Sunteți pe pagina 1din 112
PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning Version 1.0.2 November 2006 Order No: 8.032

PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning

Version 1.0.2 November 2006

Order No: 8.032

PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning Version 1.0.2 November 2006 Order No: 8.032
PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning Version 1.0.2 November 2006 Order No: 8.032

PROFIBUS Order No: 8.032 Identification: Office-04-0008

This document was created by the “Installation Guide” ad hoc work group of the PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation e.V. (PNO).

Publisher:

PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation e.V. Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7 76131 Karlsruhe Germany

Phone:

+49 721 / 96 58 590

Fax:

+49 721 / 96 58 589

All rights reserved, including reprint, reproduction (photo copy, microfilm), storing in data processing systems, and translation, in whole or in part.

Revision log:

Version

 

Date

 

Changes/History

0.2.2

 

24.06.04

3.

Draft distribution for review

0.2.3

 

20.07.04

Changes according to the review of v.0.2.2 in Karlsruhe 01.07.04

0.2.4

 

09.08.04

Division into three documents (planning, assembly, commissioning)

     

4.

Draft distribution for review

0.2.5

26.11.04

Optical fibers chapter added Diagnostic telegram chapter added

0.2.6

 

05.02.05

Change according to review contributions

0.2.7

 

07.06.05

Change according to review contributions

0.2.8

 

17.09.05

Modified by A. Verwer

0.2.9

 

21.10.05

Workgroup review

0.2.10

 

30.10.05

Changes according to review comments

1.0.0

 

18.11.05

Official version created

1.0.1

 

07.02.06

Renaming of the document from Installation recommendation to Installation Guideline

1.0.2

AvE

17.11.06

Correction of table numbering

Contents

Revision log:

3

Contents

4

List of Figures

6

List of Tables

7

Preface

8

Safety Information

9

Disclaimer of Liability

10

 

Reference

Standards

11

Explanation of symbols

12

1

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

15

1.1

Introduction

16

1.2

Handheld Devices

17

1.3

Optical fiber measurements

21

1.3.1

Attenuation measurement for optical fibers

21

1.3.2

OTDR measurement

22

1.3.3

Using optical fiber measurement processes

23

1.4

Communication statistics

24

2

Assembly Acceptance

25

2.1

Visual Inspection - PROFIBUS Copper and optical fiber Cable

27

2.2

Acceptance Measurements PROFIBUS RS-485

30

Description of the acceptance process steps

32

2.3

Acceptance Measurements - PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

33

2.4

Acceptance measurements optical fiber

34

2.4.1

General

34

2.4.2

Measurement Results Damping Measurement

34

3

Commissioning / Acceptance

37

3.1

Bus test

38

3.2

Commissioning the bus

39

3.2.1

System configuration (step 3)

39

3.2.2

Verifying PROFIBUS station addresses (step 4)

42

3.2.3

Commissioning PROFIBUS stations (step 5)

43

3.2.4

Testing the Signal Inputs (step 6)

44

3.2.5

Testing the Signal Outputs (step 7)

44

3.2.6

Create acceptance checklist (step 8)

45

4

Troubleshooting

47

4.1

Introduction to troubleshooting

48

4.2

Checking the Cabling Infrastructure

49

4.3

Measurements with a Bus Monitor

50

4.4

The diagnostic telegram

51

4.5

Oscilloscope Measurements

53

4.5.1

Technical Prerequisites

53

4.5.2

Measurement Aids

54

4.5.3

Measurement PROFIBUS RS 485

55

4.5.4

Typical Signal Waveforms

60

4.5.5

Measurements PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

66

4.6

Optical fiber measurements

70

5

Annex

71

5.1

Commissioning/Acceptance Checklists

72

5.2

Multimeter (instrument for measuring voltage, resistance, and current)

78

5.2.1

PROFIBUS RS 485 with 9-Pin Sub-D Plug Connector

79

5.2.2

PROFIBUS RS 485 with 5-Pin M 12 Plug Connectors

86

5.2.3

PROFIBUS MBP (PA) with 4-pin M 12 Plug connectors

87

6

Terms / Definitions / Abbreviations

93

7

Index

103

Addresses

106

List of Figures

Fig. 1: Attenuation measurement principle

21

Fig. 2: OTDR measurement principle

23

Fig. 3: Measurement plug oscilloscope measurement

54

Fig. 4: Potential shift at signals

58

Fig. 5: Ideal signal form PROFIBUS RS485

59

Fig. 6: Measurement PROFIBUS RS-485

60

Fig. 7: Signal waveform for PROFIBUS cables that are too long

61

Fig. 8: Signal waveform for non-connected PROFIBUS stations

62

Fig. 9: Too much terminator resistance

64

Fig. 10: Missing terminator

65

Fig. 11: Ideal signal form PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

67

Fig. 12: PROFIBUS MBP (PA) with defective bus terminator

68

Fig. 13: Measurement PROFIBUS MBP (PA) (1 telegram)

69

Fig. 14: OTDR measurement principle

70

Fig. 15: PROFIBUS RS485 cable schematic with end terminations switched in

81

Fig. 16: Measurement aid sockets (PROFIBUS RS-485)

86

List of Tables

Table 1: Overview of device functions - BT 200

18

Table 2: Overview of device functions - PROFBUS Nettest II

19

Table 3: Overview of device functions - Bustest II

20

Table 4: Maximum fiber attenuation - optical fiber

21

Table 5: Checklist for visual inspection of PROFIBUS copper cable

28

Table: 6 Checklist for Acceptance measurements for PROFIBUS RS485 cabling

31

Table 7: Maximum fiber attenuation - optical fiber

35

Table 8: Resistance measurements for step 2 (PROFIBUS RS 485)

83

Table 9: Resistance measurements for step 3 (PROFIBUS RS 485)

84

Table 10: Resistance measurements for step 4 (PROFIBUS RS 485)

84

Table 11: Loop Resistance PROFIBUS MBP (PA) cable

87

Table 12: Resistance measurements for step 2 (PROFIBUS MBP (PA))

90

Table 13: Resistance measurements for step 3 (PROFIBUS MBP (PA))

90

Table 14: Resistance measurements for step 4 (PROFIBUS MBP (PA))

91

Preface

There are already a large number of documents available for PROFIBUS. So why is

the Installation Guideline for Commissioning being added now? The answer is very

simple. The existing documents have been created at different times and, therefore,

feature a different structure. In addition, they contain extensive specifications

directed at PROFIBUS component developers. The user does not require this

information, and it can be more a source of confusion than an aid.

The Installation Guideline for Commissioning, as the name implies, is designed to

support the commissioning of PROFIBUS systems. It helps you to verify proper

installation and assembly of your PROFIBUS network. Moreover, the Installation

Guideline helps you to locate possible errors. Consequently, the Installation

Guideline for Commissioning is designed not only for commissioning personnel, but

also for service personnel.

The presentation of information has been kept as simple as possible to ensure

understandability. However, commissioning and troubleshooting do require previous

PROFIBUS experience. Thus you should be familiar with the fundamentals involved

in planning and assembling PROFIBUS systems. In addition you should have

experience in implementing PROFBUS systems.

The operating principle of PROFIBUS is not discussed in the Installation Guideline

for Commissioning. If you require this information, please use the respective

documents provided by the PNO or corresponding technical literature.

Information on PROFIBUS assembly is available in the Guideline for Assembly

(Order no. 8.022).

This document does not replace any existing document. The previous documents of

the PNO remain in effect.

Safety Information

Safety Information The use of the PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning may involve handling hazardous

The use of the PROFIBUS Installation Guideline for Commissioning may involve handling hazardous materials or tools, or involve dangerous work. Due to the many and diverse applications of PROFIBUS, it is not possible to take all options or safety requirements into consideration. Each system makes different demands. In order for you to competently judge possible dangers, you must inform yourself about the safety requirements of the respective system before starting your work. Special attention must be paid to adhering to the laws and regulations of the respective country in which the system will be operated. You should also observe general health and safety requirements, as well as the requirements of the company for whom the system is being built. Also consider the documentation for the PROFIBUS components supplied by the manufacturer.

