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UNIVERSITATEA CRETIN DIMITRIE CANTEMIR

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

,,DIMITRIE CANTEMIR- EDUCATOR AL ROMNILOR


CONCURS NAIONAL DE ESEURI

9 aprilie 2014,
Bucureti, Romnia

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - EDUCATOR OF THE ROMANIAN


PEOPLE
NATIONAL ESSAY CONTEST

April 9th, 2014


Bucharest-Romania

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Coordonatori volum:

Lect. univ. dr. Mihaela Crstea, - Facultatea de tiine ale Educaiei

Prof. Diana Hrtescu

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UNIVERSITATEA CRETIN DIMITRIE
CANTEMIR
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR CHRISTIAN
UNIVERSITY

,,DIMITRIE CANTEMIR- EDUCATOR AL


ROMNILOR
CONCURS NAIONAL DE ESEURI
9 aprilie 2014,
Bucureti, Romnia

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - EDUCATOR OF


THE ROMANIAN PEOPLE
NATIONAL ESSAY CONTEST
April 9th, 2014
Bucharest-Romania

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Copyright 2014, Editura Pro Universitaria

Toate drepturile asupra prezentei ediii aparin


Editurii Pro Universitaria

Nicio parte din acest volum nu poate fi copiat fr acordul


scris al Editurii Pro Universitaria

ISBN 978-606-26-0058-7

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CUPRINS

CRONICA UNUI EVENIMENT ATEPTAT ................13

OPERA LUI DIMITRIE CANTEMIR BANCHET


SPIRITUAL FILOSOFIC............................................21
Dragomir Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic George Clinescu din Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Aurelia Gherghe

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR EDUCATOR AL


ROMNILOR .......................................................... 40
Ghi Valentin,
Liceul Teoretic Dante Alighieri,
Profesor ndrumtor: Oana Midache

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, OM AL TIMPULUI


MODERN ................................................................ 56
Savonea Andrei,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava, Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PROMOTOR AL


CULTURII ROMNETI .......................................... 73
Borloveanu Ioana-Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic Ioan Petru, Otopeni

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR- SAVANTUL ROMN


DINTRE RUSIA I IMPERIUL OTOMAN ................. 85
Munteanu Mihaela-Roxana,
Liceul Ioan Petru, Otopeni

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ISTORIA IEROGLIFIC SAU UNUL DINTRE
PRIMELE ROMANE ALEGORICE DIN
LITERATURA ROMN .......................................... 93
Teodorescu Bianca,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, ERUDITUL,


MORALISTUL, EDUCATORUL ............................... 114
Vian-Miu R. Tudor,
Colegiul Naional Gheorghe Lazr,
Profesor ndrumtor: Dumitria Stoica

NELEGEREA ISTORIEI CU AJUTORUL LUI


DIMITRIE CANTEMIR I A OPEREI SALE
ISTORIA IEROGLIFIC ..................................... 149
Ilie Maria Victoria,
Rou Diana,
Colegiul Naional Matei Basarab,
Profesor ndrumtor: Carmen Nedelcu

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR SAVANTUL I


EDUCATORUL ...................................................... 160
Merlan Laura,
Clin Paula,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - EDUCATOR AL


ROMNILOR ........................................................ 176
Anghelina Simona Octavia,
Colegiul Naional Octav Onicescu Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Marcela Graianu

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DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PRINUL RENATERII
DE RSRIT ......................................................... 189
Drleci Simona,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

COORDONATA REFLEXIV A OPEREI LUI


DIMITRIE CANTEMIR .......................................... 208
Vintil-Anton Teona-Ioana,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR. O PERSONALITATE


ROMNEASC A TREI PARADIGME. ................... 222
Apreotesei I. Adrian,
Colegiul Naional de Informatic Tudor Vianu

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8
Forward

THE CHRONICLE OF A MEMORABLE EVENT ......... 17


Prof. Diana Hrtescu

CANTEMIR'S WORK - PHILOSOPHICAL


SPIRITUAL BANQUET .............................................31
Dragomir Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic George Clinescu din Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Aurelia Gherghe

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR TEACHER OF


ROMANIANS........................................................... 48
Ghi Valentin,
Liceul Teoretic Dante Alighieri,
Profesor ndrumtor: Oana Midache

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, MAN OF MODERN TIME ... 65


Savonea Andrei,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava, Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PROMOTOR OF THE


ROMANIAN CULTURE ............................................ 79
Borloveanu Ioana-Mdlina,
Liceul teoretic ,,Ioan Petru, Otopeni

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - THE ROMANIAN


SCHOLAR BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE ................................................ 89
Munteanu Mihaela-Roxana,
Liceul Ioan Petru, Otopeni

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THE HIEROGLYPHIC HISTORY ONE OF THE
FIRST ALLEGORIC NOVELS IN ROMANIAN
LITERATURE ........................................................ 102
Teodorescu Bianca,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, SCHOLAR, MORALIST


AND EDUCATOR .................................................... 132
Vian-Miu R. Tudor,
Colegiul Naional Gheorghe Lazr

UNDERSTANDING HISTORY HELP BY


DIMITRIEI CANTEMIR AND HIS CREATION
ISTORIA IEROGLIFICA ......................................... 154
Ilie Maria Victoria,
Rou Diana,
Colegiul Naional Matei Basarab

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR THE SAVANT AND THE


EDUCATOR ........................................................... 168
Merlan Laura,
Clin Paula,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR EDUCATOR OF THE


ROMANIANS ....................................................... 182
Anghelina Simona Octavia,
Colegiul Naional Octav Onicescu Bucureti

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DIMITRIE CANTEMIR THE PRINCE OF THE
ORIENTAL RENAISSANCE ................................... 199
Drleci Simona,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang

THE PHILOSOPHICAL SIDE OF CANTEMIRS


WORKS .................................................................. 215
Vintil-Anton Teona-Ioana,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

DIMITRIE CANTEMIR. A ROMANIAN


PERSONALITY OF THREE PARADIGMS............... 232
Apreotesei I. Adrian,
Colegiul Naional de Informatic Tudor Vianu

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CRONICA UNUI EVENIMENT ATEPTAT

Spiritul strlucitor cantemirian, dimensiunile uriae ale


personalitii sale, cu manifestri excepionale n varii
domenii: filosofie, logic, istorie, literatur, muzic, au
determinat, n chip firesc, prima racordare a culturii romne la
cultura european, ntia recunoatere, la nivel academic, a
unui crturar romn.
La data de 11 iulie 1714, Academia din Berlin primea n
rndurile membrilor si pe domnul moldav, consacrare care l
plaseaz pe cel mai bun cunosctor, n epoc, al problemelor
orientale printre savanii de renume ai secolului. Dat de
neuitat pentru poporul romn! De atunci, chipul crturarului
vegheaz de la nlime i invit la urcu intelectual pe toi
cei care au cutezana s-i confrunte contiina i
personalitatea cu amplitudinea personalitii sale. Degetul lui
ne indic: pe aici este drumul spre lumin spiritual!

La 9 aprilie 2014 - trei secole de recunoatere academic


la nivel european, Universitatea care i poart numele
gzduiete un eveniment ateptat de muli tineri i de
profesorii lor: Concursul Naional de eseuri, avnd ca tem
vasta personalitate a lui Dimitrie Cantemir, adevrat
educator al neamului su. Spaiul de desfurare a
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concursului este strlucitor, pe msura evenimentului.
Numrul impresionant al celor din sal griete despre
importana concursului.
Ca profesor de limba romn, mi-am ncurajat elevii s
participe la acest concurs, fiind cucerit de tem, de
metodologia de desfurare, de calitatea intelectual a
participanilor. Dup o prim etap, n concurs au rmas 19
candidai de la Colegii Naionale de elit: Sf. Sava, Gh.
Lazar, Tudor Vianu, Ion Creang, Matei Basarab. Temele
eseurilor au relevat, nc de la nceput, anvergura pregtirii
elevilor. Promovarea n etapa final a unui anumit numr de
candidai a fost o dovad, n plus, de maxim seriozitate.
La data cnd scriu aceste rnduri, este vie impresia pe
care mi-a produs-o acest eveniment cultural. Memoria afectiv
a pstrat proaspt, nealterat, tot ce am simit n acele
momente, bucuria interioar c elevii notri au fost
protagonitii unui eveniment memorabil.
Organizarea a fost fr cusur. Cuvntul de deschidere,
plin de cldur i atenie pentru participani, rostit de
doamna prof. univ. dr. Gabriela Pohoa, decan al Facultii
de tiine ale Educaiei din cadrul Universitii Cretine
Dimitrie Cantemir, organizatorul concursului, a sporit starea
de bine. Nivelul intelectual la care urma s se desfoare
evenimentul a fost impus de calitatea discursului academic de
deschidere rostit de doamna rector, prof. univ. dr. Corina
Adriana Dumitrescu, iniiatorul concursului, care a
determinat ca participanii s strluceasc, la rndul lor.
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Eseurile au fost jurizate de un board tiinific din care au
fcut parte academicienii Alexandru Surdu i Alexandru
Boboc. De asemenea, domnul academician Alexandru Boboc a
fost prezent pe toat durata evenimentului, fiind implicat
activ n discuiile cu elevii.
Dascl fiind, cu preocupare pentru formarea intelectual
a elevilor mei, am fost ncercat, pe durata desfurrii
concursului, de sentimente de nalt bucurie c coala
romneasc are asemenea elevi, care au dovedit for a ideilor,
capacitate de analiz i sintez, cutezana ideilor personale,
tiina de a-i promova imaginea. Rsplata pentru demersul
lor a impresionat: substaniale premii n cri i bani.
Strdania organizatorilor, printre care se numra i lect.
univ. dr. Mihaela Daniela Crstea, tnr cadru didactic al
Universitii i inspector de limba i literatura romn, care a
fcut cunoscut acest concurs la nivelul colilor bucuretene, de
a ne oferi posibilitatea participrii la un eveniment cultural
deosebit, merit toat preuirea i gratitudinea noastr,
ncntai c putem spune Et in Arcadia ego!

Ateptm nerbdtori ediia urmtoare.


Vom fi acolo!

Prof. Diana Hrtescu

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THE CHRONICLE OF A MEMORABLE EVENT

Dimitrie Cantemirs brilliant spirit, his impressive


personality - with exceptional distinctions in various fields
such as philosophy, logics, history, literature and music -
achieved the first connection between the Romanian and the
European culture. From the academic standpoint, one owes
the first international recognition of a Romanian scholar to
Dimitrie Cantemir.
On the 11th of June 1714, the Berlin Academy admitted
the Moldavian ruler among its members. This recognition
places Cantemir, who was an expert in oriental culture,
among the centurys most famous scholars. The date was
memorable to Romanian people. Ever since, the scholars
cultural heritage has continued to represent an intellectual
challenge to all of those who had both the courage and the
curiosity to discover Cantemirs impressive and complex
personality. His writings still represent a spiritual beacon to
all those who seek to attain spiritual and intellectual
enlightenment.
On the 9th of April 2014, after three centuries of
European academic acknowledgement, the University which
was named after the Moldavian ruler hosted an event that
the high school students and their teachers had been looking

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forward to a national essay competition which had the
purpose of making the young generation discover Cantemir by
writing essays about the Moldavian scholar and focusing on
his multivalent personality. The venue was as splendid as the
entire event. The utter importance of the competition was
emphasized by the impressive number of participants.
As a Romanian language teacher, I have encouraged my
pupils to take part in the competition because I have been
fascinated by its subject, the methodology and, of course, by
the intellectual giftedness of the participants. There were
nineteen participants left after the first phase. They came
from Bucharests best national colleges, such as: Saint Sava
National College, Gheorghe Lazr National College, Tudor
Vianu National College, Ion Creang National College and
Matei Basarab National College. Even from the beginning,
the subjects that the participants focused on when writing
their essays have revealed the amplitude of their knowledge.
The fact that there was a limited number of participants
taking part in the second phase was another proof of the fact
that the competition was indeed competitive and thorough.
As I am writing these lines I can remember the
extraordinary impression it has left on me very well. Every
single thing I felt that day - especially the joy for our pupils
who had been the protagonists of this memorable event has
been kept alive by my emotional memory.
The organizational process was perfect. The academic
atmosphere was amplified by Mrs. Pohoa Gs, the dean of
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Faculty of Letters from Dimitrie Cantemir Christian
University, who made a warm opening speech. Prof. dr. Corina
Adriana Dumitrescu, who is the rector of the university, the
initiator of the contest, made a significant speech which
eventually raised the academic level of the competition to its
summit and encouraged the participants to do their best.
Since I am one of the teachers who has always been
dedicated to my pupils intellectual training, I felt nothing
but sheer pride during the competition, because I realized that
Romanian schools have such extraordinary students, who once
more demonstrated their keen eye and originality coupled with
the ability to analyze and synthesize their ideas. At the end of
the competition, their skills got them books and financial
rewards.
The organizers efforts - including the contribution of a
young professor of the University and Romanian language
inspector, dr. Crstea Mihaela Daniela, who invited the high
schools in Bucharest to participate at the competition gave
us the opportunity to participate at a special cultural event.
They deserve our deepest gratitude and appreciation.
Therefore, we are pleased to say Et in Arcadia ego!.
We are looking forward to the next edition and we wish
to state once more that we shall be delighted to attend and
contribute.

