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Morphology 2

1 What kind of bases are formed in English?


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2 What is the difference between inflectional morphology and lexical


word formation ?
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3 Which are two main distinctive properties of the auxiliaries in English


and what do auxiliaries characteristically mark ?

-The two main distinctive properties of auxiliary verbs are subject-auxiliary


inversion and negation. Subject- auxiliary inversion is the opposite reversal
between subject and verb. On the other hand there are two ways in which
auxiliaries differ with respond to negation:
a)where the negation is associated with a primary verb form eg: She has not
taken the money
b)auxiliaries have negative inflectional forms, they all end in nt and are found
in the preterit eg: He couldnt swim and in the present : He cant swim.
-Auxiliaries characteristically mark are tense, aspect, mood and voice.

4 Explain and illustrate the verb formal marking system in English.

-The verb formal marking system the verb paradigm is the set of inflectional
forms of a variable lexeme. The greatest majority of verbs in English have
paradigms consisting of six inflectional forms.

5 Where is the difference between determinative and determiner ?

-The determinative is a category while the determiner is a function. A


determiner is a dependent function in a noun phrase marking it as a definite or
indefinite. A determinative is a word that typically functions as a determiner in
a noun phrase but many also have other functions.
6 Give examples of an adverb used as a pre-modifier of other categories;
adjectives, adverbs, verbs, determinatives etc.

-An adverb can often be used as a pre-modifier of other categories such as


adjectives, adverbs, verbs, determinatives, noun phrases, prepositional phrases
etc eg:
You are quite right (quite modifies the adjective right)
She sang very loudly (very modifies the adverb loudly)
You often cry (often modifies the verb cry)
Almost all books are lost (almost modifies the determinative all)
I bought only the shirt (only modifies the NP the shirt)
She drove us almost to the station (almost modifies the PP to the)

7 Where is the difference between mood and modality ?


-Mood is a category of grammar whereas modality is a category of meaning.
This is why authors compare them to tense and time.

8 Which are the four uses of present tense in English ?

-The present tense in English is used in four different ways :


a)Present time : b)future time I:
perfective (I promise to be back for lunch ) Exam starts next week.
imperfective (I wash the dishes)
progressive (Im washing the dishes)

c) future time II
Subordinate clauses: I hope you are coming tomorrow.

d) Past time: The historic present; I was watching a movie when I heard the
door opened.

9. Turn the present tense into modal preterit forms:


-The modal preterite is used to present situations on varying degrees, modally
remote eg:
Im glad he walks his dog (present) I wish he walked his dog (modal preterite)
If you drive a car youll be there on time. (present)
If you drove a car, youd be there on time. (modal preterite)

10 Give examples on reported speech


a)I always drink coffee she said (DS) simple present
She said that she always drank coffee (RS) past simple
b)Im reading a book, she explained (DS) present continuous
He explained that he was reading a book (RS) past continuous
c)Bill arrived on Saturday he said (DS) past simple
He said that bill had arrived on Saturday (RS) past perfect
d) I have been to Spain he told me (DS) present perfect
He told me that he had been to Spain (RS) past perfect
11 The functions of adjectives in English
-In their predicative use, adjectives occur as a complement to a verb such as be,
become, seem etc.

12 Use should to express :obligation, logical necessity, advice:


Obligation: I should visit a doctor. I have a terrible headache.
Logical necessity: Sarah should be here in five minutes.
Advice: You should revise your lessons.
13 What is a paradigm ?
A paradigm is the set of inflectional forms of a variable lexeme.

14 Underline the base in each word, and then after each word write a
number showing how many morphemes it contains, eg unlikely 3
morphemes
1 disabilities__________________ 4 livelihood________________
2 inartistically_________________ 5 wastefully _________________
3 unproarioulsy________________ 6 wriggly ___________________

15 Give the feminine of the following words eg man woman.

ex-brother ex-sister Uncle Aunt Shepherd -


shepherdess
duke duchess Landlord Landlady Emperor
Empress
Tutor governess Monk Nun George Georgina
Bachelor Spinster Lord Lady Stallion - mare
Murderer Murderess Master mistress Boar Sow
Lion - lioness Drone bee Hero heroine
Bull - cow Cob - pen Tiger tigress
Deer - doe Donkey - jenny Fox vixen
Gander - goose Hare - doe Leopard
leopardess
Peacock peahen Sheep - ewe Stag - hind

16 Give the plural of the following words:


Goose Geese Corps corps
Thief thieves Basis Bases
Ox oxen Father-in-law Fathers-in-law
Datum Data Take off Take offs
Cuckoo Cuckoos

17 Turn the following present tense structure into modal preterite


forms:
-Im glad they live nearby. - I wish they had lived nearby
- I hope she arrives tomorrow.
-If he loves her, he will change his job.
-If you leave now, youll miss the rush-hour office.

18. What is the main function of adjectives?


-Adjectives have attributive and predictive functions. Attributive adjective
function as internal pre-head modifier to a following noun , predicative
adjectives function mainly as predicative in clause structure.

19.Rewrite sentences beginning in the way shown below :


eg. Where are you going asked Tom?
Tom asked me where I was going .
a) How did you know my name?, the nurse asked the doctor
The nurse wanted to know_________________________________
b)Why didnt Isabel phone me? Asks his brother.
Isabels brother wants to know_________________________________
c) Will you carry my breakfast for me please, Rosemary?, Richard asked.
Richard asked_________________________________________________
d)What will you do when you leave school? Jenifer has already asked her.
Jenifer has already asked her____________________________________________
e)John said I have been very happy in my new job and I like my new boss
better than my old one
John said
that______________________________________________________________________

20 Give the difference between modal verbs and other full (lexical)
verbs. Give examples
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21 Definite transitive and intransitive verbs. Give examples for each


types.
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22 From the point of view of their morphological structure, words in


English are classified into four main types:
a)________________________________________________________________________________
eg_______________________________________________________________________________
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b)_______________________________________________________________________________
_eg______________________________________________________________________________
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c)________________________________________________________________________________
eg_______________________________________________________________________________
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d)_______________________________________________________________________________
_eg______________________________________________________________________________
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23 Third person singular (-s form) of Simple Present Tense has three
different pronunciations in phonological variants :
______________________________and__________________________________. It is
pronounced as :
a)__________after_____________________
eg____________________________________________

b)__________after____________________
eg____________________________________________

c)___________after______________________________
eg____________________________________________

24 Add a negative prefix to each of the following words:


__relevant __fortune
__locate __infect
__secure __justice

25 What does modality deal with?


-Modality deals mainly with two related contrasts: factual vs non-factual, and
assert ed vs non-asserted.