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91 (de) vizualizări5 paginiData compression is the process of reducing the size of a data file such that it uses less space than the original file and can be transferred easily. The file is encoded using encoding information that uses fewer bits than the original representation. There are many data compression algorithms which aim to compress data of different format. There are different algorithms even for a single data format that uses different approach to compress the data. In all of data compression algorithms, we first need to study and analyze the characteristics of the data in order to deduce some patterns that can help us to compress the data into a smaller size and compact representation. The main aim of the compression techniques is to reduce the size of the data file by removing redundancy in stored data, thus increasing data density and making it easier to transfer data files. In this paper, we will study about different image compression techniques and text compression techniques used in real world. The methods such as Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding and LZW coding are considered.

Jun 15, 2017

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Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a data file such that it uses less space than the original file and can be transferred easily. The file is encoded using encoding information that uses fewer bits than the original representation. There are many data compression algorithms which aim to compress data of different format. There are different algorithms even for a single data format that uses different approach to compress the data. In all of data compression algorithms, we first need to study and analyze the characteristics of the data in order to deduce some patterns that can help us to compress the data into a smaller size and compact representation. The main aim of the compression techniques is to reduce the size of the data file by removing redundancy in stored data, thus increasing data density and making it easier to transfer data files. In this paper, we will study about different image compression techniques and text compression techniques used in real world. The methods such as Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding and LZW coding are considered.

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91 (de) vizualizări

Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a data file such that it uses less space than the original file and can be transferred easily. The file is encoded using encoding information that uses fewer bits than the original representation. There are many data compression algorithms which aim to compress data of different format. There are different algorithms even for a single data format that uses different approach to compress the data. In all of data compression algorithms, we first need to study and analyze the characteristics of the data in order to deduce some patterns that can help us to compress the data into a smaller size and compact representation. The main aim of the compression techniques is to reduce the size of the data file by removing redundancy in stored data, thus increasing data density and making it easier to transfer data files. In this paper, we will study about different image compression techniques and text compression techniques used in real world. The methods such as Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding and LZW coding are considered.

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Compression Techniques

Yamini Arora Harshit Gupta

Department of Information Technology Department of Information Technology

BVCOE, New Delhi, India BVCOE, New Delhi, India

Department of Information Technology Department of Information Technology

BVCOE, New Delhi, India BVCOE, New Delhi, India

Abstract

Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a data file such that it uses less space than the original file and can be

transferred easily. The file is encoded using encoding information that uses fewer bits than the original representation. There are

many data compression algorithms which aim to compress data of different format. There are different algorithms even for a single

data format that uses different approach to compress the data. In all of data compression algorithms, we first need to study and

analyze the characteristics of the data in order to deduce some patterns that can help us to compress the data into a smaller size and

compact representation. The main aim of the compression techniques is to reduce the size of the data file by removing redundancy

in stored data, thus increasing data density and making it easier to transfer data files. In this paper, we will study about different

image compression techniques and text compression techniques used in real world. The methods such as Huffman coding,

Arithmetic coding and LZW coding are considered.

Keywords: Image Compression Techniques, Text Compression Techniques

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

The process that involves transforming of information from one representation to another, smaller representation from which the

original, or a close approximation to it, can be recovered, is termed as data compression. The compression and decompression

processes are expressed as encoding and decoding. Data compression is required because uncompressed data take up a lot of space

which reduces the efficiency of CPU due to limited availability of hard drive space. Uncompressed Data also reduce the internet

download speeds. Compression has other advantages as well, it helps in reducing the resource usage and cost. Moreover, the

hardware gets better and cheaper. It is significantly used in the areas of file storage and distributed system. In order to increase

speed and performance efficiency, compression is used.

We need to design an efficient algorithm in order to compress data and simultaneously, remove various duplicates from a

different data formats. While designing an algorithm for data compression, the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm must

be considered. There are different data formats available that can be compressed. It can either be audio, video or text. Every format

has a unique method for identifying the redundancy and then, to remove it. Better prediction models can be designed if we know

the file type and hence, better compression results can be attained with less effort.

