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# Feedback and Control Systems

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## STABILITY AND STEADY-STATE ERROR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SYSTEMS

Activity No. 3

I. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES
This activity aims to
1. demonstrate the use of computer aided tools in analyzing the stability and steady-state error of
linear systems; and
2. equip the students with the skills and knowledge in designing systems with the aid of tools to
achieve transient response and steady-state error requirements of systems while ensuring stability.

## II. INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this activity, the students shall be able to
1. analyze the stability and steady-state error of dynamic systems described by transfer functions;
2. design component values of systems to meet steady-state error requirements while ensuring
stability.

## III. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Stability is the most important requirement of any control system. If the system is unstable, it cannot be
designed for transient response and steady-state error. It also poses threat to life and property, as
instability can mean a motor that has uncontrollable speed, or too much heat produced by a heater. In the
discussion, two definitions of stability are offered:

A system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time approaches infinity.
A system is stable if every bounded input yields a bounded output (the bounded-input bounded-
output or BIBO requirement).

It was also discussed that stability is also related to the location of the closed-loop poles. In the discussion,
the following were concluded:

A system is stable if all of its closed-loop poles are in the left-half of the complex s-plane.
A system is marginally stable if it has poles of multiplicity one at the j-axis.
A system is unstable if it has at least one pole on the right-half of the complex s-plane or has
multiple poles on a single location at the j-axis.

To find how the poles are distributed on the complex s-plane, the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is being used,
although tools such as MATLAB and LabVIEW can compute the exact location of closed-loop poles of a
higher-ordered system.

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Steady-state error is the difference of the actual output to the desired output of the system. It can be
evaluated using the closed-loop transfer function or an equivalent unity feedback system. In the discussion,
the latter approach was preferred, since it also provides perspective on the static error constants which
relates to the error of the system.

In this activity, the analysis and design of systems related to stability and steady-state error using MATLAB
and LabVIEW will be explored.

## IV. RESOURCES NEEDED

To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or
higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the
control design and simulation module.

V. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Activity 3.1 Stability via pole location
1. Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the pole location distribution of the system whose
configuration is shown below. Complete the table.

## Closed-loop pole distribution

System (via Routh-Hurwitz criterion)
Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

## Q1.1(a) What can be said about the stability of the system?

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2. MATLAB. The pole-zero map of the closed-loop transfer function can be plotted and from there, the
number of poles on the left-half, right-half and the j-axis of the complex s-plane. The command
roots()computes the roots of a polynomial whose coefficients are written as a row matrix. If the
polynomial has the form

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P(s) = a s + a s ++ a s +a

## >> roots([an an-1 ... a1 a0])

Q1.2(a) Using MATLAB, complete the table below. Sketch the pole-zero plot of the closed-loop
transfer function. Indicate the number of poles, as well as the exact location of the poles under
each region of the -plane.

## Closed-loop pole distribution

System (via MATLAB)
Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

Pole-zero Map

Q1.2(b) Does the results returned by MATLAB agree with the results generated by the Routh table.
Is the conclusion about the stability of system the same when the results generated by MATLAB
were interpreted?
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3. LabVIEW. Build the act03-01.vi VI as shown below. The VI analyzes the stability of the system whose
configuration is shown in the front panel.

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Q1.3(a) Using the VI, complete the table below. Sketch the pole-zero plot of the closed-loop transfer
function. Indicate the number of closed-loop poles, as well as the exact location of these poles
under each region of the -plane.

## Closed-loop pole distribution

System (via LabVIEW)
Left-half plane Right-half plane -axis

Pole-zero Map

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Q1.3(b) Will you reach the same conclusions about the stability of the system when the LabVIEW
virtual instrument is used?
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Q1.3(c) Use MATLAB and LabVIEW to complete the table below. Indicate the number of closed-loop
poles, as well as their exact location under each region of the complex -plane. Under Remarks,
tell whether the system is stable, unstable or marginally stable. On separate sheets of paper, sketch
the closed-loop pole-zero map of each of the systems. Verify the results using Routh table.

## Closed-loop pole distribution

System and location Remarks
LHP RHP -axis

34
T(s) =
s + 10s + 35s + 50s + 34

with

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## Activity 3.2 Analysis of steady-state error.

1. The steady-state error will be evaluated using the configuration below. Refer to the lecture on the
formulas to be used in evaluating the static error constants and the error for step, ramp and parabolic
test inputs.

Remember that the system must be tested first for stability before analyzing it for transient response or
steady-state error. Thus, the techniques learned in Activity 3.1 can be applied first before proceeding.

2. MATLAB. To use MATLAB, the object representing G(s) must be converted first to a symbolic object.
If G contains the transfer function object, use the following commands to convert G into a symbolic
object Gsym.

