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My Report is the result of the encouragement of many people who

helped in shaping it and provide direction valuable support. It is with
hearty gratitude that I knowledge their contributions to my report. I would
like to thank Mam. Shiksha Mishra (Training Coordinator) for putting faith
in me and kind support. I am very thankful to my project guide Shri R. P.
Saini (Senior Training Officer) and Shri Pramod Giri (Technical Officer)
for giving their precious guidance as and when needed. I am thankful to
Shri F M Mansoori (TO) for providing necessary guidance in selecting
reference material and explaining everything. I am also thankful to all
those engineers and technicians without whom it was not possible for
me to clear my doubts and difficulties.

Nuclear Energy in India currently accounts for just 2%.India absolutely
needs nuclear power. Unlike the richer countries, India does not have
the luxury to spend trillions on diffuse, on again/off again power sources
like solar or wind. It simply does not have the land or resources to build
out fully on solar and wind power alone.
By 2050, India will have nearly 1.5 billion people, most of whom are
young. In order for the country to become a real economic power, most
of those people will demand, and need access to large amounts of
freshwater, clean air, air conditioning, food, and transportation. All of
these endeavors require energy, especially in a country like India that
has diminishing free freshwater and limited land.
Basic fact of the matter is, India is too land poor to use diffuse power
sources like solar. It needs dense, affordable power, like gasoline but
without any of the pollution downsides.
India would be wise to put in its investment in making nuclear power
safe rather than games in making solar more affordable.
Indias future is nuclear, and as it should be. It will help it become a
technological power on the planet and will be the shining light for the
rest of the world showing how nuclear power can lift a country out of
Yes, India does need nuclear energy. The reaons are:

(a) India's future energy requirement would be very very high.

(b) This hig requirement can't be fulfilled by coal, petroleum energy.
(c) The solar energy conversion technique is still at primitive stage.
(d) The wind energy and hydel power can't meet even 20% of the present
energy requirement of the country. Moreover, these are unreliable.
(e) Nuclear Energy is cheaper.
(f) Under normal circumstances, nuclear energy is less polluting than the
energy derived from coal or petroleum.

Nuclear Power Plants in India

Currently, twenty-two nuclear power reactors have a total install capacity of
6,780 MW (3.5% of total installed base).

Power Total capacity

Operator State Type Units
station (MW)

BWR 160 x 2
Tarapur NPCIL Maharashtra 1,400
PHWR 540 x 2

100 x 1
Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 200 x 1 1,180
220 x 4

Kudankulam NPCIL Tamil Nadu 1000 x 2 2,000[74]

Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220 x 4 880

Power Total capacity
Operator State Type Units
station (MW)

Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 220 x 2 440

Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220 x 2 440

Narora NPCIL PHWR 220 x 2 440

1000x2, 540x2,
Total 6,780
200x1, 160x2,

The projects under construction are:

Total Expected
Operator State Type Units capacity Commercial
(MW) Operation

Unit 7: June 2016

NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 700 x 2 1,400 Unit 8: December
Unit 7 and 8

Unit 3: Late
Kakrapar Unit
NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 700 x 2 1,400 2016/Early 2017,
3 and 4
Unit 4: 2017

Madras Tamil
Bhavini PFBR 500 x 1 500 March 2017
(Kalpakkam) Nadu

Kudankulam NPCIL Tamil VVER- 1000 x 2 2,000[77] 2022-2023[76]

Total Expected
Operator State Type Units capacity Commercial
(MW) Operation

Nadu 1000

Total 700x4, 5,300

The planned projects are:

Total capacity
Power station Operator State Type Units

Jaitapur Maharashtra EPR 1650 x 6 9,900[80]

Kovvada AP1000 1100 x 6 6,600[81][82]

t.b.d. (was Mithi Virdi

Gujarat AP1000 1100 x 6 6,600

t.b.d. (was Haripur) West Bengal 1000 x 6 6,000

Gorakhpur NPCIL Haryana PHWR 700 x 4 2,800[83][84]

Bhimpur NPCIL PHWR 700 x 4 2,800[85][80]

Mahi Banswara NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 700 x 4 2,800[80]

Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 700 x 2 1,400

Chutka NPCIL Madhya PHWR 700 x 2 1,400


Madras BHAVINI Tamil Nadu FBR 600 x 2 1,200[80]

Tarapur AHWR 300 x 1 300

1650x6, 1100x12
Total 1000x6, 700x16, 41,200
600x2, 300x1

How Nuclear Plants Generate Electricity

Nuclear plants, like plants that burn coal, oil and natural gas, produce
electricity by boiling water into steam. This steam then turns turbines to
produce electricity. The difference is that nuclear plants do not burn
anything. Instead, they use uranium fuel, consisting of solid ceramic
pellets, to produce electricity through a process called fission.
Nuclear power plants obtain the heat needed to produce steam through a
physical process. This process, called fission, entails the splitting of
atoms of uranium in a nuclear reactor. The uranium fuel consists of
small, hard ceramic pellets that are packaged into long, vertical tubes.
Bundles of this fuel are inserted into the reactor.