There are two types of algorithms namely, Lossless and Lossy algorithms. In Lossless technique, data compression algorithms

are used to compress the data such that the exact original data can be brought back from the compressed data. Lossless compression

is also called reversible compression since the original data may be reconstructed perfectly by decompression. These compression

techniques are generally used to compress medical images, text and images preserved for legal reasons, computer executable file

and so on. This is in contrary to the lossy data compression in which the exact original data cannot be reconstructed from the

compressed data. There are some insignificant details that may get lost during the process of compression. The word insignificant

here implies certain requirements to the quality of the reconstructed data. Lossy compression is called irreversible compression

since it is impossible to recover the original data exactly by decompression. It is significantly used for multimedia images, video

and audio to achieve more compact data compression. Compression Ratio or ratio of the size of a compressed file to an original

uncompressed file and Saving Percentage are the parameters used to compare the performance of algorithms.

In order to display high-bit resolution images on low-bit resolution displays, bit resolution needs to be reduced. This problem is

vital especially for low-cost or small (mobile) devices. To untangle the bit reduction problem, special color quantization algorithms,

called dithering, are employed on high-bit resolution images. [6]

Literature Survey on Image and Text Compression Techniques

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 127)

In [19] Arithmetic Coding is implemented. They have elaborated the compression efficiency and execution time of the programs,

including the effect of different arithmetic word lengths on compression efficiency. The applications of arithmetic coding are also

described in the paper.

In [10] the recent control design successes in teleoperation that is operation at a distance are discussed. In recent times, the

potential of haptic communication has been recognized as being compelling to further augment human-to-human and human-to-

machine interaction. Haptic teleoperation enables the human to perform manipulation tasks in distant, scaled, hazardous, or

inaccessible environments. Hence, video and audio compression are considered key enabling technologies for high-quality

interaction.

In [7] reviews of different basic lossless data compression methods are given. The algorithms used for lossless compression are

described in brief. They concluded that in the Statistical compression techniques, Arithmetic coding technique performs better than

Huffman coding, Shannon Fano coding, and Run Length Encoding technique.

In [20] a set of selected algorithms are examined and implemented to evaluate the performance in compressing text data. An

experimental comparison of a number of different lossless data compression algorithms is presented. They concluded by

considering the compression times, decompression times and saving percentages of all the algorithms, the Shannon Fano algorithm

can be considered as the most constructive algorithm among the selected ones.

In [8] lossless data compression methodologies are provided and their performances are compared. Huffman and arithmetic

coding are compared according to their performances. In comparison they concluded that compression ratio of arithmetic encoding

is better as compared to Huffman coding. And furthermore arithmetic encoding reduces channel bandwidth and transmission time.

In [16] lossless and lossy techniques are often used together to obtain the highest compression ratios is shown. LZH is used to

obtain highly compression ratios for the compression operation of files of types: Doc, Txt, Bmp, rather than HLZ.

The main aim of Image Compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to be able to transmit or

store data in an efficient form. Bit Resolution needs to be reduced in order to display high-bit resolution images on low-bit

resolution displays. There are different compression algorithms, such as gzip, that helps in reducing the storage needs of lower

image file sizes but they are insufficient. Image Compression is different from binary raw data compression. In order to solve

these, different types of techniques for image compression are used. Compression techniques that consider the structure of image

data must be developed to improve the compression gain.

Image Compression can be lossless or lossy. Lossless Compression techniques are used for archival purposes and for medical

imaging, clip art, or comics whereas Lossy Compression methods are suitable for natural images and in applications where a minor

loss is permissible to achieve the reduction in bit rate.

The Pseudo Distance Technique(PDT) is an efficient lossless image compression method for color-palette images since the PDT

runs in linear time and requires only one pass.When the PDT is used in conjunction with a context model BAC, better compression

results are obtained than the well-known image compressors such as GIF, PNG, JPEG-LS, and JPEG2000 on dithered images.[6]

Color Image Quantization is a process that reduces the number of distinct colors used in an image, with the intention that the

new image should be as visually similar as possible to the original image. It is an essential technique for low-cost display devices.

