0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

10 (de) vizualizări9 paginiLti Discrete-time Systems in the Transform Domain

Jul 02, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Lti Discrete-time Systems in the Transform Domain

© All Rights Reserved

10 (de) vizualizări

Lti Discrete-time Systems in the Transform Domain

© All Rights Reserved

- Area Efficient Parallel Fir Digital Filter Structures For Symmetric Convolutions Based On Fast Fir Algorithm
- FIR Filters
- PDSP-LESSON PLAN 2016-2017.doc
- DMP09-3
- dsplp
- DSPQNANS
- Chap6_Frequency Response of FIR Filters
- Question Bank IT
- CS2403
- Dsp-Lab-Manual.pdf
- Ch5.4_5
- Chapter - 3
- IIR filters
- Filter Fir
- dsp
- Lab5_FIR
- 2014-15 Revision Lecture
- AVR223 Digital Filters with AVR
- Lecture 19
- DSPLabmanual 22 May 10

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

Discrete- Time Systems in

the Transform Domain the Transform Domain

An LTI discrete-time system is completely Such transform-domain representations

characterized in the time-domain by its provide additional insight into the behavior

impulse response sequence {h[n]} of such systems

Thus, the transform-domain representation It is easier to design and implement these

systems in the transform-domain for certain

of a discrete-time signal can also be equally applications

applied to the transform-domain

We consider now the use of the DTFT and

representation of an LTI discrete-time the z-transform in developing the transform-

system domain representations of an LTI system

1 2

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Finite-Dimensional LTI

Finite- Finite-Dimensional LTI

Finite-

Discrete-- Time Systems

Discrete

Discrete-- Time Systems

Discrete

Applying the DTFT to the difference

In this course we shall be concerned with equation and making use of the linearity and

LTI discrete-time systems characterized by the time-invariance properties of Table 3.2

linear constant coefficient difference we arrive at the input-output relation in the

equations of the form: transform-domain as

N M N M

j k

dk y[n k ] = pk x[n k ] dke Y (e j ) = pk e j k X (e j )

k=0 k=0 k =0 k =0

j j

whereY (e ) and X ( e ) are the DTFTs of

y[n] and x[n], respectively

3 4

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Finite-Dimensional LTI

Finite- Finite-Dimensional LTI

Finite-

Discrete-- Time Systems

Discrete Discrete-- Time Systems

Discrete

Applying the z-transform to both sides of

In developing the transform-domain the difference equation and making use of

representation of the difference equation, it the linearity and the time-invariance

has been tacitly assumed that X (e j ) and properties of Table 3.9 we arrive at

Y ( e j ) exist N M

k k

The previous equation can be alternately dk z Y(z ) = pk z X (z )

written as k=0 k =0

where Y(z) and X(z) denote the z-transforms

N M

d k e j k Y ( e j ) = pk e j k X ( e j ) of y[n] and x[n] with associated ROCs ,

k =0 k =0 respectively

5 6

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

1

Finite--Dimensional LTI

Finite The Frequency Response

Discrete- Time Systems

Discrete- Most discrete-time signals encountered in

A more convenient form of the z-domain practice can be represented as a linear

representation of the difference equation is combination of a very large, maybe infinite,

given by number of sinusoidal discrete-time signals

N M of different angular frequencies

d k z k Y ( z ) = pk z k X ( z )

k=0 k=0 Thus, knowing the response of the LTI

system to a single sinusoidal signal, we can

determine its response to more complicated

signals by making use of the superposition

7 8 property

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

An important property of an LTI system is Consider the LTI discrete-time system with

that for certain types of input signals, called an impulse response {h[n]} shown below

eigen functions , the output signal is the

input signal multiplied by a complex x[n] h[n] y[n]

constant

Its input-output relationship in the time-

We consider here one such eigen function domain is given by the convolution sum

as the input

y[ n] = h[k ] x[ n k ]

k =

9 10

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

If the input is of the form Then we can write

x[ n] = e j n , < n < y[ n] = H ( e j ) e j n

then it follows that the output is given by Thus for a complex exponential input signal

e j n , the output of an LTI discrete-time

y[ n] = h[ k ] e j (n k ) = h[k ] e j k e j n system is also a complex exponential signal

k = k =

of the same frequency multiplied by a

Let

complex constant H (e j )

