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Overview of Turbulence Modeling

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Outline
‹ Background
z Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
„ Scales
z Eliminating the small scales
„ Reynolds Averaging
„ Filtered Equations
‹ Turbulence Modeling Theory
z RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT
‹ Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent
z Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
‹ Turbulent Flow Examples
z Comparison with Experiments and DNS
„ Turbulence Models
„ Near Wall Treatments

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What is Turbulence?
‹ Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities
(mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space
‹ Fluid properties exhibit random variations
z statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport
mechanisms
‹ Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)
z typical identifiable swirling patterns
z large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies

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Two Examples of Turbulence


Homogeneous, decaying, grid-generated turbulence

Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate

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Energy Cascade
‹ Larger, higher-energy eddies, transfer energy to smaller eddies via
vortex stretching
z Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow
z Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow
‹ Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous
dissipation
z Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive
energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade

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Vortex Stretching
‹ Existence of eddies implies vorticity
‹ Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles
‹ Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of
the larger eddies
z As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart
„ vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter
„ vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved
z Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies
‹ Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon

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Smallest Scales of Turbulence


‹ Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales:
z large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation
rate → ε = -dk/dt
„ k ≡ ½(u′2+v′2+w′2) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l2 / t2]
„ ε is dissipation rate of k [l2 / t3]
z Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate, ε, and
kinematic viscosity, ν [l2 / t]
z From dimensional analysis:

‹ η = (ν3 / ε)1/4; τ = (ν / ε)1/2; v = (νε)1/4

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Small scales vs. Large scales


‹ Largest eddy scales:
z Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size
z Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply
rate of k as k / τturnover
z τturnover is a time scale associated with the larger eddies
„ the order of τturnover can be estimated as l / k1/2
‹ Since ε ~ k / τturnover, ε ~ k3/2 / l or l ~ k3/2 / ε
‹ Comparing l with η,

l l l (k 3 / 2 / l )1/ 4 l
= 3 ≈ ≈ Re
3/ 4
>> 1
η (ν / ε )1/ 4 ν 3/ 4
T
η

z where ReT = k1/2l / ν (turbulence Reynolds number)

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Implication of Scales
‹ Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large
enough to capture mean flow features
‹ Example: 2D channel flow η
‹ Ncells~(4l / η)3
or
l l
Ncells ~ (3Reτ)9/4 ≈
η (ν / ε )
3 1/ 4

where H
l
Reτ = uτH / 2ν
‹ ReH = 30,800 → Reτ = 800 → Ncells = 4x107 !

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Direct Numerical Simulation


‹ “DNS” is the solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes
equations without recourse to modeling
 ∂U i ∂U i  ∂p ∂  ∂U i 
ρ  +Uk  = − + µ 
 ∂t ∂xk  ∂xi ∂xk  ∂x j 
 
z Numerical time step size required, ∆t ~ τ
For 2D channel example
„
0.003H
V ReH = 30,800 ∆t 2 D Channel ≈
V Number of time steps ~ 48,000
Reτ uτ
z DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD
„ DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent
Reynolds numbers
„ DNS is a useful research tool

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Removing the Small Scales


‹ Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales:
z Reynolds Averaging
„ Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved
„ All scales of turbulence are modeled
„ Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness
z Filtering (LES)
„ Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’
„ Resolves larger eddies; models smaller ones
„ Inherently unsteady, ∆t set by small eddies
‹ Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for
closure

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Prediction Methods

l η = l/ReT3/4

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RANS Modeling - Velocity Decomposition


‹ Consider a point in the given flow field:

u
u'i

Ui ui

time
r r r
ui ( x , t ) = U i ( x , t ) + ui′( x , t )

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RANS Modeling - Ensemble Averaging


N
r 1
‹ Ensemble (Phase) average: U i ( x , t ) = lim
N →∞ N
∑ ui
(n )
( xr, t )
n =1

z Applicable to nonstationary flows such as periodic or quasi-periodic flows


involving deterministic structures

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Deriving RANS Equations


‹ Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous Navier-
Stokes equations and average:

