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Outline

Background

z Characteristics of Turbulent Flow

Scales

z Eliminating the small scales

Reynolds Averaging

Filtered Equations

Turbulence Modeling Theory

z RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT

Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent

z Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

Turbulent Flow Examples

z Comparison with Experiments and DNS

Turbulence Models

Near Wall Treatments

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What is Turbulence?

Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities

(mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space

Fluid properties exhibit random variations

z statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport

mechanisms

Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)

z typical identifiable swirling patterns

z large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies

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Homogeneous, decaying, grid-generated turbulence

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Energy Cascade

Larger, higher-energy eddies, transfer energy to smaller eddies via

vortex stretching

z Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow

z Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow

Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous

dissipation

z Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive

energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade

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Vortex Stretching

Existence of eddies implies vorticity

Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles

Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of

the larger eddies

z As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart

vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter

vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved

z Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies

Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon

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Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales:

z large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation

rate → ε = -dk/dt

k ≡ ½(u′2+v′2+w′2) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l2 / t2]

ε is dissipation rate of k [l2 / t3]

z Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate, ε, and

kinematic viscosity, ν [l2 / t]

z From dimensional analysis:

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Largest eddy scales:

z Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size

z Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply

rate of k as k / τturnover

z τturnover is a time scale associated with the larger eddies

the order of τturnover can be estimated as l / k1/2

Since ε ~ k / τturnover, ε ~ k3/2 / l or l ~ k3/2 / ε

Comparing l with η,

l l l (k 3 / 2 / l )1/ 4 l

= 3 ≈ ≈ Re

3/ 4

>> 1

η (ν / ε )1/ 4 ν 3/ 4

T

η

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Implication of Scales

Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large

enough to capture mean flow features

Example: 2D channel flow η

Ncells~(4l / η)3

or

l l

Ncells ~ (3Reτ)9/4 ≈

η (ν / ε )

3 1/ 4

where H

l

Reτ = uτH / 2ν

ReH = 30,800 → Reτ = 800 → Ncells = 4x107 !

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“DNS” is the solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes

equations without recourse to modeling

∂U i ∂U i ∂p ∂ ∂U i

ρ +Uk = − + µ

∂t ∂xk ∂xi ∂xk ∂x j

z Numerical time step size required, ∆t ~ τ

For 2D channel example

0.003H

V ReH = 30,800 ∆t 2 D Channel ≈

V Number of time steps ~ 48,000

Reτ uτ

z DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD

DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent

Reynolds numbers

DNS is a useful research tool

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Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales:

z Reynolds Averaging

Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved

All scales of turbulence are modeled

Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness

z Filtering (LES)

Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’

Resolves larger eddies; models smaller ones

Inherently unsteady, ∆t set by small eddies

Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for

closure

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Prediction Methods

l η = l/ReT3/4

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Consider a point in the given flow field:

u

u'i

Ui ui

time

r r r

ui ( x , t ) = U i ( x , t ) + ui′( x , t )

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N

r 1

Ensemble (Phase) average: U i ( x , t ) = lim

N →∞ N

∑ ui

(n )

( xr, t )

n =1

involving deterministic structures

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Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous Navier-

Stokes equations and average:

ρ + (U k + uk′ ) = − + µ

∂ t ∂ x ∂ x ∂x

j ∂x j

k i

z Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′

Φ ≡ φ ; φ ′ ≡ 0; φψ = ΦΨ + φ ′ψ ′; Φψ ′ = 0; φ ′ψ ′ ≠ 0, etc.

Mass-weighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows

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RANS Equations

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations:

∂U

ρ i + U k

∂U i

= −

∂p

+

∂ µ +

(

∂U i ∂ − ρ ui u j )

∂t ∂xk ∂xi ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j

(prime notation dropped)

z The transported variables, U, ρ, etc., now represent the mean flow

quantities

z Additional terms appear: Rij = − ρ ui u j

Rij are called the Reynolds Stresses

∂ ∂U i

Effectively a stress→ µ − ρ ui u j

∂x

V

∂x j j

These are the terms to be modeled

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Boussinesq approach

z isotropic

z relies on dimensional analysis

Reynolds stress transport models

z no assumption of isotropy

z contains more “physics”

z most complex and computationally expensive

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viscosity, µt

2 ∂U k 2 1 ∂U i ∂U j

Rij = − ρ uiu j = 2µ t Sij − µ t δ ij − ρkδ ij ; Sij = +

3 ∂xk 3 2 ∂x j ∂xi

z Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum

t xy = − ρ u′′v′′ = 2µSij

z Assumptions valid at molecular level, not necessarily valid at

macroscopic level

µt is a scalar (Rij aligned with strain-rate tensor, Sij)

