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A ParadiseTM Application Brief

Using Self-Organizing-Maps to Expose DHIs


Analysis of offshore Gulf of Consortium has developed a methodology for
Mexico - Class 3 AVO setting quantifying the risk of DHI-related prospects.
The Consortium has compiled a database
The case study highlighted below is an of several hundred wells and has been able to
offshore oil/gas field in 470 feet of water on the identify the most important DHI Characteristics.
continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. The field
has two producing wells that were drilled on Data quality, bed resolution, or seismic attribute
the upthrown side of a normal fault and into an algorithm may or may not allow an interpreter
amplitude anomaly. The normally-pressured to find any of the following examples, even if
reservoir is approximately 100 feet thick. The they are physically present in an ideal natural
hydrocarbon filled sandstone reservoir has low setting. The existence and/or variance in any
impedance compared to the encasing shales, of these DHI characteristics, as expressed
indicative of a Class 3 AVO environment. in the data, enable the extent of risk to be
better understood, and more so in a group of
Applying both traditional interpretation prospects, to be far better appreciated and
methods and the Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) quantified. According to the DHI Consortium,
capability within Paradise, Mr. Rocky Roden, a some of the most important DHI characteristics
Sr. Geophysical Consultant with Geophysical are:
Insights, conducted an analysis on the 3D
volume over this field. A group of seismic 1. Amplitude conformance to downdip
attributes were selected that would best expose structural closure
Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHIs). 2. Internal consistency of amplitude
3. Phase, frequency, or character changes at
Using known conditions, including AVO Class, edge of reservoir
reservoir characteristics, well logs, and seismic 4. Flat spots
response data, the Rose and Associates DHI 5. Attenuation

A SOM probability display using flat spot attributes

Well 1 Well 2

Oil/Water

Gas/Oil

Seismic data provided courtesy of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS)


Results Reduced risk through All three combinations of seismic attributes
greater insights analyzed by SOM analysis revealed phase
and character changes near the edge of the
The key findings of the study are as follows: hydrocarbon reservoir.

The SOM analyses of the seismic attributes SOM Analysis proved to complement and
associated with Flat Spots helped define enhance the conventional interpretation by
two levels of hydrocarbon contacts in this providing a second, completely independent
dataset. method of exposing DHIs. This application of
the SOM method increased confidence that
The SOM analyses on Attributes for insightful DHI characteristics are truly evidenced
Attenuation amplified apparent attenuation in the appraisal area. The results of this case
features, especially within the reservoir
study demonstrate that applying the DHI
sand.
methodology with the SOM analysis engine
in Paradise on selected seismic attributes
The SOM analyses of the seismic attributes
named Ten Attributes 10% was especially can dramatically reduce uncertainty in the
helpful in defining amplitude conformance to interpretation, thereby decreasing exploration
downdip closure, and provided confidence in risks in this geological setting.
the internal consistency of the reservoir.

A SOM classification of attenuation attributes

Well 1 Well 2

Reservoir

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