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Title:Cell structure 1

All living organisms are composed of cells. A cell is a small, membrane-bound

compartment that contains all the chemicals and molecules that help support an
organism's life. An understanding of the structure of cells is one of the first steps in
comprehending the complex cellular interactions that direct and produce life.

Cells is like a building blocks of organisms. Some of the organisms are composed by a
single cell but most of them . Others, like ourselves, are composed of millions of cells
that work together to perform the much complex functions that make us different
from other single organism.Before we can understand how multiple cells can work
together to create complex biological functions, it is more significant that to
understand what biological functions single cells are capable of performing on their
own to sustain life.

There are different types of cells with individuated structures. Single-celled

organisms have different cell structure than mufti-celled organisms and plant cells
have different structures from animal cells. These differences reflect differences in
the functions that each of these classes of cells is required to perform. While the
focus of this guide will be on the structures that compose complex cellular
organisms.Cells are now knows as mainly divided by two categories such as
prototypical cells, and Eucharistic cells.

Prokaryotic cells
The cells of every organism are mainly eukaryotic except bacteria.Only bacteria have
prokaryotic cells. There are two kingdoms of prokaryotic cells, the Bacteria
(Eubacteria) and the Archaebacteria. These two prokaryotic kingdoms are so
different from each other that they are actually classified into different domains, the
Domain Bacteria (contains only Kingdom Bacteria) and the Domain Archaea
(contains only Kingdom Archaebacteria). However, we will only examine the
Bacteria nowaday.

Prokaryotic cells impart from eukaryotic cells in that they does not has a
membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.However,they are a lot
of similarity between both prokaryotic and eukaryotic.For examples,both of them
have a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, ribosomes, and similar enzyme systems.
Other than that, some of the prokayotic cells like plants and fungi also have a cell
wall. Prokaryotic cells are usually require higher magnification to see (about 1000X)
and much smaller than eukaryotic cells. However, most of the prokaryotic cells are
able to exminated easily by useing 400X magnification of microscope.

Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles.Nowaday, we will
look at three kingdoms of eukaryotic cells with the microscope: Protista, Animalia,
and Plantae.For examples, plant cell, animal cells, Fungi and so on.

Unicellular leukocytes are belong to the kingdom Protagonist.The name protozoan

means first animal, but leukocytes may display either plant or animal-like
characteristics, or a combination of both. Although protagonist is unicellular cell,
they are able to function well with present of membrane-bound nucleus and
organelles. Every protagonist is a individual cells that carrying out all the essential
processes for survival in just one cell. They usually exist on moist soil and in fresh and
marine bodies of water. Recently research shown that they are only 30,000 known
species of protozoans, commonly classified according to their movement patterns as
woodinessmoving with false feet called pseudoscience or, flagellatesmoving
with whip-like structures known as flagella, calumniatesmoving with short hairs
known as cilia, and sporranswith no movement. They all have a varying shapes,
sizes, structure, and survival strategies. For example, some may consume small
particles of food such as bacteria or algae for purpose of nutrition and this process
called phagocytosis; whereas others may be parasitic, inhabiting larger organisms.
Despite they are many differences between them, all protagonists have several
characteristics in common. In addition to a nucleus or nuclei to house their genetic
material, most protagonists have Mondrian for metabolic functions, and vacuoles for
digestion and excretion. With the help of these and other cellular structures,
protagonists may feed, grow, and reproduce.

In this lab we observed select examples of cells in order to identify their cellular
structures.For examples, we are using pine needle, human blood, fresh water algae
and Flagellum to observed and identify their cellular structure.We also made
drawings of our observations using light and dissection microscopes to practice
proper microscopy skills, including making wet-mount slides and cell sizing. By
observing, drawing, and classifying protagonist, we learned about the cell structure
of all these cell. We also learned about the differences and similarities of various
cells .

To identify better cells structure, sometimes we may stain the specimen.The main
purpose of staining a specimen is to make a better viewed image on microscope.The
usually only make some part of the cell coloured so that we are able to have a better
viewed image. The main reason behind this is because sometimes a certain part of
the specimen cannot be seen even with highest magnification of microscope, so it
has to stained so that we are able to see and study.

1)To learn how to prepare a specimen by staining it and view under the microscope
2)To identify the unique structures of plant, animal, algae, and euglena under the
light microscope
3)To learn how to carry microscope correctly
4)To learn how to identify the different type of organelles by using different stain
5)To learn how to use different stain for different type of cell
6)To learn how to prepare wet mountslide
7)To learn the different between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell such as plant,
animal, algae, and euglena

i. Pine needle
ii. Blood cells(prepared slides)
iii. Spirogyra(prepared sildes)
iv. Microscope

1)Cell wall and middle lamella
a) The prepared temporary mount slide of pine needle taken from the lecture
b) Then the slide was observed under the light microscope
c) The temporary mount slide of pine needle observed under different
magnification which are 40X,100X,400X,1000X
d) Record the result and observation then label it

2)Blood cell
a)The prepared temporary mount slide of blood cell taken from the lecture
b)Then the slide was observed under the light microscope
c)The temporary mount slide of blood cell observed under different magnification
which are 40X,100X,400X,1000X
d)Record the result and observation then label it
3)Spirogyra cells
a)The prepared temporary mount slide of spirogyra cells taken from the lecture
b)Then the slide was observed under the light microscope
c)The temporary mount slide of spirogyra cell observed under different
magnification which are 40X,100X,400X,1000X
d)Record the result and observation then label it

Investigate the detailed structure of the cells by staining 3 separate slide with
a) Acetocarmine for the nucleus
b) Methylene blue for cell wall
c) Iodine solution for starch grains near pyrenoids
1)The thin line separating the cellulose walls of adjacent cells, the middle lamella, is
clearly visible. What does it represent?
Lamella represent a pectin layer which cement the cell walls of two adjoining plant
cells togather .It is the first formed layer which is deposited at the time of
cytokinesis.The cell plate that is formed during cell division itself develops into
middle lamellawhich made up of calsium and magnesium pectates.In a mature plant
cell it is outermost layer of cell wall.

2)What are the fine channels represent in the cellulose walls connect adjacent cells

3)Examine white blood cells in a prepared smear of human blood. Observe the
granulocytes. They move by amoeboid locomation and engulf bacteria by fagocyto
A)What other unusual feature is apparent in these cells?

B)While looking at the blood smear notice the red blood cell. How do theydiffer from
typical animals cells?

4)Can u identify the cell wall?

5)Study the shape of the chloroplasts with the pyrenoids, cytoplasm, nucleus
suspended in the centre of vacuoles by cytoplasmic bridles.What is the 3-dimenional
shape of the cells?

6)The cell wall contain mucilage(slimy). Why is this useful?

The cell walls contain mucilage is because mucilage playing an important role as
storage of water and food as it able to decrease water lost form cell.Mucilage could
also prevent plant form wounds as they create a gummy or gelatinous layer on
wounds to prevent microorganism go into the plant tissue. Other than that, mucilage
also contribute in germination of seeds.This is because upon contact with water,
they increase volume and maintain the layer moisture around the seed that
facilitates their germination. Beside that, mucilage also contribute in seed dispersal
as root mucilages used to promote the introduction of then in ground.