Disclaimer of Liability

This document is intended for information purposes only and is made available on

the basis of a disclaimer of warranty. The document may be subject to changes,

expansions or corrections in the future without specific notice. The PROFIBUS User

Organization expressly rejects any form of contractual or legal liability for this

document, including the warranty for defects and the warranty of usage qualities. In

no case will the PROFIBUS User Organization be responsible for any losses or

damages that occur or result from any type of defect, fault or omission in this

document or from the use or reliance on this document by anyone.

Reference Standards

IEC 61158 Fieldbusses for industrial communication

IEC 61508-4 (1998-12) Functional safety of electrical / electronic / programmable electronic safety-related systems: Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations

IEC 61784-1 (2004-7) Digital data communications for measurement and control – Part 1 Profile sets for continuous and discrete manufacturing relative to fieldbus use in industrial control systems.

Explanation of symbols

This document contains many graphics. They are intended to facilitate an

understanding of the text. The graphics are generally displayed in black and white.

The color violet is used only for emphasizing important details. The following field

shows the color used.

important details. The following field shows the color used. The following line shape is used to

The following line shape is used to display equipotential bonding and grounding

cable.

In addition, the following symbol is used to display the grounding connection.

symbol is used to display the grounding connection. Furthermore, the following symbols are used . They

Furthermore, the following symbols are used. They denote particularly important text

passages.

are used . They denote particularly important text passages. Danger! The symbol indicates a danger for

Danger!

The symbol indicates a danger for life and health. Following the instruc-

tion is extremely important!

Caution!

The symbol indicates a danger for property damage. Observing the in-

struction is intended to avoid property damages.

Manufacturer instruction

The symbol on the left indicates that you must follow the manfaturer’s in- structions. In this case, the information in this Guide represents supple- mental information.

Note

The symbol indicates interference hazard. Following the instruction re- duces the risk of interference.

Tip

Tips provide practical instructions that facilitate your work and improve the system structure.

1 Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

1.1

Introduction

This chapter describes some simple diagnostic tools with which you can test the

PROFIBUS cable installation. These tests are particularly important for cabling

acceptance. The tools also help you locate errors that occur during installation. The

following tools are introduced here.

Handheld devices

Handheld devices are devices that have been especially developed for testing

PROFIBUS cabling with RS-485 interfaces. In addition to testing the installa-

tion, they offer additional functions, e. g. determining the reachable PROFIBUS

stations. In order to use a handheld device it must be possible to connect the

device to the PROFIBUS cable via a 9-pin Sub-D plug connector.

Attenuation measurement

Measuring attenuation is the most simple test process for optical fibers. You

can use it to determine the magnitude of brightness losses from one end of the

optical fiber to the other.

Diagnostics buffer/Master statistics

The diagnostic buffer and the master statistics provide the first clues for trou-

bleshooting. They are integrated in the PROFIBUS stations and do not require

any additional devices, except the programming device and corresponding

software.

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

1.2 Handheld Devices

Handheld devices have been developed in order to simplify and speed up test procedures PROFIBUS installations. Measurements with a handheld device offer you faster checking than with a multimeter, clearer results and more diagnostic possibilities. In addition to examining the PROFIBUS cable, it is also possible to perform other measurements and checking of PROFIBUS stations. The devices that are available on the market are similar in their functions and scope. However, they do differ in operation. This is why these devices are not described here in more detail.

If you want more precise information, ask the manufacturer. You must read the manufacturer's operating instructions. read the manufacturer's operating instructions.

When using hand-held devices to test cables and connectors it is very important to test every connector on each segment. This is because it is possible to have cable faults which affect only a single connector and are not visible when just checking the overall cable. A common example of this type of fault is when an intermediate plug is wired with the cores swapped on both the incoming and outgoing cable. The overall cable will check out but the station at the faulty plug will not work.

You should develop a systematic procedure when checking cables so that all plugs and cables are fully checked.check out but the station at the faulty plug will not work. The following listing (Tables

The following listing (Tables 1 – 3) provides an overview of the various functions offered by various handheld devices. This list does not claim to be complete it is quite possible that other devices of this type are available, and that in the future additional handheld devices will yet be developed. However, the listing does provide an overview of the technical possibilities offered by handheld devices. In a case where you have no handheld device you can use a multimeter for some principle measurements. A description for the measurements you can find in the annex in chapter 5.2.

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

Table 1: Overview of device functions - BT 200

Device

Functions

Manufacturer /

Internet address

BT 200

Testing the bus physics

Siemens AG /

Short circuit between data lines or data line and shielding

www.ad.siemens.de/net

Core break (open circuit)

Shielding break (open circuit)

Swapped A and B lines

Reflections that can cause errors

Checking the number of terminators switched on

Measuring the installed cable length

Testing the RS-485 interface

RS-485 driver OK/defective

Testing voltage supply for terminators

CNTR signal present / not present

Station functioning

Obtaining a list of operational PROFIBUS stations (live list)

Testing activation of individual PROFIBUS stations

Miscellaneous

RS232 interface for PC connection

Log creation via PC possible (optional)

Battery operation

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

Table 2: Overview of device functions - PROFBUS Nettest II

Device

Functions

Manufacturer /

Internet address

PROFIBUS

Testing the bus physics

COMSOFT /

NetTest II

Short circuit between data lines or data line and shielding

www.comsoft.de

Core break (open circuit)

Shielding break (open circuit)

Checking the number of terminators switched on

Measuring the installed cable length

Cable impedance measurement

Swapped A and B lines

Defective PROFIBUS plugs

Defective device activations

Detecting stub lines (spurs)

Inhomogeneous cable in the segment

Testing the RS-485 interface

RS-485 driver OK/defective

Testing voltage supply for terminators

Station functioning

Obtaining list of operational PROFIBUS stations (live list)

Reading device ID numbers

DP mono-master function (optional)

Online functions (optional)

Bus cycle time measurement

Level measurement

Signal analysis on the running bus

Baud rate detection

Event log

Event statistics

Reading diagnostic events

Miscellaneous

Log creation via PC possible (optional)

Battery operation

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

Table 3: Overview of device functions - Bustest II

Device

Functions

Manufacturer /

Internet address

Bustest II

Testing the bus physics

HMS Industrial

Short circuit between data lines or data line and shielding

Core break (open circuit)

Networks /

www.anybus.com

Shielding (open circuit)

Checking the number of terminators switched on

Measuring the installed cable length

Cable impedance measurement

Inverted lines

Defective PROFIBUS plugs

Defective device activations

Detecting stub lines (spurs)

Inhomogeneous cable in the segment

Testing the RS-485 interface

RS-485 driver OK/defective

Testing voltage supply for terminators

Station functioning

Obtaining list of operational PROFIBUS stations (live list)

Reading device ID numbers

DP mono-master function (optional)

Online functions (optional)

Bus cycle time measurement

Level measurement

Signal analysis on the running bus

Baud rate detection

Event log

Event statistics

Reading diagnostic events

Miscellaneous

Log creation via PC possible (optional)

Battery operation

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

1.3

Optical fiber measurements

1.3.1

Attenuation measurement for optical fibers

Attenuation or insertion-loss measurement is useful for optical fibers. The

measurement can highlight losses in the optical fiber and/or connections. Light is

emitted into one end of the fiber by the transmitter. A calibrated receiver measures

the received light and thus indicates the losses. Attenuation or insertion-loss is

normally specified in dB. In some countries, the term damping is also used to

describe the same measurement Transmitter Receiver Test sig. Optical fiber Test sig.
describe the same measurement
Transmitter
Receiver
Test sig.
Optical fiber
Test sig.

Fig. 1: Attenuation measurement principle

The following table provides information on the maximum attenuation for various

PROFIBUS fiber types.

Table 4: Maximum fiber attenuation - optical fiber

 

Singlemode

Multimode

PCF-/HCS 1 - fiber

Synthetic fiber

fiber optic

fiber optic

Standard

In-

 

creased

Typical

1320 nm

850 nm

660 nm

660 nm

660 nm

wavelength

Max. fiber

         

attenuation

5 dB

6 dB

3 dB

6 dB

11 dB

*1 PCF and HCS are trademarks

 

The measurement is performed in two steps. First the receiver must be calibrated.

