Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

W~trme-und Stofffibertragung 20, 273- 281 (1986)

W~irrne-

und StotFt~bertragung

9 Springer-Verlag 1986

Unsteady compressible second-order boundary layers at the stagnation point of two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies

R. Vasantha and G. Nath, Bangalore, India

Abstract. The unsteady laminar compressible boundary-layer flow over two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies at the stagnation point with mass transfer has been studied for all second-order boundary layer effects when the basic potential flow admits self- similarity. The solutions for the governing equations are obtained by using an implicit finite-difference scheme. Computations have been carried out for different values of the parameters charac- terizing the unsteadiness in the free stream velocity, wall tem- perature, mass transfer rate and variable gas properties. The results are found to be strongly affected by the unsteadiness in the free stream velocity. For large injection rates the second-order boundary layer effects may prevail over the first-order boundary layer, but reverse is true for suction. The wall temperature and the variation of the density-viscosity product across the boundary layer appreciably change the skin-friction and heat-transfer rates due to second-order boundary-layer effects.

Instation~ire kompressible Grenzschichten 2. Ordnung am Staupunkt yon zweidimensionalenund achsensymmetrischen

K6rpern

Zusammenfassung. Es wurde die instation~ire, laminare, kom- pressible Grenzschichtstr6mung tiber einen zweidimensionalen

achsensymmetrischen K6rper am Staupunkt mit Stofftibergang ftir alle Grenzschichteffekte 2. Ordnung studiert, wenn die Potentialstr6mung in sich selbst ~ihnlich ist. Die L6sung ftir die grundlegenden Gleichungen wurden unter Anwendung einer im- pliziten finiten Differenzenmethode erzielt. Es wurden Rechnun- gen ffir verschiedene Werte yon Parametern durchgeftihrt, welche die Unstetigkeit in der Freistrahlgeschwindigkeit, die Wand- temperatur, den Stofftransport und die ver~inderlichen Zustands- gr6gen des Gases charakterisieren. Dabei wurde festgestellt, dab die Ergebnisse stark yon der Unstetigkeit in der Geschwindigkeit des Freistrahles beeinflufSt werden. Ffir groBe Zustr6mraten k6nnen die Effekte 2. Ordnung in der Grenzschicht fiber die der

Gegenteil gilt ffir Absaugung.

Die Wandtemperatur und das Dichte-Viskosit~itsprodukt fiber die Grenzschicht ~indern die Wandreibung und den Wiirmefibergang merklich wegen der Grenzschichteffekte 2. Ordnung.

1. Ordnung fiberwiegen, aber das

1 Introduction

The second-order boundary-layer effects become impor- tant when the boundary-layer thickness becomes com- parable with the characteristic body length. This situation

occurs in the case of mass injection which is important in transpiration cooling and ablation. Understanding of the unsteady second-order boundary layer theory is needed to gain a better insight into the effects of lower Reynolds number as they are encountered in high altitude flight and high Mach number wind tunnel tests. Van Dyke [1] and Gersten and Gross [2] have given an excellent survey of higher-order boundary-layer theory. The first- and second-order unsteady boundary-layer equations are obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations by an expansion in inverse powers of the square root of Reynolds number depending upon the type of unsteadi- ness m the basic potential flow for a given geometry of the body. As usual in perturbation theory Prandtl's boundary layer equations are nonlinear and second-order boundary- layer equations are linear. So second-order boundary-layer equations can be subdivided into several additive effects, namely, longitudinal and transverse curvature, boundary layer displacement, vorticity interaction, velocity slip and temperature jump, each of which having a simpler physical interpretation. The steady laminar incompressible and compressible second-order boundary-layer theory has been studied by

several authors [3-20]

and three-dimensional stagnation point flow with or with- out mass transfer. Unsteady incompressible second-order boundary-layer flow on two-dimensional and axisym- metric bodies at the stagnation point has been studied by Arunachalam and Rajappa [21] and Afzal and Rizvi [22]. It may be remarked that the analogous compressible case has not been studied so far. The aim of the present investigation is to study all the second-order effects for laminar compressible unsteady boundary-layer flow with mass transfer at the stagnation point of two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies when the potential flow admits self-similarity. The governing equations have been solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme. The results have been compared with those available in literature [5, 8, 9, 22] and arc found to be in good agreement.

for two-dimensi0nal , axisymmetric

274

2 Governing equations

The unsteady laminar compressible boundary layer flow with mass transfer in the stagnation region of two-dimen- sional and axisymmetric bodies has been considered. It is assumed that the external flow is homentropic, the surface is maintained at a constant temperature, the dissipation terms are negligible at the stagnation point and the injected gas possesses the same physical properties as the boundary layer gas. The first- and second-order boundary layer equations for two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows are obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations using the method of matched asymptotic expansions with a perturbation parameter-e_ The outer expansions for u, v, p, 0,/~ and T are of the type

