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Vol. 28, No.



ing. Voicea Iulian, dr. ing. Vldu Valentin, ing. Matache Mihai,
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

Abstract. Electro-conductivity of soil has an important Rezumat. Electro-conductivitatea solului are un rol important n
role in improving the culture techniques of precision perfecionarea tehnicilor de cultur n agricultura de precizie, n
agriculture, in order to achieve maximum production vederea obinerii unor producii maxime de pe orice suprafa. n
from any surface. In the last 20 years were sought and ultimii 20 de ani s-au cutat i identificat noi tehnici i metode
identified new techniques and methods to increase pentru creterea productivitii, obinerea unor producii ct mai
productivity, obtain higher yields and on any surface, in ridicate de pe orice suprafa, n contextul creterii populaiei i a
the context of population growth and demand for food cererii de hran de la an la an, concomitent cu reducerea
from year to year, while reducing agricultural areas suprafeelor agricole, multe dintre acestea bazndu-se pe
many of them based on the use of electro-conductivity. utilizarea electro-conductivitii.

Keywords: soil, electro-conductivity, precision agriculture Cuvinte cheie: sol, electro-conductivitate, agricultur de precizie


Electrical conductibility (EC) in soil occurs in the Conductibilitatea electric (CE) n sol se produce n
layer of water that fills the space between soil particles [1, stratul de ap care umple spaiul dintre particulele de sol
2, 7]. [1, 2, 7].
Conductibilitatea Electrical (EC) is influenced by soil Conductibilitatea electric (CE) este influenat de
properties dominated namely: urmtoarele proprieti dominate ale solului si anume:
Mechanical properties of soil: Proprietile mecanice ale solului:
- Texture; - textura;
- Structure; - structura;
- Characterization and classification of grain - caracterizarea i clasificarea fraciunilor
factions; granulometrice;
- Consistency and plasticity; - consistena i plasticitatea;
- Compressibility. - compresibilitatea.
Physical properties of soil: Proprietile fizice ale solului:
- Density and porosity; - densitatea i porozitatea;
- Compaction; - gradul de tasare;
- Humidity; - umiditatea;
- Soil temperature. - temperatura solului.
Chemical properties of soil: Proprietile chimice ale solului:
- Chemical composition of soil solution; - compoziia chimic a soluiei solului;
- Coloizii soil; - coloizii solului;
- Adsorption capacity (cationic exchange - capacitatea de adsorbie (capacitatea de schimb
capacity); cationic);
- Reaction (pH) soil: current and potential acidity; - reacia (pH-ul) solului: aciditatea actual i potenial;
- The ability of soil plugging. - capacitatea de tamponare a solului.


The soil as a physical Solul ca sistem fizic
Physically, soil can be defined as a heterogeneous, Din punct de vedere fizic, solul se poate defini ca fiind un
polyphase, dispersed, and porous structure. sistem heterogen, polifazic, dispers, structurat i poros.
- is a heterogeneous system because some of the - este un sistem heterogen deoarece unele dintre
features in the mass range of soil and even in the caracteristici variaz n masa solului i chiar n
one of its components. cuprinsul uneia dintre componentele lui.
- is a polyphase system, the composition of being - este un sistem polifazic, n alctuirea lui fiind reprezentate
represented three main phases: solid, liquid and cele trei faze principale: solid, lichid i gazoas.
gas. Variabilitatea caracteristicilor amintite pe profil, n
Variability characteristics mentioned in profile, in acord cu factorii i procesele pedogenetice, cu orizonturile
agreement with the factors and processes pedogenetice i straturile componente ale profilului, este foarte
with layers and horizons of the profile is very pronounced accentuat n unele soluri, ca de exemplu n luvisoluri
in some soils, for example luvisoluri (podzolice soil) or in (soluri podzolice) sau n unele soluri aluviale aa cum se
some soils aluviale as can be seen from Figure 1 where poate observa din figura 1 unde ne sunt prezentate
we are the main types of land in Romania, it often has a principalele tipuri de sol din Romnia, acestea avnd o
decisive influence on the physical progress of schemes in influen adesea hotrtoare asupra modului de
the ground on its productive capacity and ultimately the desfurare a regimurilor fizice n sol, asupra capacitii
influence of soil physical factors in crop plant growth [5]. lui productive i n final asupra influenei factorilor fizici din
sol din creterea plantelor de cultur [5].


Fig. 1 - Soil map (conf / FAO UNESCO) / Harta solurilor (conf. FAO/UNESCO)

Fig. 2 - Soil Map of Romania / Harta solurilor din Romnia scara 1:1.000.000

Textura and lair Textura i structura solului

Composition of soil solid phase is quite complex in Alctuirea fazei solide a solului este destul de
terms of physical, chemical and mineralogical. Aspects complex din punct de vedere fizic, chimic i mineralogic.
particularly interested in physical size of elementary Sub aspect fizic intereseaz ndeosebi mrimea particulelor
particles of soil. By elementary particle (primary particle) elementare ale solului. Prin particul elementar (particul
is a solid mineral particle silicatic can not be divided, in primar) se nelege o particul solid mineral silicatic care
other smaller particles by physical or chemical nu poate fi divizat, n alte particule mai mici prin tratamente
treatments simple, but the crunch and dispersion. fizice sau chimice simple, ci numai prin sfrmare i dispersie.
Classification of soil texture shown in Figure 3 is Clasificarea textural a solurilor prezentata n figura
essential to know the characteristics of their physical, 3 este esenial pentru cunoaterea nsuirilor lor fizice,
agronomic, ameliorative, etc. agronomice, ameliorative, etc.