For this the measurement transmitter's transmission power is measured using a

reference fiber. The reference fiber must be in very good condition and in particular,

the connections must be polished to a very high quality. The reference fiber should

only be used for a maximum of 500 reference measurements. Then the connections

must be re-polished. After 2000 reference measurements the reference fiber must

be replaced. Once the receiver has been calibrated, the measurement can be

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

performed in a second step. The wavelength of the transmitted light must be tuned

to the fiber type. Consequently, you will require a measurement system that

matched the fiber being used.

a measurement system that matched the fiber being used. Only special reference fibers should be used

Only special reference fibers should be used to calibrate the receiver.

The measurement must be performed with the transmitter that belongs

to the test receiver. These subassemblies are matched. The PROFIBUS

signal must be disabled during testing otherwise the measurement will

be corrupted.

Because the reference fiber connections are polished to a very high quality, they

must be handled with the utmost care. The transmitter and receiver must also be

high quality instruments. Consequently these and the reference fiber are expensive.

1.3.2 OTDR measurement

In addition to attenuation measurement, Optical Time Domain Reflectometers

(OTDR) are also available. An OTDR can determine the location of defective points

in the optical fiber. To do this, the device transmits a signal into the optical fiber.

Portions of the signal are reflected at connection points or interference points. The

device measures the strength of the reflected part of the signal, and the delay after

which the reflection is received. The measurement provides an indication on

severity and location of a fault.

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

OTDR Transm. Optical fiber Receiver
OTDR
Transm.
Optical fiber
Receiver

Reflection point

Fig. 2: OTDR measurement principle

This process is particularly demanding, as the results are not displayed in plain text. Normally there is a graphic display. The operator evaluates the measurement results and evaluation requires considerable experience.

1.3.3 Using optical fiber measurement processes

If you only process optical fibers on rare occasions, you should not purchase the measurement devices, due to the high costs and the required skill. Instead have a specialist firm perform this task.

skill. Instead have a specialist firm perform this task. However, if you do purchase an appr

However, if you do purchase an appropriate measurement system, then take a training course offered by the device manufacturer.

Please read the appropriate industry literature for more information.

Simple PROFIBUS Diagnostics

1.4 Communication statistics

PROFIBUS telegrams can be corrupted by pickup or reflections. PROFIBUS has

many mechanisms to ensure reliable communications even in the presence of such

corruption. For example, any corrupted request or response will cause the

controlling master to repeat the request. PROFIBUS systems can operate for long

periods without visible error, even though a number of telegrams are being

corrupted. Ideally, the commissioning engineer would like to know the extent of

telegram corruption occurring on a network so that corrective measures can be

taken.

Some PROFIBUS master stations have integrated counters that provide statistics

on the quality or reliability of communications. These counters provide information

on how many telegrams have been transmitted and how many had to be repeated.

Examination of these counters provides information on the relative reliability of the

communications and can even help locate the cause of any corruption. Often the

master configuration software is used to provide on-line monitoring of the communi-

cation statistics.

Even when the master does not support such communication statistics, many bus

monitors, or analyzers provide information on the number of corrupted telegrams

(see section 4.3).

Such communication statistics provide a valuable indication of the condition of your

PROFIBUS system. The communications statistics counters should be monitored

for the first two to three days after switching on the PROFIBUS for the first time. Any

repeated or defective telegrams indicate problems within the PROFIBUS system.

Manuf. instruction
Manuf.
instruction

Please check the description provided by the manufacturer to learn

whether communication statistics are available on your PROFIBUS

master station. The manufacturer’s documentation will also tell you how

to access and interpret the information provided.

2 Assembly Acceptance

Assembly Acceptance

The assembly acceptance procedure takes place after completing the installation.

The installer can document that the assembly has been executed according to the

planning and the regulations, through the assembly acceptance procedure.

Consequently, record the assembly acceptance results. The log can then be

submitted to commissioning personnel.

At this point we discuss what should be done for the assembly acceptance

procedure, and how to document the results. Each PROFIBUS segment should be

individually tested and documented. Templates for the assembly acceptance

documentation are provided in the Appendix.

Assembly Acceptance

2.1 Visual Inspection - PROFIBUS Copper and optical

fiber Cable

Visual inspection of the PROFIBUS cabling should always be carried out before other tests are started. Visual inspection enables you to verify the installation had been carried out according to cabling guidelines. Errors like damaged PROFIBUS cable, insufficient bend radius, non-compliance with minimum spacing and other possible errors can be detected during this stage.

Table 5 provides a checklist of items that should be checked during visual inspection. The table applies to:

PROFIBUS RS-485,

PROFIBUS MBP (PROFIBUS PA) and

PROFIBUS optical fiber cables

However, step 13 is not required for PROFIBUS MBP (PA) segments. Similarly, steps 2, 5, 9, and 13 can be skipped for optical fiber segments.

The Appendix provides checklists for visual inspection of PROFIBUS RS-485, PROFIBUS MBP (PA) and PROFIBUS optical fiber segments.

Assembly Acceptance

Table 5: Checklist for visual inspection of PROFIBUS copper cable

1.

Cable laid according to plan?

2.

Cable type according to plan?

3.

Max. length of branch lines not exceeded?

4.

Connectors available according to plan (M12, Sub-D9, etc)?

5.

Minimum spacing between cabling has been complied with, or metal

partitions have been inserted?

6.

PROFIBUS cable in order (no damage)?

7.

Bend radii specification observed?

8.

Cable crossings executed at right angles?

9.

Only two terminating resistors inserted (on both cable ends)?

10.

Guaranteed power supply for terminating resistors (even in case of

emergency stop)?

11.

Sharp edges have been covered or removed?

12.

Safeguards against mechanical damage present at hazard points?

13.

At least one plug is present with programming device connection?

14.

Strain relief fixtures attached?

15.

Equipotential bonding established according to the regulations?

16.

Shielding is applied to the PROFIBUS stations, and connected to the

equipotential bonding?

17.

Shielding on the cabinet entrance is connected with the equipotential

bonding?

18.

Cable trays grounded?

19.

Subassemblies used in accordance with the structure plan (24 V/230

V subassemblies not reversed)?

20.

Transmission speed and PROFIBUS address are set according to

structure plan?

21.

Channels not required are switched according to manufacturer's

description?

22.

Proper measurement range selected on the analog subassembly

(current/voltage)?

Additionally in case of RS485-IS segments (Ex environment)

28/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Assembly Acceptance

23.

Fieldbus-isolating repeaters used only?

24.

Transmission rate limited to 1.5Mbit/s?

25.

No connectors with discrete inductors (e.g. 110nH such as required for high transmission rates) in use?

26,

Devices in use are Ex certified?

Additionally in case of PROFIsafe installations

27.

No stubs are used?

28.

certified devices only (safety and standard)?

Assembly Acceptance

2.2 Acceptance Measurements PROFIBUS RS-485

The second part of the assembly acceptance procedure is verification of the

electrical function of the PROFIBUS cable. Please use a handheld device for this

measurements

Whichever method is used, the measurement results should be properly docu-

mented. The assembly acceptance checklist in the appendix is available as a

template. Many handheld test tools have associated PC software which can be used

to automatically document the measurement results.

Table 6 provides a checklist of measurements that should be made for acceptance.

of measurements that should be made for acceptance. In general, handheld devices are not suitable for

In general, handheld devices are not suitable for use in plants where

there is an explosion hazard.

Assembly Acceptance

Table:

6

Checklist

for

Acceptance

measurements

for

PROFIBUS

RS485

cabling

1.

Wiring test

 

No short circuit between data core A and B? No short circuit between data core A and shielding? No short circuit between data core B and shielding? Data core A intact? Data core B intact? Shielding is intact? Data cores not reversed (swapped)? Terminators on only at the segment ends (max 2 terminations per segment)?

2.

Interface tes?t

 

Voltage present for terminators on all interfaces? RS 485 signal strength sufficient on all stations? CNTR signal present on the master?

3.

Live List?

 

All PROFIBUS stations are reachable at their address?

4.

Segment length measurement (cable type A)?

