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62 (de) vizualizări11 paginiSTABILITY AND STEADY-STATE ERROR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SYSTEMS

Jun 26, 2017

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STABILITY AND STEADY-STATE ERROR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SYSTEMS

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STABILITY AND STEADY-STATE ERROR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SYSTEMS

© All Rights Reserved

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Activity No. 3

I. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES

This activity aims to

1. demonstrate the use of computer aided tools in analyzing the stability and steady-state error of

linear systems; and

2. equip the students with the skills and knowledge in designing systems with the aid of tools to

achieve transient response and steady-state error requirements of systems while ensuring stability.

At the end of this activity, the students shall be able to

1. analyze the stability and steady-state error of dynamic systems described by transfer functions;

2. design component values of systems to meet steady-state error requirements while ensuring

stability.

Stability is the most important requirement of any control system. If the system is unstable, it cannot be

designed for transient response and steady-state error. It also poses threat to life and property, as

instability can mean a motor that has uncontrollable speed, or too much heat produced by a heater. In the

discussion, two definitions of stability are offered:

A system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time approaches infinity.

A system is stable if every bounded input yields a bounded output (the bounded-input bounded-

output or BIBO requirement).

It was also discussed that stability is also related to the location of the closed-loop poles. In the discussion,

the following were concluded:

A system is stable if all of its closed-loop poles are in the left-half of the complex s-plane.

A system is marginally stable if it has poles of multiplicity one at the j-axis.

A system is unstable if it has at least one pole on the right-half of the complex s-plane or has

multiple poles on a single location at the j-axis.

To find how the poles are distributed on the complex s-plane, the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is being used,

although tools such as MATLAB and LabVIEW can compute the exact location of closed-loop poles of a

higher-ordered system.

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 1

Feedback and Control Systems

Steady-state error is the difference of the actual output to the desired output of the system. It can be

evaluated using the closed-loop transfer function or an equivalent unity feedback system. In the discussion,

the latter approach was preferred, since it also provides perspective on the static error constants which

relates to the error of the system.

In this activity, the analysis and design of systems related to stability and steady-state error using MATLAB

and LabVIEW will be explored.

To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or

higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the

control design and simulation module.

V. LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Activity 3.1 Stability via pole location

1. Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the pole location distribution of the system whose

configuration is shown below. Complete the table.

System (via Routh-Hurwitz criterion)

Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

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2. MATLAB. The pole-zero map of the closed-loop transfer function can be plotted and from there, the

number of poles on the left-half, right-half and the j-axis of the complex s-plane. The command

roots()computes the roots of a polynomial whose coefficients are written as a row matrix. If the

polynomial has the form

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 2

Feedback and Control Systems

P(s) = a s + a s ++ a s +a

Q1.2(a) Using MATLAB, complete the table below. Sketch the pole-zero plot of the closed-loop

transfer function. Indicate the number of poles, as well as the exact location of the poles under

each region of the -plane.

System (via MATLAB)

Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

Pole-zero Map

Q1.2(b) Does the results returned by MATLAB agree with the results generated by the Routh table.

Is the conclusion about the stability of system the same when the results generated by MATLAB

were interpreted?

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3. LabVIEW. Build the act03-01.vi VI as shown below. The VI analyzes the stability of the system whose

configuration is shown in the front panel.

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 3

Feedback and Control Systems

Q1.3(a) Using the VI, complete the table below. Sketch the pole-zero plot of the closed-loop transfer

function. Indicate the number of closed-loop poles, as well as the exact location of these poles

under each region of the -plane.

System (via LabVIEW)

Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

Pole-zero Map

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 4

Feedback and Control Systems

Q1.3(b) Will you reach the same conclusions about the stability of the system when the LabVIEW

virtual instrument is used?

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Q1.3(c) Use MATLAB and LabVIEW to complete the table below. Indicate the number of closed-loop

poles, as well as their exact location under each region of the complex -plane. Under Remarks,

tell whether the system is stable, unstable or marginally stable. On separate sheets of paper, sketch

the closed-loop pole-zero map of each of the systems. Verify the results using Routh table.

System and location Remarks

LHP RHP -axis

34

T(s) =

s + 10s + 35s + 50s + 34

with

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 5

Feedback and Control Systems

1. The steady-state error will be evaluated using the configuration below. Refer to the lecture on the

formulas to be used in evaluating the static error constants and the error for step, ramp and parabolic

test inputs.

Remember that the system must be tested first for stability before analyzing it for transient response or

steady-state error. Thus, the techniques learned in Activity 3.1 can be applied first before proceeding.

2. MATLAB. To use MATLAB, the object representing G(s) must be converted first to a symbolic object.

If G contains the transfer function object, use the following commands to convert G into a symbolic

object Gsym.