(1)

u(t,x,y) = Ul(t,x,y) + e U2(t,x,y) +

1

The inner expansions for u, Re~ v, p, O,/z and T are of the type

u(t,x,y) =ui(t,x,N) + eu2(t,x,N) +

Here x and y are the streamwise and normal coordinates, respectively; t is the time, u and v are the velocity components in x and y directions, respectively; T is the temperature, ~ is the density, ~t is the viscosity, p is the pressure, e (= Re-~) is the perturl~ation parameter, Re is the Reynolds number and N (=y/e) is the new stretched variable. Substituting the inner and outer expansions (1) and (2) in the Navier-Stokes equations [4-6], we get the equation for successive approximations. The matching of inner and outer solutions in the overlap region leads to the first- and second-order boundary-layer equations [4- 6].

(2)

2.1 First-order boundary-layer equations

(3 a)

(Uf")" +

(1 +j)ff"

+ O' _f,2

_ a(f,

+ 2-1 fly"-

 

0') = O,

(NO")' + (1 +j) PrfO" -

Pr 2 -j

ct t/0" = 0.

(3b)

The boundary conditions are

 

f=fw,

f'=0=0,

 

0'=0;~

at

r/=0,

(4a)

ft-*l,

 

0'~1 as t/~oe

 

(4b)

where

 

t/

r/

=

(1 -

c~t*)-~ (U11/(~Iw r

 

~ 0I dN,

c~t* < 1,

 
 

9

f~=-

(el 1)l)w/(~'Ull) ~,

 

Re= (Oo~ U~)/(ktzoo),

 

u~=UllX(1-at*)-lf

',

t*=Ullt,

U1

=

--

(l

+J')

(1

--

ate)

-+

(~lco~/lw

 

UI1) ~ qi-lf~

tl

=

0',

N

= 01Pl/(~1/21)~ = 0'~

9

(5)

It may be remarked

manner that (OI vl)~/(e Ull) ~ is a constant, thenfw is also a

that if (Q1Vl)w is chosen in such a

W~irme-und Stoffiibertragung 20 (1986)

constant and f~ <>0 according to whether it is suction or injection. Here ~/is the similarity variable, t* is the dimensionless time, f is the dimensionless stream function, f' is the dimensionless velocity component in the x direction, O' is the dimensionless enthalpy, Pr is the Prandtl number, k is the longitudinal surface curvature of the body, Ull is the potential flow velocity gradient in the x direction, the parameters 0(~ and fw are the wall temperature and the

surface mass transfer, respectively, j is 0 for a two-dimen- sional flow and 1 for an axisymmetric flow. The sufficies

w and oo denote the conditions at the wall and in the free

stream, respectively. The parameter co is the exponent in

the power-law variation of viscosity and co = 0.5 corre- sponds to the conditions encountered in hypersonic flight,

co = 0.7 corresponds to low-temperature flows and co = 1

represents the simplification of a constant density- viscosity product [23]. ~ is a dimensionless parameter indicating the unsteadiness in the velocity of the free stream, where c~= 0 corresponds to steady flow, c~< 0 for decelerating flow and c~> 0 implies an accelerating flow provided at*< 1. The latter, however, does not restrict the validity of the results as an arbitrary scale factor is included in the definition of t*.

2.2 Second-order equations

In the case of second-order boundary layer equations, F' denotes the dimensionless velocity components, G denotes the dimensionless enthalpy. The subscript L denotes the longitudinal curvature effect, t the transverse curvature effect, d the displacement effect, v the vorticity interaction effect, s the velocity slip effect and tj tempera- ture jump effect. The second-order boundary layer equations representing each of these individual effects are:

2.2.1 Longitudinal curvature

D1 (Fc, GL;j) = -- O(Nf')' + co Nf'

0" + (2 +j)-I

9[20 0' + 2(1 +j) 0' ~-~oolim(O-f)-j(l+j)O'ff'-jO'~

+ ~(2+])-1

[200'+ (2 +j)f'

O- O'(qf'+f)

 

q

-20,

lim (0-J)+0'lim

 

r/--* ov

r/~oo

j

0

Dz(FL, GL;j) = (1 +j) PrfO O" -

0'~~0"

'']

(6a

 

-2-1c~PrtlOO"+c~PrO"~Odq.

(6b)

 

0

Boundary conditions

 

FL--F~=GL=0

at

r/=0

(7a)

F'r~-O,

GL~O

as

r/~oQ

(7b)

R. Vasantha

and G. Nath: Unsteady compressible second-order boundary layers at the stagnation point

275

where

u2~ = (U~

~),,/~t,,,) 89Ri-o~x(F~ +f'

GD (1 -

~ t*)-k,

(8a)

U2d =-

(Olw/Alw/Ull)~

(14b)

q

V2L =

-- O~lwlqw(01Rl0) -~ [(1 +j) (Fr + f Gc- f O)

q

 

-

:~ ~ (0

-

G~)

d~/+

c~ r/(

0

-

G~)/21,

(8b)

 

0

tZL

=

t I R~-OI (Olw//i

w/Ull)

~ (l

-

~

t*)

~ GL.