The Chronicler,
Prof. Diana Hrtescu
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OPERA LUI DIMITRIE CANTEMIR BANCHET
SPIRITUAL FILOSOFIC

Dragomir Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic George Clinescu din Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Aurelia Gherghe

Cea mai elocvent figur a scrisului vechi romnesc, om al


unui alt timp, considerat doar formal reprezentant al perioadei
vechi, Dimitrie Cantemir angajeaz cultura romn pe un alt
drum, drumul care mbin Renaterea cu Epoca Luminilor.
Revendicat de cultura otoman, de cea rus, dar i de cea
european, Dimitrie Cantemir este primul romn care a fost
ales membru al Academiei din Berlin, n anul 1714. Considerat
n literatura i cultura romn i universal unul dintre cei mai
erudii umaniti, personalitate covritoare a secolelor
al XVII-lea i al XVIII-lea, Dimitrie Cantemir i-a concentrat
ntreaga activitate n dezvoltarea i nflorirea culturii romne,
este omul universal care a pregtit apariia iluminismului
prin opere care au la baz o vast documentaie. Considerat un
geniu al naiunii, Cantemir este cel mai mare umanist din
perioada feudal a literaturii romane, un geniu care nu scrie
cri, ci contureaz file din istorie. Dimitrie Cantemir este
ntiul om de tiin romn, personalitate care se distinge
printre contemporanii si, personalitate a crei oper face
autoritatea n epoca pe care o reprezint.
Dimitrie Cantemir, erudit de faim european, voievod
moldovean, academician berlinez, prin rus, cronicar romn,
cunosctor al tuturor plcerilor pe care le poate da lumea, un
Lorenzo de Medici al nostru (G. Clinescu, Istoria literaturii

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romne de la origini pn n prezent), i transpune
personalitatea excepional n lucrri de temelie pentru cultura
naional i universal. Dimitrie Cantemir folosete adesea
temele istorice ca un romantic preocupat de originea pe care o
prezint ntr-un mod att de personal, nct oglindete
nzuina sa acut de a transpune idei despre societate i
civilizaie care ntrec valoarea documentar a operelor lui
Miron Costin i a stolnicului Constantin Cantacuzino.
Opera cantemirian este complex, autorul fiind cel care
surprinde probleme social-istorice ale Moldovei de la sfritul
secolului al XVII-lea i nceputul secolului al XVIII-lea, n
calitatea sa de fost domnitor i personalitate care dorete s
impun strintii imaginea poporului romn ca parte
integrant a istoriei universale, prin dubla sa descenden.
Operele lui Cantemir apar ntr-o perioad n care nflorirea
culturii era bazat, n special, pe dezvoltarea tipografiilor care
produceau cri n limbile vorbite pe teritoriul celor trei
provincii romne, opere care, la rndul lor, prezint o
dezvoltare semnificativ prin apariia de noi genuri i specii
literare. n acest context, operele lui Cantemir datoreaz mult
personalitilor enciclopedice europene, mini care i ofer
recunoaterea meritat.
Lectura operelor lui Dimitrie Cantemir devine un banchet
filosofic al spiritului, banchet creat de pilde, nvturi lumeti
i nelepte, provocri pentru raiune, dezamgiri pentru
sentimente, contientizarea efortului, smerenia satisfaciei,
tgduiri asupra nvierii i nemuririi, moralitate i imoralitate.
Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu lumea sau Giudeul
sufletului cu trupul apare n anul 1698, la Iai, ntr-o perioad
n care se remarc o nflorire deosebit a culturii scrise n
limba roman. Divanul lui Cantemir, dei nu este o oper
izolat, a reprezentat un centru de interes pentru lingvitii i
istoricii filosofiei care au luat n considerare stilul, lexicul,

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ideile i teoriile formulate de autor n ncercarea de a realiza o
analiz lmuritoare care a pus, n final, Divanul sub
puternice fascicole de lumin. Similitudinea operei
cantemiriene cu modelul unei culegeri de maxime,
reprezentativ pentru cultura epocii, face ca opera s fie
asemeni unui roman aflat ntr-o mbinare de influene literare,
istorice i filosofice. Un eseu compus dup modelul
dialogurilor platonicine, cele trei cri care alctuiesc Divanul
au ca surs de inspiraie pasaje biblice ori lucrri ale filosofilor,
poeilor sau sfinilor. Opera are n centrul su cea de-a doua
carte n care maximele comentate vor fi centrul dramatizrii
din prima carte, iar n final, cea de-a treia carte reprezint o
expunere savant cu rolul de a completa glceava i
predania.
Eterna controvers dintre influen i autohtonism este
puternic reflectat n structura crii lui Dimitrie Cantemir.
Tensiunile de la cumpna secolelor al XVII-lea i XVIII-lea, o
mbinare ntre spiritul gndirii occidentale i dorina de a
pstra un filon autohton, o varietate de curente i idei care
trdeaz preluarea acestora din cri sacre i texte umaniste.
Divanul lui Cantemir, lucrare care poate fi vzut, printre
altele, ca un eseu care ilustreaz condiia generic a omului i
reflexia moral dup modelul cretin, este influenat n mod
special de scrierile europene de gen similar ale scriitorilor
precum Montaigne, Gracian, Burton i La Fontaine.
Debutul crii, marcat de cteva fraze cadenate i
muzicale, ce nu pot s nu vrjeasc urechea noastr nvat n
proz cu alte sonoruri (Nicolae Manolescu, Istoria critic a
literaturii romne) surprinde prezentarea unor mescioare
spre a sufletului dulce gustare pe care sunt atent aezate dou
pahare, paharul vieii i paharul morii, idee sugerat i de
Eminescu n Epigonii. n Divanul, personajul central este
surprins n persoana neleptului. Principele - moldav

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reprezint figura neleptului devenit simbol al contiinei
reflexive i al unei bune cunoateri a sinelui. neleptul din
oper, oratorul, este un iubitor al cuvntului i al filosofiei,
acest lucru fiind reflectat n discursul dintre el i Lume. Este,
de asemenea, un explorator al sufletului, al crui discurs va
surprinde o judecat virulent la adresa Lumii i a poftelor ei,
lucru prefigurat i n titlu.
Divanul lui Dimitrie Cantemir poate fi privit ca o lucrare
prin excelen cretin, ns nu trebuie omis faptul c lucrarea
reprezint o interferen a influenelor stoice, n care lumea
este falnic, dar amgitoare i trectoare, dar i a
influenelor neoplatonice prin temele cretine, n aprecierea
Lumii ca fiind nesioas, o lume vrstoare de snge i
pierztoare de suflet, lume pe care i Miron Costin o
surprinde n Viaa lumii.
Lectura intensiv, prin oralitate, surprinde gradat
invitaii succesive adresate cititorului n a se nfrupta din
bucate ori n a se conversa cu sine. Paharele vor reprezenta
centre de interes.
Cartea mbin oralitatea cu scrisul, mentalitatea romneasc
a epocii i contextul cultural european, fiind puternic influenat
de dezvoltarea tipografiilor i de influena cuvntului rostit care
cunotea prestigiul, pe de-o parte, iar pe de alt parte, n
Divanul se remarc o interferen a manifestrilor culturii
romne i europene marcate de dezvoltri succesive i accelerate.
Nefiind o oper ale crei surse de inspiraie sunt exclusiv livreti,
prin experiena personal a autorului, Divanul recomand
stabilitatea n gndire, respectarea valorilor umane i o atenie
sporit principiilor din spatele aparenelor neltoare, n
ncercarea de a se opune superficialitii, neadevrului i lcomiei
n locul binelui, prin prezentarea parvenitismului ca un viciu
primejdios.

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Contrastul permanent al sufletului cu trupul, deoarece
sufletul vine de la Dumnezeu, iar trupul este lumesc, mcinat
de pcatul primordial, se remarc la un nivel superior al
existenei prin persoana neleptului care este ntr-o
permanent cutare a perfeciunii. Principele-filosof, posesorul
nelepciunii, situate deasupra tiinei lumeti, ajunge n final
s ncheie un pact ideologic cu Lumea n care surprinde latura
dual a lucrurilor, macrocosmosul i microcosmosul.
Contrastul paroxismic dintre aparen i esen, observat
printr-o metafor a feelor mrii, surprinde ascunziul dintre
frumoasele chipuri ale sirenelor i virajurile vieii la care
conduc, reliefnd o tem de circulaie n epoca barocului
utilizat de Cantemir, lumea ca teatru.
Aa cum . Cioculescu observ la Cantemir o superstiie a
stilului ciceronian, personajul central al Divanului, iubitor
al oratoriei, neleptul, ntr-un discurs cu Lumea, dorete s
nlture superficialitatea i s duc mai departe ideea de
dezirabilitate a materialului, a stpnirii regeti, n
similitudine cu poemul filosofic eminescian Luceafrul, n
tabloul al treilea, n care se contureaz dorina lui Hyperion de
a renuna la superioritate n favoarea unei condiii comune, de
muritor, n dialogul cu Demiurgul. Valoarea spaiului celest
este marcat de discrepana vdit dintre mpria cerului i
efemeritatea condiiei umane. Legturile dintre oameni, n
eseul filosofic al lui Cantemir, asociate cu raporturile dintre
astrele cereti, sunt prezentate inclusiv ntr-o perspectiv
dantesc, nc din primele pagini ale marii cri de filosofie, o
carte care devine un simbol al unei epoci.
Stilul cantemirian surprinde capacitatea acestuia de a fi i
astzi o ncntare neegalat (Nicolae Manolescu, Istoria
critic a literaturii romne), un stil versatil, care, dei nu
revoluioneaz limba filosofiei romneti, rmne un stil care
ncnt dup secole, trdeaz emoii care desfat spiritul.

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Pe lng oralitate, care ajunge s nlture barierele dintre
instane, stilul cantemirian ngrijit, lucrat cu insisten,
folosindu-se cuvinte noi, pentru a-l impresiona pe cititor,
ilustreaz preocuparea lui Dimitrie Cantemir de a exprima n
romnete orice noiune (Al. Rosetti, B. Cazacu, Liviu Onu,
Istoria Limbii romne Literare). Formele retorice i masiva
prezen a oralitii, prin pasajele de dialog rostit, exclamaii i
repetiii, ilustreaz dorina de a imprima ideea general a
operei filosofice, o mbinare de fenomene culturale, un
exemplu de oper, un imbold pentru ceilali scriitori n
nfptuirea operelor care pot lrgi orizontul culturii. Funcia
delimitat a operei cantemiriene surprinde o form a artei mai
reinut, fr reprezentaii ample, ns va oferi prilejul
ilustrrii prin motive fundamentale, a concretizrii unor
nvturi i principii prin intermediul personajului central.
Istoria ieroglific, pe de alta parte, este considerat a fi
prima oper literar romneasc, n toat puterea cuvntului.
Un roman alegoric cu personaje din lumea animal, un roman
istoric realist, a fost privit ca o lucrare secret, contemporanii
autorului fiind ascuni sub denumiri de psri i patrupede.
Lupta pentru putere, ilustrat prin gustul lui Cantemir pentru
alegorie, este surprins prin mti zoomorfe care contureaz o
galerie de personaje interpretate ca fiind degradante i
jignitoare de ctre contemporanii autorului, iar concepiile
vremii, prin insensibilitatea gndirii, au provocat un adevrat
scandal n ntreaga Europ de sud-est.
Spiritul ludic, provocator, al lui Cantemir ascunde nite
jocuri de om cultivat i inteligent (Nicolae Manolescu,
Istoria critic a literaturii romne), ntreaga aciune a operei
gravitnd n jurul unui conflict mai vechi dect zidirea
Babilonului (Nicolae Manolescu, Istoria critic a literaturii
romne). Conflictul surprinde mascat alegerea unui epitrop,
printr-o adunare obteasc, n mpria animalelor.

26
Tonul discuiilor care se nasc n jurul alegerilor amintete
de iganiada lui Ioan Budai-Deleanu, epopee n care
polemicile se contureaz, n finalul epopeii, din incapacitatea
de a decide forma de guvernmnt a noului stat.
Subiectul lucrrii morale-filosofice, aa cum o numete
A.D Xenopol, este destul de simplu, ns complexitatea minii
autorului reuete s contureze personaje care nfptuiesc
aciuni paralele sau convergente. Nicolae Iorga, simind latura
moral-psihologic a romanului care surprinde superba
meditaie a omului (Dan Horia Mazilu, Recitind literatura
romn veche) i firul epic istoric, categorisete opera lui
Cantemir ca fiind un roman istoric i carte de memorii
mbrcat n zbranicul glume al unei fantasii alegorice.
Dei poate prea o opera greoaie din cauza construciei
latine a frazei i a simbolizrii ntmplrilor n ieroglife,
subiectul deschis urmrete, n realitate, conflictul frailor
Constantin i Cantemir Brncoveanu, unde Constantin
Brncoveanu, Corbul, ajut personajul himeric Struocmila s
ajung pe tronul rii patrupedelor pentru a obine o parte din
bunurile Moldovei. Text eminamente literar, carte care ajut la
cunoatere i iniiere, primul roman cult, conturat dup
modelul romanelor populare medievale surprinde alegoria
moral i pamfletar printr-o oper de ur i rzbunare,
Istoria ieroglific oglindete teoriile filosofice despre om i
nelinitile lui.
Lumea ciudat creat de autor surprinde personaje
mascate - Inorogul, proiecie a unui strvechi mit
semiantropomorf este o fiin ntr-o permanent persecuie i
forat s se izoleze n locuri imposibile i anevoioase, n muni,
muntele fiind simbolul alchimic, personaj care vine n atenia
cititorului ca personajul principal al operei. Inorogul este un
personaj pur care nu se ferete n a nfptui aciuni demne de
laud, ntr-un context nefavorabil pstrrii scaunului care i se

27
cuvenea. Leul este un semn al ntietii, al patrupedului ideal
i conductor dominator. Lumea baroc mbin simbolistica
Pmntului, Apei i Aerului prin vieuitoare mistice. Vidra,
raional, logic i doritoare de dreptate este prima care ia
cuvntul n disputa creat pe baza alegerii epitropului.
Cprioara respinge ideile Vidrei, o logic abstract de
neneles, iar Struocmila, candidatul la epitropie, viclean, un
personaj hibrid, nsetat de putere, aliat al Corbului alturi de
care comploteaz pentru o ctigare facil a alegerilor din
mpria animalelor. Cameleonul, personaj degradant, menit
s prezinte neadevrul ca un adevr incontestabil, este cel care
va complota mpotriva Inorogului care avea s fac o vraj
benefic pentru soia sa, frumoasa Biruina.
Pamflet politic cu un puternic caracter moralizator i cu o
dimensiune clasicist care permanentizeaz caracterele, opera lui
Cantemir red o lume asemntoare cu cea existent, n care eroii
cu trsturi umane pot fi ncadrai n tipologii n funcie de
dimensiunea moral dezvluit. Corbul este, n acest mod,
intrigantul, Inorogul este prigonitul, Cameleonul este vicleanul
personaje caricaturale caragialiene de profunzime etern.
Un adevrat Roman de Renard romnesc ns cu
scopuri polemice (G. Clinescu, Istoria literaturii romne de
la origini pn n prezent), construit ntr-un duh retoric, loc
al iluziei i al iluzionrii, al aparenelor, al folosirii mtilor
luntrice ori exterioare (Dan Horia Mazilu, Recitind
literatura romn veche), opera surprinde dorina lui Dimitrie
Cantemir de a jongla cu semnele i simbolurile mascate ale
ntmplrilor i personalitilor. Lumea ieroglific, surprins
prin interminabile secvene rimate i ritmate, personaje bizare,
o modalitate a mascrii chipurilor emblematice ale politicii
vremii, prezentate cititorului invitat la teatru, sub masca
fpturilor, dihniilor i psirilor. Majoritatea personajelor
lui Cantemir practic oracolul i utilizeaz diferite practici

28
oculte n ncercarea de a interpreta visele prin exerciii
divinatorii sau astrologie.
Romanul lui Cantemir, ndelung apreciat n epoca
Barocului, tradus i imitat, transformat apoi n scenariu
dramatic, are la baz structuri de suprafa, sugestii i
semnificaii, savant aezate i ngrijite, toate atent observate
i folosite pentru a impresiona i minuna.
Boierimea epocii este atent ascuns sub nfiri ale
animalelor i psrilor puternice, n schimb ranii, soldaii,
curtenii i alte personaje colective care sunt lipsite de virulena
caracterului, sunt plasate n plan secund i sunt ilustrate sub
mtile insectelor, precum albine, tuni sau viespi.
Antropologia lui Dimitrie Cantemir a fost ndelung
studiat i marcat de opinii critice care au adncit capacitatea
autorului de a surprinde latura cea mai profund a sufletului
omenesc. n centrul antropologiei cantemiriene se afl o
imagine creionat de nelept care va deveni unul dintre
motivele centrale ale operei filosofice Pn nu-i vei face
trupul vas, sufletul aur, i lumea aceasta foc, i nu vei
fierbe astfel laolalt sufletul cu trupul n flacra acestei viei,
mntuire nu vei avea.
Univers n care se confrunt permanent categorii opuse
binele i rul, adevrul i minciuna, neleptul i lumea,
pasiunea i raiunea spaiul literar - filosofic cantemirian
definete imoralitatea creia ncearc s i se opun, accept
compromisul, dar amendeaz rul, ofer un spectacol al
deertciunii.

Bibliografie

Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete I (Divanul),


Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.