>> syms s

>> Gsym = poly2sym(cell2mat(num),s)/poly2sym(cell2mat(den),s)

Gsym is now a symbolic math object. The function limit()can now be used to evaluate the static

error constants, which will be then used to evaluate the error for various test inputs. As an example, if

Gsym is the symbolic object representing the open-loop transfer function of the unity feedback system

as shown in step one of this sub-activity, then the static error constant K and the error due to the step

input e () are evaluated as

>> Kp = limit(Gsym,0)

>> estep = 1/(1+Kp)

Q2.1(a) What does the following functions in MATLAB do: tfdata(), syms, poly2sym(),

cell2mat(). Discuss the syntax and the required arguments of each function.

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Q2.2(b) Use MATLAB to evaluate the static error constants and steady-state errors of the systems

shown below. Complete the table. Verify the values obtained using manual calculations. For the last

system, assume that the input and output are the same quantity.

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 6

Feedback and Control Systems

System (check if stable) () () ()

3. LabVIEW. Build the act03-02.vi as shown below. The Array of Polynomial Coefficients to Formula

String.vi can be obtained from your instructor or from this link:

https://decibel.ni.com/content/docs/DOC-22590 if you have an available internet connection.

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 7

Feedback and Control Systems

Q2.3(a) Use the VI above to evaluate the static error constants and steady-state errors of the

systems shown below. Complete the table. For the last system, assume that the input and output

are the same quantity.

Static error constants Steady-state errors

System (check if stable) () () ()

VI. CONCLUSIONS

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Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 8

Feedback and Control Systems

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1. For the system shown below, do the following:

(a) At K = 10, is the system stable? Find the system type, the static error constant and the error of

the system at this gain, then plot and determine the time response parameters if possible.

(b) Repeat part (a) at K = 10 .

(c) Plot the value of the static error constant and the steady-state error as a function of the gain K for

the range at which the system is stable. What conclusions can be drawn from the plot?

2. The open-loop transfer function of a swivel controller and plant for an industrial robot is given as

(s) K

G (s) = =

V (s) (s + 10)(s + 4s + 10)

where (s) is the Laplace transform of the robots angular swivel velocity and V (s) is the input

voltage to the controller. Assume G (s) is the forward transfer function of a velocity control loop with

an input transducer and a sensor, each represented by a constant gain of 3 (Schneider, 1992), do the

following:

(a) Plot the value of the error of the system as a function of the gain K at the range of K for which the

system is stable.

(b) Design the value of the gain K to minimize the steady-state error between the input commanded

angular swivel velocity and the output actual angular swivel velocity. Show that the system is still

stable at the design point.

(c) For the chosen value of the gain at part (b), determine the system type, steady-state error and the

transient response of the system.

VIII. REFERENCES

N. Nise. (2011). Control Systems Engineering 6th Edition. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons.

R. Dorf& R. Bishop. (2011). Modern Control Systems 12th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

MathWorks (2009 June 26). How can I convert a transfer function object from the Control System Toolbox

into a symbolic object for use with the Symbolic Math Toolbox?. From

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 9

Feedback and Control Systems

http://www.mathworks.com/support/solutions/en/data/1-1BS2O/?product=SM&solution=1-1BS2O

retrieved 2012 Nov 02.

Ryan-C (2012 May 23). Convert Array of Polynomials to Formula String Input. Message posted to

https://decibel.ni.com/content/docs/DOC-22590

INTENDED LEARNING

1 2 3 Points

OUTCOMES

The student was able to

steady-state error of The student was not able to analyze the stability of the The student was able to

dynamic systems analyze the stability and system but not the steady-state analyze the stability and

described by transfer steady-state error of the error, or was able to obtain the steady-state error of the

functions. system. steady-state error but did not system properly.

check for stability.

(MP 1)

Design component

The student was able to

values of systems to The student was able to design

correctly design component

The student was not able to component values but does not

meet steady-state error values of the system that

design the component values fully meet the steady-state

requirements while meets stability and steady-state

of the systems. error requirements or that the

ensuring stability. error requirements and the

design was not verified.

design is correctly verified.

(MP 2)

Total Score

Members do not follow Members follow good

and safe laboratory

Conduct experiments in accordance with good and safe laboratory and safe laboratory

practice most of the time

good and safe laboratory practice. practice in the conduct of practice at all times in the

in the conduct of

experiments. conduct of experiments.

experiments.

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 10

Feedback and Control Systems

Members are able to

Members are unable to operate the equipment

Operate equipment and instruments with operate equipment and

operate the equipment and instruments with

ease instrument with

and instruments. ease and with minimum

supervision.

supervision.

The group has complete

Analyze data, validate experimental values data, validates

The group has complete

against theoretical values to determine The group has experimental values

data but has no analysis

possible experimental errors, and provide incomplete data. against theoretical

and valid conclusion.

valid conclusions. values, and provides

valid conclusion.

Total Score

Laboratory Rating

A B Total

Activity No. 3 Stability and Steady-state Error Analysis and Design of Systems Page 11

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