(8C)

tZd = (t1/ Ull) (1 -

0~t*)~ Gd.

2.2.4 Vorticity interaction

DI(G,

G~;j)

=

(1 +j)

lim (O-f),

~/-+ oO

D2(L,, G;j) = 0.

Boundary conditions

2.2.2 Transverse curvature

[N(a)f"

Gt + F;" + f'

G;)]'

+ Nf"

G;

+ 2f(F7 +f'

G;) -

2f'

F't -

O' Gt + 2f"

Ft

-

2-10r I20' G~+ rl(Ft'+f'G;)

 

q

+ 2f"

[. (0 -

Gt) dtl -

3f'

= -

0 (Nf')'

-

2 00'

0

+ 2ff'

O' + Nf'

F~ = F~=

F[--+-O,

G~,= 0

G~,~O

at

as

r/= 0,

r/~oo

1

(F'+ r'

v

,

q where

Gt + F;]

uzL=XRlol(Qlwfllw/Ull)7x

v2~ = -

O" + (Nf')' 0'

O~1(~lwtllw/Ull R10)

Gv)(1

-

1

r162 t*)-~

,

(14C)

(15a)

(15b)

(16a)

(16b)

(17a)

(17b)

+

2 -* c((3 f" 0 -

40

0' -

[N (0' G't + (co + 1) 0" Gt)]'

+

~lf" 0')

(ga)

2 Pr 0" Ft + 2 Prf(O" Gt + O' G~)

+ 2-'

o~Pr [0' G,-

rl(O' G} + O" Gt) -

20" 5 (O- Gt) drl]

0

J

[(1+g)(F,,+fG)

1

tx~, = (t)/Ull Rio)(01wlqw/U11)~(1

2-t

c~rIG~+~iG~drl ],

0

-

1

o~t*)~ G~.

(17c)

= -

0'~~O" + 2PrfO 0" -

Boundary conditions

2 -1 ~ r/Pr

0 0".

Ft= F;=

Gt= 0

at

r/=0

F't--+O,

G,--+O

as

r/~oo

where

u2t = (U~l qI)~,~a~) ~ RTo~x(E

+if(G-

0))(1 -

(9b)

2.2.5

Velocity slip

Dl(Fs, G~;j) = 0,

D2(Fs, G,;j) = 0.

(10a)

(10b)

Boundary conditions

(11 a)

Fs =

Gs =

0,

F~=f"(0)

~t*) -1,

Fs-G~=0

where

t

at

as

~/= 0,

r/~

oc

(18a)

(18b)

(19a)

(19b)

L'2t =

-- Qlw,/Alw(O1 RIO) -1

9[2(Ft+f(Gt-

0))-

r/'

~ ~(0-

0

(l

1 b)

G,) dr/+ 2-'c~ 7/(0- Gt)],

t2t

=

tl RI-O1 (Qlw lZl~v/ Ull) ~ (1 -

o~ t*)

89G t .

(11 c)

2.3.3 Boundary-layer displacement

 

1

co-~

1

u2~= ~

Moo tw

(U11/(01w#1w))

~

 

" U)j x(F'~+f'

G~)(1 -

cr t*)-{,

V2x =

UI 1Q~-I y 89M~

t~-~

I

1

l(1 +j)(Fs + f

1

q

Gs) + o: ~ Gsd~1 -

0

l

&, = y~ M~ tw~-~(Uit/(Ol~#l~)) ~ t~(l -

(20a)

2-'o: rl Gs I , (20b)

1

~z t*)~ Gs

(20c)

DI(Fe, Gd;j) = -- (2+

D2(Fa, Gd;j) = O.

2 -1 cQ 0',

(12a)

(12b)

2.2.6

Temperature jump

Boundary conditions

Fd =

F'd =

Gd

=

0

at

r/=

0

(13a)

F'd ~

1,

G d ~

0

as

r/--+ w

(13b)

where

 

U2d= x(F'd+f'

Gd) (1 -

~ t*) -k ,

(14a)

D1 (Gj,

Gq ;j)

= O,

(21 a)

D2(Fq, Gq;j) = O.

 

(21 b)

Boundary conditions

 

Fq=F;j=O,

Gq=O"(O)/O'(O)

at

,/=0,

(22a)

F~j = Gtj = 0

as

,/--+ oo.