A low-cost display device has restricted capabilities. In applications, Color Image Quantization is known as optimized palette

generation, decreasing color depth. A three-step process is followed for Color Image Quantization: in the first step, a suitable

palette to reduce the number of colors is designed, coding is done in the second step, and in the final step, decoding is done. Hence,

by applying quantization, the image size is reduced from 3 bytes per color to one byte per index value. Quantization errors,

example-distortion may occur in the quantization process. Dithering algorithms are used to overcome quantization errors. In World

Wide Web, many Web pages use quantized images. They are stored and transmitted after they are compressed losslessly with the

standard Graphics Interchange Format or Portable Network Graphics. The Portable Network Graphics format is an improved and

patent free version and was designed to replace Graphics Interchange Format.

Simple graphic images such as icons, line drawings and animations, Black-and-white or cartoon-style line art graphics uses one

of the most widely used compression techniques that is Run Length Encoding. It is one of the simplest forms of lossless data

compression in which runs of data are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as original sequences in which the same

data value occurs in much consecutive data elements.

This is the best compression method which is supported by most bitmap file formats such as TIFF, BMP, and PCX and is also

used in JPEG Compression Schemes. But it has certain disadvantages that it takes an additional bit per pixel to encode the

differences. Hence, depending on the differences in the images, this technique may not be more efficient. There are other basic

image operations like rotation, reflection, and zooming that cannot be implemented using this technique. It does not work with

files that don't have many runs as it could greatly increase the size of the file.

There is another representation method that uses the non-symmetry and anti-packing model (NAM) for data compression of

binary images. This algorithm is compared with the well-known linear quadtree and run length encoding algorithms. The concept

of the packing problem in a representation method using the non-symmetry and anti-packing model (NAM) for binary images is

used in this procedure. The Non-Symmetry and Anti-packing Model representation algorithm is more powerful than the linear

Literature Survey on Image and Text Compression Techniques

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 127)

quadtree and run length encoding algorithms with respect to data storage in the lossless case and reconstructed image quality in

the lossy case. This algorithm achieves high data compression ratios and is quite easy and simple to perform. More improvements

can be done to achieve high data compression ratio.

Image compression is being essentially used for digitized image storage and transmission. A finite sequence of data points in

terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies is expressed using a Discrete Cosine Transform. It has

different applications in science and engineering. It is used for lossy compression of images to spectral methods for the numerical

solution of partial differential equations. A discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are

discretely sampled. It is used in numerical and functional analysis. It can capture both frequency and location information. A

comparative study is being done on image compression using JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) and PNG (Portable

Network Graphics) color images to emphasize the results of this compression system between Discrete Cosine Transform and

Discrete Wavelet Transform. It was found out that DWT algorithm performs much better than DCT algorithms in terms of

Compression, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PNSR).[2]

Now-a-days, image sizes are growing exponentially, therefore, visually lossless coding is progressively being considered as an

alternative to numerically lossless coding, which has limited compression ratios. Visibility thresholds (VTs) are measured in order

to hide coding artifacts caused by quantization. It is used for quantization of sub-band signals in JPEG2000. In medical imaging

applications, high bit-depth images are often displayed on lower bit-depth display, adjustments of image brightness and contrast

during display are very common. In these applications, the display window level and width is changed by radiologists to view

different ranges of intensities within the full range to better visualize diverse types of tissue in the image. [5]

The world is shifting rapidly towards the use of battery powered memory devices especially; smart phones and other wireless

devices for communication and monitoring. This shift has in turn called the need for text compression into a more important and

prevailing research arena. Therefore, text compression is a primary concern for managing and compressing of data without

changing the meaning of the text. An effective approach of short text compression for smart devices was presented by M. R. Islam

and S. A. Ahsan Rajon. Their research was aimed to provide a light-weight compression scheme in which the storage required for

compressing the text is very low. Arithmetic coding was used in this method along with a statistical context model for predicting

single symbols.