 ∂ (U i + ui′ ) ∂ (U i + ui′ )  ∂ ( p + p′) ∂  ∂ (U i + ui′ ) 


ρ  + (U k + uk′ )  = − + µ
 ∂ t ∂ x  ∂ x ∂x 
j ∂x j 
k i 

‹ Some averaging rules:


z Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′

Φ ≡ φ ; φ ′ ≡ 0; φψ = ΦΨ + φ ′ψ ′; Φψ ′ = 0; φ ′ψ ′ ≠ 0, etc.
‹ Mass-weighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows

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RANS Equations
‹ Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations:
 ∂U
ρ  i + U k
∂U i 
 = −
∂p
+
∂ µ +
(
 ∂U i  ∂ − ρ ui u j )
 ∂t ∂xk  ∂xi ∂x j  ∂x j  ∂x j
  (prime notation dropped)

‹ New equations are identical to original except :


z The transported variables, U, ρ, etc., now represent the mean flow
quantities
z Additional terms appear: Rij = − ρ ui u j
„ Rij are called the Reynolds Stresses

∂  ∂U i 
Effectively a stress→ µ − ρ ui u j 
 ∂x 
V
∂x j  j 
„ These are the terms to be modeled

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Turbulence Modeling Approaches


‹ Boussinesq approach
z isotropic
z relies on dimensional analysis
‹ Reynolds stress transport models
z no assumption of isotropy
z contains more “physics”
z most complex and computationally expensive

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The Boussinesq Approach

‹ Relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean flow by a turbulent (eddy)


viscosity, µt
2 ∂U k 2 1  ∂U i ∂U j 
Rij = − ρ uiu j = 2µ t Sij − µ t δ ij − ρkδ ij ; Sij = +
3 ∂xk 3 2  ∂x j ∂xi 
z Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum
t xy = − ρ u′′v′′ = 2µSij
z Assumptions valid at molecular level, not necessarily valid at
macroscopic level
„ µt is a scalar (Rij aligned with strain-rate tensor, Sij)

„ Taylor series expansion valid if lmfp|d2U/dy2| << |dU/dy|


„ Average time between collisions lmfp / vth << |dU/dy|-1

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Modeling µt
‹ Oh well, focus attention on modeling µt anyways
‹ Basic approach made through dimensional arguments
z Units of νt = µt/ρ are [m2/s]

z Typically one needs 2 out of the 3 scales:


„ velocity - length - time
‹ Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved,
e.g.,
z zero-equation
z one-equation
z two-equation
z …

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Zero Equation Model


Prandtl mixing length 1  ∂U i ∂U j 
‹ µt = ρ l 2
2 Sij Sij ; Sij =

+
∂xi 
mix
model: 2  ∂x j
z Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of
momentum:
1 1
µ = ρ v th lmfp µt = ρ vmixlmix
2 2

z The mixing length model:


„ assumes that vmix is proportional to lmix& strain rate: vmix ∝ lmix 2Sij Sij
„ requires that lmix be prescribed
V lmix must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem
z Very crude approach, but economical
„ Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a
very crude estimate of turbulence is required

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Other Zero Equation Models


‹ Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid
boundaries than in free shear flows
z Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for
near wall flows
„ Van Driest- Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary
layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’
„ Clauser- Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer
boundary) layer
„ Klebanoff- Account for intermittency dependency
„ Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax
V Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models
‹ Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows
z Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local
properties alone

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One-Equation Models
‹ Traditionally, one-equation models were based on transport equation
for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale, v = k1/2
z Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale
(mixing)
z Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for
‹ Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow
z very dependent on problem type
z approach not suited to general purpose CFD

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Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation


‹ Exact k equation derived from sum of products of Navier-Stokes
equations with fluctuating velocities
z (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations)