Fig. 3 - Map classes of soil texture in Romania /

Harta claselor de textura a solului din Romnia (scara 1:1.000.000)


In classification morfogenetic formalized in the vast n clasificarea morfogenetic oficializat n prezent n

majority of Romania genetic soil types can have any, or Romnia marea majoritate a tipurilor genetice de sol pot avea
almost any texture depending on the litologice were orice, sau aproape orice textur n funcie de condiiile litologice
formed (the rock solification). Exceptions are by definition n care s-au format (roca de solificare). Excepie fac prin definiie
particular vertisoils (clay) and psamosolurile (sandy or ndeosebi vertisolurile (argiloase) i psamosolurile (nisipoase sau
sandy-clayey). Criterion texture occurs in the family and nisipo-lutoase). Criteriul textur intervine la nivelul familiei i
species of soil, after class, type, subtype and variety, but speciei de sol, dup clas, tip, subtip i varietate, dar se
believes that his place is somewhat underestimated. apreciaz c locul lui este n oarecare msur subestimat.

Characterization and classification of grain factions Caracterizarea i clasificarea fraciunilor granulometrice

Until now there is a definition of factions grain, ie a Pn n prezent nu exist un sistem de definire a fraciunilor
scale of elementary particle size of the ground, supported granulometrice, adic o scar de dimensiuni ale particulelor
unanimously. This is explained by historical reasons and elementare de sol, unanim acceptat. Aceasta se explic prin
partly due to the specific soil in those areas. Different motive istorice i n parte determinate de specificul solurilor din zonele
grain size scales are based on arguments related to the respective. Diferitele scri granulometrice au la baz argumente
amendment to certain steps of size of ownership of land legate de modificarea la anumite trepte de dimensiuni a unor
and some methodological considerations of order. nsuiri ale solului, precum i unele considerente de ordin metodologic.
Clay fraction is practically the only grain that - in Argila este practic singura fraciune granulometric
addition to the organic soil - shows such as acquiring care - pe lng partea organic a solului - prezint astfel
water absorption (water retention property and de nsuiri cum este absorbia apei (reinerea apei imobile
inaccessible plant) and cationic change, adhesion, i inaccesibil plantelor) i a cationilor schimbabili, adeziunea,
plasticity, and gonflarea contraction, the heat of wetting. plasticitatea, contracia i gonflarea, cldura de umezire.
At the same time it presents, in a position much higher n acelai timp, ea prezint, n msur mult mai mare
than other grain size fractions, some ownership, such as dect celelalte fraciuni granulometrice, unele nsuiri,
water retention, more or less mobile, cohesion, the ability precum reinerea apei, mai mult sau mai puin mobile,
of structural elements of training, by aggregating the coeziunea, capacitatea de formare a elementelor structurale,
elementary particles of soil. Clay also confers reduced prin agregarea particulelor elementare ale solului.
permeability and aeration. Totodat argila confer permeabilitate i aerare redus.

Consistency and plasticity Consistena i plasticitatea

At different moisture conditions and the strength of La diferite stri de umiditate modul i tria de
the relationship between solid particles differ, and legtur dintre particulele solide difer, i n consecin
therefore differ in overall behavior of the soil. These difer comportarea n ansamblu a solului. Aceste
features define the consistency of soil. Through the range caracteristici definesc consistena solului. Parcurgnd
of moisture possible, from the smallest to the largest, can gama de umiditi posibile, de la cele mai mici la cele mai
separate multiple forms of consistency: hard, friable, mari, se pot separa mai multe forme de consisten: tare,
plastic neadeziv, plastic adhesive, flow. Forms of friabil, plastic neadeziv, plastic adeziv, de curgere.
consistency are separated by some characteristic values Formele de consisten sunt separate de anumite valori
of moisture, called consistency limits: the limit of caracteristice ale umiditii, numite limite de consisten:
contraction, the limit of kneading (or lower limit of limita de contracie, limita de frmntare (sau limita
plasticity), the limit of adhesion, flow limit (or upper limit of inferioar de plasticitate), limita de adeziune, limita de
plasticity). curgere (sau limita superioar de plasticitate).
Between states and the limits of consistency, Dintre strile i limitele de consisten, atenie deosebit s-
attention to the consistency of plastic and the two limits a acordat consistenei plastice i celor dou limite (de frmntare
(for kneading and flow) which delimit. The difference si de curgere) care o delimiteaz. Diferena dintre aceste dou
between these two limits, so the size range of moisture limite, deci mrimea intervalului de umiditate de-a lungul cruia
along the soil texture is plastic, is called plasticity index. solul are consisten plastic, se numete indice de plasticitate.
Determining the limits of consistency is, by definition, Limitele de consisten determinndu-se, prin definiie,
on samples of soil amended with the settlement, to pe probe de sol cu aezare modificat, pentru a nelege comportarea
understand behavior in field soil at different forms of n cmp a solului, la diferite forme de consisten este util
consistency is useful to compare the limits of consistency compararea limitelor de consisten cu unii indici hidrofizici.
with some indices hydro. Particularly interested in the limit Intereseaz n mod deosebit limita de frmntare la care
of unrest in which the ground in general presenting solul prezint n genere consisten optim. Ea se situeaz,
optimal consistency. It is most often near the ceiling of cel mai adesea, aproape de plafonul minim al umiditii,
minimum humidity, except soil nisipo-luto-lutoase and cu excepia solurilor nisipo-lutoase i luto-nisipoase tasate, n
sandy tasate, which lies just above the field capacity. care se situeaz chiar deasupra capacitii din cmp.

