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ME 141L

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

TITLE: PHYSICAL STUDY OF PRESSURE GAGES

ABSTRACT: Pressure gauge is one of the widely use in plants. Theres is so many elements of the
pressure gauge that needs to be good quality to stay our reading accurate and also there are many kind
of pressure gauge.

INTRODUCTION: Pressure gauges are one of the instruments that are use in any power plant. If a power
plant is operated with a failed pressure gauge this will take the life of the worker and the power plant at
risk

OBJECT: To study the physical characteristics of different pressure gages.

SUMMARY: in our laboratory we have dissected the gauge to know the component and the internal
parts of it.

APPARATUS:

a. Bourdon Pressure Gage

b. U-tube Manometer

c. Pressure Transducer

PROCEDURES:

a. Examine closely a Bourdon Pressure Gage and study its essential parts, then
determine the principle used in its operation. Make a sketch of the assembly and
label its essential parts.

b. Repeat Procedure a. for the U-tube Manometer.

c. Repeat Procedure in a. for the Pressure Transducer.

d. Examine the installation of the three types of pressure measuring devices and
observe how they are installed.

DATA AND RESULTS:


The life of the filled gauge is much longer
because of its housing that is filled with a viscous
oil. It has a good benefit for the gauge. First of is
the damping of vibration to the pointer. Also it is
use to avoid the entry of the ambient air.

Bourdon tubes are tubes with a oval cross-


section, bent into a circle. The pressure to be measured
acts on the inside of the tube so that the oval cross-
section approximates a circular shape. The bending of
the Bourdon tube causes ring tension which bends the
tube open. The loose tube end performs a movement
which is a measure of the pressure. Bourdon tube
pressure gauges are the most common type in
many areas and are used to measure medium to
high pressures. They cover measuring spans from
600 mbar to 4,000 bar. The measuring element is a
curved tube with a circular, spiral or coiled shape,
commonly called a bourdon tube. This tube moves
outward when the pressure inside the tube is higher than the external pressure, and inward when the
internal pressure is lower. This motion is proportional to the pressure to be measured, and it is coupled
to the pointer mechanism.

Pressure transducer, when connected to an appropriate


electrical source and exposed to a pressure source, will
produce an electrical output signal (voltage, current, or
frequency) proportional to the pressure. Most transducers are
designed to produce output that is linear with the applied
pressure and independent of other system variables the
most important of these being temperature. Most outputs are
mV, V, mA, and, sometimes, as a frequency.

Pressure transducers have a sensing element of constant area


and respond to force applied to this area by the fluid pressure. This force deflects a diaphragm, bellows,
or Bourdon tube.
QUESTIONS:

1.What is the range of pressure measurement of the Bourdon pressure gage?

All sizes of Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauges can be supplied for indication of vacuum relative to
atmospheric pressure. Gauges calibrated 030in Hg or 0760mm Hg will, normally, have their pointers
moving clockwise on increasing vacuum. Gauges calibrated 01 bar have their pointers moving anti-
clockwise.

2.What other similar instruments are available for use?

Barometer is calibrated to read zero when there is a complete vacuum, The venturimeter is an
instrument for measuring flow rate by using measurements of pressure across a converging-diverging
flow passage. The main advantage of the venture meter as compared to the orifice meter is that the
head loss for a venturimeter is much smaller.

3.What other types of manometers are in use? What are the ranges of pressure measurements handled
by each?

Manometer Specifications

Liquid Manometers Digital Manometers

U-tube Well Inclined General Purpose Calibrating

Range 100 in. 100 in. 20 in. 20-2000 in H2O, 2000 in H2O,

20-2000 psig, 2000 psig,

2000 mmHg 2000 mmHg

4.What are Barometers for engineering works used? For accurate results what correction factors are
required?

A change in the level of mercury indicate the passage of pressure if it is high or low and also a
corresponding change in weather. See if the mercury is lost due to spillage or the mercury become dirty
itself or contaminated that can cause to become un accurate.

5. Why are goose-neck tubes or pigtail tubes used in the installation of the Bourdon gage? Explain.

Pigtail which can trap condensed steam or other vapor to isolate the gauge from the heat
source. Pigtail makes a liquid seal in the line to the gauge and prevents the high temperature from
reaching the gauge internals. goose-neck bent through 180 degrees, the same movement of the
Bourdon tube will produce a counter-clockwise movement of the pointer 58', or cause it to swing from
the extreme right hand end of the scale toward the left hand end.
6. Which amongst Bourdons pressure gauge and manometer is preferred? Why?

Bourdon tube is much preferred because of its uses. A manometer could also be referring to a
pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term
manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. Bourdon tubes
measure gage pressure, relative to ambient atmospheric pressure, as opposed to absolute pressure;
vacuum is sensed as a reverse motion.

7. What is the meaning of back lash?

Backlash refers to the distance from the back of the drive gear tooth to the front of driven gear
tooth of gears mated on the pitch circle. Standard gears are designed with a specified amount of
backlash to prevent noise and excessive friction and heating of the gear teeth.

8. In the following cases, which measuring instrument is used


a. Pressure of exhaust I.C. engine.
Bourdon tubes
b.. Pressure of steam in boiler
Bourdon Pressure Gage

c. Difference of pressure between entry and throat of horizontal venturimeter.


U-tube Manometer

d. For measurement high pressures, above 30 bar, dials of Bourdon pressure


gauges are filled with glycerin, why?

The life of the filled gauge is much longer because of its housing that is filled with a viscous oil. It
has a good benefit for the gauge. First of is the damping of vibration to the pointer. Also it is use to avoid
the entry of the ambient air.

9. State at least two functions of the air pressure regulator in Bourdons tube pressure gauge.

First function is to avoid the leakage of the pressure that flows to the internal part of the bourdon
pressure gauge and also air pressure regulator is use to maintain the flow of the pressure to have a
accurate reading of the pressure

10. The cross section of elastic tube used in Bourdon pressure gauge is elliptical, why?

Bourdon tubes are tubes with a oval cross-section, bent into a circle. The pressure to be
measured acts on the inside of the tube so that the oval cross-section approximates a circular shape.
The bending of the Bourdon tube causes ring tension which bends the tube open. The loose tube end
performs a movement which is a measure of the pressure. Circular tubes with an angle of 270 are
typically used for pressures of up to 60 bar; for greater pressures, the tubes with several helical windings
are used.
CONCLUSION:

Pressure gauge is the widely use in the power plant It give as accurate reading to the pressure that is
inside the tubes. One of the major use of the bourdon tubes is the measurement of the gage pressure
relative to ambient atmospheric pressure, as opposed to absolute pressure. Bourdon tubes are tubes
with a oval cross-section, bent into a circle. The pressure to be measured acts on the inside of the tube
so that the oval cross-section approximates a circular shape. And it also uses an oil for their housing to
avoid vibration of the pointer. I also learn that pressure transducers have a sensing element of constant
area and respond to force applied to this area by the fluid pressure. This force deflects a diaphragm,
bellows, or Bourdon tube.

REFERENCES:

http://www.baileymackey.com/pressure%20gauges/Resources/B%26M%20Gauges%20Catalogue%20R
W.pdf

http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/pressure/manometer-basics-1073

http://www.mcdanielcontrols.com/gaugeselection.htm

http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/pressuregauges.html

https://www.thermalfluidscentral.org/encyclopedia/index.php/Pressure_measurements_and_instrume
ntation#Bourdon