Two Types of Uranium

Nuclear fuel consists of two types of uranium, U-238 and U-235. Most of
the uranium in nuclear fuel is U-238, but U-235 splitsor fissions
easily. In U-235 atoms, the nucleus, which is composed of protons and
neutrons, is unstable. As the nuclei break up, they release neutrons.
When the neutrons hit other uranium atoms, those atoms also split,
releasing neutrons of their own, along with heat. These neutrons strike
other atoms, splitting them. One fission triggers others, which triggers
still more until there is a chain reaction. When that happens, fission
becomes self-sustaining.
Rods inserted among the tubes holding the uranium fuel control the
nuclear reaction. Control rods, inserted or withdrawn to varying degrees,
slow or accelerate the reaction.
Water separates fuel tubes in the reactor. The heat produced by fission
turns this water into steam. The steam drives a turbine, which spins a
generator to create electricity.

Types of nuclear power plants

The two major nuclear power reactors used are pressurized water
reactor and boiling water reactor
Pressurized water reactor (PWR)
The pressurized water reactor nuclear reactor is the most used in
the world. It has been mainly developed in the USA, RF
Germany, France -and Japan.
This nuclear reactor uses enriched uranium as oxide form
as nuclear fuel.
The moderator and coolant used can be water or graphite.
The energy generated by the reactor core is conveyed through the
cooling water which flows at high pressure to a heat exchanger.
The reactor is based on the principle that the water under high
pressures can evaporate without reaching the boiling point, ie, at
temperatures greater than 100 C. In the exchanger the vapor
cools and condenses and returns to the reactor in liquid statge.
In the exchanger there is heat transfer to a secondary water
circuit. The water from the secondary circuit that comes from
heat, produces steam, which is introduced into a turbine that
drives an electric generator.
Boiling water reactor (BWR)
The boiling water reactor is also used frequently. Technologically
it has been developed mainly in the United States, Sweden and
RF German.
In this reactor, water is used as coolant and moderator.
The nuclear fuel is enriched uranium in oxide form and that
facilitates the generation of nuclear fission.
The thermal energy generated by the chain reaction is used to
boil water. The steam produced is introduced into a turbine that
drives an electric generator. The steam from the turbine passes
through a condenser where it is transformed back into liquid
water. Subsequently the water returns to the reactor driven by a
suitable pump.
Heavy water reactor (HWR)
This type of nuclear reactor has been developed primarily in
The fuel used is natural uranium in oxide form, which is inserted
in zirconium alloy tubes.
Its main feature is the use of heavy water as moderator and
In its most common design, nuclear fuel tubes are introduced
into a vessel containing the moderator. The coolant is
maintained at pressure to maintain its liquid state. Steam is
produced in a heat exchanger by circulating light water.
Fast breeder reactor (FBR)
There are various designs, with the Russian and French who are
more advanced.
The main characteristic of fast reactor is that they don't
use moderator and, therefore, most of the fissions produced are
produced by fast neutrons.
The reactor core consists of a fissile area, surrounded by a fertile
area where natural uranium is transformed into plutonium. Also
the cycle uranium 233-thorium can be used.
The coolant is liquid sodium, the steam is produced in heat
exchangers. His name "breeder" is due in the fertile area the
reactor produces more amount of fissile material than it
consumes in operation, it means that it generates more new fuel
than the fuel that it spends.

Components of the nuclear reactor core

Nowadays, the main use given to nuclear energy is the

generation of electric power . Nuclear power plants are
responsible of doing this process. Almost all nuclear power
plants in production are using nuclear fission since the nuclear
fusion , despite being under development, is currently unfeasible.
The operation of a nuclear plant is identical to the operation of a
thermoelectric power plant operating with coal, oil or gas, except
in the way of providing heat to the water for converting this one
into steam. In nuclear reactors this process of producing heat is
made by the fission reactions of the fuel atoms .