Compresibilitatea Compresibilitatea
In geotechnics is widely used notion of n geotehnic se utilizeaz pe scar larg noiunea de
compresibilitate or relationship task - porosity. In order to compresibilitate, sau relaia sarcin - porozitate. n vederea
determine this relationship, the sample of soil is subject to determinrii acestei relaii, proba de sol este supus n
special devices progressive tasks, recorded in the same aparate speciale unor sarcini progresive, nregistrndu-se n
change (decrease) sample height as a result of tasrii, the paralel modificarea (descreterea) nlimii probei, ca urmare
task of determining which test to give ground, it breaks as a tasrii, determinndu-se sarcina la care proba de sol
well and internal friction and other mechanical cedeaz, se rupe, precum i frecarea intern i ali parametri
parameters. There are several types of such mecanici. Exist mai multe tipuri de astfel de determinri: testul de
determinations: compresibilitate test on samples compresibilitate pe probe neprotejate, testul de compresibilitate
unprotected test compresibilitate endometrium in the n endometru pe probe protejate i testul triaxial, n care


probe and protected triaxial test, the sample is subjected proba este supus n acelai timp unei sarcini verticale i
while a vertical loads and loads of side around them. unei sarcini laterale, de jur mprejurul ei.
The degree of compact: Gradul de compactitate:
GC = x 100 GC = x 100
DA max DA max
GC - the compaction degree [%]; GC - este gradul de compactitate [%]
YES - the apparent density of soil at a time [g/cm3]; DA - densitatea aparent a solului la un moment dat [g/cm ];
DA max - the maximum apparent density of soil, DA max - densitatea aparent maxim a solului respectiv
3 3
respectively [g/cm ]. [g/cm ]
This index provides good opportunities to compare Acest indice ofer bune posibiliti de comparare a
the apparent densities of different soils. valorilor densitii aparente a diferitelor soluri.


The density and porosity Densitatea i porozitatea
By density means the ratio of the mass and volume of a Prin densitate, se nelege raportul dintre masa i
body, ie the mass of a unit volume: volumul unui corp, adic masa unei uniti de volum:
D= D=
Vs Vs
where: D - density [g/cm3]; unde: D - densitatea [g/cm ];
M - mass of dry soil [g]; M - masa solului uscat [g];
Vs - volume of soil solid particles [cm3]. Vs - volumul particulelor solide ale solului [cm ].
In practice may be accepted for upper horizons of n practic se pot accepta pentru orizonturile superioare ale
3 3
most values of density 2.652.68 g/cm , and for the lower majoritii solurilor, valori ale densitii de 2,652,68 g/cm , iar
3 3
horizons, valuessoils, of 2.702.72 g/cm . pentru orizonturile inferioare, valori de 2,702,72 g/cm .
It follows that the upper horizons of soils of meadows Rezult c n orizonturile superioare ale unor soluri de
in wetlands, soil emissions of strong organic fertilized or of pajiti din zonele umede, ale solurilor de ser puternic
lcoviti, the density values 2.502.60 g/cm , while peat fertilizate organic, sau ale unor lcoviti, valorile densitii pot
soils they fall below these limits, may be up to 1.802.00 fi de 2,502,60 g/cm , n timp ce n solurile turboase ele scad
g/ extreme cases. sub aceste limite, n cazuri extreme pn la 1,802,00 g/cm .
Density values occur in the calculation of total Valorile densitii intervin n calculul porozitii totale i al
porosity and other indicators of status of settlement land. altor indicatori ai strii de aezare a solului.
Status of settlement of solid particles of soil can be Starea de aezare a particulelor solide ale solului se
expressed not only by the apparent density or specific poate exprima nu numai prin densitatea aparent sau
volume, defined above, but also by the total porosity is the volumul specific, definite anterior, ci i prin porozitatea
total volume of pores expressed as a percentage of the total care este volumul total al porilor exprimat n
volume of soil: procente din unitatea de volum al solului:
Vp Vp Vp Vp
PT = x 100 = PT = x 100 =
Vt Vs + V p Vt Vs + V p
where: PT - Total porosity [% v / v]; unde: PT - porozitatea total [% v/v];
3 3
Vt - total volume of soil [cm ]; Vt - volumul total al solului [cm ];
3 3
Vs - volume of the solid soil [cm ]; Vs - volumul prii solide a solului [cm ];
3 3
Vp - pore volume [cm ]. Vp - volumul porilor [cm ]
Total porosity values depend on the same factors Valorile porozitii totale depind de aceeai factori care
that determine the values of density and apparent density. determin i valorile densitii i ale densitii aparente. n
In most soil minerals spread, where the density is very solurile minerale cele mai rspndite, unde densitatea este
little variable, total porosity will depend only on the foarte puin variabil, porozitatea total va depinde numai
apparent density. de densitatea aparent.

Degree of settling Gradul de tasare

The degree of tasare is: Gradul de tasare este:
GT = x 100 GT = x 100
where: GT - is the tasare [% v / v]; unde: GT - este gradul de tasare [% v/v];
PMN - required minimum porosity [% v / v]; PMN - porozitatea minim necesar [% v/v];
PMN = 45 + 0.163 A PMN = 45 + 0,163 A
PT - Total porosity [% v / v] PT - porozitatea total [% v/v]
A - clay content under 0.002 mm [% g / g]. A - coninutul de argil sub 0,002 mm [% g/g].

Soil Moisture Umiditatea solului

The simplest information on ground water is Cea mai simpl informaie asupra apei solului se
obtained knowing the amount of water it. The water or obine cunoscnd cantitatea de ap a acestuia. Coninutul
moisture mass, gravimetric or, expressed as a de ap sau umiditatea masic, sau gravimetric, se
percentage of soil dry mass: exprim sub form de procente din masa solului uscat:
a a
wg = x 100 wg = x 100
s s
where: WG - mass humidity [% g / g]; unde: wg - umiditatea masic [% g/g];
a - the quantity of water in soil sample analyzed [g]; a - cantitatea de ap din proba de sol analizat [g];


s - the amount of dry soil sample analyzed [g]. s cantitatea de sol uscat din proba analizat [g].

