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1. Geology and biology ---- since life ----. 7.

Astronomers ---- that huge star explosions

could create carbon, oxygen and other
A) are intertwined / has begun elements, then---- them into nearby
B) were intertwined / had begun interstellar space.
C) have been intertwined / began
D) would be intertwined / begins A) are theorizing / are ejecting
E) could be intertwined / will begin B) have theorized / eject
C) theorized / will eject
2. Until recently, some scientists ---- that many D) theorize / would have ejected
individuals of the same species ---- specific E) will theorize / ejected
tasks better than the same number of
individuals from different species. 8. The details ---- yet, but the company ---- the
results of the trials as soon as possible.
A) will think / are performing
B) were thinking / will perform A) aren't being revealed / has published
C) think / ought to perform B) hadn't been revealed / published
D) had thought / would be performing C) won't be revealed / would have published
E) thought / could perform D) can't be revealed / would publish
E) haven't been revealed / will publish
3. Meteorites ---- the best available record of
the chemical and physical processes that --- 9. Past research ---- running as a factor in
- during the first million years of our solar human evolution because humans ---- poor
systems history. at fast running compared to other mammals.

A) provide / occurred A) dismissed / would be

B) are providing / have occurred B) has dismissed / are
C) had provided / occurred C) had dismissed / have been
D) could provide / would occur D) would dismiss / were
E) provided / might occur E) was dismissing / were being

4. Over the past eight years, the TES 10. While the battle ---- out in the open, the
instrument ---- that Martian rocks and sands technological capability of the coalition
---- almost entirely of volcanic minerals. forces ---- them the lead.

A) would discover / had been composed A) had been fought / was giving
B) has discovered / are composed B) was fought / would give
C) would discover / were composed C) was being fought / gave
D) had discovered / had been composed D) would have been fought / will give
E) was discovering / would be composed E) is being fought / has given

5. For a long time now, biologists ---- that bits 11. In some ways, we know little more about the
of tissue placed next to each other ----. planets than ---- the ancients who
worshipped them.
A) had known / may fuse
B) have known / can fuse A) had done
C) knew / had fused B) have done
D) would have known / have fused C) do
E) know / would have fused D) would do
E) did
6. Many engineers ---- the thrill of designing a
novel product that then ---- mass

A) are having / is entering

B) had had / had entered
C) would have / has entered
D) have had / enters
E) were having / have entered

12. Twenty years ago, the study of aging ---- as 17. He assures me that the Department of
somewhat misdirected, but now it ---- into an Marine Biogeochemistry, which ---- up in the
important science. 1970s, ---- ever since.

A) was regarded / has developed A) was set/ has been expanding

B) had been regarded / would develop B) had been set / was expanding
C) has been regarded / would be developing C) would be set / will expand
D) would have been regarded / had D) has been set / is expanding
developed E) would have been set / will be expanding
E) was being regarded / has been developing
18. For four decades, researchers ---- the
13. The first stage of the new factory project ---- heavens for radio signals that an advanced
last year, and work on the second phase ---- civilization ---- into the vastness of the
well now. galaxy.

A) had been completed / would progress A) have been scanning / may have emitted
B) was completed / is progressing B) scanned / will have emitted
C) would have been completed / was C) had scanned / could have been emitted
progressing D) scan / would have emitted
D) has been completed / will progress E) are being scanned / could have emitted
E) was being completed / has progressed
19. Adhesives are now frequently being used
14. In his report he ---- that the scanning where previously mechanical methods of
technology ---- with novel textile fastening ---- essential.
manufacturing techniques.
A) would be considered
A) may recommend / has been combined B) have been considered
B) recommends / was combined C) are being considered
C) has recommended / had been combined D) were to be considered
D) recommended / should be combined E) were considered
E) had recommended / would have been
combined 20. Currently, a great deal of attention ---- to the
phenomenon known as acid rain, the
15. Soon, a revolutionary new steam engine ---- incidence of which appears to be growing in
speed boats more safely and efficiently than developed countries.
a conventional outboard motor.
A) had been paid
A) has been powering B) was paid
B) would have powered C) is being paid
C) may be powering D) has been paid
D) might have powered E) will be paid
E) can have powered
21. During the past 40 years, hydroponic
16. In order to establish the date of these farming ---- considerably in a number of
footprints he ---- a technique that ---- when areas where temperatures are too extreme
the sand grains were last exposed to light. for ordinary agriculture.

A) uses / measured A) had progressed

B) will use / has measured B) has progressed
C) has used / will measure C) progresses
D) had used / would measure D) would have progressed
E) used / measures E) is progressing