Another algorithm for text compression was given by R. Franceschini and A. Mukherjee. The basic idea of their compression

algorithm was to define a encryption technique so as to reduce every word in the dictionary by replacing certain characters in the

words by some special character, for example * and retaining some characters so that the word is still retrievable.

A new strategy was proposed by S. A. Al-Dubaee and N. Ahmad which is primarily based on signal processing applied to source

text compression of files namely, the wavelet and the fourier transform. Compression size and threshold of wavelet and the fourier

transform are studied along with two parameters: wavelet filters and decomposition levels, on compression factor of text files are

investigated. The results in turn showed that the wavelet and the fourier transforms are good for lossy text compression with non-

stationary text signal files.

The main objective of a compression algorithm is to compress source text up to an optimal level that requires minimal space

and consumes relatively less time and low overhead.

Huffman Coding

Huffman invented a greedy algorithm that constructs an optimal prefix code called a Huffman code. The algorithm builds a tree T

corresponding to the optimal code in a bottom-up manner. It begins with a set of C leaves and performs C-1merging operations

to create the final tree. We assume that C is a set of n characters ad that each character is an object with a defined frequency f[c].A

priority queue Q, keyed on f, is used to identify the two least-frequent objects to merge together. The result of the merger of two

objects is a new object whose frequency is the sum of the frequencies of the two objects that were merged. The total running time

of HUFFMAN on a set of n characters is O(n log n).

Algorithm is easy to implement and produces a lossless compression of images. It produces optimal and compact code. It has

various disadvantages also. Huffman algorithm is relatively slow. It depends upon statistical model of data.

Decoding is difficult due to different code lengths. There is an overhead due to huffman tree.

Arithmetic Encoding

Arithmetic coding is used in lossless data compression. It is an elegant and powerful compression technique. In this method, a code

word is not used to represent a symbol of the text. Instead it uses a fraction to represent the entire source message. The encoder

divides the current interval into subintervals, each representing a fraction of the current interval proportional to the probability of

that symbol in the current context. Whichever interval corresponds to the actual symbol that is next to be encoded becomes the

interval used in the next step. We use probabilities of the symbol to encode the message.

Literature Survey on Image and Text Compression Techniques

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 127)

The arithmetic coding is nearly optimum and it is capable to code very high events in just a fraction of bit. It is fast and separates

modelling from coding. It reduces file size drastically. One advantage of arithmetic coding over other similar methods of data

compression is the convenience of adaptation. Adaptation is the changing of the frequency (or probability) tables while processing

the data.

There are a few disadvantages of arithmetic coding. One is that the whole codeword must be received to start decoding the

symbols, and if there is a corrupt bit in the codeword, the entire message could become corrupt. Another is that there is a limit to

the precision of the number which can be encoded, thus limiting the number of symbols to encode within a codeword. There also

exist many patents upon arithmetic coding, so the use of some of the algorithms also call upon royalty fees.

Lempel Ziv Welch is a lossless data compression algorithm. The algorithm is simple to implement, and achieves high throughput

in hardware implementations. Arithmetic Encoding and Huffman Coding are based on a statistical model, namely an alphabet and

the probability distribution of a source whereas LZW is based on dictionary model.

LZW is a dictionary-based compression algorithm, that encodes data by referencing a dictionary instead of tabulating character

counts and building trees (as for Huffman encoding). Hence, in order to encode a substring, only a single code number that

corresponds to that substrings index in the dictionary is written to the output file. This algorithm can be applied to different file

formats but mostly used for compressing text files.

Initially the dictionary contains 256 entries (e.g. ASCII codes) of single characters. The longest pattern for each segment of the

source text is identified and is then encoded by the indices in the current dictionary. The segment results in a new entry if no such

match is found in the current dictionary. A match is found in the dictionary if the same segment is seen in the future.