Soil temperature Temperatura solului

Temperature plays an important role in the Temperatura are un rol important n procesul de
solificare and ensure normal living conditions for plants solificare i asigurarea condiiilor normale de via pentru
and soil microorganisms. It influences biochemical plante i microorganismele din sol. Ea influeneaz
processes, altering the intensity of mineral and organic procesele biochimice, intensitatea de alterare a materiei
matter, seed germination, plant growth and minerale i organice, germinaia seminelor, creterea i
development. Characterize the temperature of heating dezvoltarea plantelor. Temperatura caracterizeaz starea
or cooling of the soil, resulting in the amount of calories de nclzire sau rcire a solului, rezultant a cuantumului
from different sources and losses on different paths. de calorii primite din diferite surse i pierdute pe diferite ci.
Soil temperature depends on a number of external Temperatura solului depinde de o serie de factori
factors, and thermal properties of soil: the ability to externi, dar i de proprietile termice ale solului:
absorb solar radiation, specific heat and thermal capacitatea de absorbie a radiaiilor solare, cldura
conductivity of the soil. specific i conductivitatea termic a solului.


Chemical composition of soil solution Compoziia chimic a soluiei solului
Composition of soil solution depends on the quantity Compoziia soluiei solului depinde de cantitatea i
and quality of atmospheric precipitation, the composition of calitatea precipitaiilor atmosferice, de compoziia fazei
the soil solid phase, the quantitative and qualitative solide a solului, de alctuirea cantitativ i calitativ a
composition of the material layer of vegetable biocenozelor materialului stratului vegetal al biocenozelor, de activitatea
of vital activity of microorganisms and mezofaunei. vital a mezofaunei i a microorganismelor.
Soil solution composition undergoes changes due to Compoziia soluiei solului sufer permanent modificri
ongoing activity higher plants, the "removal" by the roots datorit activitii plantelor superioare, prin, scoaterea" de ctre
of these compounds, and vice versa, the penetration of rdcinile acestora a unor compui, i invers, prin ptrunderea unor
substances through the secretion of plant roots, etc. substane, prin secreii ale rdcinilor plantelor etc.
Mineral substances, organic and organo-mineral Substanele minerale, organice i organo-minerale
composition in which the liquid phase of soil can be in the care intr n compoziia fazei lichide a solului se pot
form of combinations soluble (dissolved) or colloidal prezenta sub form de combinaii solubile (dizolvate) sau
combinations. combinaii coloidale.

Soil colloids Coloizii solului

Found in soil mineral colloids, organic and organo- n sol se gsesc coloizi minerali, organici i organo-
mineral, whose composition depends on the rock minerali, a cror compoziie depinde de caracterul rocilor
formation and the type of solificare. On the composition de formare i de tipul de solificare. La baza alctuirii
colloids, colloidal micelele stay. coloizilor, stau micelele coloidale.
A colloidal micel consists of core, represented by O micel coloidal este alctuit din nucleu,
complex combinations, amorphous or crystalline, with reprezentat prin combinaii complexe, amorfe sau
different chemical composition (Figure 4). cristaline, cu compoziie chimic diferit (figura 4).

Fig. 4 - Composition micelles colloidal / Alctuirea micelei coloidale

At the core is a layer of ions held stable layer called La suprafaa nucleului se gsete un strat de ioni
a determinant of potential, still follows a double layer of reinui stabil, denumit strat determinant de potenial; n
ions compensator - a layer property, with strongly held continuare, urmeaz un dublu strat de ioni compensatori -
ions by ions of the layer determining the potential and is un strat imobil", cu ioni reinui puternic de ctre ionii din
still a layer of ions more dispersed, called the diffuse layer stratul determinant de potenial, iar n continuare urmeaz
[5]. un strat de ioni mai dispersai, numit strat difuz [5].
Adsorption capacity Capacitatea de adsorbie
Given the state of dispersion of its components and Datorit strii de dispersie a componenilor lui i n
in particular those of colloidal nature, the land is owned to special a celor de natur coloidal, solul are proprietatea
adsorb various substances in the state of molecular de a adsorbi diferite substane aflate n stare de dispersie
dispersion (molecular adsorption) and ionic (cationic or molecular (adsorbie molecular) i ionic(cationic sau
anionic, called adsorption Caton and anionic). anionic, numite adsorbie catonic i respectiv anionic).
Reaction (pH) soil Reacia (pH-ul) solului
The soil contains the state of dispersion ions, Soluia solului conine n stare de dispersie ioni,
molecules, colloidal substances which are in very different molecule, substane coloidale, care se gsesc n proporii
proportions depending on various factors acting on the foarte diferite n funcie de diferii factori care acioneaz
formation and evolution of soils. n formarea i evoluia solurilor.
Soil reaction is determined by the ratio of Reacia solului este determinat de raportul dintre