29
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2008), Istoria Ieroglific, Prefa de
Dan Horia Mazilu, Bucureti, Ed. Gramar.
Cndea Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii la
istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia.
Clinescu George, (2003), Istoria literaturii romne de la
origini pn n prezent (1941), Bucureti, Ed. Fundaia regal
pentru literatur i art.
Manolescu Nicolae, (2008), Istoria critic a literaturii
romne, Ed. Paralela 45, Bucureti.
Mazilu Dan, Horia, (1998), Recitind literatura romn
veche, vol. I, II, Bucureti, Ed. Universitii din Bucureti.

30
CANTEMIR'S WORK - PHILOSOPHICAL
SPIRITUAL BANQUET

Dragomir Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic George Clinescu din Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Aurelia Gherghe

The most eloquent figure of Romanian old letters, man of


another time period considered only formal representative of
the old Romanian culture Cantemir commit another way, the
way which combines Renaissance to the Enlightenment.
Claimed Ottoman culture, from the Russian, but also the
European Cantemir is the first Romanian who was elected to
the Academy of Berlin, in 1714. Considered in Romanian and
universal literature and culture one of the most erudite
humanists, personality majority of the seventeenth century
and eighteenth century, Dimitrie Cantemir entire business
focused in the development and flourishing of Romanian
culture is the universal man who prepared the
Enlightenment through works which are based on extensive
documentation. Considered a genius of the nation's largest
humanitarian Cantemir during feudal literature, a genius who
write books, but outlines the history file. Dimitrie Cantemir
first Romanian scientist personality distinguished among his
contemporaries personality whose work makes authority in the
era he represents.
Dimitrie Cantemir, scholar of European fame, Moldavian
prince, academicean Berlin, Russian prince, Romanian
historian, connoisseur of all pleasures you can give the world a

31
Lorenzo de Medici us (G. Clinescu, The History of
Romanian Literature from origins to the present), its
exceptional personality works transpose the foundation for
national and universal culture. Dimitrie Cantemir often uses
historical themes that preoccupied romantic origin that
presents in a way so personal that reflects the aspiration to
acute to translate ideas about society and civilization that
exceed documentary works of Miron Costin and Constantin
Cantacuzino.
Opera Cantemir is complex, the author is the one who
captures the social-historical Moldova in the late seventeenth
century and early seventeenth century, as the former ruler and
personality that wants to impose foreign countries as part of
the Romanian people image integral universal history through
its dual lineage. Cantemir's works appear in a time of
flourishing culture was based in particular on the development
of printers producing books in the languages spoken across the
three Romanian provinces, works which, in turn, presents a
significant development in the emergence of new genres and
literary genres. In this context, the works of Cantemir owes
much to European encyclopedic personalities, minds which
gives deserved recognition.
Reading the works of Demetrius Cantemir philosophical
spirit becomes a banquet, banquet created by parables, teachings
and worldly wise reasoning challenges, disappointments for
feelings, awareness effort, humility satisfaction, denials of
resurrection and immortality, morality and immorality.
Divan or bickering or Giudeul world wise soul and body
appears in 1698 in Iasi, in a period where there is a culture
flourished written in Romanian. Divan Cantemir, although it
is a work isolated, was a center of interest to linguists and
historians of philosophy that took into account the style,
vocabulary, ideas and theories formulated by the author in an
attempt to achieve an enlightening analysis that had finally

32
Divan under strong bundles of light. Similarity work
cantemiriene model of a collection of maxims, representative
of the era culture makes a novel work is also found in a
combination of influences literary, historical and
philosophical. An essay composed dialogues platonicine
model, the three books that make up the Divan were the
inspiration biblical passages or works of philosophers, poets
and saints. Opera has at its center the second book which will
be the center of highs commented dramatization of the first
book, and finally, the third book is a scholarly exposition of the
role of complement bickering and tradition.
The eternal controversy of influence is strongly reflected
in the structure autochtony Cantemir's book. Tensions at the
turn of the seventeenth century and eighteenth century, a
blend of Western thinking spirit and desire to keep a local vein,
a variety of current and taking ideas that betray their sacred
books and texts in the humanities. Divan Cantemir, work
that can be seen, among other things, an essay that illustrates
the condition of the individual and moral reflection on the
Christian model is influenced particularly European writings
of similar genre writers such as Montaigne, Gracian, Burton
and La Fontaine.
The debut book, marked by a few musical phrases and
cadences that I can not spell our ear to the other sonoruri
learned prose (Nicolae Manolescu, Critical History of
Romanian Literature) captures the presentation of sweet
soul mescioare to snack which are carefully placed two
glasses, glass cup life and death, an idea suggested by
Eminescu Epigones. In the Divan, character is central
surprised by Wise person. Moldavian Prince-wise figure
represents became the symbol of reflexive consciousness and
an awareness of the self. Work wise, the speaker is a lover of
word and philosophy, and this is reflected in the discourse
between him and the world. It is also an explorer of the soul,

33
whose speech will surprise virulent judgment to the world and
its lusts, it foreshadowed in the title.
Divan Dimitrie Cantemir can be regarded as a work by
Christian excellence, but we should not overlook the fact that
the work is an interference of Stoic influence in the world is
lofty but deceptive and fleeting and Neoplatonic influences
by Christian themes in assessing world as insatiable, a
world spilling blood and losing the soul, Miron Costin world
that a surprise Viiaa world.
Reading intensive by orality, gradually captures
successive calls to the reader in a feast of food times to
converse with him. The glasses will be the center of interest.
The book combines orality to writing, Romanian
mentality of the era and European cultural context, strongly
influenced the development of printing and the influence of
the spoken word who knew prestige, on the one hand, and on
the other hand, the Divan there is an interference Romanian
and European cultural manifestations marked by successive
developments and accelerated. Not being an opera of which
are exclusively bookish inspiration, personal experience of the
author, Divan recommends thinking stability, respect for
human values and principles behind appearances attention
misleading attempt to oppose superficiality, lies, and greed
instead of good, by presenting upstartism a dangerous flaw.
Permanent contrast with the body the soul because the
soul comes from God, and the body is worldly ground of
original sin, stands at a higher level of existence by a wise
person is in a constant search for perfection. Prince-
philosopher, possessor of wisdom, above the mundane science,
eventually reaching a deal to end ideological world in which it
surprise dual side of things, the macrocosm and the
microcosm. Paroxysm contrast between appearance and
essence, observed through a metaphor of the big girls
surprise hiding between the beautiful faces of sirens and the

34
leading mirajurile (the changes of( life, emphasizing a theme of
movement Baroque Cantemir used by the world as a theater.
As Serban Cioculescu Cantemir observed a superstition
Ciceronian style, the central character of Divan lover of oratory
wise, in a speech to the world, seeks to overcome superficiality
and to push forward the idea of the desirability of the material,
the royal rule, in Eminescu's philosophical poem similar to Star
in the third panel, which outlines his desire to waive Hyperion
superiority in favor of common conditions mortal in dialogue
with Demiurgul. Valoarea (the value of) celestial space is marked
by obvious discrepancy the kingdom of heaven and the
impermanence of the human condition. Connections between
people, Cantemir's philosophical essay associated with the
relationship between the stars of heaven, are presented including
a Dantesque perspective from the early pages of the great books
of philosophy, a book that becomes a symbol of an era.
Cantemir style captures its ability to be today unequaled
delight (Nicolae Manolescu, Critical History of Romanian
Literature), a versatile style that although philosophy is
revolutionizing Romanian language remains a style that
delights after centuries, betray emotions that delight the spirit.
Besides oral reaching to remove barriers between courts,
Cantemir style neatly worked strongly, using new words to
impress the reader, illustrating Cantemir concern to the
Romanian expresses the any notion (Al. Rosetti B. Cazacu,
Alan Onu, History of the Romanian literary language).
Rhetorical forms and massive presence of orality, spoken
passages of dialogue, exclamations and repetitions, illustrating
the desire to print general idea of philosophical work, a mix of
cultural phenomena, an example of work, an incentive to other
writers in carrying out works which may broaden culture.
Position bounded opera cantemiriene capture more
conservative art form, without extensive performances, but
will provide the opportunity to illustrate the fundamental

35
reasons, the realization of doctrines and principles through the
central character.
Hieroglyphic History, on the other hand, is considered to
be the first literary Romanian, fledged. An allegorical novel with
characters from the animal world, a realistic historical novel, was
regarded as a work secret author contemporaries were hidden
under the names of birds and quadrupeds. The struggle for
power, illustrated by Cantemir's taste for allegory, is surprised by
zoomorphic masks outlining a gallery of characters interpreted as
degrading and insulting by contemporary author, and
conceptions of time, the insensitivity of thought, caused a scandal
across Europe southeast.
Playfulness, challenging, Cantemir's hide some 'games
cultured and intelligent man (Nicolae Manolescu, Critical
History of Romanian Literature), all the action of the opera
revolving around a conflict older than the building of Babylon
(Nicolae Manolescu critical History of Romanian literature).
Conflict surprise election of a trustee masked by a civic
gathering the animal kingdom.
The tone of the discussions arising around election
reminiscent of iganiada Ioan Budai-Deleanu the epic
debates looming, the end of the epic, the inability to decide the
form of government of the new state.
The subject of moral-philosophical work, as he calls AD
Xenopol is quite simple, but the complexity of the mind of the
author fails to outline characters who exert parallel or
convergent action. Nicolae Iorga, sensing the moral-
psychological novel that captures the beautiful meditation of
man (Dan Horia Mazilu, Rereading old Romanian
literature) and historical storyline, categorizes Cantemir's
work as a historical novel and a book wearing funny
memories of an allegorical Fantasia.
Although it may seem cumbersome due to the
construction work of the sentence and symbolization Latin

36
happenings in Hieroglyphic subject open is in reality the
conflict brothers Constantine Cantemir Brancovan where
Constantin Brncoveanu Raven helps chimeric unnatural
character to reach the throne of quadrupeds to get some of the
goods Moldova. Text eminently literary book that helps
knowledge and initiation cult first novel, popular novels
shaped model captures medieval moral allegory and
pamphleteer through a work of hatred and revenge,
Hieroglyphic History reflects philosophical theories about man
and his anxieties.
World strange characters created by author captures
hidden - the Unicorn, an ancient myth semiantropomorf
projection is being permanently strengthen the persecution
and forced her to isolate herself in impossible places and
difficult, in the mountains, the mountain is the alchemical
symbol, character that comes to the attention of the reader that
the main character of the work. The unicorn is a pure character
which do not forbid in praiseworthy actions in a negative
context seat keeping his due. Leo is a sign of primacy, the ideal
quadruped and domineering leader. World Baroque combine
symbology earth, water and air by creatures mystical. Otter,
rational, logical and right is willing to speak the dispute first
created based on trustee election. Deer rejects ideas otters,
abstract logic incomprehensible and unnatural, candidate
trusteeship, cunning, a hybrid character, power-hungry, Raven
allied with the plot for an easy winning elections animal
kingdom. Chameleon, degrading character meant to present
falsehood as an indisputable truth is the one that will conspire
against Unicorn that would make a beneficial spell for his wife,
the beautiful victory.
Political pamphlet with a strong moralistic and classicist
who permanentizeaz (permanent) font size, Cantemir's work
plays a world similar to the existing one, the heroes with
human traits can be divided into types depending on the moral

37
dimension disclosed. Raven is, thus, intriguing, Unicorn is a
persecutor, Chameleon is cunning - caricatured characters
Caragialean eternal depth.
A true Roman Renard Romanian but polemical
purposes (G. Clinescu, History of Romanian literature from
its origins to the present) built in the spirit rhetorically, place
of illusion and delusion, the appearances of use inner or outer
masks (Dan Horia Mazilu, Rereading old Romanian
literature), Cantemir's work captures the desire to juggle
with signs and symbols of hidden events and personalities.
Hieroglyphic World rhymed sequences captured by endless
and rhythmic, bizarre characters, a way of masking faces
weather flagship policy presented invited readers to drama in
the mask creatures, monsters and stepping. Most of the
characters Cantemir practice oracle and uses various occult
practices trying to interpret dreams or divination exercises
astrology.
Cantemir's novel, long considered the Baroque era,
translated and imitated, then transformed into dramatic
scenario is based on surface structures, suggestions and
meanings, scholar seated and neat, all carefully observed and
used to impress marvel.
Boyars era is carefully hidden under the appearance of
animals and birds strong, however peasants, soldiers, courtiers
and other characters are devoid of virulence collective
character are placed in the background and are shown under
masks insects such as bees, gadfly or wasps.
Anthropology, Cantemir was extensively studied and
characterized by critical opinions that have deepened the
author's ability to capture the deepest side of the human soul.
In the center is an image of anthropology cantemiriene
designed under the wise will become one of the reasons the
opera philosophical Cent Until you do your body - bowl,

38
soul - gold, this world - fire, and so will not cook soul together
flame body in this life, you will have salvation.
Universe constantly facing opposite categories - good and
evil, truth and falsehood, wise and world, passion and reason -
philosophical literary space defines immorality Cantemir
trying to oppose, accept compromise, but amends evil offers a
show of vanity.

References

Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete I (Divanul),


Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2008), Istoria Ieroglific, Prefa de
Dan Horia Mazilu, Bucureti, Ed. Gramar.
Cndea Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii la
istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia.
Clinescu George, (2003), Istoria literaturii romne de la
origini pn n present, (1941), Bucureti, Ed. Fundaia regal
pentru literatur i art.
Manolescu Nicolae, (2008), Istoria critic a literaturii
romne, Bucureti, Ed. Paralela 45.
Mazilu Dan, Horia, (1998), Recitind literatura romn
veche, vol.I, II, Bucureti, Editura Universitii din Bucureti.

39
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR EDUCATOR AL
ROMNILOR

Ghi Valentin,
Liceul Teoretic Dante Alighieri,
Profesor ndrumtor: Oana Midache

Dezvoltat n jurul micrii culturale cunoscute sub numele


de Renatere, umanismul este definit drept o concepie care
punea n centrul ideologiei sale, fiina uman. n rile
Romne, umanismul i face apariia, mai nti n Transilvania,
prin lucrrile lui Nicolaus Olahus i Johannes Honterus,
ulterior n Moldova i ara Romneasc prin operele
cronicarilor Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin i Ion Neculce,
respectiv Constantin Cantacuzino.

Pn n a doua jumtate a veacului al XVII-lea, literatura


romneasc este n ntregime opera clerului i poart, n
alctuirea ei, o trstur adnc religioas. Pe la jumtatea
secolului al XVII-lea se petrece ns o schimbare n dezvoltarea
culturii noastre. n urma prefacerilor pe care le examinm mai
jos, boierimea a ajuns ntr-o situaie material prosper, care a
ajutat-o s ocupe un loc proeminent n viaa politic i
cultural a neamului. Dar din pricina luptelor ce se ddeau n
jurul tronului, ea era silit s emigreze ctre adposturile de
cultur din centrul i Rsritul european, care stteau n
legtur cu Apusul. Prin aceste emigrri s-a deschis pentru
cultura romneasc, nchis pn atunci n formele strmte i
rigide ale slavonismului i ortodoxiei, o fereastr prin care a

40
npdit aerul proaspt al civilizaiei occidentale. Contactul
acesta cultural s-a fcut mai intens n Constantinopol i n
Polonia. Apropierea de micarea umanist a Poloniei a nviorat
viaa literar a Moldovei, dnd natere istoriografiei naionale;
n mediul cosmopolit al Constantinopolului s-au format
scriitori ca Dimitrie Cantemir [...]. (Nicolae Cartojan, Istoria
literaturii romne vechi)

Fiul al domnitorului Moldovei, Constantin Cantemir,


scriitor, istoric, filosof, cunosctor a mai multe limbi strine i
al culturii europene i orientale, membru al Academiei din
Berlin, Dimitrie Cantemir este considerat o personalitate
cultural de tip enciclopedic.
Vasta sa oper este scris n mai multe limbi, cele mai
multe n latin, pe atunci limba universal a tiinei. Dup
prima lucrare, n greac i romn, Divanul sau Glceava
neleptului cu lumea sau Giudeul sufletului cu trupul, ntiul
eseu din literatura noastr, compus dup dialogurile
platoniciene (dup cum afirma Alexandru Piru), urmeaz un
eseu filosofic, Imaginea cu neputin de zugrvit a tiinei
sacre, n limba latin, un tratat de logic, tot n latin, i un
tratat de muzic turceasc. Totui, cele dou creaii literare
semnificative scrise de Cantemir rmn Istoria ieroglific i
Descrierea Moldovei (Descriptio Moldaviae).