 ∂k ∂k  ∂U i ∂  ∂k 1 
ρ  +U j  = Rij − ρε + µ − ρ u i ui u j − p ' u j 
 ∂t 
∂x j  ∂x j ∂x j  ∂x j 2 

unsteady & production molecular turbulent pressure
convective dissipation diffusion transport diffusion

∂ui ∂ui
z where ε =ν (incompressible form)
∂xk ∂xk

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Modeled Equation for k


‹ The production, dissipation, turbulent transport, and pressure
diffusion terms must be modeled
z Rij in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula
z Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion:
1 µ ∂k Using µt/σk assumes k
ρ ui ui u j + p ' u j = − t
2 σ k ∂x j can be transported by
turbulence as can U
z ε = CDk3/2/l from dimensional arguments
z µt = CDρk2/ ε (recall µt ∝ ρk1/2l)
z CD, σk, and l are model parameters to be specified
„ Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model
‹ Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’
z solves for eddy viscosity

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Spalart-Allmaras Model Equations


modified turbulent viscosity

~ ~ 1  ∂ 
2
Dν~  ∂ν~ 
  ∂ν~   ~ 2
ν
(µ + ρν )
~
ρ = ρ cb1S ν +  + cb 2 ρ    − cw1 ρ f w  

Dt σ ν~  ∂x j  ∂x j   ∂x j   d

χ3 ν~
µ t ≡ ρν~f v1 , f v1 = , χ≡
χ + cv1
3 3
ν
~ ν~ χ
S ≡ S + 2 2 fv2 , f v2 = 1 −
κ d 1 + χf v1
damping functions
1/ 6
 1+ 6  ν~
f w = g  6 cw63  ,
distance from wall
(
g = r + cw 2 r − r , 6
) r≡ ~ 2 2
 g + cw3  Sκ d

Wall boundary condition :ν~ = 0


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Spalart-Allmaras Production Term


‹ Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only:
1  ∂U i ∂U j 
S≡ 2 ΩijΩij ; Ωij = −

2  ∂x j ∂xi 
‹ Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor:

S ≡ Ω ij + C prod min(0, Sij - Ω ij )

Š reduces turbulent viscosity for vortical flows


Š more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation

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Spalart-Allmaras Model
‹ Spalart-Allmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace
industry
z Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications
z “Low-Re” formulation by default
„ can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall
„ Fluent’s implementation can also use law-of-the-wall
z Economical and accurate for:
„ wall-bounded flows
„ flows with mild separation and recirculation
z Weak for:
„ massively separated flows
„ free shear flows
„ simple decaying turbulence

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Two-Equation Models
‹ Two transport equations are solved, giving two independent scales
for calculating µt
z Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic
energy, k
z Several transport variables have been proposed, based on
dimensional arguments, and used for second equation
„ Kolmogorov, ω: µt ∝ ρk / ω, l ∝ k1/2 / ω, k ∝ ε / ω
V ω is specific dissipation rate
V defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k
„ Chou, ε: µt ∝ ρk2 / ε, l ∝ k3/2 / ε
„ Rotta, l: µt ∝ ρk1/2l, ε ∝ k3/2 / l
z Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses

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Standard k-ε Model Equations


k-transport equation

Dk ∂  µt  ∂k  2
ρ =  µ +   + µt S − ρε ; S = 2 Sij Sij
Dt ∂x j  σk  ∂x j 
production dissipation
ε-transport equation

ρ

=

Dt ∂x j


 µ +
µt
σε
 ∂ε  ε
 ( 2
 + C1ε µ t S − ρC2ε ε )
  ∂x j  k
inverse time scale
coefficients

σ k , σ ε , Ciε , Cε 2 Empirical constants determined from benchmark


experiments of simple flows using air and water.

turbulent viscosity k2
µ t = ρ Cµ
ε
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Closure Coefficients
‹ Simple flows render simpler model equations
z Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment
z e.g.,
„ Uniform flow past grid
V Standard k-ε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms

dk dε ε2
U = −ε ; U = −C2ε
dx dx k
„ Homogeneous Shear Flow
„ Near-Wall (Log layer) Flow