+ - + -
concentration of H ions and OH , when the proportion of concentraia ionilor de H i OH , i anume, cnd proporia
+ - +
H ions is higher reaction is acid, and when prevailing OH ionilor de H este mai mare reacia este acid, iar cnd
ions, the reaction is alkaline. predomin ionii de OH , reacia este alcalin.
+ - + -
If H ions and OH ions are in equal proportions, the Dac ionii de H i ionii de OH sunt n proporii egale,
reaction is neutral. Soil reaction is influenced by several reacia este neutr. Reacia solului este influenat de o serie
factors: the chemical and mineralogical composition of the de factori: compoziia chimic i mineralogic a prii
mineral soil, the presence of soluble salts, the nature and minerale a solului; prezena srurilor solubile; coninutul i
content of organic substances that are found in soil, soil natura substanelor organice care se gsesc n sol;
moisture, the activity of soil organisms, etc. umiditatea solului; activitatea organismelor din sol etc.
A role, particularly important is the reaction of soil Un rol, deosebit de important asupra reaciei solului l
salts have, which moved from the soil solid phase in au srurile, care trecnd din faza solid a solului n soluie
solution exert a significant influence on the soil reaction, exercit o influen important asupra caracterului reaciei
and ultimately, its fertility. In soil, the most widespread solului, i, n ultim instan, asupra fertilitii acestuia. n sol, cel
mineral acid is carbonic acid, which can cause the soil pH mai rspndit acid mineral este acidul carbonic, care poate
values between 3.94.7, depending on thermal conditions, determina un pH al solului cu valori ntre 3,94,7, n funcie de
biological activity of soil, etc. condiiile termice, de activitatea biologic din sol etc.
If the soils and rocks are present training sulphides Dac n soluri i n rocile de formare sunt prezente
by oxidation thereof can form sulfuric acid, which can lead sulfuri, prin oxidarea acestora se poate forma acid sulfuric, ceea
to a strong acidification of soils. ce poate duce la o puternic acidifiere a solurilor.
Strong acidification of soils and produce unsaturated Acidifierea puternic a solurilor produc i acizii humici
fatty humici the cation, respectively, fulvici acids can nesaturai cu cationi, respectiv cu, acizii fulvici pot determina
cause a pH value of 3-3,5 (extremely acid) by the un pH cu valori de 3-3,5 (extrem acid), prin descompunerea
decomposition of organic remains from the forest. Soil resturilor organice din zona de pdure. Reacia solului este
reaction is influenced by the activity of fungi and bacteria, influenat i de activitatea ciupercilor i bacteriilor, de gradul
the degree of decomposition of organic remains, de descompunere a resturilor organice, de secreiile
secretions of plant roots or by soil insects, acids may rdcinilor plantelor sau de ctre insectele din sol, putnd
appear free, organic (oxalic, citric and others). In a aprea acizi liberi, organici (oxalic, citric i alii). n sol se
different soil acidity and a current potential. deosebete o aciditate actual i una potenial.

a) Actual acidity (pH soil) a) Aciditatea actual (pH-ul solului)

+ +
Is given by the concentration of H ions which are at Este dat de concentraia ionilor de H ce se afl la un
a moment in the soil solution. Distilled water, in relation to moment dat n soluia solului. Apa distilat, n raport cu care se
which determines the acidity of soil has a neutral reaction, stabilete aciditatea solului, are o reacie neutr, raportul
+ - + -
the activity of H ions and OH are equal and expressed activitii ionilor H i OH fiind egal i exprimat prin reacia
by the reaction [9]: [9]:
+ - -7 -7 -14 + - -7 -7 -14
(H ) (OH ) = k.H2O = 10 10 = 10 (H ) (OH ) = k.H2O = 10 10 = 10
Therefore the pH (defined as the logarithm of Prin urmare pH-ul, (definit ca fiind logaritmul cu semn
+ +
concentration changed the sign of H ions in soil solution) schimbat al concentraiei ionilor de H din soluia solului), poate
could, in theory, between 1 and 14. When pH value is avea, teoretic, valori cuprinse ntre 1 i 14. Cnd valoarea pH
equal to 7 the reaction is neutral, it is <7 is acid reaction, if este egal cu 7 reacia este neutr, cnd este < 7 reacia este
pH > 7 is alkaline reaction. acid, dac pH > 7 reacia este alcalin.
If the soil contains a basic compounds, the reaction Dac solul conine compui cu caracter basic,
is alkaline, such as soil containing alkaline salts which reacia sa este alcalin, exemplu fiind solurile care conin
hidrolizeaz: CaCO3, MgCO3 and Na2CO3. sruri ce hidrolizeaz alcalin: CaCO3, MgCO3 i Na2CO3.
b) Potential soil acidity b) Aciditatea potenial a solului
Is determined by hydrogen ions absorbed on Este determinat de ionii de hidrogen absorbii la
colloidal complex through interaction with salts in solution, complexul coloidal, prin interaciunea cu srurile din
soil manifestndu is a weak acid. Depending on the soluie, solul manifestndu-se ca un acid slab. n funcie
solution that deals with the sample for the determination of de soluia cu care se trateaz proba de sol pentru dozarea
soil acidity are two different forms of acidity potential: aciditii, se deosebesc dou forme de aciditate
exchange hidrolitic. potenial: de schimb i hidrolitic.
Exchange acidity is obtained in the treatment of soil Aciditatea de schimb se obine la tratarea probei de
sample with a jump neutral solution (eg, KCI 1N) and the sol cu soluia unei sri neutre (de exemplu, KCI 1N), iar
resulting acidity hidrolitic when soil sample is treated with aciditatea hidrolitic rezult cnd proba de sol se trateaz
a solution that jumps hidrolizeaz alkaline (eg CH COONa cu soluia unei sri ce hidrolizeaz alcalin (de exemplu,
+ +
1N). Acidity is expressed in m.eq. H per 100 g dry soil at CH3COONa 1N). Aciditatea se exprim n m.eq. de H la
105C. 100 g sol uscat la 105C.
Acidity is the exchange of H ions in the solution Aciditatea de schimb este dat de ionii de H care
passing through treating the soil with a solution of a trec n soluie prin tratarea solului cu o soluie normal a
normal jump neutral (KCI, NaCl, CaCI2): unei sri neutre (KCI, NaCI, CaCI2):
Complex colloidal H+KCl Complex colloidal K+HCl Complex coloidal H+KCl Complex coloidal K+HCl
Acidity hidrolitic outlined by treating the soil with a Aciditatea hidrolitic se evideniaz prin tratarea solului
solution of a normal jump that hidrolizeaz alkaline: cu o soluie normal a unei sri ce hidrolizeaz alcalin:
+ +
Complex colloidal H +2NaCH3COOComplex colloidal Complex coloidal H +2NaCH3COOComplex coloidal
+ +
Soils with pH <8.3 were hidrolitic acidity and the pH Solurile cu pH <8,3 au aciditate hidrolitic iar cele cu pH
<6 presents and exchange acidity. Soil pH between 6 and < 6 prezint i aciditate de schimb. Solurile cu pH ntre 6 i 8,3
8.3 have only hidrolitic acidity. If a soil acidity presents au numai aciditate hidrolitic. Dac un sol prezint i aciditate
hidrolitic and exchange acidity (pH <6), value premium is hidrolitic i aciditate de schimb (pH < 6), valoric, prima este
always higher. ntotdeauna mai mare.