(22b)

276

bl2tj, l)2tj and t2o are given by the Eq. (20) by replacing

s by tj.

ratio of specific heats, Rm is the density at the stagnation

point and the operators D1 and D2 are given by

DI (F, G;j) = [U(o) f" G + F" + f' G')]' + N f" G'

Here M~ is the free stream Mach number, iv is the

- 2f'

g' + (1 +j)f(F"

+f'

G') +

(1 +j)f"

F-

O' G

 

*l

- 2-'o~ [F'- 3f'G + 2O'G

+ rl(r"

+ f'G')-

2f" ! Gdrl]

 

(23)

D2(F, G;j) = [N((o.) +

1) 0"

a

+ 0' G')]'

+ (1 +j)

Pr 0" F+ Pr(l +j)f(O' G' + 0" G)

 
 

tl

+ 2-'

o~er

[O' G + 20"

I G dq-

11(0" G + O' G')].

(24)

0

The

skin-friction

and

heat-transfer

coefficients

are

given as follows.

The

first-order skin-friction and

cients are given by

heat

Cfl

= "gwl/(U~l R l0 T~) ~= 0(,(~- 1)/2 X (l

--

Stl

= -

qwl Pr/(Ull Rm T~)~ = 0w(t~

transfer coeffi-

~ [*) -~f" (0)

-

(25a)

~ t*)-~ 0"(0)

(25b)

where T10 is the temperature at the stagnation point, Cfl is the skin-friction coefficient in x-direction, St~ is the Stanton number representing heat transfer, rw~ is the shear stress on x-direction and qwl is the heat transfer rate. The second-order skin-friction and heat-transfer coeffi- cients can be written as follows: For longitudinal curvature the skin-friction and heat-transfer coefficients (CfL, StD are given by

CfL = 72wr/(Ull

T~) = 0; ~

_

fO9

x(1

-

~ t*) -1F~'(0),

(26a)

(26b)

StL = - qwL Pr/T~o +1 -- Ow

The skin-friction and heat-transfer coefficients for the transverse curvature effect (Cft, Stt) can be obtained by changing the subscript L by t in the set of Eq. (26). For boundary-layer displacement effect the skin-fric- tion and heat-transfer coefficients (Cfd, Sta) can be written in the form

GL(O).

/

1

Cj?t = "Cwd/( Ull R l0 Tf6)~

= x 0w(~-1)/2 (1 - ct t*) -1 Fj (0),

(27a)

Sta = - qwaPr Uil/(Rlo T[6+2) 89= O'(~~

For the vorticity interaction effect, the skin-friction coefficient C~, and heat-transfer coefficient Sty, can be written in the form

(28a)

(28 b)

(27b)

Cji, = TwJTm -

m _

x 0(~~

(1 -

~

l*) -J

*~

F,, (0),

St~ = - qw~ Pr Ult/T~ +j = 0w~~G,'.(0).

The skin-friction coefficient Cjs and heat-transfer coefficient St, for the velocity slip are expressed in the

W~irrne-und Stofftibertragung 20 (1986)

form

Cf, = rw,/(7 ~M~o U21Y~~-~)

= x 0(~(~

-

~ t*) -1F~'(0),

(29a)

St~ = - qw~Pr/(7~ Mo~ Ulj T~o+~)

(29 b)

For the temperature jump effect the skin friction and heat-transfer coefficients (CUO, Sttj) are given by

(30a)

=

0w1~189 Gs (0).

Cfq= rwO/(7 ~MoQ U211T~o-~)

= x 0w(C~189 -

~ t*) -1 [F;j (0) + (1 + co)f"(0) atj(0)]

St~/ = - qwo Pr/(?:~ Moz Ull T~o+-~)

--o'{~

.

(30b)

The total wall shear stress r~ (i.e. first-order + second-

and the total heat-transfer q,~ (i.e. first-order

order)

+ second-order) are given by

(31 a)

"Cw=

g Zwl + e2 ( rwL + k

Zwt +

U21Zwd+ f2 "cwv+ a l Zws + Ci Zwtj),

q~ = eqwl + e2 (qwr + k qwt + U21qwd+f2 qwv+alqws+ Clqwtj)

(31 b)

where rwL, rwt, lwd, Twv, "Cwsand rwtj are shear stresses due to longitudinal curvature, transverse curvature, boundary- !a~er displacement, vorticity, velocity slip and temperature jump, respectively; qwz, qwt, qwa, qw~, qws and qwo are he}at-transfer due to longitudinal curvature, transverse curvature, boundary-layer displacement, vorticity, velocity slip and temPerature jump, respectively.

3 Results and discussion

The first-order boundary-layer nonlinear Eq. (3) with the boundary conditions (4) have been solved by the method of quasilinearization technique in combination with an implicit finite-difference scheme. Then the second-order boundary-layer equations represented by the set of linear Eqs. (6), (9), (12), (15), (18), (21) with boundary condi-

tions (7), (10), (13), (16), (19), (22) have been solved using an implicit definite-difference scheme. Since the method has been described in detail in [24-26] it is not reported here for the sake of brevity. The step size Aq is optimised and A r/= 0.05 is used throughout the computation. The edge of the boundary layer (r/~o)is also optimised and it is found that it depends on the injection parameter (fw), wall temperature (0(~) and cc For example, for fw = 0, ~=-1 and 0w- 0.6, r/oo= 5, but forfw=- 3, cr and

r/~ = 7.

