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The purpose of this document is to bring kind attention about the scope of ambiguity in the

following two questions.

Questions,

1. Which of the following was a very important seaport in the kakatiya kingdom?
a. Kakinada
b. Motupalli
c. Masulipatnam
d. Nelluru

[Both motupalli and masulipatnam were important ports according to the sources given below]

---------- x -----------------

2. With reference to the difference between the culture of Rigvedic Aryans and Indus valley
people, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Rigvedic aryans used the coat of mail and helmet in warfare whereas the people of IVC did not
leave any evidence of using them - true according to everyone.
2. Rigvedic aryans knew gold, silver and copper whereas Indus valley people knew only copper and
iron - False according to everyone.
3. Rigvedic aryans had domesticated the horse whereas there is no evidence of IVC people
having been aware of this animal - Ambiguous according to below evidences.

a. only 1
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1,2 and 3

[Statement 1 True according to all the standard sources.]


[Statement 2 False according to all the standard sources because IVC people were not aware of
iron and were aware of gold not just copper.]
[Statement 3 Ambiguous Some sources mention IVC people being aware of the horse and
some sources mention against it.]

Evidence for the ambiguity in horse theory.

Links and screeshots below,

1. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/7817/10/10_chapter 3.pdf from page 43.


2. http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/horse-debate
3. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=XgFu-
9UF0TYC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq="indus+valley+civilization"+"horse"&amp
;source=bl&ots=dI3zI3j-Y0&sig=jmT1qoIR06B8bCV-
CKbya2CBOSU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi1vImB4MzUAhVMqY8KHew4A
Ak4ChDoAQg3MAQ#v=onepage&q="indus valley civilization" "horse"&f=false

4.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=-
Grpz1tmcSMC&pg=PA171&lpg=PA171&dq="indus+valley+civilization"+"horse"
&source=bl&ots=DsrwsAPx6o&sig=1c5aNWzVSo7s2uddmOt_IG178BY&hl=
en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi1vImB4MzUAhVMqY8KHew4AAk4ChDoAQg_MAY#v=o
nepage&q="indus valley civilization" "horse"&f=false
from page 170

5. https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=uRMGDmdE9FkC&pg=PA172&lpg=PA172&dq="indus+valley+civilization"+"h
orse"&source=bl&ots=MifQ7Nikhm&sig=LYCJrsNMMg96rITXmOxvut-
pPuc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi1vImB4MzUAhVMqY8KHew4AAk4ChDoA
QhPMAk#v=onepage&q="indus valley civilization" "horse"&f=false from page 172

6.http://thediplomat.com/2016/08/when-history-gets-political-indias-grand-aryan-debate-and-the-
indus-valley-civilization/ - about why this is more of a political debate than a proper historical
evidence based debate.
7. Evidence from which, probably this question was compiled.

Evidence for masulipatnam being the important port of kakatiya dynasty.

1.http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/1631/7/07_chapter 1.pdf

2. https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=7xeqhnYtrKcC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq="kakatiya"+"masulipatnam"+"port"&
amp;source=bl&ots=ufDSWi5Y4j&sig=EutCHbsjuJelekzIuFX6s7kIfZg&hl=en&am
p;sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT_snJ28zUAhXJPo8KHRWYCyQQ6AEIUzAI#v=onepage&q=
"kakatiya" "masulipatnam" "port"&f=false

3. http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/ap-govt-puts-machilipatnam-port-
project-on-front-burner-115090500746_1.html
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakatiya_dynasty

Evidence for Motupalli being the imporant port of Kakatiya dynasty.

1. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=riUmBAAAQBAJ&pg=SL2-PA72&lpg=SL2-
PA72&dq=kakatiya+kingdom+"motupalli"&source=bl&ots=rDB9gn5YMM&si
g=i4S2pgcGa_i1Ycbebk3rG6yc5E8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie_4CL28zUAh
UFqo8KHaA-Bnw4FBDoAQgjMAE#v=onepage&q=kakatiya kingdom

2. https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=Wk4_ICH_g1EC&pg=PA417&lpg=PA417&dq=kakatiya+kingdom+"motupalli"
&source=bl&ots=4-
A6aIuQ7p&sig=vJx1HDKozazxhFbCOFiklZazh_U&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahU
KEwjh6Nry2szUAhWLv48KHSlUC-E4ChDoAQgnMAE#v=onepage&q=kakatiya kingdom
"motupalli"&f=false
3. http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Underwater/Web_Renovation/e-
Library/India/M_E_34__2__2009-Ports_Orissa___Andhra.pdf