 

Maximum segment length at 9.6 kBit/s to 93.75 kBit/s: 1,200 m? Maximum segment length at 187.5 kBit/s: 1000 m? Maximum segment length at 500 kBit/s: 400 m? Maximum segment length at 1.5 MBit/s: 200 m? Maximum segment length at 3 MBit/s to 12 MBit/s: 100 m?

5.

Reflection test?

 

No significant reflections present?

Assembly Acceptance

Description of the acceptance process steps

Step 1: Wiring test

Using the measurement processes described in chapter 1, verify whether the

wiring has been executed correctly.

Step 2: Interface test

A handheld device can be used to check the PROFIBUS cable, and slave

device interfaces. The following interface characteristics are verified:

Manuf. instruction
Manuf.
instruction

o

PROFIBUS signal

o

Supply voltage for terminator

o

CNTR signal (not all handheld devices)

For this, connect the handheld device to the respective PROFIBUS sta-

tion. See the manufacturer's description of the handheld device for the

precise procedure.

The supply voltage can also be checked with a multimeter. The measurement is

performed between pin 5 and pin 6 of the 9-pin sub-D connector.

Step 3: Generate a live list

Check whether all PROFIBUS stations can be reached. Many handheld devices

support this feature. Some programming devices with appropriate software also

offer this possibility.

Step 4

Using the measurement processes described in chapter 1, verify that the speci-

fications for maximum permissible cable runs have been complied with.

Step 5: Reflection test

Check whether there are reflections on the PROFIBUS with a handheld device.

These can occur at defective connection points, or they can be caused by

damaged PROFIBUS cable. If you are experienced in handling an oscilloscope,

then you can also use this device as described in chapter 4.5.

Assembly Acceptance

2.3 Acceptance Measurements - PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

Currently measurement with a multimeter is the only possibility available for checking PROFIBUS MBP (PA) wiring. Chapter 5.2.3 describes how to do this. A checklist for the acceptance measurements for PROFIBUS MBP (PA) can be found in the Appendix. In addition, the DC voltage on the PROFIBUS MBP (PA) cable should also be measured. This should be at least 9 V and not more than 32 V at each station. A typical value for non-hazardous installations is 19 V. For intrinsically safe installations where there is an explosion hazard, the value should not be more than 13.5 V.

explosion hazard, the value should not be more than 13.5 V. PROFIBUS MBP (PA) is often

PROFIBUS MBP (PA) is often used in areas where there is an explosion hazard. Note that special regulations apply for plants where there is an explosion hazard. Speak with the plant operator before the acceptance measurement, to determine whether an acceptance measurement is possible, and which safety measures you must comply with in this case.

Assembly Acceptance

2.4

Acceptance measurements optical fiber

2.4.1

General

In planning you cannot precisely calculate the quality of a signal transmission via an

optical fiber. For example, signal transmission is weakened or attenuated through

the optical fiber and the connections. Attenuation measurement performed after the

installation has been completed is the only way to determine the extent of the losses

(see section 1.5.1). The test can also determine whether the optical fiber was

damaged when it was laid.

Because attenuation measurement requires expensive equipment and evaluation of

the measurement results require specialized skills you should consider hiring a

specialized company to perform the measurements. For this reason we do not

discuss the measurement processes for optical fibers in more detail here. If you

intend to purchase the appropriate measurement devices, then obtain advice on the

necessary equipment and training from the manufacturer.

2.4.2 Measurement Results Damping Measurement

If a specialized firm performs the measurements for you, then you will get a

measurement log from that firm. In the measurement log you will find a measured

value that shows you the extent of signal attenuation of the transmission path. The

loss is normally shown in dB. The measured attenuation value should be less than

the maximum fiber attenuation shown in Figure 7.

Assembly Acceptance

Table 7: Maximum fiber attenuation - optical fiber

 

Single

mode

Multimode

PCF-/HCS 1 - fiber

Synthetic fiber

fiber optic

fiber optic

Standard

In-

 

creased

Typical

1320 nm

850 nm

660 nm

660 nm

660 nm

wavelength

Max. fiber

         

attenuation

5 dB

6 dB

3 dB

6 dB

11 dB

*1 PCF and HCS are trademarks

 
Manuf. instruction
Manuf.
instruction

Please refer to the manufacturer’s information for the attenuation of the

fiber used.

3 Commissioning / Acceptance

Commissioning / Acceptance

3.1 Bus test

After installation, the PROFIBUS network must be commissioned. The installation

acceptance documentation should be submitted to you for commissioning. If this

documentation has been submitted, then additional testing of the PROFIBUS

assembly is not required. If this documentation is not present, then you should

perform the assembly acceptance, as described in chapter 2, together with the

installer.

Commissioning / Acceptance

3.2 Commissioning the bus

The commissioning process is divided into eight steps:

Step 1: Visual inspection Step 2: Acceptance measurements Step 3: System configuration Step 4: Verify the address setting of PROFIBUS stations. Step 5: Commission masters and slaves Step 6: Test signal inputs Step 7: Test signal outputs Step 8: Create acceptance checklist

Steps 1 and 2 are part of the assembly acceptance and should already be completed. Steps 3 to 8 are now explained in more detail.

3.2.1 System configuration (step 3)

Configuration of the PROFIBUS devices generally involves using a software configuration tool to describe your PROFIBUS system. Because the programming device and software varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, we cannot give detailed instructions on how this stage is carried out. Before you start with system configuration you should be familiar with the operation of the programming device and the associated software. Here we list a few points that you should be aware of.

Data rate The PROFIBUS data rate is an important consideration. Higher bit rates vield faster cycle times, however high bit rates require strict adherence to wiring guidelines. In practice it is recommended that you use the lowest bit rate that can achieve the required cycle time. The bit rate is set on the PROFIBUS master devices; most modern PROFIBUS slaves do automatically adapt to the master bit rate. Only occasionally do you need to set the bit rate on a slave device. Ensure that you set the correct bit rate for all PROFIBUS stations requiring this. If the transmission speed is set incorrectly then communication will not be established.

Commissioning / Acceptance

Device description files

PROFIBUS stations are integrated in a project via device description files. This

involves a standardized file type in which PROFIBUS station characteristics are

described. The device description file is generally abbreviated as "GSD file". GSD

stands for "General Station Description". The GSD file for a device contains

standardized information on the characteristics and options available for that device.

GSD files often incorporate text which appears on the PC screen in the configura-

tion tool. The language used for the text in GSD files is not specified (normally

English or German are used). Specific language versions of GSD files are often

available and are designated by a language specific filename extension. If possible,

you should use the appropriate device description file for your chosen language.

The following file types are possible:

*.GSE for English

*.GSF for French

*.GSG for German

*.GSI for Italian

*.GSP for Portuguese

*.GSS for Spanish

In addition the general file type "*.gsd" is also possible; this file type is created in

English. It is essential that the correct GSD files are used for the devices on your

PROFIBUS system. Each type of PROFIBUS device has a unique identification (ID)

number. The ID number is assigned by the PROFIBUS User Organization and is

unique worldwide for each type of PROFIBUS device. The GSD file must corre-

spond to the ID number of the configured device. The process of selecting the GSD

file is made simple because the GSD file name contains the ID number. A GSD file

name comprises of up to 8 characters. The first four characters indicate the name of

the manufacturer of the PROFIBUS device; the last four characters are its ID

number expressed in hexadecimal.

For example:

“SIEM8027.GSD” – A GSD file for Siemens device with ID 8027

“WAGOB760.GSE” – An English language file, for WAGO device ID B760

Commissioning / Acceptance

Often when using devices from different manufacturers, the GSD files from the various manufacturers devices must be imported into the configuration tool. Quite often this simply means copying the GSD file into the correct directory on the PC or notebook being used for configuration.

Please see the configuration program manual or help file to learn how to import a GSD file. import a GSD file.

The GSD files of the PROFIBUS stations used are available from the manufactur- ers. In addition, many of the files can be downloaded from the PROFIBUS User Organization web site at www.profibus.com.

When using the GSD files, ensure that the GSD file version matches the version of the PROFIBUS station. Ot herwise it is possible that some functionality will not version of the PROFIBUS station. Otherwise it is possible that some functionality will not be available.

