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Crusading Warfare

Exploring the Military History of the Crusades


William James Hamblin
Peoples Crusade:
Civitot 1, Landing
August - September 1096
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Pera
0 5 10 k Chrysopolis
Civitot Campaign 1 1096/08-09
Constantinople
Chalcedon

s
Primary Sources on the Civitot Campaign ariu
ang
S

Albert 1.19-22 Pelekanon Nicomedia


AnnaSea of
10.6.1-6
Gesta 1.2 ( Baldric 1.9-11; Guibert Civitot
Marmara
2.9-2.12 = 48-52; Peter 1.3-1.4 = 16-20; Helenopolis Sophon
Robert 1.6-14 = 84-88)
Dependent: Fulcher 1.6.7; Orderic 9.4-5;
William 1.22-26

Studies on the Civitot Campaign

Asbridge 101-103
s
France 93-95 ga
riu
n
Frankopan 85-89 Sa

Rubenstein 85-89 Xerigordon


Runciman 128-133 Ascanian Nicaea

Malagina

Leuce

Prusa
Pera
0 5 10 k Wa Chrysopolis
Absence of Qilich Arslan 1096/07/late
Constantinople
Chalcedon

{c. 20 July}Walters army


arrives at Constantinople.
[Albert 1.6d]

s
ariu
ang
S

Pelekanon Nicomedia
Sea of
Civitot
Marmara Helenopolis Sophon

s
riu
nga
Sa

Xerigordon

Ascanian Nicaea

Malagina

Leuce

1- {July-Sept} Qilich
Arslan, Sultan of the Rum
Seljuqs, is in eastern
Anatolia with his main army 1
campaigning against the
Danishmendid Turks.
Prusa
Pera
0 5 10 k Wa Chrysopolis
Arrival of Peter 1096/08/01-06
Constantinople
2
Pe Chalcedon

2- {1 Aug} Peters crusaders arrive


at Constantinople
{1-6 Aug} Peters and Walters
troops merge; they rest a week,
reorganizing, and gathering supplies. s
riu
[Albert 1.15a; Gesta 1.2b] ang
a
S

Pelekanon Nicomedia
Sea of
Civitot
Marmara Helenopolis Sophon

s
riu
nga
Sa

Xerigordon

Ascanian Nicaea

Malagina

Leuce

Prusa
Pera
0 5 10 k Wa Chrysopolis
3- {2-5 Aug} Alexios advises Peter Peters army is Transported to Civitot 1096/08/06
Constantinople 3 toChalcedon
wait for the other crusaders; he
Pe ignores the advice. [Anna 10.6a]

s
riu
4 ang
a
S

Pelekanon Nicomedia
4-of
Sea {6 Aug} The crusaders are
transported by the Byzantine fleet
Civitot
to Civitot (Helenopolis). [Albert
Marmara Helenopolis Sophon
1.15b]

s
riu
nga
Sa

Xerigordon

Ascanian Nicaea

Malagina

Leuce

Prusa
Pera
0 5 10 k Chrysopolis
Crusaders establish base at Civitot 1096/08/
Constantinople
Chalcedon

s
ariu
ng
5- {7 Aug} Peters army establishes a base camp at S a

Civitot, collecting supplies provided by sea from the


Nicomedia
Sea of
Pelekanon
Byzantines; Alexios suggests the crusaders should wait for
Pe Wa
reinforcements before advancing because of the danger of
Marmara Helenopolis Civitot
Turkish attacks. The crusaders wait at Civitot for almost Sophon
two months {Aug-Sept}. [Albert 1.15c; Gesta 1.2b]
5

s
riu
nga
Sa

Xerigordon

Ascanian Nicaea

Malagina

Leuce

Prusa
Pera
0 5 10 k Chrysopolis
Crusaders Raid the Countryside of Nicaea 1096/09/mid
Constantinople
Chalcedon

s
ariu
ang
S

Pelekanon Nicomedia
6a- of
Sea {mid-Sept} [Albert 1.16a; Anna 10.6a] Wa
With Qilich Arslans main army in the east, the crusaders Pe
eventually realize that the Turks have limited numbers of
Marmara Helenopolis Civitot
Sophon
troops in the area. The crusaders therefore begin
operations. 7- Turkish Garrison sorties
7000 Infantry and 300 knights raid around Nicaea (capital [Anna 10.6a]
of the Rum Seljuq Turks), plundering livestock and local 6 But when the inhabitants of Nicaea became
Christian villages, and committing atrocities against local aware of these doings, they threw open their
peasants. gates and marched out upon them, and after a
violent conflict had taken place they had to
6b- Crusader atrocities
[Anna 10.6a]
dash back inside their citadel as the Normans
fought so bravely. s
[The crusaders] devastated the country round riu
nga
Sa
Nicaea, and behaved most cruelly to all. For 7
they dismembered some of the children and Xerigordon

fixed others on wooden spits and roasted Ascanian Nicaea


them at the fire, and on persons advanced in
age they inflicted every kind of torture. Malagina

Leuce

6c- Torturing and roasting childrento the


extent this is not merely vicious rumoris not
about cannibalism. Children were tortured by
army to force their parents to ransom them, or
reveal where their hidden treasure was.

Prusa
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