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Power Amplifier Efficiency

2 day Master Class

Rick Campbell PhD Portland State University

References and Acknowledgements

textbook:

Steve C. Cripps, RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, 2nd edition, Artech House 2006

useful references Wes Hayward, Rick Campbell, and Bob Larkin, Experimental Methods in RF Design, ARRL 2003

Herbert Krauss, Charles Bostian, and Frederick Raab, Solid State Radio Engineering, Wiley 2000

acknowledgement

Many ongoing conversations with Frederick Raab, Steve Cripps, and Wes Hayward since 1996

Class Outline:

Morning Day 1 Definitions and Fundamentals: Class A, B, C, D

Afternoon Day 1 Switches and Waveforms: Class E and Class F

Morning Day 2 New Developments: Class J, interstage design, drive

Afternoon Day 2 Detailed Study of Current Design Examples

Definitions and Fundamentals

Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Total RF Power Output

Total DC Power Input

Communications Effectiveness

Handset Battery Life

Useful Information Transfer

Impact on Planet Earth

Common Definitions

Efficiency

Sine Wave Power Output

DC Input to PA Collector

Power Added Efficiency

Power Utilization Factor

Added Sine Wave Power Output

Total Additional DC Power Input

Watts

dollar

Amplifier Classes A, B, C, D, E, F,

J

Classic Amplifier Classes A, B, C

Old Terminology that has evolved and muddied

Efficiency numbers are for active device dissipation

Theoretical efficiency may not be a useful concept

For example, rigorously applying PA efficiency concepts to my

laptop reveals that it dissipates no energy descriptive math models are still useful.

but

the language and

A Little Symbolic Math

Io Vcc

=

P DC

Power Supply DC

2 Vp = P RF Sine wave RF power in Resistive load R L 2R
2
Vp
=
P
RF
Sine wave RF power in
Resistive load R L
2R
L
= P Device

Instaneous device dissipation in ideal class A amplifier with maximum pure sine wave output

Class A Amplifier

Vcc

Class A Amplifier Vcc constant current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load

constant current source

Io

active device

0 < I <2Io

-Vcc

Class A Amplifier Vcc constant current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load

load

Rload

A Little Textbook Math

A Little Textbook Math Vcc 2 Vcc using: = R L Io R L = =

Vcc

2

Vcc

using:
using:
= R L
=
R
L

Io

R L =
R L
=

= P Device

Rload line

Vcc 2 Vcc using: = R L Io R L = = P Device Rload line

= P Device

R L

2 Vcc R L
2
Vcc
R L

2 P Device

=

using:

cos a cos b

=

2 1 cos (a + b)

+

2 1 cos (a - b)

End of Math

2 Vcc 2 = P Device R L 1 1 = cos 0 + 2
2
Vcc
2
= P Device
R L
1
1
=
cos 0
+
2
2
2 Vcc 1 R L 2
2
Vcc
1
R L
2
= P Device R L 1 1 = cos 0 + 2 2 2 Vcc 1

= P Device

2 Vcc R L
2
Vcc
R L
1 2
1
2
0 + 2 2 2 Vcc 1 R L 2 = P Device 2 Vcc R

dt

1 Vcc

2

2 R L

= P Device

= P Device

average device

dissipation = half of supply power

Class A Amplifier

Vcc

Class A Amplifier Vcc constant current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load

constant current source

Io

active device

0 < I <2Io

-Vcc

Vcc constant current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load Rload no signal

load

Rload

no signal DC device dissipation = Vcc x Io

Class A Amplifier

Vcc

Class A Amplifier Vcc constant current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load

constant current source

Io

active device

0 < I <2Io

-Vcc

current source Io active device 0 < I <2Io -Vcc load Rload no signal DC device

load

Rload

no signal DC device dissipation = Vcc x Io

Peak sine wave in load =

Vcc 2

2 Rload

Vcc

no signal DC device dissipation = Vcc x Io

Vcc no signal DC device dissipation = Vcc x Io -Vcc Io V c c Rload

-Vcc

Vcc no signal DC device dissipation = Vcc x Io -Vcc Io V c c Rload

Io

Vcc

Rload

Vcc x

=

Rload

Vcc 2

Rload

0 < I <2Io

=

Peak sine wave in load =

Vcc 2

2 Rload

since DC power supply can’t tell the difference between peak output and no output, at peak output, half of DC power is converted to sine wave in load and half dissipated in device