Addressing It is essential that the address of every PROFIBUS station is correctly set in the configuration tool. If an incorrect address is set, then the master will not be able to communicate with the station. You should ensure that the addresses used in the configuration tool agree with the planned addresses of the PROFIBUS stations. In addition, you should check that the addresses set on the physical PROFIBUS stations matches with the addresses in the project plan.

Bus parameters Bus parameters are used to set the details of the timing within a PROFIBUS cycle. There are many parameters involved, however normally the system standard settings can be used.

Manuf. instruction
Manuf.
instruction

If you need to change the bus parameters, then please read the manu- facturer's instructions relative to projecting software, and to the PROFIBUS stations used.

Commissioning / Acceptance

Save the project

Once completed, the system configuration should be saved on suitable data media

(floppy disk, CD) and submit it to the customer as part of the acceptance process. In

addition a back-up copy should also be stored safely. Thus the information will also

be available to you in the future, i.e. in the event of malfunction, or for service.

3.2.2 Verifying PROFIBUS station addresses (step 4)

The address of a PROFIBUS station can be set in one of three ways:

A local switch on the device (binary dip switch or rotary switch).

Software setting of device address over the PROFIBUS network using a

configuration tool (called a Class-II master).

Some devices may use special software and a serial link or hand-held tool to

set the device address (e.g. some masters, drives or HMI devices).

PROFIBUS stations which incorporate setting of the address over PROFIBUS are

often delivered with a pre-set address of 126. It is important that no two devices

have the same address on the network otherwise communication is impossible.

Consequently, either the addresses of such stations must be correctly set before the

station is connected to the bus, or only one station must be connected to the bus at

a time and its address must be changed before connecting the next station.

Accordingly many PROFIBUS stations would have the same address if you do not

change the pre-installed address. Consequently, check the addresses of the

PROFIBUS stations prior to commissioning.

addresses of the PROFIBUS stations prior to commissioning. Only one PROFIBUS station with the ad dress

Only one PROFIBUS station with the address 126 can be connected at

a time. The address must be changed before another station can be

added.

Incorrect address setting can be difficult to diagnose, particularly when duplicate

addresses are set. Consequently, checking of addresses should be carried out prior

to commissioning. Hand held tools can be used for this (see chapter 1.3).

Commissioning / Acceptance

3.2.3 Commissioning PROFIBUS stations (step 5)

After you have configured the master system, you can commission the PROFIBUS.

the master system, you can commission the PROFIBUS. It is good practice to use separate power

It is good practice to use separate power supplies for the PROFIBUS

stations and for their outputs. This allows the PROFIBUS network to op- erate without danger of actuating plant equipment such as drives, heat-

ing elements etc. For safety reasons, the powersupplies for the

PROFIBUS station outputs should be switched off when commissioning

a PROFIBUS network.

First verify that all PROFIBUS stations are supplied with voltage. See the manufac- turer's description for the supply voltage required by each PROFIBUS station. The configuration can be downloaded to the master station(s). Master stations have four different modes of operation:

Off-line – No interaction with the bus

Stop mode - No interaction with the configured slaves but master will take part in the bus communicatio.

Clear mode – The master goes into data exchange with the configured slaves but all outputs will be in their fail-safe state (normally off)

Operate mode – Full communication with all configured slaves using output data derived from the plant control program

Placing the master(s) into clear or operate mode will establish communication between the master(s) and slave stations. After a short time, all PROFIBUS stations should signal that they are ready for operation. The operating status of the master can normally be read via the configuration software using the programming device. Many PROFIBUS slave stations are provided with an LED indicating “bus fault” (BF). Sometimes a status display is provided. When the master is in clear or operate mode the slave stations should not be indicating a bus fault. Any stations that do show a bus fault are not communicating properly and will need further investigation.

Manuf.

Please refer to the manufacturer's description for the meaning of the sla- ve device status displays.

instruction

Please refer to the manufacturer's description for the meaning of the sla- ve device status displays.

43/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Commissioning / Acceptance

3.2.4 Testing the Signal Inputs (step 6)

The next step is to test the signal inputs of the slaves. To do this, first check the

voltage supply for the sensors. The sensor supply voltage will be specified in the

sensor manufacturer’s information.

Next you should activate the sensor. This can sometimes be done manually or

sometimes by simulation of the process input on the sensor. Trace the signal all the

way back to the master. The LEDs on the PROFIBUS station where the transducer

is connected, and the I/O map in the master, are available to help you do this. The

I/O map can often be read on the programming device using the configuration or

programming software. Some sensors also have their own display.

3.2.5 Testing the Signal Outputs (step 7)

The signal outputs can next be tested in a similar way to the inputs. However you

must first check that it is safe to activate the outputs and that appropriate safety

precautions have been taken.

and that appropriate safety precautions have been taken. Danger – activation of signal outputs may cause

Danger – activation of signal outputs may cause motors to start and ac-

tuators to move. You must take appropriate safety precautions before

activating outputs.

After checking that it is safe to apply the output control voltage, the output supply

should be switched on. A check should be made on the value of the control voltage.

The output supply voltage will be specified in the manufacturer’s information. Each

signal output can now be activated or forced manually via the configuration or

programming software. Trace the signal from the master all the way to the signal

output. Check the IO map in the master, the LEDs on the slave, and the output

itself. Analog signal outputs can also be forced to a particular value and checked

using a multimeter to measure output voltage or current.

using a multimeter to measur e output voltage or current. It is not unusual to find

It is not unusual to find that the output supply voltage fails when switch-

ing on many outputs simultanously. This can be caused by poorly speci-

44/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Commissioning / Acceptance

fied power supply which cannot supply the required current when all out- puts are activated. A check should be made on the control voltage with all outputs switched on so that the maximum current is drawn. If the volt- age dips when the outputs are switched then a power supply with a higher current limit should be used.

3.2.6 Create acceptance checklist (step 8)

The last step is to create an acceptance checklist. With this checklist you can document that the acceptance was successful. In the Appendix you will find commissioning checklist and acceptance checklist templates.

4

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting

4.1 Introduction to troubleshooting

This chapter is designed to help you locate errors in PROFIBUS cabling. The first

steps have already been discussed in chapter 1. Here we discuss other possibilities

that require somewhat more experience than is required for simple PROFIBUS

diagnostics. The following possibilities are available to you:

Checking the cabling infrastructure

Measurements with a bus monitor

Diagnostic telegram interpretation

Oscilloscope measurements

Optical fiber measurements

Additional troubleshooting information is included in the "PROFIBUS Profile

Guideline - Part 3: Diagnosis, Alarms and Time Stamping, Draft Version 0.92 from

the PROFIBUS User Organization.

Troubleshooting

4.2 Checking the Cabling Infrastructure

Checking the cabling infrastructure should be one of your first troubleshooting steps. Errors can creep in here, for example, if the routing of the PROFIBUS cable has been changed. The potential for errors when extending or modifying a network is particularly high. For example, exceeding the maximum segment cable length or exceeding the maximum permissible number of PROFIBUS stations in a segment. Stub lines, particularly at high transmission speeds (above 1.5 MBit/s) also represent a problem for PROFIBUS RS 485 transmission technology and should be avoided. Spurs are permissible for PROFIBUS MBP (PA), however, only within a limited length. Check the cabling structure for the following points:

Do the cabling structures adhere to the planning?

Do the maximum permissible segment lengths comply with the planning?

RS-485 transmission technology: It is highly recommended to avoid any stub lines.

MBP (PA) transmission technology: Were the maximum number of spurs and the associated spur lengths within specification according to the planning?

Was the PROFIBUS network installed according to the planning?

Were any changes made during the installation and have these changes been incorporated into the documentation?

Were changes made to an existing system?

Was the cabling structure maintained after the changes?

Does the maximum permissible segment length still comply with the specifica- tion after the changes?

Were the changes documented?

In addition to testing the actual cabling, you should also test the cabling of the equipotential bonding. An error in the equipotential bonding can result in communi- cation malfunctions. Since errors in the equipotential bonding are very difficult to locate, you should check all equipotential bonding connections.

