hz, 1.7 m equilateral spacing of conductors. Calculate

the sending-end voltage and regulation.

11,000

Solution Receiving-end phase voltage = 6.360 VR

3

3,000 103

= 197 A

3 11 103 0.8

10

= 3, 000 10 3

100

300 103

R

3 197 2

Prepared

2.58 by Sisay

ohms F.

Example -1 contd

resistance of 0.0137 ohms per meter for a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2, the

conductor cross-section is 80 mm2 corresponding to a radius of 5 mm.

1 d

Inductance =L (1 4 log c ) 107 H / metre

2 r

X L L length

1 1.7 103

= 314 (1 4 log c ) 10 7 15 10 3

2 5

=5.75 ohms

VS VR I R R cos R I R X L sin R

= 6,350 + ( 197 2.58 0.8) + ( 197 5.75 0.6)

= 6,350 + 1057

= 7,407 V per phase

= 12,780 V line

( R cos R X L sin R ) VS VR

Regulation =I R =

VR VR

1,057

= 16.7 %

6,350 Prepared by Sisay F.

Problem-1

A single phase overhead transmission line delivers 1100 kW at 33 kV at 08

p.f. lagging. The total resistance and inductive reactance of the line are 10

and 15 respectively. Determine : (i) sending end voltage (ii) sending

end power factor and (iii) transmission efficiency.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Problem -1 contd

Prepared by Sisay F.

Problem-2

An overhead 3-phase transmission line delivers 5000 kW at 22 kV at 08

p.f. lagging. The resistance and reactance of each conductor is 4 and

6 respectively. Determine : (i) sending end voltage (ii) percentage

regulation (iii) transmission efficiency.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Problem -2 contd

Prepared by Sisay F.

2. MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINE

Medium lines can be represented sufficiently well by R, L and C

as lumped parameters with half the capacitance to neutral of the

line lumped at each end of the equivalent ckt(-model) or half

of the series impedance lumped at each side of the line(T-

model).

A medium length line can thus be represented by

A) -model B) T-model

A) Nominal -model

Prepared by Sisay F.

Receiving end shunt admittance(capacitance)

charging current

=

2

Sending end shunt admittance(capacitance)

charging current

=

2

the sending end current

= +

and = +

Prepared by Sisay F.

Sending end voltage

= + = + ( + )

= + +

= +( )+

2

= (1 + ) + *

2

= ( + ) +

= + +

2 2

Substitute from *

= (1 + ) + (1 + )

4 4

1+

2

=

(1 + ) 1 +

4Prepared by Sisay F. 4

And

1+

2

=

(1 + )

1 +

4 4

B) -model

Prepared by Sisay F.

Capacitance Voltage

= +

2

Sending end voltage

= + **

2

Where = +

=

= + = Y( + ) +

2

= Y + (1+ )

2

From (**)

= +

2

Prepared by Sisay F.

= ( + )+ (Y + (1+ ) )

2 2 2

= (1+ ) + Z(1+ )

2 4

1+ (1 + )

2 4

=

1+

2

Prepared by Sisay F.

Example-1

A three-phase, 50 Hz, 150 km line operates at 110 Kv between the lines at

the sending-end. The total inductance and capacitance per phase are (0.2

H) and (1.5 F). Neglecting losses calculate the value of receiving-end load

having a power factor of unity for which the voltage at the receiving-end

will be the same as that at the sending-end. Assume one-half of the total

capacitance of the line to be concentrated at each end.

Solution

110 1000

Vr Vs 63510 v

3

Inductive reactance per phase,

Z =jX L j 62.8

Example-1 contd

4.71 104 siemins

Y=j 4.71 104

Vr Vr j 0

Example-1 contd

Iab Vr j 104 63510 j14.96 A

2 2

Let the load current be Ir. Since the load power factor is unity,

Ir I s0 I s j0

I =Ir Iab

Ir j14.96

Example-1 contd

Sending-end voltage,

Vs Vr I Z

=Vr j 0 ( Ir j14.96)( j 62.8)

=(Vr -939.5)+j 62.8 I r

(63510)2 =(63510-939.5)2 (62.8 I r )2

(62.8 I r )2 118 106

10862

Ir 173 A

62.8

Problem-2

A 3-phase, 50-Hz overhead transmission line 100 km long has the following

constants :

Resistance/km/phase = 0.1

Inductive reactance/km/phase = 02

Capacitive susceptance/km/phase = 004 10 4 siemen

Determine (i) the sending end current (ii) sending end voltage (iii) sending

end power factor and (iv) transmission efficiency when supplying a balanced

load of 10,000 kW at 66 kV, p.f. 08 lagging. Use nominal T method.

Solution. Figs. 10.13 (i) and 10.13 (ii) show the circuit diagram and phasor

diagram of the line respectively.

Problem-2 contd

Problem-2 contd

Long transmission line (length > 240km)

The nominal model or the T-model do not represent a

transmission line exactly because it does not account for the

parameter of the line being uniformly distributed.

In order to account for the distributed nature of the

transmission line constants(R,C,L,G),consider the circuit

shown below.

Prepared by Sisay F.

Where: dx- an elemental section of the line at a distance

x from the receiving end voltage having a series

impedance zdx and shunt admittance ydx.

The rise in voltage to neutral over the elemental section

in the directions of increasing x is dvx

Prepared by Sisay F.

Differentiate equ(1) w.r.t x

2

( ) = = Z .(3)

2

Substituting the values of Z = y in equ(3)

2

2 = zy

This is a linear differential equation whose general

solution can be written as

=v(x)=1 +2 (4)

Where = ; 1 and 2 arbitrary constants to be

evaluated from boundary /end conditions.

- propagation constant in 1 .

Prepared by Sisay F.

Differentiate equ(4) w.r.t x

( )= 1 - 2 = z (4.1)

1 2

= I(x)= -

1 2

= -

Where = characteristic impedance

using the end conditions i.e

when x=0, =

and I = I

Prepared by Sisay F.

= 1 + 2 (5)

1 2

= -

At x = 0

= 1 + 2

1

= (1 - 2 )

then

1

1 = ( + )

2

1

2 = ( )

2

Prepared by Sisay F.

Substituting 1 and 2 in equ(5)

+

= ( ) + ( )

2 2

incident voltage reflected voltage

.(6)

+

= ( ) + ( )

2 2

Prepared by Sisay F.

= = + j propagation constant

Where the attenuation constant in nepers/unit length

- the phase constant in radian/unit length

Knowing and and the parameters of the line, using equ (6) complex

rms values of and at any distance x along the line can easily find out.

A more convenient way obtained by introducing hyperbolic function.

+

= ( ) + ( )

2 2

+

= ( ) + ( )

2 2

Then

= cos + sin

1

= cos + sin

Prepared by Sisay F.

Where A(x)= D(x) = cos

B(x) = sin

1

C(x) = sinh

A(x) B(x)

= C(x) D(x)

When x= l , =

=

And A= D = cos

B = sin

1

C= sin

Prepared by Sisay F.

A B

=

C D

Prepared by Sisay F.

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