0" = 0.6, l/oo=

Computations have been carried out for various values of the parameters. It is assumed that Uzl is negative [7, 18]. In order to assess the accuracy of our method we have compared our second-order boundary-layer results for the two-dimensional steady-flow with those of Fannel6p and Fliigge-Lotz [9], the axisymmetric results with those of

t

12 and

forf = 0, cr =

1 and

0(~ = 0.6,

R. Vasantha and G. Nath: Unsteady compressible second-order boundary layers at the stagnation point

277

Van Dyke [5] and Davis and Fliigge-Lotz [8] (Fig. 1) and the unsteady incompressible second-order boundary-layer (Fig. 2) with those of Afzal and Rizvi [22] (by transform- ing our equations into those obtained by them by suitable transformations) and found them in good agreement (Fig. 1 and 2). Computations have been carried out for various values of the parameter characterizing the unsteadiness in the

0.8

0.6

Pr=O. 7~ fw--O~ r

o

"~

Two-dimensionat" L

Axisymrnetric

FunneLop

j

Present results

and

Ftugge-Lotz

DQvis

Qnd Flligge-lotz

Van Dyke

.

"o

o

~=o-s~ Sty-~

-0.2

I

I

0

0.5

1.0

 

I

0w

r

///

I

1.5

/

/

/

//

2.0

Fig. l. Comparison of second-order boundary layer heat-transfer coefficients of the steady flow (ct= 0)

free stream velocity (ct), mass transfer parameter (f~) and wall temperature (0") and results have been presented in Figs. 3-8 for a two-dimensional flow and in Figs. 9-12 for an axisymmetric flow. Effect of c~ (i.e. the parameter characterizing the unsteadiness in the free stream velocity) on the first- and second-order skin friction parameters (f"(O), Fg(O), F~'(0), F(,'(0), F~'(0), F~;(0)) and heat-transfer parameters (0"(0), G~(0), GS(0), G;(0), G'(0), G~j(0)) is shown in Figs. 3-4. As c~ increases the first-order skin-friction f"(0) increases (Fig. 3). The skin-friction due to the longitudinal curvature F"L(0) increases as ~ increases from

v o

o v

o

4.0

2.0

0

"~ -2.o

-4.0

-3

Fs (ol

-2

f

w=01 ~=0.5,ew=0.6~Pr=0.7

!

First-order

Second-order

f"(o)

II

-1

o

Fig. 3. Effect of e on first- and second-order boundary layer skin- friction parameters (two-dimensional flow)

O AfzaL and Rizvi Present solution Two-dimension/

-1.7

-2.0,

Axisymmetric

 

O

AfzaL

Qnd

Rizvi

?_1

Present

solution

2.0

0.64

=[l_J -- 2.3

=u-'~

--2.6

/

-2.9 ~

I

0

0"54L1/~

I

-3,0

-1.o

t~

1.0

-3.0

-1.0

1.6

-2.0 ~

-2.4

1.0

@

Fig. 2. Comparison of second-order bound-

heat-transfer

ary

parameters for the unsteady flow (~ ~ 0)

layer skin-friction

and

278

4.0

I

fw= Ot o~=0.6~, Ow=O,6 ~ Pr~-0.7

_5"

First-order

 

--

Second-order

o

-m

2.0

o

 

I~"( o/

S

v

d

~9

f

%

-~.o

-3.5

I

1

-3

-2

-1

0

 

It,.

Fig. 4. Effect of c~on first- and second-order boundary layer heat- transfer parameters (two-dimensional flow)

2.0

i

A --2.0

IL

~ -4.0

~_J

IL

-

-6.0

-7.0

j

-2

~1

.,

.-

ul=. O. 5,~ 8w= 0.6~, Pr=0.7

 

CL=.O

--

~=-1

 

F'~( o).~

-----"

Fg(o~\\

 

\

\ \

I

I

0

1

2

fw

Fig. 5. Effect of fw and ~ on second-order boundary layer skin- friction parameters (two-dimensional flow)

then

decreases

negative

curvature decreases the total skin-friction rw of the bound- ary layer. Physically, this behaviour is due to the stretch- ing of the boundary-layer normal to the wall by centrifugal

The skin-

is

-3

to

0

and

as

which

attains

its

maximum

(Fig. 3).

that

the

The

at

a=0

sign

of

and

~ increases

implies

F'[(0)

convex

longitudinal

forces due to the convex surface curvature.