Troubleshooting

4.3 Measurements with a Bus Monitor

A bus monitor or analyzer is a device that can record and display the data traffic on

the PROFIBUS network. Analysers provide an effective way of observing the

communications of the PROFIBUS stations. However, analysis of the recorded

information requires experience. Many modern analysers provide some telegram

decoding which makes them easier to use. However, detailed analysis of the

communication will require a specialist. Modern analysers also incorporate

communication statistics which can help to diagnose and locate intermittent faults

which are very difficult to find in any other way.

Manuf. instruction
Manuf.
instruction

Read the description provided by the manufacturer for information on

operating the bus monitor.

A PROFIBUS monitor or analyzer should have the following features:

Message capture and display with the ability to “trigger” on particular telegrams

or conditions.

Real-time operation at the required bit-rate without “missed telegrams”.

Message filtering to allow display of selected telegrams.

Other useful features include:

“Live list” overview showing all devices that are taking part in communications.

Decoding of the telegrams.

Oscilloscope triggering facility allowing the capture of the transmitted waveform

from a particular slave.

Communication statistics showing numbers of corrupted and/or repeated

telegrams.

A good bus monitor can help to diagnose and locate a wide variety of faults,

however training is essential. Certified PROFIBUS Engineer Courses, which cover

the use of an analyzer, interpretation of telegrams and fault finding procedures are

available in many countries. These are publicized on the PROFIBUS International

web site, www.profibus.com.

Troubleshooting

4.4 The diagnostic telegram

Potential faults are not limited to the PROFIBUS network. For example, power supply, I/O wiring and sensor/actuator faults can also occur. PROFIBUS supports extensive diagnostics that can help to diagnose and locate many faults that may occur. The diagnostic information must be requested by a master before a slave will respond with diagnostic information. The controlling master will request diagnostics during startup of a slave. However, slaves can also prompt the master to request diagnostic information exchange during normal data exchange by responding with a high-priority response to the data exchange request. This tells the master that the slave’s diagnostic buffer has changed, and causes the master to read the slave diagnostics when time allows. In this way, the master always has an up-to-date representation of a slave’s diagnostic buffer state. The diagnostic buffer of a slave may contain several parts:

6-bytes of standardized diagnostics provided by every PROFIBUS slave.

An optional device-dependent diagnostics, which are manufacturer de- pendent, but may be defined in the device manual or GSD file.

An optional module-related diagnostics, which indicate which, if any, mod- ules have a problem. The module related diagnostic block, if provided, is described in the PROFIBUS standard.

One or more optional channel-related diagnostic blocks, which indicate which channels on particular modules, have a problem. The channel- related diagnostic block also provides a code which describes the details of the fault. Channel-related diagnostics, if provided, are described in the PROFIBUS standard. The standard PROFIBUS diagnostics are always present as the first 6-bytes of the diagnostic telegram or buffer. The other blocks are optional, and may appear in any order and can even be repeated for different faults on different modules. For example, a particular diagnostic telegram may contain 6-bytes of standard diagnostics followed by a module-related diagnostic block, followed by several channel-related blocks, one for each channel fault. Many PROFIBUS tools are available that can show the diagnostic buffer. These tools can include:

Master configuration software which has on-line functionality.

51/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Troubleshooting

Class-II masters.

PROFIBUS protocol analyzers or bus monitors.

Some of these tools will also interpret the diagnostics for you, according to the

PROFIBUS standard, or as described in the device GSD file. You can also interpret

the diagnostics manually. However, this requires considerable experience and skill.

Certified PROFIBUS Engineer Courses, which cover the use of an analyzer,

interpretation of diagnostics are available in many countries. These are publicized

on the PROFIBUS International web site, www.profibus.com.

Additional information on the diagnostic telegram is provided by the following

document from the PROFIBUS User Organization:

PROFIBUS Profile Guideline – Part 3: Diagnosis, Alarms and Time Stamping,

Draft Version 0.92.

Troubleshooting

4.5 Oscilloscope Measurements

Troubleshooting 4.5 Oscilloscope Measurements Oscilloscope measurements on PROFIBUS require a certain level of ex-

Oscilloscope measurements on PROFIBUS require a certain level of ex- perience. Consequently, the measurements should only be performed by experts.

Oscilloscope measurements are a very effective means of troubleshooting PROFIBUS. With a little practice different statements about errors and signal quality can be derived from the signals displayed. This chapter shows which characteristics the oscilloscope must have, which auxiliary aids are practical, and what you can measure with the oscilloscope. In addition typical signal waveforms are shown in some figures in this document.

4.5.1 Technical Prerequisites

The following characteristics require an oscilloscope for measurements on the PROFIBUS.

Design:

Digital storage oscilloscope

Bandwidth

100 MHz

Channels:

2, potential separated to each other and against

the device ground (network connection)

Trigger:

Internal + external

Coupling type:

DC

Battery-powered oscilloscopes are well suited. Due to the handy format and independent power supply they offer a high level of mobility in the system. The potential separation between the two input channels and against the device ground is particularly important. Separation of the two channels ensures that they do not affect each other. It is just as important that both channels are also potential separated from the device ground. If this is not the case, then an unintentional or intentional connection of a channel ground to a live core can result in a short circuit. For measurements on the PROFIBUS, often the channel ground is connected to

Troubleshooting

one of the two data lines. Measurement would not be possible without a potential

separated oscilloscope, since the signal is tapped on ground on the data line. This

would be particularly undesirable for measurements during system operation.

Connecting the ground to the data line would result in a communication breakdown.

However, you can avoid this by measuring both signals separately, and then pulling

the signals away from each other. In this case potential separation of the two

channels is not required. However, proceed very carefully in this case. There is a

risk of short circuit if you connect the measurement cable incorrectly.

Another useful function is a multimeter integrated in the oscilloscope. In this case

you do not need two devices.

Today digital oscilloscopes offer an integrated RS-232 interface or a USB interface

for connecting to the PC. Thus measurements performed can be saved and

documented with the PC.

4.5.2 Measurement Aids

Use a 9-pin Sub-D plug, on which you can measure off the signals, as measurement

aid. The following drawing shows which signals can be measured on which pins.

Programming

device

connection
connection

Pin 8: Data core A Pin 3 Data core B

Pin 4: CNTR-P signal (standard)

Pin 9: CNTR-N signal (PG/OP)

Pin 5: Data source potential

PROFIBUS station

connection

Fig. 3: Measurement plug oscilloscope measurement

Troubleshooting

A PROFIBUS plug with a programming device connection is best suited for this

measurement aid. This is primarily helpful if the PROFIBUS structure does not have

a programming device connection. In this case you can then insert the measure-

ment plug between the PROFIBUS station and the PROFIBUS cable. For some PROFIBUS stations, such as programming devices or operation panels, the CNTR signal is not routed out of standard pin 4. In this case pin 9 is used on these PROFIBUS stations. For some operation panels the CNTR signal must also be activated, for example through DIP switches. Read the operating manual in this

case or ask the manufacturer.

4.5.3 Measurement PROFIBUS RS 485

The important thing is that the measurement must be performed on the interface of the respective PROFIBUS station. If only individual PROFIBUS stations show errors, then it is best to start with the measurement on these stations.

You should perform the following measurements:

Data core B against data line A Measurement of the data signals of data line B against data line A shows you the actual signal waveform on the PROFIBUS. Both cores are used for PROFIBUS data transmission. The signals are transmitted concurrently on both cores. However, the signal on data line B is transmitted reversed to data line A. The actual signal is a result of the voltage differential between B and A. This type of signal transmission has the advantage that noise affecting both data lines uniformly does not have an effect on the transmitted data telegram. Through differential transmission, noise on one core is subtracted from the noise on the other core. Thus no there is no noise voltage remaining in the actual data telegram. There are two ways to perform the measurement. You need an oscilloscope that can subtract two channels from each other as the first possibility. This should be possible with most digital oscilloscopes: Adjust the oscilloscope as follows:

Troubleshooting

Displayed signal: Voltage B - voltage A

If you have an oscilloscope with isolated channels, you can also measure the

differential voltage B - A directly. Connect the ground terminal of one channel to

data line A, and the signal terminal of the same channel to data line B. This

measurement is more precise than the subtraction of the voltage B-A, however,

it has two disadvantages:

1. You must have an oscilloscope with potential separation.

2. Due to its structure, the ground cable acts like a spur that is only con-

nected to one data line. This can cause signal distortion at high trans-

mission speeds. Usually this does not cause problems. However, you

should bear this in mind.