Average time between collisions lmfp / vth << |dU/dy|-1

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Modeling µt

Oh well, focus attention on modeling µt anyways

Basic approach made through dimensional arguments

z Units of νt = µt/ρ are [m2/s]

velocity - length - time

Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved,

e.g.,

z zero-equation

z one-equation

z two-equation

z …

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Prandtl mixing length 1 ∂U i ∂U j

µt = ρ l 2

2 Sij Sij ; Sij =

+

∂xi

mix

model: 2 ∂x j

z Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of

momentum:

1 1

µ = ρ v th lmfp µt = ρ vmixlmix

2 2

assumes that vmix is proportional to lmix& strain rate: vmix ∝ lmix 2Sij Sij

requires that lmix be prescribed

V lmix must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem

z Very crude approach, but economical

Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a

very crude estimate of turbulence is required

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Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid

boundaries than in free shear flows

z Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for

near wall flows

Van Driest- Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary

layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’

Clauser- Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer

boundary) layer

Klebanoff- Account for intermittency dependency

Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax

V Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models

Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows

z Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local

properties alone

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One-Equation Models

Traditionally, one-equation models were based on transport equation

for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale, v = k1/2

z Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale

(mixing)

z Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for

Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow

z very dependent on problem type

z approach not suited to general purpose CFD

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Exact k equation derived from sum of products of Navier-Stokes

equations with fluctuating velocities

z (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations)

∂k ∂k ∂U i ∂ ∂k 1

ρ +U j = Rij − ρε + µ − ρ u i ui u j − p ' u j

∂t

∂x j ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j 2

unsteady & production molecular turbulent pressure

convective dissipation diffusion transport diffusion

∂ui ∂ui

z where ε =ν (incompressible form)

∂xk ∂xk

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The production, dissipation, turbulent transport, and pressure

diffusion terms must be modeled

z Rij in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula

z Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion:

1 µ ∂k Using µt/σk assumes k

ρ ui ui u j + p ' u j = − t

2 σ k ∂x j can be transported by

turbulence as can U

z ε = CDk3/2/l from dimensional arguments

z µt = CDρk2/ ε (recall µt ∝ ρk1/2l)

z CD, σk, and l are model parameters to be specified

Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model

Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’

z solves for eddy viscosity

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modified turbulent viscosity

~ ~ 1 ∂

2

Dν~ ∂ν~

∂ν~ ~ 2

ν

(µ + ρν )

~

ρ = ρ cb1S ν + + cb 2 ρ − cw1 ρ f w

Dt σ ν~ ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j d

χ3 ν~

µ t ≡ ρν~f v1 , f v1 = , χ≡

χ + cv1

3 3

ν

~ ν~ χ

S ≡ S + 2 2 fv2 , f v2 = 1 −

κ d 1 + χf v1

damping functions

1/ 6

1+ 6 ν~

f w = g 6 cw63 ,

distance from wall

(

g = r + cw 2 r − r , 6

) r≡ ~ 2 2

g + cw3 Sκ d

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Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only:

1 ∂U i ∂U j

S≡ 2 ΩijΩij ; Ωij = −

2 ∂x j ∂xi

Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor:

more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation

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Spalart-Allmaras Model

Spalart-Allmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace

industry

z Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications

z “Low-Re” formulation by default

can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall

Fluent’s implementation can also use law-of-the-wall

z Economical and accurate for:

wall-bounded flows

flows with mild separation and recirculation

z Weak for:

massively separated flows

free shear flows

simple decaying turbulence

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Two-Equation Models

Two transport equations are solved, giving two independent scales

for calculating µt

z Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic

energy, k

z Several transport variables have been proposed, based on

dimensional arguments, and used for second equation

Kolmogorov, ω: µt ∝ ρk / ω, l ∝ k1/2 / ω, k ∝ ε / ω

V ω is specific dissipation rate

V defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k

Chou, ε: µt ∝ ρk2 / ε, l ∝ k3/2 / ε

Rotta, l: µt ∝ ρk1/2l, ε ∝ k3/2 / l

z Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses

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k-transport equation

Dk ∂ µt ∂k 2

ρ = µ + + µt S − ρε ; S = 2 Sij Sij

Dt ∂x j σk ∂x j

production dissipation

ε-transport equation

ρ

Dε

=

∂

Dt ∂x j

µ +

µt

σε

∂ε ε

( 2

+ C1ε µ t S − ρC2ε ε )