Roman de factur alegoric, structurat n 12 pri i


modern prin anumite procedee narative adoptate de autor,
Istoria ieroglific nfieaz conflictul dintre dou familii cu
renume istoric: Cantemiretii (n Moldova) i Brncovenii (n
ara Romneasc), pentru ocuparea tronului Moldovei, un
conflict imaginat sub forma unei lupte date ntre psri i
animale timp de 17 ani.

41
Adevrat cheie de interpretare a textului, titlul rmne
unul metaforic, dezvluind ntr-o maniera inedit secretele
politice din acea vreme referitoare la ocuparea tronurilor.
Astfel, autorul contureaz tabloul unei istorii enigmatice,
necunoscute ce evideniaz conflictul prelungit dintre
Cantemireti i Brncoveni i, implicit dintre Moldova i ara
Romneasc.

Structura romanului este una complex, dar bine


organizat, Cantemir propunndu-i s lase cititorului
libertatea de a interpreta evenimentele prezentate pentru
dezlegarea acestei istorii ascunse. Astfel, lupta pentru tronul
Moldovei este imaginat ca o adunare, la care particip psri
i dobitoace, aflate ntr-o acerb lupt pentru putere.
Dup nlturarea lui Constantin Duca de la tronul
Moldovei, Constantin Brncoveanu, domn al rii Romneti,
vrea s l aeze n scaun pe Mihail Racovi. Dimitrie Cantemir
prezint acest conflict printr-o alegorie, imaginnd Moldova ca
mpria animalelor, monarhia Leului, iar ara Romneasc
sub forma mpriei psrilor, monarhia Vulturului. ara
animalelor rmne fr epitrop, prin nlturarea Vidrei
(Constantin Duca), iar divanul mprtesc se adun la sfat
pentru a-i alege un alt conductor. La aceast adunare vin s
participe i psrile din vecintate, ale crui epitrop puternic,
Corbul (Constantin Brncoveanu), dorete pe scaunul
mprtesc pe Struocamila (Mihail Racovi), un personaj
himeric, care nu exist n realitate.
Cu ajutorul mpriei petilor (Imperiul Otoman), Corbul
reuete s instaleze pe tronul rii patrupedelor pe
Struocmila i-l aresteaz pe Inorog, un personaj fabulos ce-l
ntruchipeaz pe Dimitrie Cantemir. Dei ascuns n natura
ocrotitoare, Inorogul este urmrit de psri periculoase i
trdat de Cameleon (Scarlat Ruset), iar jelania acestuia n ocn

42
reprezint o adevrat proz poetic, de factur popular,
incluznd i un blestem cutremurtor. Cu sufletul ndurerat,
prsit de toi, chiar i de propriul su frate, care se dovedete
avar i nu vrea s-i plteasc rscumprarea, Inorogul invoc
natura ntr-un blestem. Cel ce l va ajuta pe Inorog s fie
eliberat este oimul, mai ales c Struocamila se dovedete un
domnitor nepotrivit.
Ca urmare a instabilitii politice din mpria petilor, unde
toi se subordoneaz zeiei Pleonexia (Lcomia), cei doi frai
Cantemir reuesc s ajung la o nelegere cu Corbul, care
accept, n final, ocuparea tronului patrupedelor de ctre Antioh
Cantemir (Filul), precum i plata unei despgubiri oferite
Inorogului, pentru toate suferinele ndurate. n aceast oper,
Cantemir realizeaz o imagine istoric a epocii, politic i social.
Astfel, Imperiul Otoman devine un templu al lcomiei, marii
dregtori fiind lipsii de scrupule i considernd mita un drept ce
li se cuvine, iar deasupra tuturor domin sultanul, care adun
avuiile jefuite de la rile romne.
Cantemir are i o poziie antiboiereasc, deoarece boierii
erau cei care stabileau cursul politicii i determinau alegerea
domnitorilor. Boierimea este reprezentat de jignii sau
paseri de prada, simboliznd astfel rutatea, egoismul i
aviditatea n strngerea averilor.
Poporul este metaforizat prin mute, Cantemir
construind astfel primul personaj colectiv, atunci cnd
relateaz rscoala din vremea lui Mihail Racovi, cauzat de
crunta exploatare la care erau supui rani i a cror suferine
l ntristeaz pe Cantemir.
Soluia pe care Cantemir o propune cu scopul ndreptrii
tuturor relelor este aceea a instalrii unei monarhii absolute,
imaginea unui monarh luminat, care respect legile rii,
nconjurat de boieri patrioi, de capete nvate, nelepi,
lipsii de trufie i de albine, care i reprezint pe rani.

43
Numeroasele portrete, elementele satirice i comice, proza
rimat, descrierile, jocurile de cuvinte i povestirile
moralizatoare fac din Istoria ieroglific prima oper literar
din literatura noastr.
Ca o recunoatere a reputaiei sale europene, Dimitrie
Cantemir este ales n 1714 membru al Academiei din Berlin,
condus atunci de prestigiosul filosof G.W. Leibniz, fondatorul
i primul ei preedinte. La solicitarea acestui for tiinific,
Dimitrie Cantemir va publica n 1716, n limba latin,
Descrierea Moldovei, lucrare structurat n 3 pri i 31 de
capitole.
Prima parte, cea geografic, cuprinde informaii despre
aezarea Moldovei, hotarele ei, condiiile climatice, principalele
cursuri de ap ce o strbat, inuturile i trgurile cele mai
importante, munii i bogiile subsolului, cmpiile i pdurile,
precum i fauna acesteia.
Partea politic, a doua, descrie ornduirea de stat,
ceremonialul folosit pentru alegerea domnilor, obiceiurile de
nscunare a voievodului, consemnarea sau mazilirea domnilor
de ctre sultanii turci. De asemenea, este prezentat i clasa
boiereasc i rangurile specifice, cu ndatoririle lor, oastea
moldoveneasc i maniera de recrutare a soldailor, ritualurile
de la curile voievodale, originea etnic a locuitorilor Moldovei,
credinele populare, obiceiurile de logodn i de nunt, precum
i riturile funerare.
Capitolele dedicate celei de-a treia pri, nfieaz
ritualurile cretine moldoveneti i organizarea bisericeasc,
mnstirile din Moldova i graiul i literele ce alctuiesc
exprimarea specific poporului nostru.
Lucrarea mbin ntr-o sintez unic numeroase date i
observaii personale privind Moldova din trecut i cea
contemporan scriitorului. Moldova, n viziunea lui Cantemir,
este descris ca un spaiu edenic, ca o matrice a spiritualitii

44
romneti. Observaiile politice le completeaz pe cele
geografice, dnd o imagine ampl a societii feudale
moldoveneti. Cercetnd tradiiile i nravurile moldovenilor,
Cantemir realizeaz prima ncercare de portret moral al
poporului romn. Aeznd critic alturi de trsturile pozitive
pe cele negative, Cantemir descrie un neam vital i spontan,
capabil s pstreze formele vechi i s caute dintr-un spirit
curios, noutatea. La sfritul lucrrii se afl prima hart a
Moldovei desenat de autor.
Opera care i-a asigurat lui Cantemir recunoaterea
mondial este Creterea i descreterea Curii otomane,
redactat pe baza multor izvoare, dar i a propriilor observaii.
Lucrarea urmrea un scop politic, trezirea contiinei naionale
n vederea luptei mpotriva turcilor, devenind astfel prima
contribuie nsemnat a unui romn la dezvoltarea culturii
mondiale.

Dup o lucrare despre viaa tatlui su, Viaa lui


Constantin Cantemir i una de orientalistic Sistema religiei
mahomedane, Dimitrie Cantemir i ncheie activitatea cu
Hronicul vechimii a romno-moldo-vlahilor. Scris n limba
romn, lucrarea se bazeaz pe un numr impresionant de
izvoare (aproximativ 150), printre care cel mai important fiind
De neamul moldovenilor de Miron Costin.
Structurata n trei cri, opera literara Divanul i propune
s abordeze o tem destul de des ntlnit n literatura
universal i anume, contiina, sufletul i trupul. Avnd ca
personaje neleptul i Lumea, Cartea I constituie esena operei
prezentnd ca idee fundamental supremaia spiritului prin
contrastul dintre morala cretin i filosofia stoic. n viziunea
neleptului, bunurile pmnteti au un caracter iluzoriu,
precar, susinnd astfel folosirea zilelor omului pentru a tri
conform moralei cretine. Cea de-a doua carte reprezint o

45
pledoarie a neleptului n favoarea unei viei morale, cretine,
prin care omul trebuie s capete puterea de a rezista ispitelor i
s ncerce s se ridice din starea pctoas n care se afl. De
aceea, trebuie evitate frumuseea trectoare a lumii, bogia,
desfrnarea. Lumea devine o nchisoare a omului, care l
priveaz de fericire, neleptul optnd pentru o fug din lume.
Totodat, se remarc teoria corespondenei dintre macrocosm
i microcosm, cu ajutorul creia omul (microcosmul) deine
capacitatea de a transfigura elementele lumii (macrocosmul) n
valori spirituale pentru perfecionarea interioar.
Principala problem a Divanului rmne aceea a
raportului dintre om i lume; soluia autorului nu recomand
fuga de lume, ci doar viaa virtuoas. Dincolo de scopul lui
didactic-religios, Divanul, fiind n ansamblu o carte de moral
cretin pentru credincioii care trebuie s biruiasc ispitele
lumii trind n mijlocul ei, las s se ntrevad dilema
autorului ntre dou atitudini de via.
Consider c opera lui Dimitrie Cantemir, ce cuprinde
scrieri tiinifice, filosofice i literare, a facilitat dezvoltarea
orientrii laice n cultura romneasc. Astfel, acesta rmne
cel mai de seam gnditor i om de tiin din cultura
romneasc veche. A fost, de asemenea, o personalitate
multilateral, care a realizat prima sinteza a culturii naionale,
pregtind apariia iluminismului. Majoritatea operelor sale se
bazeaz pe o vast documentaie, folosind izvoare strine n
limbile german, francez, rus, polon, turc.
Referindu-se la locul i importana lui Dimitrie Cantemir
n cultura romneasc, George Clinescu afirma: Cantemir
este un Lorenzo Medici al nostru, Zoe D. Buulenga: Cantemir
a fixat un tip de intelectual plurivalent. Nota original pe
care o aduce Cantemir n epoca sa este cutezana intelectual.
Cantemir pune bazele unor specii literare ca fabula, elegia,
romanul alegoric, pamfletul politic, cultiv ironia, satira i

46
pamfletul, motiv pentru care poate fi considerat primul scriitor
satiric din literatura romn. De asemenea, aduce inovaii la
nivelul limbajului, contribuind la mbogirea limbii romne
n concluzie, se poate afirma c Dimitrie Cantemir i-a
ndeplinit rolul de educator al romnilor prin motenirea
cultural lsat n urma sa, aducnd astfel n centrul ateniei
sale omul, cu personalitatea, geniul creator, interesele i
ispitele lui... Readucndu-l pe om n primul plan al gndirii,
plednd pentru libertatea de afirmare a geniului uman care
fusese pn atunci sever dirijat de teologie, reintroducnd n
circulaie operele literare, artistice i tiinifice ale Antichitii,
umanitii au determinat principala direcie de cugetare a
Renaterii. (Virgil Candea, Raiunea dominant)

47
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR TEACHER OF
ROMANIANS

Ghi Valentin,
Liceul Teoretic Dante Alighieri,
Profesor ndrumtor: Oana Midache

Developed during the renowned cultural movement


known as the Renaissance, the humanism is defined as a
concept that puts the human being at the core of its ideology.
In the Romanian countries, the humanism can be found first in
Transylvania, through the works of Nicolaus Olahus and
Johannes Honterus, and eventually in Moldavia and
Wallachia, through the works of chroniclers Grigore Ureche,
Miron Costin and Ion Neculce, respectively Constantin
Cantacuzino.
Up until the second half of the 17th century, the
Romanian literature is entirely the work of clergy and bears in
its composition a profound religious touch. However, around
the halfway through the 17th century, there is an important
change in the development of our culture. Due to the changes
that are examined below, the nobility reached a prosperous
material situation which helped it hold a prominent position in
the political and cultural life of the people. But, because of the
battles fought around the throne, the nobility was forced to
emigrate to the culture shelters of the Central and Eastern
Europe, which held a connection with the West. Through these
emigrations, a window was open, a closed up one until then by
the narrow, rigid forms of the Slavonic culture and the

48
dominant orthodoxy, through which came the fresh air of the
western civilization. This cultural contact was more intensely
made in Constantinople and Poland. The approach to the
humanistic movement in Poland invigorated the literary life of
Moldavia, giving rise to a national historiography; in the
cosmopolitan environment of Constantinople, writers such as
Dimitrie Cantemir were born ...1.
Son of the ruler of Moldavia, Constantin Cantemir, writer,
historian, philosopher, speaking several foreign languages,
connoisseur of the Oriental and European culture, member of
the Academy of Berlin, Dimitrie Cantemir is considered to be a
cultural personality of encyclopedic nature.
His vast work is written in several languages, most of
them in latin, which was back then the universal language of
science. After his first work, written in Greek and Romanian,
The Divan or The Wise Man's Parley with the World or The
Judgement of the Soul with the Body, the first essay of our
literature, composed from platonist dialogues (according to
Alexandru Piru), follows a phylosophical essay, The
Undepictable Image of Sacred Science, written in latin, a
treaty about logic, also in latin, and a treaty about the Turkish
music. Still, the two most significant literary creations written
by Cantemir are Hieroglyphic History and Description of
Moldavia (Descriptio Moldaviae).
Novel of an allegorical nature, divided in 12 parts, and a
modern one through the use of certain narrative procedures by
the author, Historia Hieroglyphica, The Hieroglyphic
History, depicts the conflict between two families of historical
fame: the Cantemirs (in Moldavia) and the Brncoveanus (in
Wallachia), for the conquest of the throne of Moldavia, an

1 Nicolae Cartojan, The History of Old Romanian Literature, Minerva


Publishing House, 1980, p. 226.

