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Moment Magnification and Minimum Moments Page 1 of 7

General Information Design Moments (Slenderness,


Imperfection, and Minimum Moments)

Slenderness effects can be applied for sectional loading only where the bending moment can be
magnified. For walls, the program assumes that the bending moments entered for panel loading are
already magnifiied.

Moment magnification only applies to non-sway frames (moment between the member ends). For
moment magnification in sway frames (moments at the ends of the member), S-CONCRETE
assumes that you will use a second-order frame analysis program (or better like S-FRAME) to
compute the end moments. It is also possible to let a program like S-FRAME determine the
magnified moments between the member ends as well by sub-dividing the member into 3 or more
segments and extract the moments directly at the stations along the length of the member. If, for
some reason, you want the program to apply slenderness effects anyway (see Edit Section for
columns or walls), it will do so in the manner described below for non-sway frames.

Adjusting or creating new load cases for minimum moments may be performed in S-CONCRETE
for columns only. If minimum moments are to be evaluated (i.e. "yes" to apply minimum moments
in Edit Section), the program will compute the minimum moments for each principal direction and
compare them to the applied moments. For uniaxial bending, if the applied moment is less than the
minimum for bending in that direction, the minimum moment becomes the applied moment. For
biaxial bending where one moment is greater than the minimum moment for that direction, minimum
moments are not applied (in neither direction). For biaxial bending, if both moments are less than
the minimum in each respective direction (e.g. My < Mymin and Mz < Mzmin), two load cases will
be auto generated - namely (Mymin, Mz) and (My, Mzmin). One of these load cases will replace the
original load case and the other will be a a new load case which is added to the end of the load case
spreadsheet. S-CONCRETE will add a "comment" to that new load case which references the
original load case from which the minimum moments were computed. You will be able to see those
comments in the "Factored Input Loads" section of Results Report.

American Standards (ACI 318 and UBC 1997)


(Clause 10.10.6 of ACI 318-08 or Clause 10.12.3 of ACI 318-05 and earlier)

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British & Singapore Standards (BS8110 & CP65)

Clauses 3.8.3.1 and 3.8.3.2 of BS 8110: Part 1 for columns only. For walls, see CSA-A23.3 below.
S-CONCRETE has adopted the provisions of CSA-A23.3 for slenderness effects calculations for
walls.

According to Clause 3.8.3.3 of BS 8110: Part 1, these provisions which are applied to columns only
may be unconservative and may not be appropriate if the ratio of length of the longer side to that of
the shorter side is greater than or equal to 3 or Le/h or Le/b is greater than 20.

= Factor specified in Edit Loads


= Smaller Initial End Moment
= Larger Initial End Moment (moment specified in Edit Loads)

Note: The following equations indicated below assume bending in the direction of "h" or bending
about the y-axis as defined in the program. The dimension, b', indicated below refers to the
smaller dimension of the column for uniaxial bending. However, for biaxial bending, b'
should be taken as "h", the dimension of the column in the plane of bending (Clause 3.8.3.6
of BS 8110: Part 1).

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Note: If you specify an applied moment of zero (i.e. M = 0), S-CONCRETE will not assign a
minimum moment nor will it attempt to magnify the moment. The program will only apply
slenderness effects and assign minimum moments to load cases with an applied moment
greater than zero (i.e. |M| > 0). Minimum moments are not applied to walls.

Canadian Standards (CSA-A23.3)

Note: If you specify an applied moment of zero (i.e. Mf = 0), S-CONCRETE will not assign a
minimum moment nor will it attempt to magnify the moment. The program will only apply
slenderness effects and assign minimum moments to load cases with an applied moment
greater than zero (i.e. |Mf| > 0). Minimum moments are not applied to walls.

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European Standard (Eurocode 2 - EN 1992-1-1:2004 )

Design Moments

Design moments are calculated from consideration of imperfection effects, slenderness effects, and
minimum moments. The following cases are taken into account, whichever produces the worst
effect:

1. First order moments, i.e. unmodified input loads.


2. Consideration of imperfection effects only.
3. Consideration of slenderness effects only.
4. Consideration of imperfection and slenderness effects.
5. Consideration of minimum moments.

Minimum moments:

h = Depth of section in direction of bending


Ned = Applied factored axial load

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Minimum moments must be satisfied in at least one of the two perpendicular directions. If not,
minimum moments are applied to each direction separately, i.e. the minimum moments are not
applied about Y and Z axes simultaneously. To account for the possible combinations, S-
CONCRETE automatically generates the necessary alternate load cases and adds them to the list of
existing load cases.

In S-CONCRETE, minimum moments are considered regardless of the type of axial force being
compression or tension. Minimum moments are not considered for moments of zero value.

Imperfection effects

lu = Unsupported length
k = Effective length factor

Imperfection moments are considered as first order effects and are added to the effects of external
loads:

Moed,imp = Moed + Mimp


Imperfection is assumed in one direction at a time only. Therefore, imperfection moments are
applied to each of the two perpendicular directions separately, i.e. they are not applied about Y and Z
axes simultaneously. Different combinations of direction and sense of the imperfection moments are
taken into account. S-CONCRETE automatically generates the necessary alternate load cases and
adds them to the list of existing load cases.

In S-CONCRETE, imperfection effects are considered regardless of the type of axial force being
compression or tension. Imperfection effects are not considered for moments of zero value.

Slenderness effects:

Slenderness effects can be calculated by either one of two methods:

1. Nominal Stiffness Method, Clause 5.8.7 of EN 1992-1-1:2004


2. Nominal Curvature Method, Clause 5.8.8 of EN 1992-1-1:2004

Slenderness effects are applied to both directions simultaneously, i.e. both My and Mz are
increased/magnified according to the slenderness in the respective direction. Slenderness effects are
considered only for members under compressive axial load in addition to moments. They are not
applied to moments of zero value.

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Slenderness effects for a certain direction are ignored if the slenderness is less than a slenderness
limit lim.

lu = Unsupported length
k = Effective length factor
lo = Effective length
i = Radius of gyration of the uncracked section

The equivalent first order moment used for slenderness effect calculations is taken as:

When imperfection effects are to be considered, the moments to be used for slenderness effect
calculations are first modified to account for the imperfection effects as follows:

Nominal Stiffness Method:

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Nominal Curvature Method:

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