From Model to Real Amplifier

model is only useful if it helps us understand and improve real amplifiers

Vcc

Io Rload 0 < I <2Io -Vcc
Io
Rload
0 < I <2Io
-Vcc

Class A model

12 v 50 mA 250 mW output at 12.0 volts 375 mW output at 15.0
12 v 50 mA
250 mW output at 12.0 volts
375 mW output at 15.0 volts
100n
L1
L2
1nF
L3
L4
50 MHz
1nF
22
56
120
56
L1 6t FT37-43
L2 10t T37-6
L3, L4 5t T25-6
150
All Transistors MPN5179
Rick Campbell
23 December 2008

Designed, Built, and Measured Amplifier

more

class

parts, but real parts A model is too simple, but still useful

parts, but real parts A model is too simple, but still useful

From Model to Real Amplifier

Vcc

Vcc Vc Big L Big C Vc Rload
Vcc
Vc
Big L
Big C
Vc
Rload
Io Rload 0 < I <2Io -Vcc
Io
Rload
0 < I <2Io
-Vcc

Class A model

=

Vcc -

L

di

dt

With fast transistor and appropriate choice of Rload, Vc can be any- thing. Same circuit for PA, switch- ing power supply, ignition system, transistor killer

Io

Vcc Big L Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload
Vcc
Big L
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
Rload

Inductor stores power supply energy and can supply extra voltage when needed. Capacitor stores power supply energy and can supply extra current when needed.

A Reminder that Active Devices are Interesting

1 watt ZorchFET Ids = 300mA Idss Ids = 200mA load line Ids = 100mA
1 watt ZorchFET
Ids = 300mA
Idss
Ids = 200mA
load line
Ids = 100mA
Ids = 0
Vds = 0
Vds = 2
Vds = 4
Vds = 6
Vdd
Vds = 8

Vgs = +.2

Vgs = 0

Vgs = -.2

Vgs = -.3

Vgs = -.4

Vgs = -.5

Vgs = Vp

and

resistive loads are laboratory devices

Next: Waveform Analysis

Introduction to PA Waveform Analysis

Io

Vcc 2Vcc Big L Vcc Big C Vc + - Vcc 0 Rload -Vcc 2Io
Vcc
2Vcc
Big L
Vcc
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
0
Rload
-Vcc
2Io
2Vcc
Device Current
and Voltage
Io
Vcc
0
0
Vc Vo
Vc
Vo
Vcc 0 Rload -Vcc 2Io 2Vcc Device Current and Voltage Io Vcc 0 0 Vc Vo

device dissipation is product of I and V

Class A Waveform Analysis

Io

Vcc Big L Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload
Vcc
Big L
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
Rload

2Io

2Vcc

Io

Vcc

0

0

C Vc + - Vcc Rload 2Io 2Vcc Io Vcc 0 0 Device Current and Voltage

Device Current and Voltage

2Vcc x 0

3

2

Vcc x

Io x Vcc

3

 

Io

x

2

0 x

2Io

1

2

1

2

Io

Vcc

0

0.75

1

0.75

0

Device Power

Class A Waveform Analysis

Io

Vcc Big L Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload
Vcc
Big L
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
Rload

sketch of instaneous device dissipation

Device Current and Voltage

C Vc + - Vcc Rload sketch of instaneous device dissipation Device Current and Voltage note
C Vc + - Vcc Rload sketch of instaneous device dissipation Device Current and Voltage note

note slightly real waveforms

Class A Waveform Analysis

Io

Vcc Big L Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload
Vcc
Big L
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
Rload

sketch of instaneous device dissipation

Device Current and Voltage

Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload sketch of instaneous device dissipation Device Current and Voltage
Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload sketch of instaneous device dissipation Device Current and Voltage

Average

textbook waveforms

Class A Waveform Analysis

Device Current and Voltage

Io

Vcc Big L Big C Vc + - Vcc Rload
Vcc
Big L
Big C
Vc
+
-
Vcc
Rload

sketch of instaneous device dissipation

Vc + - Vcc Rload sketch of instaneous device dissipation Note: this might still be a

Note: this might still be a perfectly linear class A amplifier--the output signal is a perfect replica of the input signal.

Class A Efficiency Review:

“The efficiency of a Class A amplifier” is not a number at the end of several pages of arcane math in a textbook

slight deviation from textbook waveform has big impact on device dissipation

textbook waveforms only appear in textbooks

waveform engineering is our primary tool to reduce device dissipation--even at frequencies where we can’t observe waveforms

Next: an alphabetical listing of amplifier classes