H (e j ) = h[ k ] e j k Thus e j n is an eigen function of the system

k =

11 12

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

2

The Frequency Response The Frequency Response

H (e j ) , in general, is a complex function

j of with a period 2

The quantity H (e ) is called the frequency

response of the LTI discrete-time system It can be expressed in terms of its real and

H (e j ) provides a frequency-domain imaginary parts

description of the system H (e j ) = H re (e j ) + j Him (e j )

H (e j ) is precisely the DTFT of the impulse or, in terms of its magnitude and phase,

response {h[n]} of the system H (e j ) = H (e j ) e j ()

where

() = arg H ( e j )

13 14

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

The function H (e j ) is called the In some cases, the magnitude function is

magnitude response and the function () specified in decibels as

is called the phase responseof the LTI G( ) = 20 log10 H (e j ) dB

discrete-time system where G() is called the gain function

Design specifications for the LTI discrete- The negative of the gain function

time system, in many applications, are

given in terms of the magnitude response or A ( ) = G()

the phase response or both is called the attenuation or loss function

15 16

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Note: Magnitude and phase functions are Likewise, for a real impulse response h[n],

real functions of , whereas the frequency H re (e j ) is even and H im( e j ) is odd

response is a complex function of Example - Consider the M-point moving

If the impulse responseh[n] is real then it average filter with an impulse response

follows from Table 3.4 that the magnitude given by

function is an even function of : h[n] = 1 / M , 0 n M 1

0, otherwise

H (e j ) = H ( e j ) Its frequency response is then given by

and the phase function is an odd function of M 1

: H (e j ) = M1 e j n

17

() = () 18

n =0

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

3

The Frequency Response The Frequency Response

Or, H (e j ) = 1 e j n e j n

Thus, the magnitude responseof the M-point

M

n=0 n= M moving average filter is given by

jM

( )

= 1 e j n 1 e jM = 1

M

1 e

M 1 e j H (e j ) = 1

sin(M / 2 )

n =0 M sin( / 2)

= e

M sin( / 2 ) ( M 1) M/2 2 k

() = + ( M )

2 k =0

19 20

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Computation Using MATLAB

Computation Using MATLAB

The function freqz(h,w) can be used to

Example - Program 4_1 can be used to

determine the values of the frequency

generate the magnitude and gain responses

response vectorh at a set of given

of an M-point moving average filter as

frequency points w

shown below

Fromh, the real and imaginary parts can be 1

M=5

100

M=14 50

Phase, degrees

0

imag, and the magnitude and phase

Magnitude

0.6

-50

-100

0.2 M=5

angle -150 M=14

0 -200

21 22 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra / Copyright /

2001, S. K. Mitra

Computation Using MATLAB Computation Using MATLAB

The phase response of a discrete-time To this end the function unwrap can be

system when determined by a computer used, provided the computed phase is in

may exhibit jumps by an amount 2 caused radians

by the way the arctangent function is The jumps by the amount of 2 should not

computed

be confused with the jumps caused by the

The phase response can be made a zeros of the frequency response as indicated

continuous function of by unwrapping the

phase response across the jumps in the phase response of the moving average

filter

23 24

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

4

Steady--State Response

Steady Steady--State Response

Steady

Note that the frequency response also

determines the steady-state response of an We can express the input x[n] as

LTI discrete-time system to a sinusoidal x[ n] = g[ n] + g * [n ]

input where

Example - Determine the steady-state g [n ] = 1 Ae je jon

2

output y[n] of a real coefficient LTI

Now the output of the system for an input

discrete-time system with a frequency

response H (e j) for an input e jon is simply

H (e jo )e jon

x[ n] = A cos(on + ), < n <

25 26

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Steady--State Response

Steady Steady--State Response

Steady

Because of linearity, the responsev[n] to an Combining the last two equations we get

input g[n] is given by y[ n] = v[n ] + v * [ n]

v [n] = 1 Ae jH (e j o )e jo n = 1 Ae j H ( e jo )e jon + 1 Ae j H (e jo )e jon

2 2 2

2

is

= 1 A H ( e jo ) cos(o n + ( o ) + )

v * [ n] = 1 Ae j H (e jo )e jon 2

2

27 28

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Response to a Causal

Steady--State Response

Steady Exponential Sequence

The expression for the steady-state response

Thus, the output y[n] has the same sinusoidal developed earlier assumes that the system is

waveform as the input with two differences: initially relaxed before the application of