49
imaginary conflict illustrated by a battle between birds and
animals, which lasted 17 years.
True key to the texts interpretation, the title remains a
metaphorical one, revealing in a unique way the political
secrets of those times concerning throne's conquests. Thus, the
author captures the image of an enigmatic, unknown history
which points out the prolonged conflict between the Cantemirs
and the Brncoveanus and, implicitly, between Moldavia and
Wallachia.
The structure of the novel is complex but well organized,
Cantemir willing to allow to the reader the freedom of
interpretation concerning the events as presented in order to
unravel this hidden history. Thus, the battle for the throne of
Moldavia is imagined as a gathering where birds and beasts
take part, in a bitter strugle for power.
After the removal of Constantin Duca from the throne of
Moldavia, Constantin Brncoveanu, lord of Wallachia, wants
to place Mihail Racovi on the throne. Dimitrie Cantemir
presents this conflict as an alegory, fancing Moldavia as the
empire of the animals, a monarchy of the Lion, and Wallachia
as the empire of the birds, a monarchy of the Eagle. The
empire of the animals remains without a guardian, after the
removal of the Otter (Constantin Duca), and the royal divan
forms a council in order to elect a new ruler. The neighbouring
birds also take part in this council, whose powerful guardian,
the Raven (Constantin Brncoveanu), wishes to place the
Camel-Ostrich (Mihail Racovi) on the throne, a chimeric
character, which doesnt exist in reality.
With the help of the empire of fishes (the Ottoman
Empire), the Raven manages to place the Camel-Ostrich on the
throne of the empire of the quadrupeds and to arrest the
Unicorn, a fairy tale character which represents Dimitrie
Cantemir. Although hidden within the protecting nature, the
Unicorn is pursued by dangerous birds and betrayed by the

50
Cameleon (Scarlat Ruset), and its mourning in prison truly
represents the poetic prose of a folkloric nature, also including
a terrible curse. With a grieved soul, abandoned by all, even by
its own brother, who turns out to be greedy and doesnt want
to pay the ransom for it, the Unicorn invokes nature by means
of a curse. The one which will help to free the Unicorn is the
Eagle, all this more because the Camel-Ostrich proves to be an
inadequate ruler.
Due to the political instability in the empire of the fishes,
where everyone is a subject of the goddess Pleonixia
(Gluttony), the two Cantemir brothers managed to make a deal
with the Raven, who accepted, in the end the occupation of the
throne by Antioh Cantemir (Son), as well as paying
compensation to the Unicorn for all the hardships he had to
endure. In this work, Cantemir created a historical image of his
time, both political and social. Thus, the Ottoman Empire
becomes a temple of greed, the great governors being
considered unscrupulous and who view bribe as being their
right, and above all rules the sultan, who gathers the stolen
property of the Romanian countries.
Cantemirs position is also against the nobility, because
the lords were the ones who set the course of politics and
determined the election's results. The nobility is represented
by bugbears or by birds of prey, thus symbolizing the
wickedness, selfishness and greed of gathering fortune. The
people are represented by flies, Cantemir thus creating his
first collective character when he related the rebellion from
Mihail Racovis time, caused by the terrible exploitation to
which peasants were subjected and whose sufferings saddened
Cantemir.
The solution which Cantemir proposed in order to mend
all errors is that one of installing the absolute monarchy, the
image on an enlightened monarch who respects the laws of the
country, surrounded by patriotic lords, by the educated

51
heads, by the wise, void of pride and the bees, which
represent the peasants.
Numerous portraits, comical and satirical elements,
rhymed prose, descriptions, puns and moralizing stories are
what make The Hieroglyphic History the first literary work of
our literature.
As an acknowledgement of his European reputation,
Dimitrie Cantemir became in 1714 a member of the Academy
of Berlin, lead at the time by prestigious phylosopher G.W.
Leibniz, its founder and first president. At the request of this
scientific forum, Dimitrie Cantemir published in 1716
Descriptio Moldavi, The Description of Moldavia in Latin, a
work divided in 3 parts and 31 chapters.
The first part, the geographical one, contains information
about the location of Moldavia, its borders, the climate, the
main rivers which cross it, the lands and the most important
plains, mountains, waters and riches of the subsoil, fields,
forests, its fauna, as well as the boroughs and country's chief
towns alonside the times.
The political part, the second part of the work, describes
the state system, the procedures used to elect the lords, the
customs of enthroning the voivode, the consignment or the
deposition of lords by the Turkish sultans. Also, it presents the
nobility class and its specific ranks with their duties, the
Moldavian army and the manner of recruiting the soldiers, the
rituals from the princely courts, the ethnic origin of Moldavias
inhabitants, the folkloric beliefs, the engagement and wedding
traditions, as well as the funeral rites.
The chapters dedicated to the third part depict the
Moldavian Christian rituals and the system of the church, the
monasteries from Moldavia, as well as the sounds and the
letters which are part of our peoples speech.
The work binds in a unique synthesis the author's
personal data and observations regarding the past of Moldavia

52
and the period contemporary to the writer. Moldavia, in
Cantemirs vision, is described as an edenic space, as a matrix
of the Romanian spirituality. The political observations
complete the geographical ones, forming an extensive image of
the Moldavian feudal society. By analyzing the traditions and
habits of Moldavians, Cantemir realized the first attempt of a
moral portrait of the Romanian people. By a critically adding
of the negative traits to the positive ones, Cantemir described a
vital and spontaneous people, capable of keeping their old
traits and of seeking novelty with a curious spirit. At the end of
the work is the map of Moldavia, Cantemir being the first
Romanian scholar who drew such a work.
The paper which brought Cantemir a worldwide
recognition is The History of the Growth and Decay of the
Ottoman Empire, written with the help of many sources, but
realized also on his own observations and researches. The
work had a political purpose, arousing the national conscience
in order to fight the Turks, thus becoming the first significant
contribution of a Romanian to the development of the
international culture.
After a work about his fathers life, The Life of Constantin
Cantemir, and an oriental structure work, The Mohammedan
Religious System, Dimitrie Cantemir ends his activity with
Chronicle of the durability of Romans-Moldovians-
Wallachians. Written in Romanian the work is based on an
impressive number of sources (approx. 150), the most
important one being About the Moldavian People by Miron
Costin.
Divided into three books, the literary paper The Divan
proposes to approach a common theme in the universal
literature: the conscience, the soul and the body. Having The
Wise and the World as characters, Book Ist represents the
essence of the work by presenting the spirits supremacy as a
fundamental idea through the contrast between the Christian

53
morals and the stoic philosophy. In the vision of The Wise, the
earthly possessions are an illusion, of a precarious nature, thus
supporting the idea of living mans days according to Christian
morals. The second book represents a defense of The Wise in
favor of a moral, Christian life, through which the man must
gain the strength to resist temptation and to try to get out of
the sinful state in which he lives. Because of that, the passing
beauty of the world, wealth and immorality must be avoided.
The world becomes a prison of man that deprives him of
happiness, The Wise choosing to run away the world. At the
same time, the theory of communication between the
macrocosm and the microcosm is considered, - by means of
which man (the microcosm), that it holds the ability to
transform the elements of the world (the macrocosm) in
spiritual values for an inner improvement.
The main problem of The Divan remains the relationship
between the man and the world; the writer's solution doesnt
recommend the running away the world, but only the leading
of a virtuous life. Beyond its didactic-religious purpose, The
Divan, being as a whole a book of Christian morals for the
faithful who must overcome the temptations of the world by
living in its midst, makes visible the authors dilemma between
two life attitudes.
We believe that Dimitrie Cantemir's, which contains
scientific, philosophical and literary writings, facilitated the
development of a secular orientation in the Romanian culture.
Thus, he remains the most notable thinker and scholar
belonging to the Enlightenment Romanian culture.
He was also a complex personality who made the first
synthesis of our national culture, paving, in this way, the road
for the Enlightenment movement. The greater majority of his
works is founded on a vast bibliography, using many foreign
sources written in German, French, Russian, Polish and
Turkish languages.

54
While referring to the position and importance of Dimitrie
Cantemir in the Romanian culture, George Clinescu said:
Cantemir is our Lorenzo Medici; Zoe D. Buulenga underlined
that: Cantemir established a type of multivalent intelectual.
The original mark that Cantemir brings in his time is the
intelectual boldness.
Cantemir sets the base for literary species such as the
fable, the elegy, the allegoric novel and the political pamphlet,
cultivates the irony, the satire and the pamphlet, for which he
can be considered the first satirical writer of the Romanian
literature. Also, he brings some innovations to the speech,
contributing to the enrichment of the Romanian language.
In conclusion, it can be said that Dimitrie Cantemir
fulfilled his role as a teacher of Romanians through the
cultural legacy which he left behind, thus bringing man in the
center of his attention, with his personality, creative genius,
interests and temptations... By bringing man back in the
foreground of thought, by pleading for the freedom of
expressing the human genius which up until then it was severly
controlled by theology, by reintroducing into circulation the
literary, artistic and scientific works of the Antiquity, in the
same manner that the humanists determined the main way of
thinking of the Renaissance.2

2 Virgil Cndea, Dominant Reason.

55
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, OM AL TIMPULUI
MODERN

Savonea Andrei,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava, Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

Secolul al XVII-lea reprezint perioada de apogeu a


dezvoltrii literaturii romne vechi, datorit realizrilor unor
crturari precum mitropoliii Varlaam, Dosoftei, cronicarii
Grigore Ureche i Miron Costin n Moldova, iar n Muntenia
mitropoliii tefan, Teodosie, Antim Ivireanul i boierul
Udrite Nsturel. Se constituie astfel n spaiul romnesc un
umanism popular (Virgil Cndea), ndreptat ctre ntreg
ansamblul romnitii. Este de fapt un ecou tardiv al
umanismului european. Pe acest fond i dezvolt activitatea
cultural Dimitrie Cantemir, considerat a fi cel mai de seam
reprezentant al umanismului romnesc.
Modul n care putem privi contribuia lui Dimitrie
Cantemir la dezvoltarea literaturii i a culturii, att pentru
romni, ct i pentru lumea ntreag, n aa fel nct imaginea
sa s fie una ct mai complet i corect, este, dup prerea
mea, prin analizarea coninutului scrierilor lui, a felului n care
au fost scrise, i, nu n ultimul rnd, prin cunoaterea
contextului istoric care a marcat viaa domnitorului, pentru a
aprecia percepia asupra scrierilor lui la momentul respectiv.
Acesta este i modul n care scriitorul i ocup locul meritat n
ierarhia istoriei literare a unei naiuni, dup cum spune
Perpessicius, fiind condiionat de cel puin trei factori:

56
personalitatea sa, opera sa i influena acestei opere asupra
contemporanilor si, i, implicit, asupra urmailor.
Despre personalitatea lui Dimitrie Cantemir, acelai
Perpessicius scrie, catalognd-o drept puternic conturat,
sprijinindu-se pe argumentul influenei operei istorice a
crturarului romn asupra unor scriitori i poei de seam
precum Voltaire, Byron, sau chiar filozofi de talia lui
Montesquieu. i faptul c a fost ales membru al Academiei din
Berlin (11 iulie 1714) este sugestiv n acest sens.
nainte de a trece la o scurt privire asupra ideilor
cuprinse de scrierile lui Dimitrie Cantemir, cred c este
necesar o prezentare a aspectelor istorice legate de viaa
acestuia.
Dimitrie Cantemir s-a nscut la 26 octombrie 1673 (stil
vechi) ca fiu al viitorului domn al Moldovei Constantin
Cantemir (1685-1693). Primul contact cu nvtura l primete
prin retorul poliglot Ieremia Cacavelas, un clugr cretan, de la
care nva limbile greac i slav veche. Este trimis la
Constantinopol la vrsta de cincisprezece ani, pe post de
chezie pentru tatl su. n 1693, domnete chiar, pentru doar
cteva sptmni, la tron fiind trimis ns de ctre sultan
fratele lui, Antioh Cantemir. n aceast perioad, tnrul
Dimitrie Cantemir profit de cercurile nvate din
Constantinopol i acumuleaz o palet larg de cunotine, care
vor sta la baza acelui uomo universale umanist. nc de la
nceputul ederii lui la Constantinopol era, dup cum chiar el
spune, lacom de a ti i de a nva att lucrurile de obte, ct
i cele osebite. nva limba turc, arab, persan, italian.
Studiaz farsi, limba turc literar, devine un orientalist
foarte documentat. S nu uitm de nclinaia lui Cantemir spre
muzic Neculce scrie c aa tie dzice de bine n tambur,
ct nici un rigrdean nu putea dzice bine ca dnsul. Se
folosete de farmecul personal i de abilitile de diplomat

57
pentru a lega prietenii n rndul nalilor demnitari otomani.
Profit de contactul cu trimiii puterilor strine pentru a afla
situaia extern - ntreine relaii cu Chateauneuf, solul lui
Ludovic XIV, cu Colyer, trimisul Olandei i cu Petru Andreevici
Tolstoi, solul lui Petru I cel Mare.
Reedina lui Cantemir ajunsese s fie unul dintre cele mai
cunoscute centre ale vieii intelectuale i mondene din
Constantinopol. Din 1692 avea un palat la Ortakioi, iar dup
1700 un altul pe colina Sangiakdar Jokuu, deasupra Cornului
de Aur.
Cu alte cuvinte, ducea un stil de via suficient de
oriental pentru ca turcii s se ncread total n devotamentul
su fa de Semilun, cu att mai mult, lund n calcul
supunerea pe care tatl su o artase, dar i cele dou decenii
pe care Dimitrie Cantemir le petrecuse pe malurile Bosforului.
Aa se explic faptul c turcii l-au ales pe Cantemir pentru
tronul Moldovei ntr-o perioad relativ tensionat, n care se
pregteau de un conflict militar cu Rusia i aveau nevoie de
un supraveghetor pentru Constantin Brncoveanu. Dimitrie
Cantemir s-a distanat de Poart tocmai cunoscnd n
profunzime interiorul mpriei, inclusiv racilele adnci
care o minau, dup cum arat Constantin C. Giurescu n
Istoria Romnilor. S ne gndim doar c a fost martor la
dezastrul armatei otomane de la Zenta, din 1697, cnd Eugeniu
de Savoia a provocat o nfrngere umilitoare turcilor,
demonstrnd slbiciunea lor militar.
Este ndreptit deci s spere n dobndirea independenei
Moldovei, cu ajutorul Rusiei. Ocazia se ivete n 1710, cnd este
nscunat domn al Moldovei. ncheie cu Petru cel Mare un
tratat n 17 puncte la Luck (Luk), la 13 aprilie 1711 (stil vechi),
stabilind susinerea militar pentru rui din partea Moldovei i
primind angajamentul arului de a respecta vechile granie

58
moldoveneti, atribuiile domnului i ale boierilor, domnia
ereditar n neamul Cantemir i adpostul n caz de nfrngere.
Operaiile militare ncep la 10 iunie 1711, prin trecerea
trupelor feldmarealului eremetov peste Nistru, la Soroca.
Intervin ns o serie de erori strategice, dispersarea trupelor
ctre Crimeea i Brila, i naintarea pe Prut fr asigurarea
rezervelor de provizii. Contactul cu trupele otomane net
superioare numeric (aproximativ 200 000, cu 250 de tunuri)
conduce la nfrngerea de la Stnileti din 19-21 iulie, cnd
doar mituirea vizirului Mehmed Baltagi (informaie de la
Neculce) l mut pe ar de pe cmpul de lupt nconjurat de
turci la masa tratativelor. Prin Pacea de la Vadul Huilor, arul
se vede obligat s predea turcilor Azovul i s drme cteva
ceti de la graniele Ucrainei. i respect ns ntru totul
nelegerea cu Dimitrie Cantemir, protejndu-l de turci i
oferindu-i statutul de principe al Rusiei, alturi de pmnturi
i case pentru el i moldovenii venii cu el. Scrie n jurnalul su
de front despre Dimitrie Cantemir c este un om foarte
nelept i bun sfetnic, artnd astfel aprecierea sa pentru
romn.
ncepe perioada ederii n Rusia, care va dura pn la
moartea lui Cantemir (1723). Acesta se acomodeaz vieii n
noua societate, ocupnd inclusiv locul de sfetnic personal al
arului Petru. Este perioada n care Cantemir va scrie cele mai
importante opere, ce i vor crete faima n cercurile nvate ale
Europei.
Astfel se ncheie descrierea istoric a vieii lui Dimitrie
Cantemir, din care putem extrage cele trei mari perioade, cea
din Moldova, unde se pun bazele tradiionale ale educaiei lui
Cantemir, cea a ederii la Constantinopol, n care strnge mare
parte din cunotinele pe care le va aterne mai trziu n scris,
i cea a azilului politic n Rusia, perioada n care se dedic
scrisului.