∂x j k

inverse time scale

coefficients

experiments of simple flows using air and water.

turbulent viscosity k2

µ t = ρ Cµ

ε

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Closure Coefficients

Simple flows render simpler model equations

z Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment

z e.g.,

Uniform flow past grid

V Standard k-ε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms

dk dε ε2

U = −ε ; U = −C2ε

dx dx k

Homogeneous Shear Flow

Near-Wall (Log layer) Flow

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High-Reynolds number model

z (i.e., must be modified for the near-wall region)

The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients

Sometimes additional terms are included

z production due to buoyancy

unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production

z dilatation dissipation due to compressibility

added dissipation term, prevents overprediction of spreading rate in

compressible flows

Dk ∂ µt ∂k 2 µt ∂ρ k

ρ = µ + + µ t S − ρε − g i − ρε 2

Dt ∂x j σk ∂x

j ρ Prt ∂xi γRT

Buoyancy Dilatation

production Dissipation

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Strengths:

z robust

z economical

z reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows

Weaknesses:

z overly diffusive for many situations

flows involving strong streamline curvature, swirl, rotation, separating

flows, low-Re flows

z cannot predict round jet spreading rate

Variants of the k-ε model have been developed to address its

deficiencies

z RNG and Realizable

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Derived using renormalization group theory

z scale-elimination technique applied to Navier-Stokes equations

(sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes)

k equation is similar to standard k-ε model

Additional strain rate term in ε equation

V most significant difference between standard and RNG k-ε models

Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers

Differential-viscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers

V Boussinesq model used by default η

C µ ρη 3 1 −

C2*ε = C2ε + η0

ε-transport equation 1 + βη 3

ρ

Dε

=

∂

(α µ

ε eff

Dt ∂x j

) ∂ε ε

∂x j k

( 2 *

)

+ C1ε µt S − ρC2ε ε where η=S

ε

k

η0 , β are coefficients

µ eff = µ + µ t

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For large strain rates:

z where η > η0, ε is augmented, and therefore k and µt are reduced

Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included

Improved performance over std. k-ε model for

z rapidly strained flows

z flows with streamline curvature

Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-

viscosity model

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Standard k-ε model could not ensure:

z Positivity of normal stresses

u α2 ≥ 0

z Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses

(uα u β ) 2

≤ uα u β

2 2

z k equation is same; new formulation for µt and ε

z Cµ is variable

z ε equation is based on a transport equation for the mean-square vorticity

fluctuation

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How can normal stresses become negative?

Standard k-ε Boussinesq viscosity relation:

k 2 ∂U i ∂U j 2

− ρ ui u j = ρ C µ + - ρ k δ ij

ε ∂x j ∂xi 3

Normal component:

2 k 2 ∂U

u = k − 2Cµ

2

3 ε ∂x

Normal stress will be negative if:

k ∂U 1

> ≈ 3.7

ε ∂x 3Cµ

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Cµ is not a constant, but varies as a function of mean velocity field and

turbulence (0.09 in log-layer Sk/ε = 3.3, 0.05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6)

Cµ along

bottom-wall

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ε-transport equation

Dε ∂ µt ∂ε ρ ε2

ρ = µ + + C1 S ρ ε − C2

Dt ∂x j σε ∂x j k + νε

η

C1 = max 0.43, , η = Sk / ε , C2 = 1.0

η + 5

turbulent viscosity

k2 1

µ t = ρ Cµ , Cµ =

ε U *k

A0 + As

ε

where 1

A0 = 4.04, As = 6 cos φ , φ = cos −1 6W

3

( )

S ij S jk S ki ~

U ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij , W =

*

~ , S = S ij S ij

S

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Performance generally exceeds the standard k-ε model

Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included

Good for complex flows with large strain rates

z recirculation, rotation, separation, strong ∇p

Resolves the round-jet/plane jet anomaly

z predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets

Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-viscosity

model

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k-ω models are a popular alternative to k-ε

z ω~ε/k

z µt ∝ ρk / ω

Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to

inlet and far-field boundary values of ω

Can be used in near-wall region without modification

Latest version contains several refinements:

z reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions

z modifcation for the round-jet/plane-jet anomaly

z compressibility effects

z low-Re (transitional) effects

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The most well-known Wilcox k-ω model until recently was his 1988

model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” k-ω model)