The soil reaction Importana reaciei solului

Soil reaction is a very important index for Reacia solurilor reprezint un indice foarte important
characterizing them. After reaction the size of the soil pH pentru caracterizarea acestora. Dup mrimea valorii pH
value is defined as in Table 1. reacia solurilor se definete ca n tabelul 1.

Table 1 / Tabelul 1
Average reaction after the soil pH / Aprecierea reaciei solurilor dup valorile pH
pH Average reaction / Aprecierea reaciei
3,50 Extremely acid / Extrem de acid
3,6 4,30 Very strong acid / Foarte puternic acid
4,31 5,00 Strong acid / Puternic acid
5,01 5,40
Moderate acid / Moderat acid
5,41 5,80
5,81 6,40
Weak acid / Slab acid
6,41 6,80
6,81 7,20 Neutral / Neutr
7,21 7,80
Weak Alkaline / Slab alcalin
7,81 8,40
8,41 9,00 Moderated alkaline / Moderat alcalin
9,01 9,40 Strong alkaline / Puternic alcalin
9,41 10,00 Very strongly alkaline / Foarte puternic alcalin
10,10 Extremely Alkaline / Extrem de alcalin

Cultivated plants prefer in their great majority, a Plantele cultivate prefer, n mare lor majoritate, o
neutral reaction, weak acid or weak alkaline. Some bear reacie neutr, slab acid sau slab alcalin. Unele specii
species, or even prefer acidic soil (rye, oats, potatoes, suport sau chiar prefer solurile acide (secar, ovz, cartof,
clover). Strong alkaline reaction is not supported by most trifoi). Reacia puternic alcalin nu este suportat de
species of plants. Knowing the soil reaction is necessary majoritatea speciilor de plante. Cunoaterea reaciei solului
for growing assortment choice for differential application of este necesar pentru alegerea sortimentului de cultur, pentru
fertilizers and amendments. aplicarea diferenial a ngrmintelor i a amendamentelor.

The capacity of soil plugging Capacitatea de tamponare a solului

By plugging capability means acquiring land to Prin capacitatea de tamponare se nelege nsuirea
oppose the trend of change in concentration of ions (H , solului de a se opune tendinei de modificare a concentraiei
+ + + + +
OH, K , Ca ) from soil solution by the mutual phase unor ioni (H , OH, K , Ca ) din soluia solului, prin
between solid and liquid phase. aciunea reciproc dintre faza solid i faza lichid.
Plugging capacity of soil is determined by the Capacitatea de tamponare a solului este determinat
characteristics of solid phase, particularly from soil colloids. de nsuirile fazei solide, mai ales ale coloizilor din sol.
The interaction of soil with an acid (HCI O, 1N) is the Prin interaciunea solului cu un acid (HCI O,1N) se
exchange reaction between CATIONS change in complex produce reacia de schimb ntre cationii schimbabili din
and hydrogen ions that give acidity of acid respectively, complex i ionii de hidrogen care dau aciditatea din acidul
while hydrogen ions pass into the soil solid phase respectiv, iar ionii de hidrogen trec n faza solid a solului
(complex absorption, even when saturated with hydrogen (complexul absorbtiv, chiar cnd este saturat cu ioni de
ions, acts as a weak acid), and chlorides in solution are hidrogen, se comport ca un acid slab), iar n soluie apar
concerned. clorurile respective.
Plugging capacity of the soil depends on a number of Capacitatea de tamponare a solului depinde de o
factors which include: the amount of soil colloids, the serie de factori printre care amintim: cantitatea coloizilor din
assortment of soil colloids, cationic nature of change. sol, sortimentul coloizilor din sol, natura cationilor schimbabili.
Capacity regulator plugging the soil reaction. That Capacitatea de tamponare constituie regulatorul
the pH of soil and the same can not be changed too much reaciei solului. Faptul c pH-ul unuia i aceluiai sol nu se
during the year, are of importance in connection with poate modifica prea mult n timpul anului, prezint
microorganisms and plant growth, although they can importan n legtur cu activitatea microorganismelor i
adapt to certain changes in response, but no sudden cu creterea plantelor, dei acestea se pot adapta la
change of reaction. Knowing plugging capabilities help to anumite modificri de reacie, dar nu suport variaiile brute
establish methods for the amendment and fertilization of de reacie. Cunoaterea capacitilor de tamponare ajut la
soils [4, 5]. stabilirea metodelor de amendare i fertilizare a solurilor [4, 5].


For measuring soil properties are needed accurate Pentru msurarea proprietilor solului sunt necesare
and inexpensive methods, which helps to interpret the metode precise i necostisitoare, care ajut la interpretarea
maps and productivity improvement strategies underlying hrilor de productivitate i mbuntirea strategiilor ce stau
concept of precision agriculture. Conventional methods la baza conceptului de agricultur de precizie. Metodele
require the selection period, and laboratory tests convenionale de selecie necesit perioade de timp mari i
profound. Starting from this, the virtual mapping of the soil analize de laborator profunde. Pornind de la aceasta,
profile by means of electrical conductivity (EC) was maparea profilului virtual al solului cu ajutorul conductivitii
developed to identify areas with contrasting soil electrice (EC) a fost dezvoltat pentru a identifica suprafeele
properties. Such values are measurements of EC cu proprieti contrastante ale solului. Asemenea valori ale
replacement of soil properties. EC sunt msurtori nlocuitoare ale proprietilor solului.