59
Cantemir nu a dovedit neaprat talent militar, asemeni
altor conductori ai perioadei sale. Putem deduce acest lucru
din consecinele pe care campania din 1711 le-a avut asupra
Moldovei. Este important totui faptul c a contientizat
metoda de obinere a independenei, pe calea armelor, alturi
de puterea ruilor.
Ceea ce este mult mai important la domnitorul i omul de
cultur Dimitrie Cantemir, privind mai ales prin prisma
beneficiului pentru romni, este motenirea lsat n scrieri.
P.P. Panaitescu scrie c opera lui Cantemir se integreaz
n cultura noastr cu rdcini n trecut, cu prelungiri n viitor.
El nu este o minune a culturii noastre, nici un izolat. n acest
chip el apare nu micorat, ci mrit, de vreme ce ntotdeauna
perspectiva unei creaii este mai mare cnd e pus n cadrul
societii i poporului din care face parte.
Prin ideile pe care le putem identifica n scrierile lui, mai
cu seam cele care se refer la romni, precum ideea unitii
neamului, a crerii unei limbi literare, a conceptului de
civilizaie, a susinerii dreptului de via pentru ptura
muncitoare, idei pe care le regsim ntr-o form sau alta i la
predecesorii si, putem afirma c opera lui Dimitrie Cantemir
reprezint ncoronarea ntregii epoci culturale din care face
parte. Dac apreciem literatura veche romn ca avnd un
statut important n ceea ce se poate numi ntregul culturii i
educaiei romneti, atunci Dimitrie Cantemir este cu
siguran unul dintre educatorii cei mai de seam ai poporului
romn.
E de apreciat la Dimitrie Cantemir faptul c a gndit, a
avut dorina i chiar i-a mrturisit n scris obiectivul de a
aduce prin scrierile sale un serviciu neamului romnesc din
care fcea parte. Iat fragmentul urmtor din Hronicul
vechimei a romno-moldo-vlahilor: Cu a pomeniilor dar
priiatini ndemnare i cu a Academii n nvturi luminate,

60
dzic, a Berolinului poftire, cutatu-ni-au a plini pravila i
nvtura lui Platon, care poroncete: Non solum nobis, sed et
patriae et amicis vivendum, adec: Nu numai pentru folosul
nostru, ce i pentru a patriii ceva s slujim i pofta priiatinilor
gios a lsa s nu ne artm. Face referire i la sugestiile
primite din partea Academiei din Berlin pentru a scrie aceste
lucrri, dar, s privim mesajul: Nu numai pentru folosul
nostruse dedic n acest fel istoriei naionale i folosului
neamului. Nu cade nicidecum n extrem, vorbind chiar el
despre pericolul falsului patriotism: Mai iaste i alt boal, cu
carea dzic precum a lucrurilor scriitori s fie ptimind, adec
dragostea slavii neamului su i, dimpotriv, zavistiia cinstii
altuia, carile, adevrat, nu puin calea adevrului spre rtcirea
minciunii a abate pot.
Amintete, nu doar o dat, n Hronic, despre elul su de
a fi ct se poate de obiectiv, precum adevratului istoric s
cuvine: Ce noi precum denceput am giuruit,ori plcut,ori
neplcut ar fi, carele istoricii pentru neamul romnilor scris au
lsat, pre toate cu o inim i cu un condeiu le vom arta.
Prin toate acestea, Cantemir pare s se dedice prin
lucrrile lui descoperirii istoriei adevrate a neamului, pe de o
parte prin ideile i ipotezele pe care le susine (mai ales n
Hronic, originile, formarea i continuitatea romnilor), dar
mai ales prin aceast atitudine de obiectivitate i onestitate pe
care i-o impune, fapt care m atrage cu att mai mult asupra
studiului coninuturilor lucrrilor sale i, cred, c ntocmai
mie, i pe muli alii.
Dimitrie Cantemir se situeaz pe o poziie superioar
celorlali crturari, pentru c el nu se oprete numai la scrie o
singur carte, el mbin n scrierile sale mai multe discipline:
geografie, istorie, proz, compune versuri, i pune amprenta
asupra acestor scrieri prin concluzii politice i sociale,
analizeaz muzic i chiar tiine precum matematica i fizica.

61
Peste tot, d dovad de o continu curiozitate creatoare prin
care construiete pentru sine o enciclopedie de cunotine,
pentru ca mai apoi s o exteriorizeze, druind-o i celorlali.
Trecnd la analiza lucrrilor lui Cantemir, observm
influena perioadelor de formare i a ideilor care l nconjurau
la momentul scrierii lor.
Prima lucrare a lui Dimitrie Cantemir este Divanul sau
glceava neleptului cu lumea sau giudeul sufletului cu
trupul, lucrare care ilustreaz influena studiilor cu Ieremia
Cacavelas, i a celor n cadrul Academiei Patriarhiei Ortodoxe
din Constantinopol, filiala spiritual a Universitii de la
Padova. Aprut la Iai n 1698 n romnete i grecete,
demonstreaz pentru prima oar interesul lui Dimitrie
Cantemir pentru ridicarea limbii romne la rang de limb
literar i tiinific. Nu a folosit n acest scop limba popular,
dndu-i seama c aceasta nu poate s cuprind cele mai
profunde idei i concepte. A fcut un soi de compromis prin
faptul c a mbogit graiul popular cu elemente savante, de
origine strin, dar esenial este c a renunat la utilizarea
limbii clasice, n favoarea celei autohtone, fie ea adugit cu
noi elemente.
Mai exist un compromis i n ceea ce ine de abordarea
ideilor n cadrul operei. Subiectul crii este conflictul dintre
trup i suflet, care i are bazele n Sfnta Scriptur, mai exact
n epistola Sfntului Apostol Pavel ctre Galateni. Concluzia
ortodox la aceast problem o trage bizantinul Filip Solitarul
(sec. XI) n Oglinda lumii (Dioptra), unde susine asceza i
rugciunea drept ci ale transcenderii ctre Absolut, prin
depirea celor lumeti. Divanul abordeaz ns ideile vechilor
greci i ale lui Seneca, ncercnd s mpace tradiia bisericeasc
cu stoicismul. Se creeaz inevitabil contradicii, care l
reprezint pe Dimitrie Cantemir ortodoxul prin tradiie

62
alturi de umanistul prin cultur. Se folosete att de
nvtura cretin-ortodox:
Mort s vieuieti; viu i trebuie a muri.
Deprinde-te dar, pn a nu muri, a muri.
Dar i de cea inspirat din Seneca, care o contrazice pe
prima: Prea trziu este viaa cea de mine; triete astzi.
Prin cearta neleptului cu lumea ironizeaz boierimea
Moldovei, susinndu-i ideile sociale de libertate de via a
pturii muncitoare asuprite.
Importana Divanului st mai ales n faptul c este scris
n limba romn, reprezentnd pentru evoluia stilului literar
romnesc un moment care trebuie luat n seam.
Urmtoarea lucrare a lui Cantemir este Sacrosanctae
scientiae indepingibilis imago (1700) (Imaginea tiinei sacre,
care nu se poate zugrvi). Scriere orientat asupra metafizicii,
n care se distinge din nou ncercarea lui Cantemir de a mpca
religia cu tiina, de aceast dat asupra teoriei cunoaterii.
Susine, pe de o parte, punctul de vedere ortodox, care privete
revelaia divin ca unic modalitate de cunoatere, iar, pe de
alt parte, teoria filozofului flamand Jean Batista van
Helmont, promotor al unei teorii atomice ce ar sta la baza
existenei materiei. Originile problemei par a-i avea punctul
de plecare n divergenele dintre profesorii Academiei din
Constantinopol, lucru care arat nc odat ataamentul lui
Cantemir pentru preocuprile acelor cercuri intelectuale.
Urmeaz Compendiolum universae logices institutionis,
un elogiu la adresa lui van Helmont, Tarifu ilmi musiki ala
vegni maksus (Explicarea muzicii teoretice pe scurt) i
Istoria ieroglific. Cea din urm se apropie cel mai mult, ca
gen literar, de ceea ce mai trziu s-a chemat pamfletul politic i
social. Este o nfiare alegoric a societii romneti de la
acea vreme, marcat n special de intrigile dintre Cantemireti
de o parte, Constantin Brncoveanu i Cantacuzini, de alta. i

63
nsoete lucrarea de dou scri tlcuitoare: una a
numerelor i a cuvintelor strine tlcuitoare, n pragul
volumului,i a doua a numerelor i cuvintelor ieroglificeti
tlcuitoare, la finele volumului (Perpessicius). Prin
complexitatea coninutului, Istoria ieroglific este roman
social, memorii i roman de aventuri toate acestea la un loc,
cu precizarea numai c modul n care toate acestea se
realizeaz e unul perpetuu alegoric.
n cea de-a doua perioad a activitii de scriitor, Dimitrie
Cantemir se axeaz cu precdere asupra unor subiecte de
factur istoric. Acestea l vor consacra drept mare nvat,
fcndu-l cunoscut n Apus. n ordine, lucrrile scrise n
aceast perioad sunt: Vita Constantini Cantemyrii,
Descriptio Moldaviae, Historia incrementorum atque
decrementorum Aulae Othomanicae, De statu politico aulae
othomanicae, Hronicul vechimei romno-moldo-vlahilor.

64
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR,- MAN OF MODERN TIME

Savonea Andrei,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava, Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

Seventeenth century is the height of the old Romanian


literature development, because the achievements of scholars
and metropolitans Barlaam Dosoftei chronicler Miron Costin
Grigore Ear Moldova and Wallachia Stephen Metropolitans
Theodosius, and lord Antim Udrite button. It is thus in the
Romanian a popular humanism (Virgil Candea), directed by
Romanian spirit whole assembly. It's actually a late echo of
European humanism. Against this background Cantemir
develop cultural activity, considered to be the most prominent
representative of Romanian humanism.
The way we look Cantemir's contribution to the
development of literature and culture, both Romanian and for
the world, so that one image is as complete and correct, in my
opinion, by analyzing the content his writings, the way in
which they were written, and, not least, by knowing the
historical context that marked the life of the prince, to
appreciate the perception of his writings at the time. This is
also how the writer takes its rightful place in the hierarchy of
literary history of a nation, as the Perpessicius, being
conditioned by at least three factors: his personality, his work
and influence of this work on his contemporaries, and thus the
followers.

65
Cantemir's personality, the same Perpessicius write,
classifying it as vividly argument relying on the influence of
historical work on the Romanian scholar of outstanding
writers and poets such as Voltaire, Byron, or even philosophers
Montesquieu's stature. And the fact that he was elected
member of the Berlin Academy (July 11, 1714) is suggestive of
this.
Before proceeding to a brief look at the ideas contained in
the writings of Dimitrie Cantemir, believe that a presentation
of the historical aspects about his life.
Dimitrie Cantemir was born on 26 October 1673 (Old
Style) the son of Constantin Cantemir future ruler of Moldavia
(1685-1693). First contact with the teaching he receives the
rhetorician Dictionary Jeremiah Cacavelas a Cretan monk
from learning ancient Greek and Slavic. Is sent to
Constantinople at the age of fifteen, as a pledge for his father.
In 1693, reigns even for just a few weeks, but the throne being
sent by the sultan's brother, Antiochus Cantemir. During this
period, young Dimitrie Cantemir advantage of learned circles
of Constantinople and builds a wide range of knowledge that
will be the basis of the uomo universal humanistic. Since the
beginning of his stay in Constantinople was, as he himself says,
greedy to know and learn so many things in common, and the
more highly. Learn Turkish, Arabic, Persian, Italian. Study
Farsi Turkish literary Orientalist becomes a very
documented. Do not forget Cantemir's inclination towards
music. He uses his charm and diplomatic skills to make friends
among senior officials Ottomans. Take advantage of contact
with envoys of foreign powers to find the external situation -
Chateauneuf relations with the soil of Louis XIV, with Colyer,
Dutch envoy Peter Andreyevich Tolstoy and soil of Peter the
Great.
It's Cantemir had become one of the most famous centers
of intellectual and mundane in Constantinople. Since 1692

66
Ortakioi have a palace and another in 1700 after the hill
Sangiakdar Jokuu above the Golden Horn. In other words,
leading a lifestyle sufficiently oriental because Turks total
trust in his devotion to the Crescent, especially taking into
account the submission that his father had shown, but two
decades on which Cantemir had spent on the banks of the
Bosphorus. This explains the fact that Turks chose to Cantemir
in Moldavia in a relatively tight, it is preparing for a military
conflict with Russia and needed a supervisor for Constantin
Brancoveanu. Cantemir distanced himself from wearing just
knowing deep inside the kingdom, including the evils
they've been digging deep, as shown Constantin C. Giurescu
in History of Romanians. Just think of the disaster that has
witnessed the Ottoman army at Zenta in 1697, when Eugene of
Savoy led to a humiliating defeat of the Turks, demonstrating
their military weakness.
It is therefore justified to hope the independence of
Moldavia, with Russia. The opportunity arises in 1710, when
enthroned ruler of Moldavia. Peter the Great concluded a
treaty with 17 points to Luck (Lutsk) on April 13, 1711 (Old
Style), establishing military support from Moldova and the
Russian Tsar's first commitment to respect old Moldovan
borders, the duties of Mr. and boyars hereditary reign in
Cantemir nation and shelter in case of defeat.
Military operations beginning on June 10, 1711, by passing
troop Field Marshal eremetov the Dniester River in Soroca.
Intervene but a series of strategic errors, troops disperse the
Crimea and Braila, and advance the Prut without securing
supplies. Contact numerically superior Ottoman troops (about
200 000, with 250 guns) leads to defeat at Stnileti from 19 to
21 July, when only bribery Vizier Mehmed Baltagi
(information from Neculce) it moves the Tsar of battlefield
surrounded by the Turks at the table. By Peace of Vad Hui
Czar is forced to surrender Azov Turks and demolish several

67
cities of Ukraine's borders. But fully respect their
understanding of Dimitrie Cantemir, protecting it from the
Turks and giving status of Russia, along with land and houses
for himself and Moldovans come with him. Wrote in his diary
front Demetrius Cantemir it is a very wise and good
counselor, thus showing his appreciation for the Romanian.
Starts during the stay in Russia, which will last until the
death of Cantemir (1723). It accommodates life in the new
society, including occupying the place of the personal advisor
of Tsar Peter. Cantemir period that will write the most
important works that will increase the fame learned circles of
Europe.
This completes the description of Cantemir's historical
life, from which we extract the three main periods, one in
Moldova, where the foundations of traditional education
Cantemir, the stay in Constantinople, which collect much of
the knowledge they will lay later in writing and that of
political asylum in Russia, the period in which it committed
to writing.
Cantemir not necessarily proven military talent, like other
rulers of his period. We can deduce this from the consequences
of the 1711 campaign has had on Moldova. It is important,
however, that he realized the method of independence by the
sword, with the power of the Russians.
What is more important to the ruler and man of culture
Dimitrie Cantemir, especially considering the benefit for
Romanian, is the legacy of the writings.
P.P. Panaitescu writes that Cantemir's work fits into our
culture rooted in the past with future extensions. He is a
wonder of our culture, no isolation. In this way it appears not
diminished, but increased, since the prospect of creation is
always greater when put in the company and the people of that
part.

