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10122ME604 AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING L T P C
(Common to Mechanical and Production) 3003

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UNIT I VEHICLE STRUCTURE AND ENGINES 9
Types of automobiles, vehicle construction and different layouts, chassis, frame and body,

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Resistances to vehicle motion and need for a gearbox, components of engine their forms, functions
and materials
UNIT II ENGINE AUXILIARY SYSTEMS 9

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Electronically controlled gasoline injection system for SI engines, electronically controlled Diesel
injection system (Unit injector system, Rotary distributor type and common rail direct Injection
system), Electronic ignition system, Turbo chargers, and Engine emission control by three Way

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catalytic converter systems.
UNIT III TRANSMISSION SYSYTEMS 9
Clutch types and construction, gear boxes manual and automatic, gear shift mechanisms, over Drive,
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transfer box, fluid flywheel torque converter, propeller shaft, slip joints, universal joints
Differential, and rear axle, Hotchkiss Drive and Torque Tube Drive.
UNIT IV STEERING, BRAKES AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 9
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Steering geometry and types of steering gear box Power Steering, Types of Front Axle, Types of
Suspension Systems, Pneumatic and Hydraulic Braking Systems, Antilock Braking System and
Traction Control
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UNIT V ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 9


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Use of Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Bio diesel, Bio ethanol, Gasohol and Hydrogen in
Automobiles Engine modifications required Performance ,Combustion and Emission
Characteristics of SI and CI engines with these alternate fuels Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Fuel
Cell
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Note: A Practical Training in dismantling and assembling of engine parts and transmission
Systems may be given to the students.
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TEXT BOOKS:
1. Kirpal Singh, Automobile Engineering Vols 1 & 2 , Standard Publishers, Seventh

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Edition ,1997, New Delhi
2. Jain,K.K.,and Asthana .R.B, Automobile Engineering Tata McGraw Hill Publishers,

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New Delhi, 2002
REFERENCES:
1. Newton ,Steeds and Garet, Motor Vehicles , Butterworth Publishers,1989

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2. Joseph Heitner, Automotive Mechanics,, Second Edition ,East West Press ,1999
3. Martin W. Stockel and Martin T Stockle , Automotive Mechanics Fundamentals, The
Goodheart Will Cox Company Inc, USA ,1978

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4. Heinz Heisler , Advanced Engine Technology, SAE International Publications
USA,1998
5. Ganesan V.. Internal Combustion Engines , Third Edition, Tata Mcgraw Hill ,2007
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INTRODUCTION
It is always challenging to decide whether historical notes should come before or after the

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description and interpretation of the state of the art. Arguing for the second alternative is the fact
that readers should already have understood the motivations that drive a design decision. In favor

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of the first alternative, which we have chosen, there is the fact that readers can place the state of
the art in context and can better appreciate the effort that has been made by those people who
have contributed to it. The unavoidable drawback of this approach is that some considerations

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are only superficially introduced in the historical section that is discussed in better detail later;
readers will forgive us for repeating some concepts. We suggest that readers interested in chassis

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history read the historical notes again when they come to the end of the volume. We begin this
chapter with suspensions and steering systems, going on later to describe wheels, tires, brake
systems and structures. This emphasis is solely due to the larger impact that suspensions and
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steering systems have on vehicle architecture and its consequent evolution; steering systems will
be described together with suspensions because these two systems are indissoluble from the
point of view of designers. The primary function of a vehicle suspension is to isolate in the best
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way possible the body, the sprung mass, from the disturbances coming from the uneven surface
of the road. To do this, the wheels and the masses integral to them, the so called unsprung
masses, are connected to the body with mechanical linkages that allow their relative motion,
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primarily in the vertical direction; along this direction forces are transmitted to the body trough
elastic and damping Elements. The elastic characteristics of tires also contribute to suspension
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quality. Because the path of the wheel motion is not strictly vertical with reference to the car
body, but can show components in the other two directions as well, a second function for the
suspension can be identified: It should guide the wheel, during its displacement (suspension
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deflection) in order to avoid undesired motions, in terms of:


Steering angle of the wheel (toe in, toe out), that can modify vehicle path
Wheel camber angle that can affect the cornering stiffness of the tire
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Track variation, which can influence tire longevity


Wheelbase variation, which can cause resonances with traction and braking force application

These displacements which we will define as secondary, cannot be completely eliminated, but
must be accurately designed while defining the kinematic linkages and the stiffness of the
reaction points (elastic kinematics); in fact a design variation of these parameters can affect the

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vehicle dynamic behavior positively. This topic will be discussed completely in the suspension
chapter. To reveal in advance what will be discussed later on, we can say that:

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The toe angle of the wheel can correct the vehicle under steering (and over steering) behavior

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and improve vehicle stability during braking.
A camber angle equal but opposite to the roll angle, or in other words, a constant
perpendicularity of the wheel to the ground allows the maximum exploitation of the tire

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cornering stiffness.
An appropriate wheelbase variation can improve the wheels ability to absorb the effect of
obstacles, with positive results for comfort; in addition, the suspension can be designed to have

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anti dive and anti squat characteristics, minimizing the pitch angle variation as a consequence of
the application of driving and braking forces. It should not be forgotten that four wheels vehicles
are, as far as the exchange of forces with the ground is concerned, simply hyperstatic systems;
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therefore a last function of the suspension is distributing forces exchanged with the
Ground and making all wheel contact possible also if the road isnt flat. Many of these
considerations, which we will better explain later, were not known at the beginning of the motor
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era and have been developed quite recently,
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