Precision agriculture involves managing each crop Agricultura de precizie presupune administrarea fiecrei
production input (fertilizer, water, calcium, herbicides, intrri a produciei recoltei (fertilizator, ap, calciu, erbicide,
insecticides and seed) on the specific location of insecticide i smn) pe principii specifice locaiei pentru
principles to reduce waste, increase profits and reducerea deeurilor, creterea profitului i meninerea calitii
environmental quality. Without leaving the technologies mediului nconjurtor. Fr tehnologii ieite din comun, care s
that enable support, individual treatment of each plant is permit asistarea, tratamentul individual a fiecrei plante este
impossible and the concept of precision agriculture would imposibil i conceptul de agricultur precis nu ar fi posibil.
not be possible. A sensor on the ground, such as sensor Un senzor pentru sol, precum senzorul VerisEC este o unealt
VerisEC is a useful tool for mapping soil electro- folositoare pentru maparea electro-conductivitii solului (EC),
conductivity (EC), to identify areas with contrasting soil n vederea identificrii ariilor cu proprieti contrastante ale
properties. In non-salted soils, EC values are solului. n soluri ne-srate, valorile EC sunt msurtori ale
measurements of soil texture - the relative amount of sand, texturii solului cantitatea relativ de nisip, nmol i argil.
silt and clay. Precision agriculture is based on geo-spatial Agricultura de precizie se bazeaz pe informaii geo-spaiale
information to facilitate the treatment of small portions of pentru a uura tratamentul unor mici poriuni din teren ca uniti
land as individual administrative units. Although farmers administrative individuale. Dei agricultorii cunosc de mult
long known that land is heterogeneous, only recently vreme c terenurile sunt eterogene, numai recent au devenit
became available technologies that allow production disponibile tehnologii care s permit practicilor produciei s ia
practices to take into account this variability effectively. n considerare n mod eficient aceast variabilitate.

The apparent electrical conductivity measurement (ECa) Principiile msurrii conductivitii electrice aparente (ECa)
To measure soil salinitii default and electro- Pentru msurarea salinitii solului i implicit a electro-
conductivity of soil electro-conductivity measurement of conductiviti solului, msurarea electro-conductivitii
apparent soil (ECa) rezistivitii by measuring the electrical aparente a solului (ECa) prin msurarea rezistivitii electrice
and electromagnetic behavior is regarded as the most i a comportrii electromagnetice este privit ca cea mai
appropriate way of determining the spatial distribution of potrivit cale de stabilire a distribuiei spaiale a salinitii la
salinitii at the land surface or deeply. Measurement of nivelul suprafeei terenului sau mai profund. Msurarea
apparent electro-conductivity of soil (ECa) rezistivitii by electro-conductivitii aparente a solului (ECa) prin msurarea
measuring the electrical behavior and electromagnetic rezistivitii electrice i a comportrii electromagnetice (EM)
(EM) maximum interest for precision agriculture because it prezint interes maxim pentru agricultura de precizie,
is a safe and accurate method, which allows relatively deoarece este o metod sigur i precis, care permite
easy to obtain a large volume of data measured. obinerea relativ simpl a unui volum mare de date msurate.
Electric conductors apparent soil is achieved, firstly Conductana electric aparent a solului se realizeaz,
by salts contained in water present in large pores, n primul rnd, prin srurile coninute n apa prezent n porii
therefore, measuring the electrical conductivity in the soil mai largi; n consecin, msurarea conductivitii electrice n
mass is closely related to its salinity. There is also a masa solului este strns legat de salinitatea acestuia. De asemenea,
contribution from the solid phase of the wet soil apparent exist i o contribuie a fazei solide din solurile umede la conductivitatea
electrical conductivity, through the cation exchange electric aparent, pe calea schimbului de cationi asociai
groups of clay minerals. A third way conductivity consists mineralelor din argil. O a treia cale de conductivitate este
of soil particles in contact with one another. These three constituit din particulele solului aflate n contact permanent
paths crossed current contributes to the apparent una cu alta. Aceste trei ci de strbatere a curentului
electrical conductivity of soil. contribuie la conductivitatea electric aparent a solului.

Equipment to measure apparent electrical conductivity Echipamente pentru msurarea conductivitii electrice
(ECa) aparente (ECa)
Most methods for determining the electro- Marea majoritate a metodelor de determinare a
conductivity of soil use (measured) electric rezistivitatea electro-conductivitii solului utilizeaz (msoar)
("Wenner system"). rezistivitatea electric (sistemul Wenner).
Another method for determining the electro-conductivity O alt metod de determinare a electro-conductivitii
using electromagnetic induction EM (using the time utilizeaz inducia electromagnetic EM (cu ajutorul
reflectometriei - TDR). Although the TDR method has reflectometriei n domeniul timpului - TDR). Dei metoda
been demonstrated to be comparable with other accepted TDR a fost demonstrat ca fiind comparabil cu alte
methods for measuring the electro-conductivity metode acceptate pentru msurarea electro-conductivitii
(Heimovaara and others, 1995; Mallants and others. 1996, (Heimovaara i alii, 1995; Mallants si alii. 1996, Spaans
Spaans and Baker, 1993, Reece, 1998), it is not yet i Baker, 1993, Reece, 1998), ea nu este nc suficient de
sufficiently simple robust and rapid to measure in the field simpl, robust i rapid pentru msurarea n cmp a
of electro-conductivity of soil (Rhoades and others, 1999a) [6]. electro-conductivitii solului (Rhoades i alii, 1999a) [6].
The most widely used for determining electro- Echipamentul cel mai rspndit, utilizat pentru
conductivity of soil is the type Veris realized in three determinarea electro-conductivitii solului este cel tip
variants: Veris 3100; Veri 3150 (and may cause the pH) Veris, realizat n trei variante: Veris 3100; Veris 3150
and Veris 2000XA (used mainly in vineyards and (poate determina i pH-ul) i Veris 2000XA (utilizat cu
orchards). preponderen n vii i livezi).
Veri Technologies has developed this type of Veris Technologies a dezvoltat acest tip de
equipment for determining electro-conductivity of soil echipament pentru determinarea electro-conductivitii solului
(ECa) based on the principles Wenner. The equipment (ECa) pe baza principiilor sistemului Wenner.
Veris using six electrodes-knife (depending on the Echipamentul Veris utilizeaz ase electrozi-cuit (funcie
arrangement of various equipment on the knives, the de tipul de echipament diferind aezarea cuitelor pe cadru,
distance between them and the weight machine). This distana ntre ele i greutatea mainii). Acest tip de senzori
sensor uses type discs share the electrodes to achieve a folosete brzdare tip discuri ca electrozi pentru a se realiza un
more uniform contact with the ground and thus measured contact cat mai uniform cu solul i astfel se msoar Electro-
Electro-conductivity (EC). In this approach two to three Conductivitatea (EC). n aceast abordare dou pan la trei