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Standard k-ε Model


‹ High-Reynolds number model
z (i.e., must be modified for the near-wall region)
‹ The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients
‹ Sometimes additional terms are included
z production due to buoyancy
„ unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production
z dilatation dissipation due to compressibility
„ added dissipation term, prevents overprediction of spreading rate in
compressible flows

Dk ∂  µt  ∂k  2 µt ∂ρ k
ρ =  µ +   + µ t S − ρε − g i − ρε 2
Dt ∂x j  σk ∂x
 j  ρ Prt ∂xi γRT
Buoyancy Dilatation
production Dissipation

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Standard k-ε Model Pros & Cons


‹ Strengths:
z robust
z economical
z reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows
‹ Weaknesses:
z overly diffusive for many situations
„ flows involving strong streamline curvature, swirl, rotation, separating
flows, low-Re flows
z cannot predict round jet spreading rate
‹ Variants of the k-ε model have been developed to address its
deficiencies
z RNG and Realizable

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RNG k-ε Model Equations


‹ Derived using renormalization group theory
z scale-elimination technique applied to Navier-Stokes equations
(sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes)
„ k equation is similar to standard k-ε model
„ Additional strain rate term in ε equation
V most significant difference between standard and RNG k-ε models
„ Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers
„ Differential-viscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers
V Boussinesq model used by default  η
C µ ρη 3 1 − 
C2*ε = C2ε +  η0 
ε-transport equation 1 + βη 3

ρ

=
∂ 
(α µ
 ε eff
Dt ∂x j 
) ∂ε  ε
∂x j  k
( 2 *
)
 + C1ε µt S − ρC2ε ε where η=S
ε
k

η0 , β are coefficients
µ eff = µ + µ t

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RNG k-ε Model Pros &Cons


‹ For large strain rates:
z where η > η0, ε is augmented, and therefore k and µt are reduced

‹ Option to modify turbulent viscosity to account for swirl


‹ Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included
‹ Improved performance over std. k-ε model for
z rapidly strained flows
z flows with streamline curvature
‹ Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-
viscosity model

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Realizable k-ε Model: Motivation


‹ Standard k-ε model could not ensure:
z Positivity of normal stresses

u α2 ≥ 0
z Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses

(uα u β ) 2
≤ uα u β
2 2

‹ Modifications made to standard model


z k equation is same; new formulation for µt and ε
z Cµ is variable
z ε equation is based on a transport equation for the mean-square vorticity
fluctuation

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Realizable k-ε Model: Realizability


‹ How can normal stresses become negative?
‹ Standard k-ε Boussinesq viscosity relation:
k 2  ∂U i ∂U j  2
− ρ ui u j = ρ C µ + - ρ k δ ij

ε  ∂x j ∂xi  3 

‹ Normal component:
2 k 2 ∂U
u = k − 2Cµ
2

3 ε ∂x
‹ Normal stress will be negative if:

k ∂U 1
> ≈ 3.7
ε ∂x 3Cµ

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Realizable k-ε Model: Cµ


‹ Cµ is not a constant, but varies as a function of mean velocity field and
turbulence (0.09 in log-layer Sk/ε = 3.3, 0.05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6)

Cµ along
bottom-wall

Cµ contours for 2D backward-facing step

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Realizable k-ε Model Equations


ε-transport equation
Dε ∂  µt  ∂ε  ρ ε2
ρ =  µ +   + C1 S ρ ε − C2
Dt ∂x j  σε  ∂x j  k + νε
 η 
C1 = max 0.43,  , η = Sk / ε , C2 = 1.0
 η + 5
turbulent viscosity
k2 1
µ t = ρ Cµ , Cµ =
ε U *k
A0 + As
ε
where 1
A0 = 4.04, As = 6 cos φ , φ = cos −1 6W
3
( )
S ij S jk S ki ~
U ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij , W =
*
~ , S = S ij S ij
S
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Realizable k-ε Model Pros & Cons