(1) the amplitude is multiplied by H ( e jo ), the input x[n]

the value of the magnitude function at = o In practice, excitation x[n] to a discrete-time

(2) the output has a phase lag relative to the system is usually a right-sided sequence

input by an amount ( o ), the value of the applied at some sample index n = no

phase function at = o We develop the expression for the output

for such an input

29 30

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

5

Response to a Causal Response to a Causal

Exponential Sequence Exponential Sequence

Without any loss of generality, assume x[ n] = 0

n jn

for n < 0 Or, y[ n] = h[k ] e jk e [n ]

From the input-output relation k=0

y[ n] =

k = h[ k ] x[ n k ] The output forn < 0 is y[n] = 0

we observe that for an input The output for n 0 is given by

x[ n] = e jn[n ] n

y[ n] = h[k ] e jk e jn

the output is given by k =0

n jn jn

y[ n] = h[ k ] e j( n k ) [ n] = h[k ] e j k e h[k ] e jk e

31 k=0 Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra 32 k =0 k = n+1

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Exponential Sequence Exponential Sequence

Or, The second term on the RHS is called the

jn

y[ n] = H (e j ) e jn h[k ] e jk e transient response:

k = n+1

ytr [n ] = h[ k ] e jk e jn

The first term on the RHS is the same as k = n+1

that obtained when the input is applied at To determine the effect of the above term

n = 0 to an initially relaxed system and is on the total output response, we observe

the steady-state response:

j jn

ytr [n ] = h[k ] e j( k n ) h[ k ] h[ k ]

y sr[ n] = H ( e )e k =n +1 k = n+1 k =0

33 34

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Exponential Sequence Exponential Sequence

For a causal, stable LTI IIR discrete-time For a causal FIR LTI discrete-time system

system, h[n] is absolutely summable with an impulse response h[n] of length

As a result, the transient response ytr [n ] is a N + 1, h[n] = 0 forn > N

bounded sequence Hence, ytr [n ] = 0 for n > N 1

Moreover, as n , Here the output reaches the steady-state

k =n +1 h[ k] 0 value ysr[ n] = H ( e j )e jn at n = N

and hence, the transient response decays to

zero as n gets very large

35 36

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

6

The Concept of Filtering The Concept of Filtering

One application of an LTI discrete-time The key to the filtering process is

system is to pass certain frequency

components in an input sequence without x[ n] = 21 X (e j ) e j n d

any distortion (if possible) and to block

other frequency components It expresses an arbitrary input as a linear

weighted sum of an infinite number of

Such systems are called digital filters and exponential sequences, or equivalently, as a

one of the main subjects of discussion in linear weighted sum of sinusoidal sequences

this course

37 38

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Thus, by appropriately choosing the values To understand the mechanism behind the

of the magnitude function H ( e j ) of the design of frequency-selective filters,

LTI digital filter at frequencies consider a real-coefficient LTI discrete-time

corresponding to the frequencies of the system characterized by a magnitude

sinusoidal components of the input, some of function

these components can be selectively heavily c

H (e j )

1,

attenuated or filtered with respect to the 0, c <

others

39 40

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

We apply an input As

x[n ] = A cos 1n + B cos 2 n, 0 < 1 < c < 2 < H (e j1 ) 1, H (e j 2 ) 0

to this system the output reduces to

Because of linearity, the output of this y[ n] A H ( e j1 ) cos (1n + (1 ))

system is of the form Thus, the system acts like a lowpass filter

y[ n] = A H (e j1 ) cos (1n + ( 1) ) In the following example, we consider the

design of a very simple digital filter

+ B H (e j2 ) cos (2 n + ( 2 ))

41 42

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

7

The Concept of Filtering The Concept of Filtering

Example - The input consists of a sum of two The convolution sum description of this

sinusoidal sequences of angular frequencies filter is then given by

0.1 rad/sample and 0.4 rad/sample y[ n] = h[0] x[n ] + h[1] x[n 1] + h[ 2] x[n 2]