pairs of discs are mounted on a chassis, a pair power perechi de discuri sunt montai pe un asiu, o pereche furnizeaz
supply in the soil (electrodes transmission) while the other curent electric n sol (electrozi de transmisie) n timp ce ceilali
electrodes (electrodes Reception) measured voltage fall of electrozi (electrozi de recepie) msoar cderea de tensiune
them (in soil), so as can be seen in Figure 5 [8]. dintre ei (n sol), aa cum se poate observa i n figura 5 [8].

Fig. 5 - Systems Technologies for Mapping Veris electro-conductivity of soil, at work /

Sistemele Veris Technologies pentru maparea electro-conductivitii solului, n timpul lucrului

Electro-conductivity of soil has a very important role Electro-conductivitatea solului are un rol foarte important n
in improving the culture techniques of precision agriculture, perfecionarea tehnicilor de cultur n agricultura de precizie, n
in order to achieve maximum production from any surface. vederea obinerii unor producii maxime de pe orice suprafa.
In the last 20 years were sought and identified new n ultimii 20 de ani s-au cutat i identificat noi tehnici
techniques and methods to increase productivity, obtain i metode pentru creterea productivitii, obinerea unor
higher yields and on any surface, in the context of producii ct mai ridicate de pe orice suprafa, n contextul
population growth and demand for food from year to year, creterii populaiei i a cererii de hran de la an la an,
while reducing agricultural areas. concomitent cu reducerea suprafeelor agricole.
Productivity growth has been linked with reducing Creterea productivitii a fost coroborat cu
energy consumption required to perform the work, reducerea consumului de energie necesar pentru
environmental pollution and soil as a result of work efectuarea lucrrilor, a polurii mediului i solului, ca
processes aiming to achieve maximum efficiency on any urmare a proceselor de lucru ce au ca scop obinerea unor
surface. randamente maxime de pe orice suprafa.
Precision Agriculture came to meet these Agricultura de precizie a venit n ntmpinarea acestor
requirements by making available to farmers of new cerine prin punerea la dispoziia fermierilor de tehnologii noi
technologies for management, using equipment and de management, ce utilizeaz echipamente i tehnice de
technology from leading IT, software, navigation, etc., by vrf din domeniul IT, software, navigaie, etc., cu ajutorul
which it was obtained from the maximum yield any surface crora s-a ajuns la obinerea unor randamente maxime de
with minimal energy consumption and reduce pe orice suprafa, cu consumuri energetice minime i
environmental pollution and soil within reasonable limits. reducerea polurii mediului i solului n limite rezonabile.
Using electro-conductivity is closely related to the use Utilizarea electro-conductivitii este strns legat de
of GPS and GIS systems for measuring and creating maps utilizarea sistemelor GPS i GIS, pentru msurarea i
of electrical conductivity of soil and use this information in crearea hrilor de conductibilitate electric a solului i utilizarea
order to improve management of crops in the precision acestor informaii n scopul perfecionrii managementului
agriculture. culturilor agricole n cadrul agriculturii de precizie.
Research carried out until now in Romania are rather Cercetrile efectuate pn prezent n Romnia sunt
scarce and not taking into account the influence of soil destul de puine i nu au luat n calcul faptul influenei
conductivity on the production capacity and a default return conductivitii solului asupra capacitii de producie i implicit a
agricultural land and cultivating it with a specific culture rentabilitii unui teren agricol, precum i cultivarea acestuia cu
based on data obtained by conductivity, pH, the capacity of un anumit tip cultur n funcie de datele de conductivitate obinute,
cationic exchange, humidity and soil texture. pH-ul, capacitatea de schimb cationic, umiditatea i textura solului.

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of Soil Water Depletion in Presence of Growing Soybeans nostra, Iai 2003
Roots: I. Determination of Hydraulic Properties of the Soil, [5] Lupacu Gh., Jigu Gh., Vrlan M. - Pedologie
In: Soil Science Society ofAmerica Prooceedings. Vol 39, general, Editura Junimea Iai 1998;


1975, p 424-430; [6] Rhoades, J.D., Corwin, D.L. - Determining Soil Electrical
[2] Barraclough, P.B., and A.H. Weir. - Effects of a Conductivity-depth Relations Using an Inductive
compacted subsoil layer on root and shoot growth, water Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter, (1992), Soil
use and nutrient uptake of winter wheat, 1988, J. ScienceSociety of America Journal, 45, 255-260;
Agric.Sci., Cambridge 110:207-216; [7] Robert Bobby Grisso, Mark Alley, W.G. Wysor, David
[3] Eric D. Lund,Colin D. Christy,Paul E. Drummond - Holshouser, Wade Thomason, Virginia Tech - Precision
Using yield and soil Electrical Conductivity (EC) maps to Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity, Virginia
derive crop production performance information, Presented at cooperative extension, 2007, publication 442-508;
the 5th International Conference on Precision Agriculture 2000; [8] Veris Technologies,