‹ Performance generally exceeds the standard k-ε model
‹ Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included
‹ Good for complex flows with large strain rates
z recirculation, rotation, separation, strong ∇p
‹ Resolves the round-jet/plane jet anomaly
z predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets
‹ Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-viscosity
model

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Standard and SST k-ω Models


‹ k-ω models are a popular alternative to k-ε
z ω~ε/k
z µt ∝ ρk / ω
‹ Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to
inlet and far-field boundary values of ω
‹ Can be used in near-wall region without modification
‹ Latest version contains several refinements:
z reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions
z modifcation for the round-jet/plane-jet anomaly
z compressibility effects
z low-Re (transitional) effects

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Standard k-ω Model


‹ The most well-known Wilcox k-ω model until recently was his 1988
model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” k-ω model)
‹ Fluent v6 Standard k-ω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model
k
µt = α * ρ
ω
Dk ∂U i ∂  µt  ∂k 
ρ = τ ij − ρ β * f β * kω +  µ +  
Dt ∂x j ∂x j  σk ∂x
 j 

Dω ω ∂U i ∂  µt  ∂ω 
ρ = α τ ij − ρ β fβ ω 2 +  µ +  
Dt k ∂x j ∂x j  σω ∂x
 j 

‹ Wilcox’ original k-ω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model, and can be
recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the
model constants

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Standard k-ω Turbulent Viscosity


‹ Turbulent viscosity is computed from:
k
µt = α * ρ
ω
 α 0* + Re T Rk  βi 9
where α = α   
, α 0 = 3 , βi =
* * *

 1 + Re T R k  125
ρk
Rk = 6 , Re T = , α ∞* = 1.0
ωµ
‹ The dependency of α* upon ReT was designed to recover the correct
asymptotic values in the limiting cases. In particular, note that:

α * → 1 as ReT → ∞ (fully turbulent)

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Standard k-ω Turbulent Kinetic Energy


Dk ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂k 
ρ = τ ij − ρ β f β * kω +
*

 µ +  
Dt ∂x j 14243 ∂x j  σ k  ∂x j 
123 Dissipatio n rate of k 14442444 3
production of k Diffusion of k

0 M t ≤ M t0
β * = β i* [1 + ζ * F (M t )] F (M t ) =  2
M t − M t20 M t > M t 0
4 15 + (Re T Rβ )
4

β i* = β ∞* , Rβ = 8 2k 1
1 + (Re T Rβ ) M t2 = 2 , M t 0 = , a = γRT
4
a 4
σ k = 2.0, ζ * = 1.5, β ∞* = 0.09
1 χk ≤ 0
 1 ∂ k ∂ω
f β * = 1 + 680 χ k2 , χk = 3
1 + 400 χ 2 χ k > 0 144 ω ∂xj ∂xj
2443
 k
cross- diffusion parameter

‹ Note the dependence upon ReΤ , Mt , and χk


‹ “Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via Mt term
‹ The cross-diffusion parameter (χk ) is designed to improve free shear
flow predictions
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Standard k-ω Specific Dissipation Equation


Dω ω ∂U i ∂  µt  ∂ω 
ρ = α τ ij − ρ β f βω 2 +  µ +  
Dt k ∂x j ∂x j  σω ∂x
 j 

α ∞ α 0 + Re T Rω 13 1
α= , α∞ = , α 0 = , Rω = 2.95 , σ ω = 2.0
α 1 + Re T Rω
*
25 9
 β i* *  1 + 70 χ ω Ω ij Ω jk S ki
β = β i 1 + ζ ∞ F (M t ), f β = , χω = , ζ *
= 1 .5
 β i  1 + 80 χ ω (β ∞ω )
* 3 ∞

1  ∂U i ∂U j  
 , Ω ij = 1  ∂U i −
∂U j 

S ij = +
2  ∂x j ∂xi 
 2  ∂ x j ∂ xi 

‹ Note the dependence upon ReΤ , Mt , and χω

‹ Vortex-stretching parameter (χω) designed to remedy the plane/round-jet


anomaly

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Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (I)