W/irme- und StoffObertragung 20 (1986)

0.2-

.~

S

0.1

-

L

o,L\

o

,.

I\

-IX

w=O.5 t e~=0.6~ Pr=O.7

{Z=O

G,(oL

 

G~(o}

~" ""

//

/

"~""~"-

/i--'~/

~'~----~.L~

/

\-\

~-

,,

~i.~o~

?

\

",_

\

--~

"-'"

."

\\,/

2.5

f

io

"l

-Z5

"~

o 2

-5.0

'-3

-2

-1

O

1

2

I

Fig. 6. Effect off,~ and 7. on second-order boundary layer heat- transfer parameters (two-dimensional flow)

/1-/ f"(o) tL~ O O o -2.0 o o -"- -4,0 Second.order -6.0 l 3,
/1-/
f"(o)
tL~
O
O
o
-2.0
o
o
-"- -4,0
Second.order
-6.0
l
3,
',
.
.
.
9
0.2 0.~
1.01
1.4
1.8

Bw

2.0

Fig. 7. Effect of 0(~ oi1 first- and second-order boundary layer skin- friction parameters (two-dimensional flow)

friction due to the displacement effect F~'(0), the vorticity

interaction effect F{'(O) and the temperature jump F~((0)

increase as c~ increases,

the velocity s{ip F~'(0) decreases slightly as c~ increases

from -3 Co 0 and for

increases, the first-order heat-transfer 0"(0) and the heat- transfer parameter due to the longitudinal curvature

whereas the skin friction due to

~ >

0

it

increases

(Figi 3).

As

R. Vasantha and G. Nath: Unsteady compressible second-order

boundary layers at the stagnation point

279

o

-j

0.t,

~_

fw=% td=0.57 (z=4~ Pr=0.7

First order

Second order

o

0

o

v

-o>

.C

o

 

~,/

\\\\

-'-'.a "if-0./.

o

2

o

=(D

-0.8

0.2

I

0.6

I

1.0

I

8w

I

1/,

\

\

\

\

-

\

\ \

I

1.8

\

2.0

Fig. 8.

heat-transfer parameters (two-dimensional flow)

Effect of 0" on first- and second-order boundary layer

v

2.0

=,'~

.2

o

%=

o

fw = %

0a=0.5~8tw=O.%Pr=O.7

II

Fs (o)

f"(o)

F~ (o)

II

Ft(o)

o.,l

i

fw=O~to=0.5~8w=0.6~Pr=O.7

--

First order

Second order

-~

el(o)

e"(~

%~

G'~(o)

.2~

0

!

%

(o)

(o)

o

o

2-0.s

 

z

%

 

-1.0

-1.21

I

1

I

-3

-2

-1

0

Fig. 10. Effect of ~ on first- and second-order boundary layer heat-transfer parameters (axisymmetric flow)

o

--u~

o

-2.0

--"- -4.0

F~ (~t-order

I

-2

-1

I

(z

Second-order

I

0

Fig. 9. Effect of c~on first- and second-order boundary layer skin- friction parameters (axisymmetrie flow)

G~.(0) decrease but the heat-transfer parameters due to the displacement effect GS(0), the vorticity interaction G,f(0), the velocity slip G~(0) and the temperature jump G~i(0) increase (Fig. 4). Direction of second-order heat- transfer parameters (G;(0), G)(0), G'~(0), G'(0), G~(0)) change from decelerated flow to accelerated flow (Fig. 4). Effect of c~on the skin-friction parameters due to the longitiudinal curvature F~' (0) and the displacement effect Fg (0) is more pronounced for injection (fw < 0) than for suction (f~ > 0) (Fig. 5), whereas it is more pronounced on the skin-friction parameter due to the vorticity inter- action F;'(0) in the presence of mass transfer (Fig. 5). Effect of c~ on the skin-friction due to the velocity slip

,0;

4.5

LL+a

~3.0

o

.2~

%> 1.s--

o

%9

%,-

2

=,,-

M.S -

-3.0

I ~

-3

~=0

091

-~1

1

-I,0

F[(o)

F~(o)

0

1

%-1,o.F1~(o)-/1

 

I

I

I

I

I

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

 

fw

Fig. ll. Effect offw and ~ on second-order boundary layer skin- friction parameters (axisymmetric flow)

280

,~

-o=

o

-o>

o

o

(3

O.

t~ -0.

-0. -3

-2.