It is the heart of reactor and contains fuel and moderator; it is made of
Austenitic Stainless Steel. It contains 306 horizontal calandria tubes
made form Nickel- free- Zicaloy-2. It also contains a special tube, which
has 12 fuel bundles making a total of 3672 fuel bundles. It also has 6
openings at the top through which pass the reactivity control mechanism
assemblies. In the middle it has piping connection for moderator outlet &
inlet. The entire assembly is supported from calandria vault roof.

The primary function of coolant assembly is to house the reactor fuel &
to direct the flow of primary coolant part to remove the nuclear heat. At
the end of 306 tubes low neutron capture containments structure is
provided, while the end fitting provides entry and end connections both
to the primary coolant system.

Two circular water coolant end shields of diameter about 5.12m &
thickness about 1.11m are located in the north and south calandria vault.
They are penetrated by 306 passages form reactor coolant tube
These end shields provides shielding to reduce the radiation in the
fuelling machine vaults, the heat due to a closed water circulation
removes radiation from the calandria into shields.
Mainly there are two types of cooling towers:-
IDCT: Induct Draft Cooling Towers
NDCT: Natural Draft Cooling Towers
The main purpose of these cooling towers is to bring down the
temperature of circulating water. This is light water which circulates
through the heat exchanger and carry away the heat generated by the
DM water. This DM water condenses the steam. Hence by the
application of cooling towers the efficiency of the plant gets enhanced.
Following is the description of these types of cooling towers:-

As the name indicates it requires induced draft for cooling the active
process water. Big fans are used to produce the draft. The active water
is used in reactor building to cool various equipments.

The inductive water, which is used to condense water, is further cooled
by natural draft. They are 150m high with hyperbolic shape atomizing

The main moderator circulating systems consists of 5 pumps, 2 heat
exchangers, and necessary valves and piping. The pumps circulate
moderator form cal. through the two shells & tube heat exchangers to
keep the temp. Between 700f &1450. The cooled heavy water is again
fed to the cal. cooling necessities to reduce capture of thermal neutral
and the thermal stresses. The moderator receives about 37Mwe fission
heat. The system contains about 140,000kg heavy water.

The use of natural uranium dioxide fuel with its low content of fissile
material (0.72% u-235) precludes the Possibility of a reactivity accident
during fuel handling or storage. Also, in the core there would no

increase in the reactivity, in the ever of any mishaps causing

redistribution of the fuel by lattice distortion.
The thermal characteristics namely the low thermal conductivity and high
specific heat of UO2, permit almost all the heat generated in a fast power
transient to be initially absorbed in the fuel. Furthermore, high melting
point of UO2 permits several full power seconds of heat to be safely
absorbed that contained at normal power.
Most of the fission products remain bound in the UO 2 matrix and may
get released slowly only at temperatures considerably higher than the
normal operating temperatures. Also on the account of the uranium
dioxide being chemically inert to the water coolant medium, the defected
fuel releases limited amount of radioactivity to the primary coolant
The use of 12 short length fuel bundles per channels in a PHWR,
rather than full- length elements covering the whole length of the core,
subdivides the escapable radioactive facility in PHWR has also the
singular advantage of allowing the defected fuel to be replaced by fresh
fuel at any time.
The thin zircaloy-2/4 cladding used in fuel elements is designed to
collapse under coolant pressure on to the pellets. This feature permits
high pellet- clad gap conductance resulting in lower fuel temperature and
consequently lower fission gas release from the UO 2 matrix into pellet-
clad gap.

Fuel assemblies in the reactor are short length (half meter long) fuel
bundles. Twelve of such bundles are located in each fuel channel. The
basic fuel material is in the form of natural uranium dioxide a pellet,
sheathed & sealed in thin Zircaloy tubes. Welding them to end plates to
form fuel bundles assembles these tubes. A 19-element fuel bundle is
used in 220Mwe PHWRs. A fuel bundle is shown below.
Purpose of Heavy Water