We need to design a highpass filter that will = x[ n] + x[ n 1] + x[n 2]

pass the high-frequency component of the

input but block the low-frequency component y[n] and x[n] are, respectively, the output

and the input sequences

For simplicity, assume the filter to be an FIR

filter of length 3 with an impulse response: Design Objective : Choose suitable values

h[0] = h[2] = , h[1] = of and so that the output is a sinusoidal

43 44

sequence with a frequency 0.4 rad/sample

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

The magnitude and phase functions are

Now, the frequency response of the FIR H (e j ) = 2 cos +

filter is given by ( ) =

H (e j) = h[ 0] + h[1] e j + h[ 2] e j 2 In order to block the low-frequency

= (1 + e j2 ) + e j component, the magnitude function at

e j + e j j = 0.1 should be equal to zero

= 2 e + e j

2 Likewise, to pass the high-frequency

= ( 2 cos + )e j component, the magnitude function at

= 0.4 should be equal to one

45 46

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

Thus, the two conditions that must be Thus the output-input relation of the FIR

satisfied are filter is given by

H (e j0. 1) = 2 cos(0. 1) + = 0 y[ n] = 6.76195 ( x[ n] + x[n 2]) + 13. 456335 x[n 1]

H (e j 0. 4 ) = 2 cos( 0. 4) + = 1 where the input is

Solving the above two equations we get x[ n] = {cos(0.1n) + cos(0. 4n)}[ n]

= 6.76195 Program 4_2 can be used to verify the

= 13.456335 filtering action of the above system

47 48

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

8

The Concept of Filtering The Concept of Filtering

Figure below shows the plots generated by The first seven samples of the output are

running this program shown below

4

y[n]

x 2[n]

3

x 1[n]

Amplitude

-1

0 20 40 60 80 100

49 Time index n 50

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

From this table, it can be seen that,

neglecting the least significant digit, Therefore, first two output samples

y[ n] = cos(0.4( n 1)) for n 2 constitute the transient part of the output

Computation of the present value of the Since the impulse response is of length 3,

output requires the knowledge of the the steady-state is reached at n = N = 2

present and two previous input samples Note also that the output is delayed version

Hence, the first two output samples, y[0] of the high-frequency component cos(0.4n)

and y[1], are the result of assumed zero of the input, and the delay is one sample

input sample values at n = 1 and n = 2 period

51 52

Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra Copyright 2001, S. K. Mitra

- Area Efficient Parallel Fir Digital Filter Structures For Symmetric Convolutions Based On Fast Fir AlgorithmÎncărcat deseventhsensegroup
- FIR FiltersÎncărcat deRîtzî Saxena
- PDSP-LESSON PLAN 2016-2017.docÎncărcat deAnonymous lF6nL5z
- DMP09-3Încărcat deMèo Đen
- dsplpÎncărcat deRavikumaar Rayala
- DSPQNANSÎncărcat deEmmanuel Aron Joshua
- Chap6_Frequency Response of FIR FiltersÎncărcat derofranci
- Question Bank ITÎncărcat deSreejith Gopi
- CS2403Încărcat deDesiya Priya Sreetharan
- Dsp-Lab-Manual.pdfÎncărcat demuthube
- Ch5.4_5Încărcat deAta Ur Rahman Khalid
- Chapter - 3Încărcat deSwathi Kalagatla
- IIR filtersÎncărcat dejjk
- Filter FirÎncărcat deKhurram Sami
- dspÎncărcat dePalani Gnanavel
- Lab5_FIRÎncărcat demrithyunjaysiv
- 2014-15 Revision LectureÎncărcat defromthemasses
- AVR223 Digital Filters with AVRÎncărcat de陳 信宏
- Lecture 19Încărcat deanupvasu
- DSPLabmanual 22 May 10Încărcat deSurya Tej Alla
- DSP - Percobaan 6Încărcat deVincentiusHenry
- dcgainÎncărcat derosita61
- DSP6.pdfÎncărcat dedumbabubu
- 10_chapter 2.pdfÎncărcat deTiktok Jalso
- TE_Instrumentaion (1).pdfÎncărcat deTanmay
- t2Încărcat deiric911
- Laboratories 1 - 4 for the TMS320C5416 DSK.docÎncărcat dearun kumar
- A Comparison of FIR and IIR Digital Filters Satisfying Magnitude and Phase SpecificationsÎncărcat deMattCL
- 1-Digital Filters (FIR)Încărcat deShriram Gunda
- Anna University DspÎncărcat deselvaece2010