The voltage differential between high level and low level measured between B

and A should be between 4 V and 7 V. The positive and negative voltage value

should be approximately the same size. The difference between the two values

in practice is approximately 0.5 V. The quiescent level should be 1 V.

Many PROFIBUS stations supply the so-called CNTR-P signal. The CNTR-P

signal has a logical high level (approximately 3V to 5 V) while the PROFIBUS

station is transmitting. This is helpful if you want to examine a certain

PROFIBUS station. Use the rising edge of the CNTR signal as trigger signal for

the oscilloscope. Use either the external trigger input (advantage: second

channel remains free for use) or the second channel (advantage: CNTR signal

itself is visible) of the oscilloscope with this signal. Thus you can observe the

transmission of the respective PROFIBUS station.

Through the CNTR signal you can also detect the associated telegrams of

masters and slaves (passive). The master's telegram is namely the last tele-

gram that was on the PROFIBUS prior to the slave's telegram. If you measure

directly on the master, the CNTR signal will be transmitted concurrently with the

telegram.

For the measurements on data line A, on data line B, and between data line B

and data line A, you should set the input voltage level to at least 1 V/division.

Less resolution is not effective, details would get lost. For the time division you

should first select a low time resolution. You should be able to see several

telegram packets. Thus you can better detect asymmetries in the signal or EMC

interference. Take a second measurement with finer time resolution so that you

56/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Troubleshooting

can see only one bit or just a few bits. This makes it possible to see details in the edges.

Measure data line A against data ground

Measure data line B against data ground

With the measurements, data line A against ground, and data line B against ground, you can check the signals on the individual lines and uncover errors like defective bus drivers. However, you must perform the measurements directly on each PROFIBUS station. Due to the needed effort, you should only perform this measurement if you have detected errors when measuring B against A. Ensure that the data grounds of the individual PROFIBUS stations are not connected to each other via the PROFIBUS cable. Since you must perform the individual measurements of the data lines against the data ground, only the signal sent from the PROFIBUS station is correctly displayed. You can detect this by the simultanous transmission of the CNTR signal through the PROFIBUS station. The important thing for these measurements is that you execute them against the data ground of the interface. A measurement against the device ground usually will not be successful, because usually potential separation is present in PROFIBUS stations. You should be able to measure the following voltages on the interface:

Quiescent voltage: Data core A: app. +2 V

Quiescent voltage: Data core B: app. +3 V

Transmission state Minimal voltage data line A: app. +1

Transmission state Maximum voltage data line A: app. +4 V

Transmission state Minimum voltage data line B: app. +1V

Transmission state Maximum voltage data line B: app. +4V

For newer devices the maximum voltage on the data lines can be somewhat higher due to more powerful bus drivers. The minimum values and maximum

Troubleshooting

values however, should be similar on both data lines. If this is not the case,

then one of the two bus drivers could be defective.

case, then one of the two bus drivers could be defective. Due to potential shifts it

Due to potential shifts it may be the case that the signals are shifted on

the data lines by a positive or negative offset voltage. This can cause in-

terferences in telegram traffic. The offset voltage on the data lines can

be a maximum of +12 V or -7 V. Higher offset voltages may destroy the

bus drivers. + 12 V Tele- Tele- Potential diff. Tele- - 7 V Fig. 4:
bus drivers.
+ 12 V
Tele-
Tele- Potential diff.
Tele-
- 7 V
Fig. 4: Potential shift at signals

Due to potential shifts it may be the case that the signals are shifted on the data

cores by a positive or negative offset voltage. This can cause interferences in

telegram traffic. The voltage on the data cores can be up to +12 V or -7 V. At higher

values the receiver subassemblies of the PROFIBUS stations can be destroyed.

Troubleshooting

Fig. 5 shows the ideal form for a PROFIBUS signal. 1 CNTR 0 U (V)
Fig. 5 shows the ideal form for a PROFIBUS signal.
1
CNTR
0
U (V)
5
4
Data
3
core B
2
1
0

Data

core A

U (V) 5 4 3 2 1 0
U (V)
5
4
3
2
1
0
U (V) 4 3 2 Diff. signal 1 0 „1“ „0“ „1“ B - A
U (V)
4
3
2
Diff. signal
1
0 „1“
„0“
„1“
B - A
0
-1
-2
-3
Fig. 5: Ideal signal form PROFIBUS RS485

t

t

t

t

Troubleshooting

The Fig. 5 shows you the ideal form of the PROFIBUS signal, in practice the signal

waveform will never look this ideal. The Fig. 6 shows you an example of what the

signal waveform of PROFIBUS signals can really look like.

Data core B

Data core A

Diff. signal

B-A

really look like. Data core B Data core A Diff. signal B-A Fig. 6: Measurement PROFIBUS

Fig. 6: Measurement PROFIBUS RS-485

4.5.4 Typical Signal Waveforms

In this chapter typical signal waveforms are shown based on some figures. The

figures shown always represent the signal resulting from the measurement "B-A".

PROFIBUS cable too long

Cable that is too long generally functions like a condenser. It changes the signal

form. The result is that for a square wave signal the rising edge is rounded (e-

function). This effect is more pronounced the longer the PROFIBUS cable.

If the signal is changed too drastically then it may be the case that the receiver

cannot correctly recognize the signal. This is why the signal should have reached

the full voltage level after 50% of the bit period, at the latest. This ensures good

noise immunity even in the presence of other interferences.

Troubleshooting

Adjust the oscilloscope for this measurement in such a manner that you can only observe one to two bits and their edges.

T Bit 2 Voltage Time
T
Bit
2
Voltage
Time

Fig. 7: Signal waveform for PROFIBUS cables that are too long

Non-Connected PROFIBUS Plugs

Another error source are PROFIBUS plugs that are inserted in the PROFIBUS cable, but are not connected to any PROFIBUS station. To reduce signal reflections caused by spurs at high transmission rates (3 MBit/s), inductors have been integrated in the PROFIBUS plugs. If a PROFIBUS station is not connected to a PROFIBUS plug, then the open connector in conjuction with the inductor generate signal interference. The interference should not be greater than 0.5 V.

Troubleshooting

The following figure shows what this kind of interference looks like.

Voltage Max. 0.5 V
Voltage
Max. 0.5 V

Time

Fig. 8: Signal waveform for non-connected PROFIBUS stations

Adjust the oscilloscope for this measurement in such a manner that you can only

see one to two bits and their edges.

Defective Bus Terminator

For the bus connection two types of errors can occur, both of which cause a signal

reflection. The reflection strength depends on the error.

For the one error, too many terminators are switched on. Thus approximately 1/3 of

the signal is reflected and is turned by 180° relative to the original signal. It then

runs back on the PROFIBUS cable and can encounter the next sent telegram. The

two signals are overlaid at the crossing point. If the signal waveform of the two

signals is juxtaposed, the level is reduced. If the signal waveform is in the same

direction then the levels are added.

The other error is a missing terminator. In this case there is also a reflection.

However, the reflection is not turned 180° relative to the original signal. The signal

returns in full height. If the reflected signal encounters a new data signal, then it may

be the case that both signals cancel each other out, or a double high signal will

occur. A break of the two data lines produces the same effect.In Fig. 8 and in Fig.

10 the possible signal waveforms are shown.

The signals show a step-like waveform when the telegram is overlaid with the

reflection. The waveform can be different depending on measurement location, and

Troubleshooting

cable run. Cable telegrams and reflection meet at different points, due to different signal start times on the PROFIBUS.

Troubleshooting

Too much terminator resistance

Original signal
Original signal

Reflection for too much switched-on terminator resistance

Reflection for too much switched-on terminator resistance Overlaid signal (original signal + reflection) for too much

Overlaid signal (original signal + reflection) for too much switched-on terminator

resistance

+ reflection) for too much switched-on terminator resistance Fig. 9: Too much terminator resistance 64/106 ©

Fig. 9: Too much terminator resistance

Troubleshooting

Missing terminator

Original signal
Original signal

Reflection with missing terminator

Original signal Reflection with missing terminator Overlaid signal (original signal + reflection) for too

Overlaid signal (original signal + reflection) for too little terminating resistance

signal + reflection) for too little terminating resistance Fig. 10: Missing terminator 65/106 © Copyright by

Fig. 10: Missing terminator

Troubleshooting

4.5.5 Measurements PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

The data signal on the PROFIBUS MBP (PA) is generated via current modulation.