LZW initially starts with a dictionary of 256 characters (in the case of 8 bits) and uses them as the standard character set. 8

bits are read at a time (e.g.,t, r, etc.) and the data is encoded as the number which represents its index in the dictionary. Every

time a new substring comes across (say,tr), it is added to the dictionary and whenever a substring which is already seen comes

across, it reads the new digit and concatenates it with the current string to generate a new substring. When the next substring is

revisited, it is encoded using a single number.

Recurring data or monochrome images increases the size of file significantly, the best technique for reducing the size of such

files is Lempel Ziv Welch. It is easy to implement and one of the efficient lossless algorithm. In this technique, there is no need to

pass the string table to the decompression code, the table can be recreated as it was during compression, using the input stream as

data. In this technique, it is difficult to manage the string table. The amount of storage required cannot be determined.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we have reviewed different image compression techniques such as Pseudo Distance Technique, Color Image

Quantization Process, Non-Symmetry and Anti-packing Model, Discrete Cosine Transform and Discrete Wavelet Transform. We

found out that Portable Network Graphics that is a bitmap image format can be used for lossless image compression and has the

ability to replace Graphics Interchange Format. Joint Photographic Experts Group is mainly used for lossy compression of digital

images and has a big compressing ration, reducing the quality of the image. Portable Network Graphics can be considered over

Joint Photographic Expert Group to store the images containing text, line art, or other images with sharp transitions that cannot be

transformed well into the frequency domain. We have also described Text Compression and the techniques that are being used to

compress the text in an efficient manner.

Mainly, three data compression algorithms are explained in the paper. In the Statistical compression techniques, Arithmetic

coding technique performs more efficiently as compared to Huffman coding. Since, arithmetic coding encodes the entire message

into a single number whereas Huffman coding separates the input into component symbols and replaces each with a code,

Arithmetic coding has typically better compression ratio than Huffman coding.

The dictionary-based algorithms perform faster than entropy-based ones. The input is processed as a sequence of characters

rather than as streams of bits. The dictionary is created dynamically in the compression process. There is no need to transfer the

dictionary with the encoded message for decompressing. Such algorithms are adaptive compression algorithms because the same

dictionary is created dynamically.

In the future, we will be implementing these algorithms in different applications. Furthermore, we can improvise the above

explained algorithms or a new efficient algorithm for compression can be suggested for different file types that include text, video

and audio file formats.

REFERENCES

[1] A Comparative Study of Lossless Data Compression Techniques on Text Data", Achinta Roy and Dr. Lakshmi Prasad Saikia, Volume 6, Issue 2, February

2016 ,International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering

[2] An Approach for Color Image Compression of JPEG and PNG Images Using DCT and DWT", A. H. M. J. I. Barbhuiya, T. A. Laskar and K. Hemachandra,

Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), IEEE International conference 2014

[3] Better Compression through Better List Update Algorithms", Shahin Kamali and Alejandro Lpez Ortiz, Data Compression Conference (DCC), 2014

[4] Visually lossless encoding for JPEG2000", H. Oh, A. Bilgin and M. W. Marcellin, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 189-201, 2013

[5] Visually Lossless Compression of Windowed Images", Tony Leung ,Michael W. Marcellin and Ali Bilgin, Data Compression Conference (DCC), 2013

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[6] Lossless Compression of Dithered Images", Basar Koc, Ziya Arnavut and Huseyin Kocak, IEEE Photonics Journal, Volume 5, Number 3, June 2013

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[12] New Strategy of Lossy Text Compression, S. A. Al-Dubaee and N. Ahmad, Integrated Intelligent Computing (ICIIC), 2010

[13] Compression Using Huffman Coding, Mamta Sharma, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.5, May 2010

[14] A NAM Representation Method for Data Compression of Binary Images, Zheng Yunping , Chen Chuanbo and Sarem Mudar , TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND

TECHNOLOGY Volume 14, Number 1, February 2009

[15] Short text compression for smart devices, Computer and Information Technology, Md. Rafiqul Islam and S. A. Ahsan Rajon and Anonda Podder 2008.

ICCIT 2008, ieee

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the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2007 WCECS 2007, October 24-26, 2007, San Francisco, USA

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