22. Often the need to clean up the atmosphere -- 27. The companys involvement in refrigeration
-- through major environmental disasters, of ---- as early as 1918, but more than a decade
which the London smog of 1952 still ---- a sale ---- poor.
prime example.
A) began / remained
A) was realised / remains B) had begun / have remained
B) has been realised / remained C) was beginning / are remaining
C) would be realised / would remain D) has begun / would remain
D) was being realised / will remain E) would begin / had remained
E) had been realised / has remained
28. Seahorses ---- too exotic for British waters,
23. Precast construction, in which parts of the but a new study ---- that two species live and
building ---- on the ground, then lifted into breed around Britain's shores.
place, ---- less expensive than cast-in-place
methods. A) will seem / would find
B) seemed / had found
A) will be finished / would be C) have seemed / may find
B) were finished / would be D) would seem / is finding
C) are being finished / will be E) seem / has found
D) used to be finished / had been
E) are finished / is 29. On a broader scientific level, undersea
mapping ---- fundamental knowledge about
24. Recent claims that the African elephant is the Geological forces that ---- the ocean
actually two species ----, but the debate still floor.
A) will provide / would shape
A) were contradicted / was continuing B) had provided / had shaped
B) have been contradicted / continues C) would provide / will shape
C) would have been contradicted / is D) is providing / shape
continuing E) provides / would have shaped
D) will be contradicted / will be continuing
E) are being contradicted / has continued 30. Individuals who ---- that animals ---- feelings
are usually accused of anthropomorphism,
25. With the help of two earth-orbiting infrared or ascribing human traits to nonhuman
cameras, scientists ---- eleven active beings.
volcanoes for the past two years.
A) had claimed / had
A) are observing B) claimed / will have
B) will have observed C) are claiming / would have
C) have been observing D) claim / have
D) were observing E) would claim / must have had
E) had observed
31. In their quest to build a computer that ----
26. This particular rocket motor ---- to burn out advantage of the weirdness of quantum
after about 65 seconds, after which the craft mechanics, physicists ---- a number of
---- to coast upward for about 20 seconds. disparate technologies.

A) was being designed / has continued A) is taking / will be testing

B) had been designed / will continue B) will take / are testing
C) was designed / had continued C) must take / had tested
D) would be designed / continued D) took / have had to test
E) has been designed / continues E) had taken / have tested

32. Cosmologists are addressing some of the 37. Since 1997, when the spacecraft "The Mars
fundamental questions that people ---- to Global Surveyor" ---- over the surface of
resolve over the centuries through Mars for the first time, scientists ---- by the
philosophical thinking, but they ---- this considerable magnetic anomalies identified
based on systematic observation and on the planet.
quantitative methodology.
A) has flown / are intrigued
A) would attempt / have done B) flies / were intrigued
B) attempt / will do C) had flown / had been intrigued
C) may attempt / did D) was flying / may have been intrigued
D) attempted / should do E) flew / have been intrigued
E) have attempted / are doing
38. In 1998, 16 per cent of the worlds coral
33. Sea bindweed Calystegia soldanella ---- a reefs ---- by bleaching caused by El Nino,
fleshy leaved cousin of the more but half of those reefs ---- signs of recovery,
widespread, white flowered hedge bindweed especially in protected areas where it is
(C. sepium) that ---- fences and hedges illegal to harvest coral.
everywhere in the summer.
A) have been killed / showed
A) might be / had clothed B) were killed / are showing
B) is / clothes C) had been killed / would have shown
C) should be / has clothed D) have been killed / show
D) could be / would have clothed E) could be killed / had shown
E) was / can clothe
39. The recovery and identification of plant
34. From the year 1665, when Robert Hooke ---- remains from archaeological contexts are
cells, until the middle of the twentieth merely the first steps in a wide-ranging
century, biologists ---- only light series of research issues that ---- up
microscopes for viewing cells. paleoethnobotany, also ---- as
A) used to discover / could have had
B) had discovered / would have A) made / knowing
C) discovered / had B) will make / is known
D) has discovered / have had C) make / known
E) could discover / have D) has made / having known
E) had made / is to be known
35. Earthquake rupture ---- to occur by
enlargement of a crack, but more recent 40. In calculators, calculations ---- entirely with
observations ---- a pulse-like mode of integers yield exact results as long as the
rupture enlargement. numbers ---- too big for the space allotted.

A) had been thought / would be indicated A) doing / were not

B) can be thought / had indicated B) having done / have not been
C) was thought / will have indicated C) to have been done / would not have been
D) has been thought / indicate D) done / are not
E) must be thought / may have indicated E) to be done / will not be

36. Scientists predict that should the current 41. The Erie Canal was the first of the US
rate of deforestation in the rainforests ----, a artificial waterways built ---- the Great Lakes
great many of the species they support ---- with the sea.
completely by the turn of the 22nd century.
A) to be connected
A) continue / will have disappeared B) connecting
B) is continued / will disappear C) to have connected
C) was continued / would disappear D) to connect
D) had continued / would have disappeared E) having connected
E) will continue / would have disappeared

42. Today one third of the carbon dioxide (CO2)

given off by burning fossil fuels ---- the
oceans, thus ---- their naturally alkaline pH.

A) is entering / reduces
B) enters / reducing
C) had entered / will reduce
D) will enter / reduced
E) would enter / having reduced

1 C 11 E 21 B 31 B 41 D
2 E 12 A 22 A 32 E 42 B
3 A 13 B 23 E 33 B 43
4 B 14 D 24 B 34 C 44
5 B 15 C 25 C 35 D 45
6 D 16 E 26 E 36 A 46
7 B 17 A 27 A 37 E 47
8 E 18 A 28 E 38 B 48
9 B 19 E 29 D 39 C 49
10 C 20 C 30 D 40 D 50