-1

0

fw

1

2

3

Fig. 12. Effect offw and ct on second-order boundary layer heat- transfer parameters (axisymmetric flow)

F;'(0) is negligible, whereas it is more pronounced on the skin-friction due to the temperature jump F;j(0) for suction than for injection (Fig. 5). Effect of e is also found to be more pronounced on the second-order heat-transfer parameters (G~(0), GS(0), G'(0), G~(0)) for both suction and injection except for the heat-transfer due to the temperature jump (G[j(0)) for which effect of e is more pronounced for suction than for injection (Fig. 6). The first-order skin-friction f"(0) increases as wall

temperature 0w increases (Fig. 7). FL' (0), F;' (0) and F;' (0) decrease as 0; increases whereas F~' (0) and F;j (0) increase (Fig. 7). The first-order heat-transfer parameter 0"(0) decreases as 0; increases and it is negative for hot wall

(0; > 1) which implies that the heat is

the wall to the fluid unlike for cold wall (0w < l) (Fig. 8). The longitudinal curvature effect and velocity slip increase the total heat transfer qw, whereas displacement effect, temperature jump and vorticity interaction reduce it in the cold wall region (Fig. 8). In the hot wall region (0(~ > 1) the longitudinal curvature effect and the displace- ment effect reduce the total heat-transfer qw, whereas the effect due to vorticity interaction, velocity slip and tem- perature jump increase the heat-transfer qw (Fig. 8). Effects of ~, 0(~ and fw on first- and the second-order skin-friction and heat-transfer parameters for the axisym- metric flow are in general, qualitatively similar to those of the two-dimensional flow case (Figs. 9-12). Hence the results are not discussed here.

transferred from

The

relative

change

in the

total

heat

transfer

qw (i.e.

first-order + second-order) at the stagnation point for

t

M~=4, Ow-0.6, co=0.5, k=l, fw=O are presented below for different values of c~. Van Dyke [5] and

_

W~irme- und Stofft~bertragung 20 (1986)

Papenfuss [18] have earlier shown the second-order effects on the total heat-transfer for c~= 0 and co = 1.

3.1 Two-dimensionalflow

For

c~=-I

 
 

l.c.

d.E.

V.I.

S.

T.J.

qw

=

1 +

e(1

-

c~t*) 89

-0.007 +0 + 0.022 -2.606)

qwl

1

 

=

1 +

e(1

-

~ t*)~(- 2.390).

 

For

~=0

 

qw

l.c.

d.E.

V.I.S.

T.J.

 

= 1 +

e(-0.216-0.12

+0 +0.513-

1.338)

qwl

 

= 1 +

e(-1.161).

For

c~=

1

I.e.

d.E.

V.I.

S,

T.J.

q~ = 1+e(1 -ct t*)) (- 26.537 -2.388 +0 + 10.240+14.531)

qwl

=

1 +

e(1

-

1

c~t*)~(-4.!53).

3.2 For axisymmetric flow

For

qw

qwl

c~=

-

1

 

l.c.

t.c,

d.E.

=

1 +

e(1

-

~ t*)~ (0.043 +0.477 -0.185

 
 

V.I.

S.

T.J.

+0.491 + 0.088 -2.745)

 

1

=

1 +

e(1 -c~t*)~(-

1.829).

For

c~=O

q

l.c.

t.c.

dE.

V.I.

S.

T.J.

qwl

For

qw

qwl

=

1 +

e(.

0.220 + 0.579 - 0.497+0.409+0.702-1.822)

=

1 +

e(-

0.848).

 

~ =

1

 

l.c.

t.c.

d.E.

=

1 +

e(1

-

ct t*)~ (- 1.725 +0.746 -

1.765

 

V.1.

S.

T.J.

 

+0.076 + 2.160 +0.533)

 

1

=

1 +

e(1

-

ct t*)~ (0.026),

where 1.c. = longitudinal curvature; t.c. = transverse cur- vature; d.E. = displacement effect; V.I. = vorticity inter- action; S. = velocity slip; T.J. = temperature jump; zwl = first-order shear stress; qwi = first-order heat-transfer.

It is clear fromthe

results that the second-order effects

reduce the heat-transfer for two-dimensional and axisym- metric flow except for accelerated flow in axisymmetric case. For accelerated flow in axisymmetric case the heat- transfer is increased by second-order effects. It is observed

R. Vasantha and G. Nath: Unsteady compressible second-order boundary layers at the stagnation point

281

that the heat-transfer is reduced by second-order effects for both two-dimensional as well as axisymmetric case for co--0.5 except for accelerated flow in axisymmetric case where they increase the heat-transfer, whereas for co--- 1, the second-order effects reduce the heat-transfer in two- dimensional flow and increase it in axisymmetric case [5, 18]. It is found that the vorticity interaction effect is the dominant second-order effect at an axisymmetric stagna- tion point [5, 18].

4

Conclusions

It is observed that the effect of ~ is more pronounced on second-order heat-transfer parameters than on the skin- friction parameters. For large injection rates the second- order layer effects may prevail over the Prandtl's bound- ary-layer effects, but the effect of suction is just opposite. All first- and second-order heat-transfer parameters are appreciably affected by the wall temperature and the direction of the heat-transfer parameters changes from hot wall to cold wall conditions. Effects of e, mass transfer and wall temperature on first- and second-order skin-friction and heat-transfer parameters for axisymmetric flow are qualitatively same as in the two-dimensional flow except for few effects.