Fluent v6 Standard k-ω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model

k

µt = α * ρ

ω

Dk ∂U i ∂ µt ∂k

ρ = τ ij − ρ β * f β * kω + µ +

Dt ∂x j ∂x j σk ∂x

j

Dω ω ∂U i ∂ µt ∂ω

ρ = α τ ij − ρ β fβ ω 2 + µ +

Dt k ∂x j ∂x j σω ∂x

j

Wilcox’ original k-ω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model, and can be

recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the

model constants

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Turbulent viscosity is computed from:

k

µt = α * ρ

ω

α 0* + Re T Rk βi 9

where α = α

, α 0 = 3 , βi =

* * *

∞

1 + Re T R k 125

ρk

Rk = 6 , Re T = , α ∞* = 1.0

ωµ

The dependency of α* upon ReT was designed to recover the correct

asymptotic values in the limiting cases. In particular, note that:

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Dk ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂k

ρ = τ ij − ρ β f β * kω +

*

µ +

Dt ∂x j 14243 ∂x j σ k ∂x j

123 Dissipatio n rate of k 14442444 3

production of k Diffusion of k

0 M t ≤ M t0

β * = β i* [1 + ζ * F (M t )] F (M t ) = 2

M t − M t20 M t > M t 0

4 15 + (Re T Rβ )

4

β i* = β ∞* , Rβ = 8 2k 1

1 + (Re T Rβ ) M t2 = 2 , M t 0 = , a = γRT

4

a 4

σ k = 2.0, ζ * = 1.5, β ∞* = 0.09

1 χk ≤ 0

1 ∂ k ∂ω

f β * = 1 + 680 χ k2 , χk = 3

1 + 400 χ 2 χ k > 0 144 ω ∂xj ∂xj

2443

k

cross- diffusion parameter

“Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via Mt term

The cross-diffusion parameter (χk ) is designed to improve free shear

flow predictions

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Dω ω ∂U i ∂ µt ∂ω

ρ = α τ ij − ρ β f βω 2 + µ +

Dt k ∂x j ∂x j σω ∂x

j

α ∞ α 0 + Re T Rω 13 1

α= , α∞ = , α 0 = , Rω = 2.95 , σ ω = 2.0

α 1 + Re T Rω

*

25 9

β i* * 1 + 70 χ ω Ω ij Ω jk S ki

β = β i 1 + ζ ∞ F (M t ), f β = , χω = , ζ *

= 1 .5

β i 1 + 80 χ ω (β ∞ω )

* 3 ∞

1 ∂U i ∂U j

, Ω ij = 1 ∂U i −

∂U j

S ij = +

2 ∂x j ∂xi

2 ∂ x j ∂ xi

anomaly

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“Transitional flow” option

z Corresponds to all terms involving ReT terms in the model

equations

z Deactivated by default

z Can benefit low-Re flows where the extent of the

transitional flow region is large

“Compressibility Effects” option

z Takes effects via F(Mt)

z Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation

4 ∂u k′ ∂u ′

ρ ε = ρ εs + ρ εd , ρ εd = ρ

3 ∂x k ∂x k

z Available with ideal-gas option only and is turned on by

default

z Improve high-Mach number free shear and boundary

layer flow predictions - reduces spreading rates

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“Shear-Flow Corrections” option

z Controls both cross-diffusion and vortex-stretching

terms - Activated by default

z Cross-diffusion term (in k-equation)

1 χk ≤ 0

1 ∂ k ∂ω

fβ* = 1 + 680 χ k2 , χk = 3

1 + 400 χ 2 χk > 0 ω ∂x ∂x

k

14424j43j

cross - diffusion parameter

shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows

z Vortex-stretching term

Designed to resolve the round/plane-jet anomaly

Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3-D flows but

vanishes for planar 2-D flows

1 + 70 χ ω Ω ij Ω jk S ki

fβ = , χω =

1 + 80 χ ω β ∞*ω

3

( )

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Many people, including Menter (1994), have noted that:

(BC) of ω, while k-ε model is not prone to such problem

• k-ω model has many good attributes and perform much better than k-ε

models for boundary layer flows

• Most two-equation models, including k-ε models, over-predict turbulent

stresses in the wake (velocity-defect) region, which leads to poor

performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure

gradient and separated flows

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The SST k-ω model consists of

z Zonal (blended) k-ω/k-ε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous

slide)

z Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what

is dictated by the structural similarity constant. (Bradshaw, 1967) -

addresses item 3 in the previous slide

Outer layer

k-ω model transformed

(wake and

from std. k-3ε model

outward)

k 2

ε=

Inner layer lε

Modified Wilcox k-ω model

(sublayer,

Wilcox’ original k-ω model

log-layer)

Wall

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The k-ω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox

original k-ω model with some constants modified

Dk ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂k

ρ = τ ij − β *kρω + µ +

Dt ∂x j ∂x j σ k1 ∂x

j

Dω γ 1 ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂ω

ρ = τ ij − β1 ρω 2 + µ +

Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j σ ω1 ∂x j

β 1 = 0.075 , σ k1 = 1.176 , σ ω 1 = 2.0

β * = 0.09 , γ 1 = β 1 β * − κ 2 ( β σ ),

*

ω1 κ = 0.41

a1 k

µt = ρ

max(a 1 ω , ΩF2 )

2 k 500ν

( )

F2 = tanh arg 22 , arg 2 = max

ω

, 2

0. 09 y y ω

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The k-ω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming

the standard k-ε equations via change-of-variable

Dk ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂k

ρ = τ ij − β *kρω + µ +

Dt ∂x j ∂x j σ k2 ∂x j

Dω γ 2 ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂ω

ρ = τ ij − β 2 ρω 2 +

µ +

Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j σ ω2 ∂x j

1 ∂k ∂ω

+ 2 ρσ ω 2

ω ∂x j ∂x j

β * = 0.09 , γ 2 = β 2 β * − κ 2 ( β σ ),

*

ω2 κ = 0.41

µt = ρ

ω

50 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005

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The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such

a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one

equation to another.

Dk Dk

(

F1 = tanh arg14 )

F1 ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + (1 − F1 ) ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ k 500ν 4 ρ σ ω 2 k

Dt inner Dt outer arg1 = min max * , 2 , 2

β ω y y ω CD y

φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ2 kω

1 ∂k ∂ω

where φ = β , σ k , σ ω , γ CDkω = max 2 ρσ ω 2 , 10 −20

ω ∂x j ∂x j

from std. k-3ε2 model F1 = 1 in the inner layer

k

ε=

lε F1 → 0 in the outler layer

Modified

Wilcox’ original ωωmodel

Wilcoxk-k- model

Wall

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The resulting blended equations are:

Dk ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂k

ρ = τ ij − β * k ρω + µ +

Dt ∂x j ∂x j

σ k ∂x j

Dω γ ∂U i ∂ µ t ∂ω

ρ = τ ij − β ρω 2 +

µ +

Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j σ ω ∂x j

1 ∂k ∂ω

+ 2 ρ (1 − F1 )σ ω 2

ω ∂x j ∂x j

φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ 2 , φ = β , σ k , σ ω ,γ

Wall

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Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers

(Bradshaw, 1967)

− u ′v′

τ ≡ − ρ u ′v′ = ρ a1 k ← = a1 (Bradshaw, 1967)

k

Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as:

∂U Pk

τ = µt = µ t Ω = ρ a1 k

∂y ε

z In many flow situations (e.g. adverse pressure gradient flows), production

of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (Pk >> ε), which leads to

predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural

similarity constant

z How can turbulent stress be limited? - A simple trick is to clip turbulent

viscosity such that:

µ t Ω ≤ ρ a1 k

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Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from:

a1 k k ak

µt = ρ = ρ min , 1

max(a 1ω , ΩF2 ) ω ΩF2

2 k 500ν

F2 = tanh (arg ) ,

2

arg 2 = max , 2

0.09ω y y ω

2

Ω ≡ 2Ω ij Ω ij (vorticity magnitude)

Remarks

z F2 is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall

and free shear layers

z The name SST (shear-stress transport) is a big word for this simple trick

z Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strain-rate magnitude could also

be used)

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SST k-ω model comes with:

z Transitional Flows option (Off by

default)

z Compressibility Effects option when

ideal-gas option is selected (On by

default)

The original SST k-ω model in the

literature does not have any of these

options

z These submodels are being borrowed

from Wilcox’ 1998 model - should be

used with caution

z Do not activate any options to recover the

original SST model

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Wall boundary conditions

z The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole near-wall option for k-ω

models. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the non-equilibrium

wall functions option is available for k-ω models in FLUENT 6

The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively

ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the wall-limiting

value (y->0) and the value in the log-layer

z The k-ω models can be used with either a fine near-wall mesh or a coarse

near-wall mesh

For other BCs (e.g., inlet, free-stream), the following relationship is used

internally, whenever possible, to convert to and from different turbulence

quantities:

ε = β *ω k , β * = 0.09

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Boussinesq: Rij = 2µtSij

z Is simple linear relationship sufficient?