The key to maintaining a nuclear reaction within a nuclear reactor is to

use the neutrons released during fission to stimulate fission in other
nuclei. With careful control over the geometry and reaction rates, this
can lead to a self-sustaining chain reaction, a state known as "criticality".
Natural uranium consists of a mixture of various isotopes,
primarily 238U and a much smaller amount (about 0.72% by weight)
of 235U.[1] 238U can only be fissioned by neutrons that are relatively
energetic, about 1 MeV or above. No amount of 238U can be made
"critical" since it will tend to parasitically absorb more neutrons than it
releases by the fission process. 235U, on the other hand, can support a
self-sustained chain reaction, but due to the low natural abundance
of 235U, natural uranium cannot achieve criticality by itself.
A heavy water molecule contains deuterium (Hydrogen-2), which is an
isotope of hydrogen that has a neutron in its nucleus in addition to the
proton. The hydrogen in light water molecules contains only the proton
(and is therefore called protium or Hydrogen-1).
Deuterium is much less likely to absorb neutrons than protium. As a
result, more of the neutrons in a heavy water reactor are available to be
absorbed by uranium than in a light water reactor. The result is that the
uranium in a CANDU reactor does not need to be enriched in U-235;
natural uranium can be used as fuel. This in turn means that a heavy
water reactor can produce more energy per unit of uranium mined.
The objective of this facility is to process Cobalt60 and make it safe to be
further used in other useful applications according to external
requirements. Co-59 which is loaded into the adjuster rod gets converted
to Co-60 in the reactor operation. It is then extracted and processed
under careful processes as Co60 is a radioactive material. Then the
adjuster rod is discharged into storage pool(activity control) and
dismantled into sub-assemblies by cutting mechanically. It is then
transported to Hot cell enclosing them in large lead flasks. It is then
followed by cell door operation where shield is cut out recovering cobalt
pellets and prepared for transportation. Activity is then measured and
shielded in a flask which is ready for transportation to requirements of
the customer.

Reactor Building
It is the place with the calandria vessel. The base and the top of the
calandria are filled with heavy water for cooling purpose. The calandria is
also filled with heavy water where it is used as moderator. There are 392
coolant channels inside calandria where half of the inputs of the
channels are in the north vault and the other half in the south vault. Each
coolant channel has 12 fuel bundles inside containing uranium dioxide
pellets. The outputs are connected to headers which are in turn
connected the steam generator. The heavy water cycle happens in this
channels. The RB has to containments namely the inner and the outer
containment. The inner containment is 1.8m thick while the outer
containment is 0.8m thick. The inner containment is shielded with a 6mm
liner plate which protects the radiation from coming out of the RB. The
dome of the RB consists of 53 plates in 4 tiers. It weighs about 355
metric tonnes. The dome is shielded very tightly to protect the radiation.
There are provisions for control rods and flux control rods in the RB. The
heavy water is pumped into the input of the coolant channels using a
canned rotor pump. There are diesel generators near the RB to supply
power when there is an emergency situation.

Fire Station
RAPS has a very well equipped fire station to protect the station from fire
accidents. Three main components for fire are fuel, heat and oxygen.
There are 3 methods to prevent fire namely starvation, smothering and
cooling. There are 4 classes of fire A,B,C and D. A denotes ordinary fire.
B denotes oil fire. C means gas fire. D means metal fire. There was an E
class fire denoting electrical fire, which was removed for the classes as it
comes under one of the above the classes. There is a simple fire
extinguishing technique called PASS. Pull the pin, Aim the fire, strike the
lever and Sweep from side to side. The fire extinguishers are designed
according the classes and they have labels on them mentioning the
class. So that anybody could use it with ease.

Environmental Survey Laboratory

Environment survey laboratory located in each nuclear site is
continuously monitoring the radioactive release from the plant at various
points upto 30 kms. radius. Any radiological release requiring for off-site
emergency is notified through the local authority. Proper procedures for
off-site emergency have been chalked out and necessary plans are
checked periodically. However public will not be able to come to know
about the releases because of the inherent nature of radioactivity which
cannot be felt by sensory organs. Proper instruments are necessary for
any one to find out about the presence of radioactivity. Also newer
reactors have double containment making any significant release of
radioactivity in public domain highly impossible.


A waste management site for the storage / disposal of low intermediate

level solid / solidified waste generated in the exclusion zone of 1.6 km
radius of the reactor which is exclusively under the control of the power
plant. This is a small area of the exclusion zone and it is isolated from
the public use after retiring of the station until the radioactivity decays
down to acceptable levels.
Radioactive wastes can be categorized in three types, they are:-


This type of waste is disposed deep inside the earth (1000-

1500m). The least radioactive waste i.e. 0-2 mSv/year is disposed
into earth trenches. The radioactive waste from 2 mSv 50
mSv/year is disposed in RCC trenches and the rest from 50
mSv/year radioactive waste is disposed in the tie holes.

This type of waste is treated separately in a different plant where

after applying ion exchange method we release this water into the


Gaseous radio nuclides are generated during the operation of

NPPs fission in fuel and activation product in vault air cooling.
These gaseous nuclides are passed through filters and absorbers
before releasing them to atmosphere.