‹ “Transitional flow” option
z Corresponds to all terms involving ReT terms in the model
equations
z Deactivated by default
z Can benefit low-Re flows where the extent of the
transitional flow region is large
‹ “Compressibility Effects” option
z Takes effects via F(Mt)
z Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation

4 ∂u k′ ∂u ′
ρ ε = ρ εs + ρ εd , ρ εd = ρ
3 ∂x k ∂x k
z Available with ideal-gas option only and is turned on by
default
z Improve high-Mach number free shear and boundary
layer flow predictions - reduces spreading rates

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Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (II)


‹ “Shear-Flow Corrections” option
z Controls both cross-diffusion and vortex-stretching
terms - Activated by default
z Cross-diffusion term (in k-equation)
1 χk ≤ 0
 1 ∂ k ∂ω
fβ* = 1 + 680 χ k2 , χk = 3
1 + 400 χ 2 χk > 0 ω ∂x ∂x
 k
14424j43j
cross - diffusion parameter

„ Designed to improve the model performance for free


shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows
z Vortex-stretching term
„ Designed to resolve the round/plane-jet anomaly
„ Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3-D flows but
vanishes for planar 2-D flows
1 + 70 χ ω Ω ij Ω jk S ki
fβ = , χω =
1 + 80 χ ω β ∞*ω
3
( )
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Background


‹ Many people, including Menter (1994), have noted that:

• Wilcox’ original k-ω model is overly sensitive to the freestream value


(BC) of ω, while k-ε model is not prone to such problem
• k-ω model has many good attributes and perform much better than k-ε
models for boundary layer flows
• Most two-equation models, including k-ε models, over-predict turbulent
stresses in the wake (velocity-defect) region, which leads to poor
performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure
gradient and separated flows

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Main Components


‹ The SST k-ω model consists of
z Zonal (blended) k-ω/k-ε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous
slide)
z Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what
is dictated by the structural similarity constant. (Bradshaw, 1967) -
addresses item 3 in the previous slide

Outer layer
k-ω model transformed
(wake and
from std. k-3ε model
outward)
k 2
ε=
Inner layer lε
Modified Wilcox k-ω model
(sublayer,
Wilcox’ original k-ω model
log-layer)

Wall

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Inner Layer


‹ The k-ω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox
original k-ω model with some constants modified

Dk ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂k 
ρ = τ ij − β *kρω +  µ +  
Dt ∂x j ∂x j  σ k1  ∂x 
j 

Dω γ 1 ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂ω 
ρ = τ ij − β1 ρω 2 +  µ +  
Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j  σ ω1  ∂x j 

β 1 = 0.075 , σ k1 = 1.176 , σ ω 1 = 2.0
β * = 0.09 , γ 1 = β 1 β * − κ 2 ( β σ ),
*
ω1 κ = 0.41
a1 k
µt = ρ
max(a 1 ω , ΩF2 )
 2 k 500ν 
( )
F2 = tanh arg 22 , arg 2 = max 
ω
, 2 
 0. 09 y y ω

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Outer Layer


‹ The k-ω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming
the standard k-ε equations via change-of-variable

Dk ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂k 
ρ = τ ij − β *kρω +  µ +  
Dt ∂x j ∂x j  σ k2  ∂x j 

Dω γ 2 ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂ω 
ρ = τ ij − β 2 ρω 2 + 
 µ +  
Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j  σ ω2  ∂x j 

