Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Homopolargenerator

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AhomopolargeneratorisaDCelectricalgeneratorcomprisingan electricallyconductivediscorcylinderrotatinginaplane perpendiculartoauniformstaticmagneticfield.Apotential differenceiscreatedbetweenthecenterofthediscandtherim(or endsofthecylinder)withanelectricalpolaritythatdependsonthe directionofrotationandtheorientationofthefield.Itisalsoknown asaunipolargenerator,acyclicgenerator,diskdynamo,or Faradaydisc.Thevoltageistypicallylow,ontheorderofafew voltsinthecaseofsmalldemonstrationmodels,butlargeresearch generatorscanproducehundredsofvolts,andsomesystemshave multiplegeneratorsinseriestoproduceanevenlargervoltage. [1] Theyareunusualinthattheycansourcetremendouselectric current,somemorethanamillionamperes,becausethehomopolar generatorcanbemadetohaveverylowinternalresistance.

Contents

  1 TheFaradaydisc   2 Homopolargeneratordevelopment   3 Descriptionandoperation 3.1 Disk­typegenerator
 

1 TheFaradaydisc

  1 TheFaradaydisc   2 Homopolargeneratordevelopment   3 Descriptionandoperation 3.1 Disk­typegenerator
 

2 Homopolargeneratordevelopment

1 TheFaradaydisc   2 Homopolargeneratordevelopment   3 Descriptionandoperation 3.1 Disk­typegenerator 3.2
 

3 Descriptionandoperation

  3 Descriptionandoperation 3.1 Disk­typegenerator 3.2 Drum­typegenerator   4

3.1 Disk­typegenerator

  3 Descriptionandoperation 3.1 Disk­typegenerator 3.2 Drum­typegenerator   4

3.2 Drum­typegenerator

3.1 Disk­typegenerator 3.2 Drum­typegenerator   4 Astrophysicalunipolarinductors   5 Physics
 

4 Astrophysicalunipolarinductors

Drum­typegenerator   4 Astrophysicalunipolarinductors   5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1
 

5 Physics

  4 Astrophysicalunipolarinductors   5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1 Generalreferences
 

6 Seealso

  5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1 Generalreferences 7.2 Furtherreading
 

7 References

  5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1 Generalreferences 7.2 Furtherreading

7.1 Generalreferences

  5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1 Generalreferences 7.2 Furtherreading

7.2 Furtherreading

  5 Physics   6 Seealso   7 References 7.1 Generalreferences 7.2 Furtherreading

8 Externallinks

Faradaydisk,thefirsthomopolar generator

Faradaydisk,thefirsthomopolar

generator

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheFaradaydisc

ThefirsthomopolargeneratorwasdevelopedbyMichaelFaraday

duringhisexperimentsin1831.ItisfrequentlycalledtheFaraday

discorFaradaywheelinhishonor.Itwasthebeginningofmodern

dynamos—thatis,electricalgeneratorswhichoperateusinga

magneticfield.Itwasveryinefficientandwasnotusedasa

practicalpowersource,butitshowedthepossibilityofgenerating

electricpowerusingmagnetism,andledthewayforcommutated

directcurrentdynamosandthenalternatingcurrentalternators.

Faradaydisc

Faradaydisc

TheFaradaydiscwasprimarilyinefficientduetocounterflowsof

current.Whilecurrentflowwasinduceddirectlyunderneaththe

magnet,thecurrentwouldcirculatebackwardsinregionsoutside

theinfluenceofthemagneticfield.Thiscounterflowlimitsthe

poweroutputtothepickupwires,andinduceswasteheatingofthe

copperdisc.Laterhomopolargeneratorswouldsolvethisproblembyusinganarrayofmagnetsarranged

aroundthediscperimetertomaintainasteadyfieldaroundthecircumference,andeliminateareaswhere

counterflowcouldoccur.