Rij is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history

Rij changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes

z Rij is not strictly aligned with Sij for flows with:

sudden changes in mean strain rate

extra rates of strain (e.g., rapid dilatation, strong streamline

curvature)

rotating fluids

stress-induced secondary flows

Modifications to two-equation models cannot be generalized for

arbitrary flows

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Starting point is the exact transport equations for the

transport of Reynolds stresses, Rij

z six transport equations in 3d

Equations are obtained by Reynolds-averaging the product

of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.

z ui′NS (u j ) + u ′j NS (ui ) = 0

The resulting equations contain several terms that must be

modeled

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Reynolds Stress DR ij ∂J ijk

Transport Eqns. = Pij + Φ ij − ε ij + (incompressible flow w/o body

Dt ∂x k forces)

∂U j ∂Ui

Generation Pij ≡ ρ uiuk + u j uk (computed)

∂xk ∂xk

Pressure-Strain ∂ui ∂u j

Redistribution Φ ij ≡ − p

′ + (modeled)

∂x

j ∂xi

∂u i ∂u j

Dissipation ε ij ≡ 2 µ (related to ε)

∂x k ∂x k

Turbulent ∂

J ijk ≡ p′uiδ jk + p′u jδ ik + ρ ui u j uk − µ (ui u j ) (modeled)

Diffusion 1442443 1 424 3 ∂xk

142 43

Pressure/velocity Turbulent Molecular

fluctuations transport transport

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Dissipation Modeling

Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy

motions

z Large scale eddies affected by mean shear

z Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller

scales

The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually

lost

Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic

2

ε ij = δ ij ε

3

ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation

Compressibility and near-wall anisotropy effects can be accounted for

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Turbulent Diffusion

triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis

k ∂u i u j

∂

∂x k

( )

u i u j u k + (δ kj u i + δ ik u j ) − ν

p'

ρ

∂

∂x k

( )

ui u j

=

∂

∂x

C u u

s ε k l ∂xl

k

C µ k 2 ∂ ui u j

∂

Or even a simpler model =

σ ε ∂xk

∂xk

z Overall performance of models for these terms is generally

inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple

products

z DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible

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Pressure-Strain Modeling

∂ui ∂u j

Pressure-strain term of same order as production Φij ≡ − p′ +

∂x ∂x

Pressure-strain term acts to drive turbulence towards j i

Decomposed into parts Φij = Φij,1 + Φij,2 + Φij, w

mean

“Slow” Part “Rapid Part”

gradient

1 ∂ 2 p′ ∂u j ∂ui ∂u j 1 ∂ 2 p′ ∂ui ∂U j

= −u i + = −2

ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi

∂U j ∂U i 2 ∂U l

Φ ij = −c1bij + c 2 u i u l + u j ul − u l u m δ ij

∂xl ∂xl 3 ∂x m

ε 2

where bij ≡ ui u j − k δ ij

k 3

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Wall-reflection effect

z contains explicit distance from wall

z damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall

z enhances stresses parallel to wall

SSG (Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model

z Expands the basic LRR model to include non-linear (quadratic) terms

z Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows

plane strain, rotating plane shear, axisymmetric expansion/contraction

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Characteristics of RSM

Effects of curvature, swirl, and rotation are directly accounted for in

the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.

z When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow,

consider RSM

More cpu resources (vs. k-ε models) is needed

z 50-60% more cpu time per iteration and 15-20% additional memory

Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow

z number of iterations required for convergence may increase

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Heat Transfer

The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the

energy equation: uiθ

z Analogous to the Reynolds stresses, this is termed the turbulent heat flux

It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux, but this is not

common practice

Instead, a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the

turbulent viscosity

V The constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number

V Generally assumed that Prt ~ 0.85-0.9

Applicable to other scalar transport equations

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