1 ∂k ∂ω
+ 2 ρσ ω 2
ω ∂x j ∂x j

β 2 = 0.0828, σ k 2 = 1.0 , σ ω 2 = 1.168


β * = 0.09 , γ 2 = β 2 β * − κ 2 ( β σ ),
*
ω2 κ = 0.41

Turbulent viscosity computed from: k


µt = ρ
‹

ω
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blending the Equations


‹ The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such
a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one
equation to another.
 Dk   Dk 
(
F1 = tanh arg14 )
F1  ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + (1 − F1 )  ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅   k 500ν  4 ρ σ ω 2 k 
 Dt  inner  Dt  outer arg1 = min max * , 2  , 2 
β ω y y ω CD y
φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ2    kω 
 1 ∂k ∂ω 
where φ = β , σ k , σ ω , γ CDkω = max 2 ρσ ω 2 , 10 −20 
 ω ∂x j ∂x j 
 

k-ω model transformed


from std. k-3ε2 model F1 = 1 in the inner layer
k
ε=
lε F1 → 0 in the outler layer
Modified
Wilcox’ original ωωmodel
Wilcoxk-k- model

Wall

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blended k-ω Equations


‹ The resulting blended equations are:
Dk ∂U i ∂ µ t  ∂k 
ρ = τ ij − β * k ρω +  µ +  
Dt ∂x j ∂x j
 σ k  ∂x j 

Dω γ ∂U i ∂  µ t  ∂ω 
ρ = τ ij − β ρω 2 + 
 µ +  
Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j  σ ω  ∂x j 
1 ∂k ∂ω
+ 2 ρ (1 − F1 )σ ω 2
ω ∂x j ∂x j
φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ 2 , φ = β , σ k , σ ω ,γ

Wall

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Turbulent Viscosity


‹ Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers
(Bradshaw, 1967)
− u ′v′
τ ≡ − ρ u ′v′ = ρ a1 k ← = a1 (Bradshaw, 1967)
k
‹ Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as:
∂U Pk
τ = µt = µ t Ω = ρ a1 k
∂y ε
z In many flow situations (e.g. adverse pressure gradient flows), production
of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (Pk >> ε), which leads to
predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural
similarity constant
z How can turbulent stress be limited? - A simple trick is to clip turbulent
viscosity such that:

µ t Ω ≤ ρ a1 k

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Clipping µt


‹ Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from:

a1 k k ak 
µt = ρ = ρ min  , 1 
max(a 1ω , ΩF2 )  ω ΩF2 
 2 k 500ν 
F2 = tanh (arg ) ,
2
arg 2 = max  , 2 
 0.09ω y y ω 
2

Ω ≡ 2Ω ij Ω ij (vorticity magnitude)
‹ Remarks
z F2 is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall
and free shear layers
z The name SST (shear-stress transport) is a big word for this simple trick
z Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strain-rate magnitude could also
be used)

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Submodels & Options


‹ SST k-ω model comes with:
z Transitional Flows option (Off by
default)
z Compressibility Effects option when
ideal-gas option is selected (On by
default)
‹ The original SST k-ω model in the
literature does not have any of these
options
z These submodels are being borrowed
from Wilcox’ 1998 model - should be
used with caution
z Do not activate any options to recover the
original SST model

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k-ω Models Boundary Conditions


‹ Wall boundary conditions
z The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole near-wall option for k-ω
models. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the non-equilibrium
wall functions option is available for k-ω models in FLUENT 6
„ The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively
„ ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the wall-limiting
value (y->0) and the value in the log-layer
z The k-ω models can be used with either a fine near-wall mesh or a coarse
near-wall mesh
‹ For other BCs (e.g., inlet, free-stream), the following relationship is used
internally, whenever possible, to convert to and from different turbulence
quantities:
ε = β *ω k , β * = 0.09

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Faults in the Boussinesq Assumption


‹ Boussinesq: Rij = 2µtSij
z Is simple linear relationship sufficient?
„ Rij is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history
„ Rij changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes
z Rij is not strictly aligned with Sij for flows with:
„ sudden changes in mean strain rate
„ extra rates of strain (e.g., rapid dilatation, strong streamline
curvature)
„ rotating fluids
„ stress-induced secondary flows
‹ Modifications to two-equation models cannot be generalized for
arbitrary flows