68
Through ideas we can find in his writings, especially those
related to Romanian, and unity of the idea, the creation of a
literary language, the concept of civilization, to support the
right to life for the working Blankets, ideas that find in one
form or another and its predecessors, we can say that the work
of Dimitrie Cantemir is the crowning of the whole cultural
epochs part. If you appreciate old Romanian literature as
having an important status in what can be called whole
Romanian culture and education, when Dimitrie Cantemir is
certainly one of the foremost educators of the Romanian
people.
It's appreciated that thought Cantemir had the desire and
even confessed in writing to the goal of bringing his writings
service that included Romanian nation. Refers to the feedback
received from the Academy of Berlin to write this work, but
look the message: Not only for our benefit ... is dedicated to
this kind of national history and race use. Do not fall at all in
extreme danger himself speaking false patriotism: There are
other diseases, as well as things that writers say are
passionately love Slavs ADEC his people and, conversely,
jealousy venerate another, who, really, is not least path of truth
for error lies can divert.
Remember, not once, in Chronicle about his goal to be
very objective, as the true history properly What new and
beginning I swear or pleasant or unpleasant would historians
for novel lineage left, all with a heart and a good writers we will
show.
Through all this, Cantemir seems to dedicate the work of
discovering true history of the nation, on the one hand the
ideas and assumptions that support (especially in the
"Chronicle" origins, formation and continuity of the
Romanians), but especially by this attitude of objectivity and
honesty who requires, which attracts me more than the

69
content of its work and study, I think, just me, and many
others.
Dimitrie Cantemir occupies a higher position other
scholars, because he does not stop only write one book, he
combines his writings several disciplines: geography, history,
prose, compose poetry, its mark on these writings by
conclusions social and political analyzes music and even
science like mathematics and physics. Everywhere
demonstrates continuous creative curiosity that builds for
himself a encyclopedia of knowledge, for then to externalize,
giving it to others.
Turning to the analysis of Cantemir's works, we see the
influence of periods of training and ideas that surrounded him
at the time of their writing.
The first work of Dimitrie Cantemir Divan or quarrel
with the world or giudeul wise soul and body work that
illustrates the influence of Jeremiah Cacavelas studies, and
those in the Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople
Academy, spiritual branch of the University of Padova. Formed
in 1698 in Iai Romanian and Greek, demonstrating his
interest first Cantemir raising the rank of Romanian literary
and scientific language. Not used for this purpose popular
language, realizing that it may not contain the most profound
ideas and concepts. He made a sort of compromise in that
popular idiom enriched scholarly elements of foreign origin,
but the point is that given the use of classical language in favor
of indigenous either add new elements.
There is a compromise in terms of addressing the ideas in
the work. Subject of the book is the conflict between body and
soul, which has its basis in Scripture, specifically in the Epistle
of St. Paul to the Galatians. The conclusion to this problem
banging Orthodox Byzantine solitary Filip (Sec. XI) in the
mirror world (diopter), where asceticism and prayer support
as ways of transcending the Absolute, by overcoming the

70
mundane. Divan however address the ideas of the ancient
Greeks and Seneca, trying to reconcile religious tradition with
stoicism. It creates inevitable contradictions posed Dimitrie
Cantemir orthodox by tradition with humanist through
culture. It uses both the Orthodox Christian teaching:
Dead to experiences; live you must die. You learn Dara to
not die, die. But inspired by the Seneca, which contradicts the
first: Too late is tomorrow's life; lives today.
By "wise quarrel with the world" Moldavian boyars
ironically, supporting social ideas of liberty and life of the
oppressed working blanket.
The importance of Divan lies mainly in the fact that it is
written in Romanian, accounting for the evolution of
Romanian literary style a moment that should be taken into
account.
The next work of Cantemir Sacrosanctae scientiae
indepingibilis imago (1700) (picture sacred science that can
not paint). Writing focused on metaphysics, which again
distinguishes Cantemir's attempt to reconcile religion with
science, this time on the theory of knowledge. Support, on the
one hand, orthodox view that the divine revelation as the only
way of knowledge, and on the other hand, the theory of the
Flemish philosopher Jean Batista van Helmont, promoter of
atomic theory would be the basis of material existence. The
origins of the problem seems to be the starting point for
differences between teachers Academy in Constantinople,
which once again shows his commitment to the concerns of
those intellectual circles Cantemir.
Follow Compendiolum universae logices institutionis a
eulogy at his van Helmont, That vegni Maksus Tarifu ilmi
Musik (Brief Explanation of music theory) and
Hieroglyphic History. The latter is closest to that genre, what
was later called social and political pamphlet. It is an
allegorical appearance Romanian society at the time, marked

71
in particular by the intrigues of Cantemiretilor one hand,
Constantin Brancoveanu and Cantacuzinian another. He
accompanies the work of two staircases interpreter one of
the numbers and foreign words interpreter, the threshold
volume, and two interpreters ieroglificeti numbers and words
at the end of the book (Perpessicius). The complexity of the
content, Hieroglyphic History is social novel, adventure
novel memoirs - all in one place, stating only that how all this
is done is one perpetual allegorical.
In the second period of work as a writer, Dimitrie
Cantemir focuses primarily on issues of historical invoice.
These we will devote as great scholar, making it known in the
West. In order works written during this period are: Vita
Constantini Cantemyrii, Descriptio Moldaviae Historia
incrementorum atque decrementorum Othomanicae
auditorium, The political status othomanicae auditorium,
Chronicle old Romanian-Moldovan-Vlach".

72
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PROMOTOR AL
CULTURII ROMNETI

Borloveanu Ioana-Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic Ioan Petru, Otopeni

A avut ansa de a se nate ntr-o familie nobil. Fiul lui


Constantin Vod Cantemir i al Anei Banta femeie ntre
femei i foarte nvat a beneficiat de educaie aleas. Din
dorina de a dezmini mustrrile Costinilor (l considerau
dobitoc), Constantin Vod a vrut s-i dea lui Dimitrie
Cantemir toata tiina lumii. Pentru aceasta, i-l aduce din
Muntenia pe clugrul Ieremia Cacavas, om de mare doctrin.
Sub ndrumarea lui, Dimitrie primete cunotine de literatur,
filosofie, limba greac i latin.
Cunotinele acumulate n timpul ederii lui la
Constantinopol din domeniile filosofie, teologie, geografie,
istorie, muzic, folclor i limba turc, i-au permis s elaboreze
mai multe lucrri dedicate istoriei, civilizaiei i culturii.
Datorit apropierii de unele mari personaliti ale culturii
europene i orientale, Dimitrie devine un om de cea mai aleas
pregtire intelectual.
ntr-un studiu, Alexandru Piru l numete pe Dimitrie
Cantemir creator de idei i de ficiune, filosof i poet
romancier nzestrat cu imaginaie plastic i patos critic. De
asemenea, enumera i calitile care-l fac pe acesta un om
multilateral, un erudit: Personalitatea multilateral a lui
Dimitrie Cantemir, de voievod luminat, om de lume i ascet de
bibliotec, aventurier ambiios i blazat, matematician,

73
arhitect, arheolog, istoric, etnograf, teolog, muzicant, pictor,
poet, filosof, romancier e asemntoare lui Lorenzo de
Medicis.
nc din adolescen manifesta un mare interes fa de
istoria, cultura i civilizaia poporului romn, n special fa de
tot ce inea de trecutul i prezentul rii Moldovei.
Printre operele sale cele mai cunoscute se numr:
Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu lumea, Istoria
ieroglific i Descriptio Moldaviae.
La ndemnul membrilor Academiei din Berlin, Dimitrie
Cantemir scrie un studiu n limba latin intitulat Descriptio
antiqui et hodierni statul Moldaviae.
Ca izvoare, pentru ntocmirea scrierii sale folosete
scrierile cronicarilor moldoveni: Miron Costin De neamul
moldovenilor i Niculae Costin Letopiseul rii Moldovei
pn la Ieremia Movil. Uneori, mprumut de la acetia chiar
i titlurile capitolelor lor, dar gsete i lacune multe,
explicabile din negrija strmoilor, crora le sttea la inim s
fac fapte bune mai degrab dect s le scrie.
Opera Descriptio Moldaviae este scris la nceputul
secolului al XVIII-lea. Cuprinde trei pri: prima parte este
consacrat descrierii geografice a Moldovei, n a doua parte
este nfiat organizarea politic a rii, iar n ultima parte
exist informaii despre graiul moldovenilor, tradiii i slovele
folosite. Lucrarea este nsoit de o hart desenat de autor n
urma observrii ignoranei geografilor strini, care, n hrile
lor, nu tiau s delimiteze rile vecine de cele romneti.
Cea de-a doua parte este mprit n nousprezece
capitole.
n capitolul al III-lea, numit Despre obiceiurile vechi i
noi la nscunarea unui domn al Moldovei, este nfiat
ritualul privind nscunarea unui domn: cel care motenea
tronul se tia nc de pe cnd tria tatl sau fratele su i, ca s

74
urce n scaun, nu era nevoie de altceva dect s-l vrea
norodul.
Noul domnitor, dup ce plngea moartea fostului domn,
era adus n biseric, unde mitropolitul [...] i punea pe cap o
coroan de aur mpodobit cu pietre scumpe [...]. Soia
domnului rmnea n odaie pn la terminarea ceremoniei
[...] dar la ncoronare, fiind un lucru sfnt, ea nu era prta.
Dup ce se nfia naintea sultanului, domnitorul
nvemntat n caflan domnesc i avnd pe cap o cealma
prsea cetatea sultanului pe un cal arbesc cu fru de aur
btut cu pietre scumpe i acoperit cu hara cusut cu aur i
argint. Domnitorul era nsoit de boieri i de doi cai
mprteti.
Ajuns la domnie, noul conductor i exercita puterea
asupra boierilor moldoveni dup bunul lui plac: domnitorul
poate face cu boierii ce poftete, ca i cum n-ar mai avea
deasupra sa pe nimeni n aceast lume.
Din capitolul al X-lea, intitulat Despre ngropcinea
domnilor reiese obiceiul dup care este ngropat un
conductor. Acesta este mbrcat n haine domneti i
podoabe. Norodul i arat suferina umblnd prin cetate cu
capul gol, iar caii sunt fcui s lcrimeze cu zeama de ceap.
Boierii din starea nti duc nslia pe umeri, fiind urmai de
boierii mai mici i alaiul cu muzica de oaste. Ajuni la
mitropolie, ,stareii, boierii cei mai mari i cei mici i toi cei
care au slujit la curtea lui srut mna dreapt a mortului i
crucea pe care o ine acesta n mn. Mitropolitul este cel care
arunc peste sicriu cel dinti pumn de rn.
Dac n timpul vieii domnitorul a poruncit s fie
nmormntat ntr-o mnstire, atunci boierii l ngroap cu
mare fast i prind pe peretele cel mai apropiat de mormnt,
stema domneasc.

75
n capitolul al XVII-lea (Despre nravurile
moldovenilor), naratorul descrie obiceiurile moldovenilor:
lucru despre care nimeni sau numai puini strini au o
imagine adevrat [...].
Moldovenii aveau prea puine nravuri bune i mai multe
nravuri rele. Erau trufai i semei, aceste dou trsturi
reprezentnd muma i sora lor. Le plcea s petreac n
ospee: uneori de la al aselea ceas al serii pn la al treilea
ceas dup miezul nopii i iubeau vinul.
nvtura le era urt, considernd c aceasta este
treaba popilor; pentru un om de rnd este de ajuns dac tie
s citeasc i s scrie.
Dei erau foarte sraci, nu refuzau un oaspete strin venit
la casa lor: [...] nu se dau napoi niciodat s dea mncare i
gzduire unui oaspe i-l adpostesc fr plat timp de trei zile,
mpreun cu calul su. Pe strin l primesc cu faa voioas, ca i
cnd le-ar fi frate sau alte rudenie.
Unii dintre ei erau credincioi: Dumnezeu le hotrte
ziua morii, iar naintea acesteia nimeni nu poate s moar sau
s piar n rzboi i viteji n lupt: s omoare sau s prind
un turc, un ttar sau un evreu socotesc c nu este pcat i cu
att mai puin frdelege.
Femeile erau socotite vrednice de cinste [...] cu ct
mncau i beau mai puin la ospee, dar erau ocarte dac
prul vreuneia dintre cele mritate sau vduve era la vedere.
Pe de alt parte, femeile socotesc c a umbla cu capul gol este
semn al curiei.
Hora era dansul pe care moldovenii l jucau cel mai bine.
Despre cluari se credea c au puteri vindectoare. Oamenii
bolnavi erau adui i lungii pe jos, iar cluarii i clcau de
trei ori n trei zile din cap pn-n picioare. Se spune c dup
aceea se vindecau.

76
n capitolul al XVIII-lea sunt prezentate obiceiurile de la
logodn i nunt. Tinerii se nsoar,,la vrsta la care trebuie s
se fac, dup legile bisericeti, cununia. Ei consider o ruine
ca o fecioar s-l cear pe brbat. Pentru aceasta, flcul
trimite la prinii tinerei nite peitori [...] ca s nu peasc
ruinea s nu vrea prinii fetei.
La nunt sunt adui iganii pentru a menine o atmosfer
vesel prin cntrile din gur i din instrumente, iar la
cununie preotul, pentru a strni rsul celor prezeni le d celor
doi miri s guste de trei ori pne uns cu miere, semn al
iubirii i al nsoirii venice [...] i nainte de a le pune bucica
n dini, i neal, fcndu-i s cate gura de trei ori.
n partea a III-a, n capitolul I se precizeaz faptul c
moldovenii, precum sciii, s-au nchinat acelorai zei: Peruna
(zeul tunetului), Lado (zeul veseliei), Volos (zeul dobitoacelor),
Pohvist (zeul vzduhului), Kupalo (zeul seceriului).
De asemenea, fiecrei ntmplri i-au atribuit cte o figur
fabuloas semnificativ. De exemplu, Stahia (o femeie uria,
stpna caselor vechi i prsite), Ursitele (dou fecioare,
care la naterea unui copil hotrsc ce va ntmpina acesta n
via), Zburtorul (o nluc, un om tnr care vine noaptea
la fete mari), Drgaica (nume atribuit celei mai frumoase fete
din sat, aleas atunci cnd se coc semnturile), Paparuda (o
copil mai mic de zece ani, mbrcat n cma alb, la
nceputul recoltei, pentru a aduce ploaia).
Cred c Dimitrie Cantemir este o figur unic n literatura
romn. Prin opera sa, Cantemir a ncercat s le prezinte
celorlalte popoare ale lumii o lucrare unic, care s cuprind
toate aspectele politice, geografice, istorice i culturale din
Moldova. n aceast oper nu a artat situaia real cu care se
confruntau moldovenii: faptul c umblau desculi, se splau
cam rar, erau analfabei i mnacau mmlig n fiecare zi, ci a
nfiat un popor cu tradiii i obiceiuri proprii (hora,

77
cluarii), ceremonii legate de nunt (cununia, cntecele
iganilor), moarte (nmormntarea domnitorilor, cntecele
fanfarei), cu legende i figuri fabuloase locale (Zburtorul,
Ursitele, Drgaica), jocuri i alte credine (urca dans
popular, descntece, farmece). Toate acestea, adunate laolalt,
dau originalitate acestei scrieri.
n concluzie, prin scrierile lui, Dimitrie Cantemir a adus
neamului o glorie mai mare i mai durabil dect cea a
armelor: contiina propriei identiti naionale, conturat i
edificat n operele sale.