- Signals and SystemsÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Bhaje Vrajeka Mandalam by Adi SankaracharyaÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- 4th Digital Signal Processing - Proakis and Manolakis(1)Încărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Two Years of NDA Govenrment EnglishÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Alexander 4Încărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- ITWSÎncărcat depavancheruvu
- MHRD, National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF)Încărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- smart_phone_light.pdfÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Connected Systems Require Hardware Based Security - Electronics for YouÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- M.Tech_DECSÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- ecÎncărcat deSanjay Akhade
- Bhaje Vrajaika Mandanam Samasta Papa KhandanamÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- m1l3Încărcat deChandrasekaran Mohanndoss
- CI 01 Aug08.PDFÎncărcat deAlagappan Arunachalam
- owCeJanuary19.pdfÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- GSM-based Dot-matrix Display - Electronics for YouÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- SL100 Transistor Pinout _ SL100 Transistor DatasheetÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Gesture-Controlled Robot - Electronics for YouÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Electromagnetic Compatibility_ Cable Selection and RoutingÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Most Important Interview Questions for Electronics Communication EngineeringÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- TeluguÎncărcat deSriram_V
- Un Educated Fool(Telugu Short Story)Încărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- chinni kathaluÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa
- Amma Neeti KathaluÎncărcat deSrinivas Kankanampati
- cadd viva.pdfÎncărcat delogeshboy007
- Tamil Nadu 12th Standard HistoryÎncărcat deIndia History Resources
- Question Papers Sample Papers Solved SNAP Dec 2012 Question Paper Quantitative Aptitude & Data InterpretationÎncărcat dePavan Kumar Thopa

- Modulation DemodulationÎncărcat deCrystal Davis
- ece2610_chap1Încărcat deupadhyaysumitkumar
- Notes 1Încărcat deArunmozhi Sinouvassane
- MITRES_6_007S11_hw08Încărcat deCarlos Ribeiro
- EC2009Încărcat deKhurram Sami
- TE_Instrumentaion (1).pdfÎncărcat deTanmay
- Appliction of Robust Control in HEV Energy ManagementÎncărcat desf111
- Chapter_5_Part2_DT Signals & Systems.pptÎncărcat deReddy Babu
- two marks_2Încărcat deBenjamin Lancaster
- Signals and SystemsÎncărcat deMuthe Murali
- Anil Kumar Maini, Varsha Agrawal, Nakul Maini-Wiley Acing the GATE Examination for Electronics and Communication Engineering-WileyÎncărcat deAakash Rabbii
- notiicationÎncărcat deSatish Kumar
- ch2Încărcat deBenyVazquez
- ECE_2011_Semester_3_6_13122013Încărcat deHameem Ul Islam
- Syllabus.pdfÎncărcat dekln
- Autocorrelation LTI SystemÎncărcat demadsud69
- ECE_3780_Outline_Fall_2016.pdfÎncărcat deRodrigo Samico
- ETC-ECE 04-12-2017.pdfÎncărcat deSachin Kumar
- Final Syllabus-ECE-3rd Semester4,5,6,7,8-1Încărcat deHemant Tulsani
- Introduction to the Laplace TransformÎncărcat deAndra Florentina
- Harmonic Analysis and Rational ApproximationÎncărcat deياسينبوهراوة
- Assignment 0Încărcat desayed Tamir jan
- Nit Calicut eee syllabusÎncărcat deSasi Teja Kuntamukkala
- EE3054 PacketÎncărcat deSqweez Duck
- College 07Încărcat dekrishnagdeshpande
- s5cs1 Second FinalisedÎncărcat deAbdul Rahim
- Chapter6 7 SolÎncărcat desarvesh009
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee3102.102.11f taught by Bo Ram Kim (bxk105120)Încărcat deUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- RepositoryÎncărcat dearefinhasib07
- ECE R13 2-1.pdfÎncărcat deHassan

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.