## >> [num den] = tfdata(G);

>> syms s
>> Gsym = poly2sym(cell2mat(num),s)/poly2sym(cell2mat(den),s)

Gsym is now a symbolic math object. The function limit()can now be used to evaluate the static
error constants, which will be then used to evaluate the error for various test inputs. As an example, if
Gsym is the symbolic object representing the open-loop transfer function of the unity feedback system
as shown in step one of this sub-activity, then the static error constant K and the error due to the step
input e () are evaluated as

>> Kp = limit(Gsym,0)
>> estep = 1/(1+Kp)

Q2.1(a) What does the following functions in MATLAB do: tfdata(), syms, poly2sym(),
cell2mat(). Discuss the syntax and the required arguments of each function.
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Q2.2(b) Use MATLAB to evaluate the static error constants and steady-state errors of the systems
shown below. Complete the table. Verify the values obtained using manual calculations. For the last
system, assume that the input and output are the same quantity.
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## Static error constants Steady-state errors

System (check if stable) () () ()

3. LabVIEW. Build the act03-02.vi as shown below. The Array of Polynomial Coefficients to Formula
https://decibel.ni.com/content/docs/DOC-22590 if you have an available internet connection.

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Q2.3(a) Use the VI above to evaluate the static error constants and steady-state errors of the
systems shown below. Complete the table. For the last system, assume that the input and output
are the same quantity.
System (check if stable) () () ()

VI. CONCLUSIONS

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## VII. ASSESSMENT TASKS - MACHINE PROBLEMS

1. For the system shown below, do the following:
(a) At K = 10, is the system stable? Find the system type, the static error constant and the error of
the system at this gain, then plot and determine the time response parameters if possible.
(b) Repeat part (a) at K = 10 .
(c) Plot the value of the static error constant and the steady-state error as a function of the gain K for
the range at which the system is stable. What conclusions can be drawn from the plot?

2. The open-loop transfer function of a swivel controller and plant for an industrial robot is given as
(s) K
G (s) = =
V (s) (s + 10)(s + 4s + 10)
where (s) is the Laplace transform of the robots angular swivel velocity and V (s) is the input
voltage to the controller. Assume G (s) is the forward transfer function of a velocity control loop with
an input transducer and a sensor, each represented by a constant gain of 3 (Schneider, 1992), do the
following:
(a) Plot the value of the error of the system as a function of the gain K at the range of K for which the
system is stable.
(b) Design the value of the gain K to minimize the steady-state error between the input commanded
angular swivel velocity and the output actual angular swivel velocity. Show that the system is still
stable at the design point.
(c) For the chosen value of the gain at part (b), determine the system type, steady-state error and the
transient response of the system.

VIII. REFERENCES
N. Nise. (2011). Control Systems Engineering 6th Edition. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons.

R. Dorf& R. Bishop. (2011). Modern Control Systems 12th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

MathWorks (2009 June 26). How can I convert a transfer function object from the Control System Toolbox
into a symbolic object for use with the Symbolic Math Toolbox?. From

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http://www.mathworks.com/support/solutions/en/data/1-1BS2O/?product=SM&solution=1-1BS2O
retrieved 2012 Nov 02.

Ryan-C (2012 May 23). Convert Array of Polynomials to Formula String Input. Message posted to
https://decibel.ni.com/content/docs/DOC-22590

## A. Assessment rubric for the activitys intended learning outcomes (70%)

INTENDED LEARNING
1 2 3 Points
OUTCOMES

## Analyze the stability and

The student was able to
steady-state error of The student was not able to analyze the stability of the The student was able to
dynamic systems analyze the stability and system but not the steady-state analyze the stability and
described by transfer steady-state error of the error, or was able to obtain the steady-state error of the
functions. system. steady-state error but did not system properly.
check for stability.
(MP 1)
Design component
The student was able to
values of systems to The student was able to design
correctly design component
The student was not able to component values but does not
meet steady-state error values of the system that
design the component values fully meet the steady-state
requirements while meets stability and steady-state
of the systems. error requirements or that the
ensuring stability. error requirements and the
design was not verified.
design is correctly verified.
(MP 2)
Total Score

## Performance Indicators 1 2 3 Points

and safe laboratory
Conduct experiments in accordance with good and safe laboratory and safe laboratory
practice most of the time
good and safe laboratory practice. practice in the conduct of practice at all times in the
in the conduct of
experiments. conduct of experiments.
experiments.

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## Members are able to

Members are able to
Members are unable to operate the equipment
Operate equipment and instruments with operate equipment and
operate the equipment and instruments with
ease instrument with
and instruments. ease and with minimum
supervision.
supervision.
The group has complete
Analyze data, validate experimental values data, validates
The group has complete
against theoretical values to determine The group has experimental values
data but has no analysis
possible experimental errors, and provide incomplete data. against theoretical
and valid conclusion.
valid conclusions. values, and provides
valid conclusion.
Total Score

## B = 30% of the Percentage Score

Laboratory Rating

A B Total

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