References

1. Van Dyke, M.:

Higher-order boundary layer theory. Ann.

Rev. Fluid Mech. 1 (1969) 265-292

2. Gersten, K.; Gross, J. F.: Higher-order boundary-layer theory. Fluid Dyn. Trans. 7 (1976) 7-36

3. Rott, N.; Lenard, M.: Vorticity effect on the stagnation-point flow of a viscous incompressible fluid. J. Aerospace Sci. 26 (1959) 542-543

4. Van Dyke, M.: Higher approximations in boundary layer

10. Werle, M. J.; Davis, R. T.: Self-similar solutions to the second-order incompressible boundary-layer equations. J. Fluid Mech. 40 (1970) 343-360

11. Gersten, K.; Gross, J. P.; B6rger, G. G.: Die Grenzschicht h6herer Ordnung an der Staulinie eines schiebenden Zylin- ders mit starkem Absaugen oder Ausblasen. Z. Flugwiss. 20 (1972) 330-341

12. Afzal, N.; Uberoi, M. M.: Self-similar solution of the second- order boundary layer of an incompressible fluid with heat transfer. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15 (1972) 99-113

13. Rajappa, N. R.: Die inkompressible Granzsehicht h6herer Ordnung am rotationssymmetrischen Staupunkt bei starkem Absaugen oder Ausblasen. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 24 (1973)

317-329

14. Gersten, K.; Gross, C. F.: Mass-transfer effects on higher- order boundary layer solutions: The leading edges of a swept cylinder. Int. J. Heat Transfer 16 (1973) 65-79

15. Papenfuss, H. D.: Higher-order solutions for incompressible three-dimensional boundary-layer flow at the stagnation point of a general body. Arch. Mech. 26 (1974) 459-478

16. Papenfuss, H. D.: Mass transfer effects on the three-dimen- sional second-order boundary layer flow at the stagnation point of blunt bodies. Mech. Res. Commun. 1 (1974) 285-

290

17. Afzal, N.; Ahamed, M.: Effects of suction and injection on self-similar solutions of second-order boundary layer equa- tions. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 18 (1975) 607-614

18. Papenfuss, H. D.: The second-order boundary-layer effects for the compressible three-dimensional stagnation-point flow. J. Mech. 16 (1977) 705-732

19. Gersten, K.; Papenfuss, H. D.; Gross, J. F.: Influence of the Prandtl number on second-order heat transfer due to surface curvature at a three-dimensional stagnation point. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 21 (1978) 275-284

20. Krishnaswamy, R.; Nath, G.: Compressible second-order boundary layers for three-dimensional stagnation-point flow with mass transfer. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 20 (1982) 1221- 1234

21. Afzal, N.; Rizvi, S,: Second-order unsteady stagnation-point boundary-layer solutions. AIAA J. 15 (1977) 1051 - 1053

22. Arunachalam, M.; Rajappa, N. R.: Unsteady boundary layer on a two-dimensional or axisymmetric body with higher order effects. Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 60 (1980) 147-152

23. Wortman, A.; Ziegler, H.; Soo Hoo, G.: Convective heat transfer at general three-dimensional stgnation point. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 14 (1971) 149-152

theory, Part

1 and 2. J. Fluid Mech.

14 (1962)

161-177,

24. Libby, P. A.: Heat and mass transfer at a general three-

481 - 495

dimensional stagnation point. AIAA J. 5 (1967) 507-517

5. Van Dyke, M.: Second-order compressible boundary layer

theory with application to blunt bodies in hypersonic flow. Hypersonic Flow Res. 7 (1962) 37-76

boundary

6. Maslen,

S.

H.:

Second-order effects in laminar

layers. AIAA J. 1 (1963)33-40

7. Van Dyke, M.: Higher approximations in boundary layer theory, Part 3. J. Fluid Mech. 19 (1964) 145-159

8. Davis, R. J.; Fliigge-Lotz, I.: The laminar compressible boundary layer in the stagnation-point region of an axisym-

metric blunt body including the second-order effect of vor- ticity interaction. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 7 (1964) 341-370

9. Fannel6p, T. K.; Fltigge-Lotz, I.: Two-dimensional hypersonic

Z. Flugwiss. 13

stagnation flow at low Reynolds number. (1965) 282-296

25. Inouye, K.; Tate, A.: Finite-difference version of quasi- linearization applied to boundary layer equations. AIAA J. 12 (1974) 558- 560

26. Liu, T. M.; Chiu, H. H.: Fast and stable numerical method for boundary layer flow with massive blowing. AIAA J. 14 (1976) 114-116

Dr. R. Vasantha and Prof. G. Nath Department of Applied Mathematics Indian Institute of Science Bangalore-560 012 India

Received August 20, 1985