This makes it possible to supply PROFIBUS stations with energy and data via the

same two cores.

Measuring the signal is not always easy with PROFIBUS MBP (PA). Some

PROFIBUS MBP (PA) stations are encapsulated or drip molded for security

reasons. Moreover, PROFIBUS MBP (PA) stations are often directly connected or

connected via an M 12 plug connector; consequently, measurement is primarily

possible only on the terminals of the signal coupler, or on the PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

devices. You should perform two measurements to verify the signal on the

PROFIBUS MBP (PA). With the first measurement you detect the direct current

portion of the signal voltage with which the PROFIBUS MBP (PA) device is

supplied. For this you set the oscilloscope on measurement type "DC", Adjust the

vertical division (voltage) so that you can easily identify the signal on your screen.

Select a very low resolution for the horizontal division (time). At this measurement

the waveform over a certain period is more interesting than the details.

In plants where there is no explosion hazard voltage should be a maximum of 32

VDC. A typical value is 19 VDC. For plants were there is an explosion hazard the

maximum direct current is 13.5 VDC. The voltage that the feed device must supply

is provided is specified by the device description. Perform the measurement directly

on the feed device, and if possible on the most remote PROFIBUSMBP (PA)

station.

You should measure the above-mentioned voltages on the bus power supply,

which is often integrated in the DP/PA Linking device. If the voltage is lower, then

this indicates a defective voltage supply, or too many stations on the

PROFIBUSMBP (PA) cable. You must measure at least 9 VDC at the

PROFIBUSMBP (PA) station. A lower voltage is not sufficient to supply the

PROFIBUSMBP (PA) stations. If the direct current is too low only on the most

remote PROFIBUSMBP (PA) station, then the PROFIBUSMBP (PA) cable could be

too long.

Check the alternating voltage in the second measurement. This is the actual data

signal. Theoretically the difference between the maximum positive and the

Troubleshooting

maximum negative alternating voltage is 900 mV. In practice the value is between 800 mV and 1000 mV. A higher value indicates a missing bus terminator. On the other hand a lower value indicates too many bus terminators. Set the oscilloscope to measurement type AC for the measurement. Select approximately 200 mV/division for the vertical division (voltage). For the horizontal division (time) you should set approximately 20µs/division. The figures below show the signal in the ideal case, as well as with too few and too much terminating resistors.

Ideal signal

500

400

-400 mV

-500 mV

Signal OK 800 mV-1000 mV Signal OK
Signal OK
800 mV-1000 mV
Signal OK

Fig. 11: Ideal signal form PROFIBUS MBP (PA)

Troubleshooting

Missing bus terminator

Missing bus terminator

Too many bus terminators

Too many bus terminators

500

400

-400 mV

-500 mV

Too many bus terminators 500 400 -400 mV -500 mV Fig. 12: PROFIBUS MBP (PA) with

Fig. 12: PROFIBUS MBP (PA) with defective bus terminator

In Fig.

In practice you will never encounter an ideal signal form as shown in Fig. 11

13 is shown of what a data telegram can really look like on the PROFIBUS MBP

(PA).

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting Fig. 13: Measurement PROFI BUS MBP (PA) (1 telegram) 69/106 © Copyright by PNO 2005

Fig. 13: Measurement PROFIBUS MBP (PA) (1 telegram)

Troubleshooting

4.6 Optical fiber measurements

The OTDR measurement process (OTDR = Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is

particularly interesting for troubleshooting. Based on the measurement results a

specialist can not only determine the presence of an error, but also determine the

location of the error.

To do this, the OTDR-device transmits a signal into the optical fiber. Portions of the

signal are reflected at connectors or at defective points (see Fig. 14: OTDR

measurement principle).

The device measures the strength of the reflected part of the signal, and how much

time elapses from signal transmission until the reflection is received. The measure-

ment results allow you to identify the location of the damage.

OTDR Transmit- Optical fiber Receiver Interference point
OTDR
Transmit-
Optical fiber
Receiver
Interference
point

Fig. 14: OTDR measurement principle

This process is particularly demanding, as the results are usually displayed in

graphical format. The operator needs to interpret the results. You should use this

process only, if you have experience with it. Otherwise let a specialist perform the

measurements. If, however, you still need to use an OTDR measurement device,

then it is recommended to sign-up for a training course.

5

Annex

Annex

5.1 Commissioning/Acceptance Checklists

Annex

Checklist for visual inspection PROFIBUS cabling RS 485 / MBP (PA) / Fiber

System

Segment name

Transmission speed

Assembly acceptance performed by

 

Comments

 
 

Visual inspection

OK

Not

 

OK

   

1.

Cable laid according to plan?

   

2.

Cable type according to plan?

   

3.

Max. length of branch lines not exceeded?

   

4.

Connectors available according to plan (M12, Sub-D9, etc)?

   

5.

Minimum spacing between cabling has been complied with, or metal partitions have been inserted?

   

6

PROFIBUS cable in order (no damage)?

   

7.

Bend radii specification observed?

   

8.

Cable crossings executed at right angles?

   

9.

Only two terminating resistors inserted (on both cable ends)?

   

10.

Guaranteed power supply for terminating resistors (even in case of emergency stop)?

   

11.

Sharp edges have been covered or removed?

   

12.

Safeguards against mechanical damage present at hazard points?

   

13.

At least one plug is present with programming device connection?

   

14.

Strain relief fixtures attached?

   

15.

All Equipotential bonding points available according to plan?

   

16.

Shielding is applied to the PROFIBUS stations, and connected to the equipotential bonding?

   

17.

Shielding on the cabinet entrance is connected with the equipotential bonding?

   

18.

Cable trays grounded?

   

19.

Subassemblies used in accordance with the structure plan (24 V/230 V subassemblies not reversed)?

   

20.

Transmission speed and PROFIBUS address are set according to structure plan?

   

21.

Channels not required are switched according to manufacturer's description?

73/106

© Copyright by PNO 2005 – all rights reserved

Annex

 

22.

Proper measurement range selected on the analog subassembly (current/voltage)?

Additionally in case of RS485-IS segments (Ex environment)

   

23. . Only isolating repeaters used?

   

24. Transmission rate limited to 1.5MBIt/s?

   

25. No connectors with discrete inductors (e.g. 110nH such as required for high transmission rates) in use?

   

26. Devices in use are Ex certified?

Additionally in case of PROFIsafe installations

   

27. No stubs are used?

   

28. Certified devices only (safety and standard)?

Date

Installer signature

Commissioning personnel signature

Annex

Log for the assembly acceptance measurement inspection PROFIBUS cabling RS

System

Segment name

Transmission speed

Assembly acceptance performed by

 

Comments

 
 

Assembly acceptance measurement

OK

Not

 

OK

   

1.

Wiring test

     

No short circuit between data line A and B?

     

No short circuit between data line A and shielding?

     

No short circuit between data line B and shielding?

     

Data core A intact?

 
     

Data core B intact?

 
     

Shielding intact?

 
     

Data cores not reversed?

 
     

Terminators only inserted on the cable ends?

   

2. Interface test

 
     

Voltage present for terminators on all interfaces?

     

RS 485 signal strength sufficient on all stations?

     

CNTR signal present on the master?

   

3. Live List

 
     

All PROFIBUS stations are reachable at their address?

   

4. Segment length measurement (cable type A)

     

Maximum segment length at 9.6 kBit/s to 93.75 kBit/s: 1,200 m?

     

Maximum segment length at 187.5 kBit/s: 1000 m?

     

Maximum segment length at 500 kBit/s: 400 m?

     

Maximum segment length at 1.5 MBit/s: 200 m?

     

Maximum segment length at 3 MBit/s to 12 MBit/s: 100 m?

   

5. Reflection test

 
   

No reflection present?

 

Date