Homopolargeneratordevelopment

LongaftertheoriginalFaradaydischadbeenabandonedasa practicalgenerator,amodifiedversioncombiningthemagnetand discinasinglerotatingpart(therotor)wasdeveloped.Sometimes thenamehomopolargeneratorisreservedforthisconfiguration. Oneoftheearliestpatentsonthegeneraltypeofhomopolar

describesanarrangementoftwoparalleldiscswithseparate,parallelshafts,joinedlikepulleysbya metallicbelt.Eachdischadafieldthatwastheoppositeoftheother,sothattheflowofcurrentwasfrom theoneshafttothediscedge,acrossthebelttotheotherdiscedgeandtothesecondshaft.Thiswouldhave greatlyreducedthefrictionallossescausedbyslidingcontactsbyallowingbothelectricalpickupsto interfacewiththeshaftsofthetwodisksratherthanattheshaftandahigh­speedrim.Later,patentswere awardedtoC.P.SteinmetzandE.Thomsonfortheirworkwithhomopolargenerators.TheForbes dynamo,developedbytheScottishelectricalengineerGeorgeForbes,wasinwidespreaduseduringthe

TheremainsoftheANU500MJ generator

TheremainsoftheANU500MJ

generator

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Homopolargeneratorsunderwentarenaissanceinthe1950sasasourceofpulsedpowerstorage.These

devicesusedheavydisksasaformofflywheeltostoremechanicalenergythatcouldbequicklydumped intoanexperimentalapparatus.AnearlyexampleofthissortofdevicewasbuiltbySirMarkOliphantat theResearchSchoolofPhysicalSciencesandEngineering,AustralianNationalUniversity.Itstoredupto 500megajoulesofenergy [3] andwasusedasanextremelyhigh­currentsourceforsynchrotron

experimentationfrom1962untilitwasdisassembledin1986.Oliphant'sconstructionwascapableof

supplyingcurrentsofupto2megaamperes(MA).

SimilardevicesofevenlargersizearedesignedandbuiltbyParkerKineticDesigns(formerlyOIME Research&Development)ofAustin.Theyhaveproduceddevicesforavarietyofroles,frompowering

railgunstolinearmotors(forspacelaunches)toavarietyofweaponsdesigns.Industrialdesignsof10MJ

wereintroducedforavarietyofroles,includingelectricalwelding. [4]

Descriptionandoperation

Disk­typegenerator

periphery.Ithasbeenusedforgeneratingveryhighcurrentsatlow

voltagesinapplicationssuchaswelding,electrolysisandrailgun

research.Inpulsedenergyapplications,theangularmomentumof

therotorisusedtostoreenergyoveralongperiodandthenrelease

itinashorttime.

BasicFaradaydiscgenerator

BasicFaradaydiscgenerator

Incontrasttoothertypesofgenerators,theoutputvoltagenever

thefieldisaxial,sotheelectromotiveforceisradial.Theelectrical

contactsareusuallymadethrougha"brush"orslipring,whichresultsinlargelossesatthelowvoltages

generated.Someoftheselossescanbereducedbyusingmercuryorothereasilyliquifiedmetaloralloy

(gallium,NaK)asthe"brush",toprovideessentiallyuninterruptedelectricalcontact.

Arecentsuggestedmodificationistouseaplasmacontactsuppliedbyanegativeresistanceneonstreamer

touchingtheedgeofthediskordrum,usingspecializedlowworkfunctioncarboninverticalstrips.This

wouldhavetheadvantageofverylowresistancewithinacurrentrangepossiblyuptothousandsofAmps

withouttheliquidmetalcontact.

Ifthemagneticfieldisprovidedbyapermanentmagnet,thegeneratorworksregardlessofwhetherthe

Drum­typegenerator

Adrum­typehomopolargeneratorhasamagneticfield(B)thatradiatesradiallyfromthecenterofthedrum

andinducesvoltage(V)downthelengthofthedrum.Aconductingdrumspunfromaboveinthefieldofa

"loudspeaker"typeofmagnetthathasonepoleinthecenterofthedrumandtheotherpolesurroundingthe

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

drumcoulduseconductingballbearingsatthetopandbottomofthedrumtopickupthegeneratedcurrent.

Astrophysicalunipolarinductors

Unipolarinductorsoccurinastrophysicswhereaconductorrotatesthroughamagneticfield,forexample,

themovementofthehighlyconductiveplasmainacosmicbody'sionospherethroughitsmagneticfield.In

theirbook,CosmicalElectrodynamics,HannesAlfvénandCarl­GunneFälthammarwrite:

"Sincecosmicalcloudsofionizedgasaregenerallymagnetized,theirmotionproducesinduced

electricfields[ ]Forexamplethemotionofthemagnetizedinterplanetaryplasmaproduceselectric

fieldsthatareessentialfortheproductionofauroraandmagneticstorms"[

"

phenomenoniswellknownfromlaboratoryexperimentsandisusuallycalled'homopolar'or

'unipolar'induction. [5]

]

therotationofaconductorinamagneticfieldproducesanelectricfieldinthesystematrest.This