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Reynolds Stress Models


‹ Starting point is the exact transport equations for the
transport of Reynolds stresses, Rij
z six transport equations in 3d
‹ Equations are obtained by Reynolds-averaging the product
of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.
z ui′NS (u j ) + u ′j NS (ui ) = 0
‹ The resulting equations contain several terms that must be
modeled

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Reynolds Stress Transport Equations


Reynolds Stress DR ij ∂J ijk
Transport Eqns. = Pij + Φ ij − ε ij + (incompressible flow w/o body
Dt ∂x k forces)
 ∂U j ∂Ui 
Generation Pij ≡ ρ  uiuk + u j uk  (computed)
 ∂xk ∂xk 

Pressure-Strain  ∂ui ∂u j 
Redistribution Φ ij ≡ − p 
′ +  (modeled)
 ∂x 
 j ∂xi 
∂u i ∂u j
Dissipation ε ij ≡ 2 µ (related to ε)
∂x k ∂x k
Turbulent ∂
J ijk ≡ p′uiδ jk + p′u jδ ik + ρ ui u j uk − µ (ui u j ) (modeled)
Diffusion 1442443 1 424 3 ∂xk
142 43
Pressure/velocity Turbulent Molecular
fluctuations transport transport

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Dissipation Modeling
‹ Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy
motions
z Large scale eddies affected by mean shear
z Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller
scales
„ The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually
lost
„ Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic
2
ε ij = δ ij ε
3
„ ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation
„ Compressibility and near-wall anisotropy effects can be accounted for

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Turbulent Diffusion

‹ Most closure models combine the pressure diffusion with the


triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis
 k ∂u i u j 

∂x k

( )
 u i u j u k + (δ kj u i + δ ik u j ) − ν
p'
ρ

∂x k
( )
ui u j

=

 ∂x
C u u
 s ε k l ∂xl


  k  
 C µ k 2 ∂ ui u j 

Or even a simpler model =  
 σ ε ∂xk 
∂xk
 
z Overall performance of models for these terms is generally
inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple
products
z DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible

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Pressure-Strain Modeling
 ∂ui ∂u j 
‹ Pressure-strain term of same order as production Φij ≡ − p′ + 
 ∂x ∂x 
‹ Pressure-strain term acts to drive turbulence towards  j i 

an isotropic state by redistributing the Reynolds stresses


‹ Decomposed into parts Φij = Φij,1 + Φij,2 + Φij, w
mean
“Slow” Part “Rapid Part”
gradient
1 ∂ 2 p′ ∂u j ∂ui ∂u j 1 ∂ 2 p′ ∂ui ∂U j
= −u i + = −2
ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi

‹ Model of Launder, Reece & Rodi (1978)


 ∂U j ∂U i  2 ∂U l 
Φ ij = −c1bij + c 2  u i u l + u j ul  − u l u m δ ij 
 ∂xl ∂xl  3 ∂x m 
ε 2 
where bij ≡  ui u j − k δ ij 
k 3 

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Pressure-Strain Modeling Options


‹ Wall-reflection effect
z contains explicit distance from wall
z damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall
z enhances stresses parallel to wall
‹ SSG (Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model
z Expands the basic LRR model to include non-linear (quadratic) terms
z Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows
„ plane strain, rotating plane shear, axisymmetric expansion/contraction

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Characteristics of RSM
‹ Effects of curvature, swirl, and rotation are directly accounted for in
the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.
z When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow,
consider RSM
‹ More cpu resources (vs. k-ε models) is needed
z 50-60% more cpu time per iteration and 15-20% additional memory
‹ Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow
z number of iterations required for convergence may increase

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Heat Transfer
‹ The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the
energy equation: uiθ
z Analogous to the Reynolds stresses, this is termed the turbulent heat flux
„ It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux, but this is not
common practice
„ Instead, a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the
turbulent viscosity
V The constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number
V Generally assumed that Prt ~ 0.85-0.9
‹ Applicable to other scalar transport equations

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