Physics

Likealldynamos,theFaradaydiscconvertskineticenergytoelectricalenergy.Thismachinecannotbe

analysedusingFaraday'sownlawofelectromagneticinduction.Thislaw(initsmodernform)statesthatan

electriccurrentisinducedinaclosedelectricalcircuitwhenthemagneticfluxenclosedbythecircuit

changes.InFaraday'slaw,EMFisthetime­derivativeofflux,soaDCEMFisonlypossibleifthemagnetic

fluxisgettinguniformlylargerandlargerperpetually.Butinthegenerator,themagneticfieldisconstant

andthediscstaysinthesameposition,sonomagneticfluxesaregrowinglargerandlarger.Sothis

examplecannotbeanalyzeddirectlywithFaraday'slaw.

TheLorentzforcelawismoreeasilyusedtoexplainthemachine'sbehaviour.Thislaw,formulatedthirty yearsafterFaraday'sdeath,statesthattheforceonanelectronisproportionaltothecrossproductofits velocityandthemagneticfluxvector.Ingeometricalterms,thismeansthattheforceisatright­anglesto boththevelocity(azimuthal)andthemagneticflux(axial),whichisthereforeinaradialdirection.The radialmovementoftheelectronsinthediscproducesachargeseparationbetweenthecenterofthediscand itsrim,andifthecircuitiscompletedanelectriccurrentwillbeproduced. [21]

Seealso

References

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

1.

Losty,H.H.W&Lewis,D.L.(1973)HomopolarMachines.PhilosophicalTransactionsfortheRoyalSocietyof

London.SeriesA,MathematicalandPhysicalSciences.275(1248),69­75

2.

3.

J.W.Blamey,P.O.Carden,L.U.Hibbard,E.K.Inall,R.A.MarshallandSirMarkOliphant,'Thelarge

homopolargeneratoratCanberra:initialtests',Nature,195(1962),pp.113–114.

4.

IntegrityResearchInstitute,1994,pg.45

5.

HannesAlfvénandCarl­GunneFälthammar,CosmicalElectrodynamics(1963)2ndEdition,OxfordUniversity

Press.Seesec.1.3.1.Inducedelectricfieldinuniformlymovingmatter.

6.

0633),vol.31,Oct.1983,p.1187–1198

7.

(Ontheoriginofcosmicradiation)"ComptesRendus,204,pp.1180–1181(1937)

8.

Society,Volume343,Issue1,pp.L10–L14

9.

10.

1982,p.87–99

11.

12.

640X),vol.144,no.1–2,May1988,pp.73–84.

13.

14.

(2002)TheAstrophysicalJournal,Volume581,Issue1,pp.L51–L54

15.

16.

17.

1975,pp.177–204.

18.

1,pp.77–83.

19.

vol.17,Nov.1990,pp.2273–2276.

20.

1979,pp.93–10

21.

DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomy,UppsalaUniversity,Sweden

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Generalreferences

Musings,October,1997.(PDF)

Musings,October,1997.(PDF)

JohnDavidJackson,ClassicalElectrodynamics,Wiley,3rded.1998,ISBN0­471­30932­X

ArthurI.Miller,"UnipolarInduction:ACaseStudyoftheInteractionbetweenScienceand

Technology,"AnnalsofScience,Volume38,pp.155–189(1981).

yearsofthepioneerschoolattheANUCanberra:ResearchSchoolofPhysicalSciencesand

Engineering,AustralianNationalUniversity.ISBN0­85800­048­2.(PDF)

ThomasValone,TheHomopolarHandbook:ADefinitiveGuidetoFaradayDiskandN­Machine

Technologies.Washington,DC,U.S.A.:IntegrityResearchInstitute,2001.ISBN0­964107­0­1­5

Furtherreading

RichardA.MarshallandWilliamF.Weldon,"ParameterSelectionforHomopolarGeneratorsUsed

asPulsedEnergyStores",CenterforElectromechanics,UniversityofTexas,Austin,Jul.1980.(also

publishedin:ElectricalMachinesandElectromechanics,6:109–127,1981.)

Externallinks

PopularScienceMonthly,ConstructionofUnipolarDynamos,April1916,pp.624–626,Scanned

CEM.

DepartmentofPhysics,UniversityofMaryland,2005.(PDF)

16.

1/20/2016

Homopolargenerator­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Thispagewaslastmodifiedon16September2015,at03:58.

TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttribution­ShareAlikeLicense;additionaltermsmay

apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipedia®isa

registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anon­profitorganization.