Bibliografie

Clinescu G., Istoria literaturii romne de la origini pn


n prezent, Ed. Semne.
Dimitrie Cantemir, domn al Moldovei (1673-1723),
http://istoria.md/
Marius Petrescu, http://www.historia.ro/,2013 IISD,
http://cantemir.asm.md/,2008-2011
Panaitescu P.P., (1958), Dimitrie Cantemir viaa i
opera, Ed. Academiei republicii populare romne.
Vidracu Anatol i Dan, (2003), Descrierea Moldovei,
colecia Biblioteca colarului, ediia a V-a, Ed. Litera
internaional, Bucureti.

78
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PROMOTOR OF THE
ROMANIAN CULTURE

Borloveanu Ioana-Mdlina,
Liceul Teoretic ,,Ioan Petru, Otopeni

He was fortunate to be born into a noble family. As the


son of Constantin Vod Cantemir and Ana Bant, - an
excellent and very learned woman, - he received a very good
education. In order to invalidate Costin's rebukes (they
considered him stupid), Constantin Vod wanted to offer to
Dimitrie Cantemir all the world's science. For this, he brought
from Muntenia the monk called Ieremia Cacavas, a man of
great doctrine. Under his guidance, Dimitrie Cantemir
receivesd the knowledge of literature, philosophy, Greek and
Latin languages.
The knowledge which he gained during his stay in
Constantinopole, concerning the philosophy, theology,
geography, history, music, folklore and Turkish language
allowed him to develop several works about history,
civilization and culture. Due to the relationships with some of
the greatest personalities of the European and Eastern culture,
Dimitrie became a man of the highest intellectual training.
In one of his studies, Alexandru Piru calls Dimitrie
Cantemir: creator of ideas and fiction, philosopher and poet
endowed with plastic imagination and critical pathos. He also
lists the qualities that made him a great man, a scholar. The
multifaceted personality of Dimitrie Cantemir as a great
voivode, a gentleman, an austere person in a library, an
ambitious and blase adventurer, a mathematician, an

79
architect, a historian, an ethnographer, a theologian, a
musician, a painter, a poet, a philosopher, and a novelist who
is similar to Lorenzo de Medicis.
Since his adolescence, he was really interested within the
history, the culture and civilization of the Romanian people,
especially to that one related to the past and the present of
Moldavia.
Among his best known works we include: The Divan or
The Wise Mans Parley with the World or The Judgement of
the Soul with the Body, then The Hieroglyphic History and
Descriptio Moldavi.
At the urging of some members of Academy in Berlin,
Dimitrie Cantemir writes a study in Latin entitled Descriptio
antiqui et hodierni statul Moldavi.
As sources for his works he uses the works of some
Moldavian chroniclers like: Miron Costin's De neamul
moldovenilor and Niculae Costin's Letopiseul rii Moldovei
pn la Ieremia Movil. He sometimes borrowed from them
even the titles of his chapters, but he also finded many gaps,
which he explained to belong to the lack of attention of the
ancestors, who were more concerned to do great deeds rather
than writing them.
The paper Descriptio Moldavi was written at the
beginning of the eighteenth century. It has three parts: the first
part contains Moldovas geographis description, the second
one speaks about the political organization of the country and
the last contains information about Moldavian speech,
traditions and the kind of letters used in writting. The work
has also a map drawn by the author himself after he saw the
ignorance of the foreign geographers, who, in their maps,
didnt know how to separate the neighboring countries to the
Romanian Principalities ones.
The second part is divided into nineteen chapters.

80
In the third chapter entitled About the new and old habits
at the enthronment of a ruler of Moldavia, it is presented the
ceremony regarding the enthronment of a ruler: the one who
inherited the throne was known even when his father or
brother were alive and to inherit the throne only the crowd
had to agree.
The new ruler, after he cried the death of the former ruler, he
was brought into the church, where the metropolitan put on his
head a golden crown adorned with gems. The wife of the new
ruler stayed in the hall until the end of the ceremony (...), but at
the enthronment, that being a holy thing (ceremony), she didnt
take part. After he appeared in front of the Padishah, the new
ruler dressed in royal clothes and having on his head a turban,
leave the Padishah's city riding on an Arabian horse with a
golden ridle graven with gems and covered with shabrack sewn
with gold and silver. The new ruler was accompanied by
landowners and by two royal horses.
Coming to the city of throne, the new ruler exercised his
power over Moldavian boyars at his will: the new ruler
exercised his power over the Moldavian boyars as he wanted:
the new ruler can do what he wants with the boyars, as if he
wouldnt have above him anyone in this world.
From the tenth chapter entitled About the burial of
rulers, the author describes the habit of how a ruler is
burried. The body of the former ruler is dressed in royal
clothes and jewels.
The crowd shows his sorrow, walking through the city
bareheaded, and the horses are stimulated to cry with onion juice.
The boyars from the first state carry the dead body on their
shoulders, being followed by landowners and the army
procession music. Arriving at the metropolitan, the high priests,
the boyars and the landowners and all those who served at the
former prince's court and kiss the right hand of the dead and the
cross which this one held in his hand. The priest is the one who

81
throws over the coffin the first handful of dust, as the tradition of
the country's religion asked to hand down.
If, during his life, the ruler ordered to be burried in a
monastery, then the landowners burry him with great funeral
ceremony, and order to be engraved, on the closest wall of the
grave the prince's emblem.
In the seventeeth chapter About the Moldavian habits,
the narrator describes the habits of the Moldavians: things
about which no one or only a few foreigners have a real
image(...).
The Moldavians had very few good habits and many bad
habits. They were proud and arrogant, these two features
representing them very well. They liked to have feasts,
sometimes from six oclock in the evening up to three oclock
after midnight and they loved wine.
They hated learning, considering that this was the parsons'
job; for a merchant it is enough if he knows to read and write.
Even if they were poor, they didnt refuse a foreign guest
who came into their house; they never refuse to offer food and
shelter to a guest and they offer him a free shelter for three
days, together with his horse. They meet the foreign with a
happy face as if he would be a brother or a relative of them.
Some of them were faithful: God decide for them the day
of their death, and before it no one can die or perish in the
war, and valiant in fight to die or to catch a Turk, Tatar or
Jew they think it is not a sin and even lawlessness.
The women were considered worthy of honor, as hostess
they have the right to eat and drink at feasts, but they were
reproached if the hair of a married woman or a widow could be
seen, not covered as the tradition requested. On the other
hand, women consider that having something which covers
on their head is a sign of cleanliness.
The Romanian round dance was the dance which
Moldavians loved and danced the best. About Cluarii dance

82
it was believed that they had healing powers. The sick people
were brought and put on the ground, and cluarii stepped on
them three times in three days on the whole body. It was said
that after this they were cured.
In the eighteenth chapter the customs about the
engagement and wedding were presented. The young people
got married at the age they have to do it, after getting the
wedding, according with the religious laws. They consider a
shame that a virgin ask the man to marry her. For this, the
young man sends to the parents of the girl some suitors so as
not to suffer the shame that the girls parents dont want him.
At the wedding, the gipsies are brought to maintain the
cheerful atmosphere singing with their voices or helped by
instruments, and the priest, in order to make people laugh, he
gives the wedded pair to taste three times bread smeared with
honey, the sign of love and of eternal accompanying (...) and
before putting it between their teeth, he cheats them,
stimulating them to open their mouth three times.
In the third part, in the first chapter it is said that
Moldavians, like Scythians, worshiped the same gods: Peruna
(the god of the thunder), Lado (the god of the joy), Volos (the
god of the beasts), Pohvist (the god of the air), Kupalo (the god
of the harvest).
Also, to each event they attributed one significant
fabulous figure. For example Stahia (a huge woman, who is
imagined as the owner of the old and abandoned houses),
Ursitele (two virgins who are present at the birth of a child and
decide which will be the future of this child during his life),
Zburtorul (a ghost, a flying young man who comes at night
and visits the virgins), Drgaica (the name given to the most
beautiful girl in the village, chosen when the crops ripen),
Paparuda (a little girl of ten years old dressed in a white dress,
who dances at the beginning of the harvest dry season, in order
to bring the rain).

83
We think that Dimitrie Cantemir is a unique figure in the
Romanian literature. Through his masterpiece, Cantemir tried to
present to the world's readers a unique work, which contain all
political, geographical, historical and cultural aspects in
Moldavia. In this work, he didnt show the real situation faced by
Moldavians: the fact that they walked barefoot, washed a bit rare,
they were illiterate and they ate polenta every day, but he
portrayed the people with their traditions and customs (The
Romanian round dance, Cluarii), and also with some of the
ceremonies regarding the wedding (the wedding, the songs of the
gipsies), the death (the burial of the rulers, the band songs), with
their legends and fabulous local figures (Zburtorul, Ursitele,
Drgaica), their other kind of dances and another beliefs (the
Turk, the folk dance, the incantations and spell-works). All these,
put together, give a special originality to this work.
In conclusion, through his work, Dimitrie Cantemir
brought to the Romanian nation a bigger and more durable
glory than that one of guns: the awareness of their national
identity outlined and was built in his papers.

References

Clinescu G., Istoria literaturii romne de la origini pn


n prezent, Semne Publishing House.
Panaitescu P.P., (1958), Dimitrie Cantemir viaa i opera,
Academia Republicii Populare Romne Publishing House.
Vidracu Anatol and Dan, (2003), Descrierea Moldovei, 5,
Litera International Publishing House, Bucharest.

Online bibliography:

Marius Petrescu http://www.historia.ro/, 2013


Http://cantemir.asm.md/,2008-2011
http://istoria.md/

84
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR- SAVANTUL ROMN
DINTRE RUSIA I IMPERIUL OTOMAN

Munteanu Mihaela-Roxana,
Liceul Ioan Petru, Otopeni

n Istoria literaturii romne a lui George Ivacu, opera


lui Dimitrie Cantemir este privit ca fiind cutezana
intelectual, ncrederea sublim n puterile sale, care nu este
infatuare i prezumie, ci contiina interioar a geniului ce
mplinindu-se pe sine are certitudinea mplinirii prin sine a
unui destin intelectual colectiv, astfel fiindu-i recunoscut
mreia operei i elogiat personalitatea complex.
Savantul de renume european, Dimitrie Cantemir, a
reuit s ntruneasc n propria fiin caracteristicile unui
excepional istoric, filosof, scriitor, geograf, crturar,
compozitor, etnolog, lingvist, om politic, muzicolog, etnograf,
fiind o persoana multilateral, un erudit i reprezentnd
idealul umanist. Astfel, operele sale literare sunt rezultate ale
micrii umaniste, opere n care Dimitrie Cantemir i
manifest admiraia pentru valorile antichitii greco-latine,
lucru evideniat i de ctre Virgil Cndea n tratatul Despre
raiunea dominant, prima oper filozofic publicat n limba
romn (1688). Analiznd cea dinti oper filosofic scris de
un romn i tiprit n limba romn, Divanul sau Glceava
neleptului cu lumea sau Giudeul sufletului cu trupul,
istoricul Virgil Cndea menioneaz: Pentru gndirea
romneasc, noutatea lucrrii const n faptul c autorul nu
soluioneaz problema apelnd exclusiv la textele i autorii

85
cretini tradiionali: Stoicii, Plutarh, Cicero, Epictet i Seneca,
iar dintre gnditorii mai noi, Erasm i Andrea Wissowatius
erau invocai de tnrul nvat, fapt prin care Dimitrie
Cantemir i vdea [] erudiia i lrgimea de orizont
cultural.
n cei peste douzeci de ani pe care Cantemir i-a petrecut
la Constantinopol, n marea boierime musulman, a aflat att
gloria, ct i vicisitudinile din spatele mreului Imperiu
Otoman, fiind primul cugettor politic romn i unul din
primii europeni care ntrevd declinul ireversibil al puterii
otomane. Speculnd acest lucru, scrie, n timpul ederii sale
n Rusia lui Petru cel Mare, Istoria Imperiului Otoman,
spernd ca astfel s creeze o opinie public favorabil
interveniei cretine n Moldova i eliberrii romnilor de sub
jugul otoman. Dup publicarea sa n limbile: englez, francez
i german, aceast oper devine un oracol cruia i se
adreseaz toi cei dornici s se iniieze n realitatea otoman,
dup cum bine spunea Hommer; nu numai oamenii de tiin
o consult, ci i scriitorii celebri: Voltaire (n celebrul Essai
sur les moeurs, unde-l citeaz de doua ori pe Cantemir),
Byron (n Don Juan), Victor Hugo.
De asemenea, Dimitrie Cantemir sau Kantemiroglu (fiul
lui Cantemir), aa cum a fost el numit de sultanul Ahmed al
III-lea, figureaz printre clasicii muzicii turceti, compunnd
un tratat despre muzica osman i inventeaz un nou sistem
de notaie, nct devine o personalitate a epocii, avnd
preocupri universale.
Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu lumea sau Giudeul
sufletului cu trupul este o oper n care se evideniaz tema
filosofic strveche a raporturilor dintre suflet i corp n
perspectiva sever a moralei cretine, ea constituind cea
dinti opera etic original produs de cultura noastr.
Vorbind despre aceast carte, Virgil Cndea spunea: Citarea,
uneori recomandarea operelor unora dintre pgni nu

86
nevrednici [...] fac din Cantemir un autor modern pentru
vremea lui, fapt care, n raport cu Umanismul, demonstreaz
libertatea, demnitatea i perfeciunea fiinei umane. Aceast
lucrare ilustreaz antiteza om-univers, suflet-corp, mai exact,
atitudinea omului fa de ceea ce-l nconjoar, fa de lume,
exprimat prin relaia dintre macrocosm i microcosm,
reliefnd n acest fel aptitudinile de gnditor ale domnului
romn. Aceasta carte rmne expresia unei personaliti bine
conturate, pulsnd n imagini, ca i n stilul bizar, dar care
pentru el (Cantemir) a devenit un alt mijloc de
individualizare: O, lume, dar eu tiu precum i alii muli ca
mine nc i mai puternici dect mine, au fost; dar pn la
sfrit ce s-au fcut? [...] Unde e Xerxis i Artaxersis, acetia
carii n loc de Dumnezeu s socotea i mai puternici dect toi
oamenii lumii [...].
Descrierea Moldovei este prima sa oper elaborat dup
1771, anul n care s-a stabilit n Rusia. Aceasta e o monografie
geografic, istoric, instituional, administrativ, etnografic
i cultural a rii sale [...], constituind prin amnunimea
planului, armonia expunerii i acuitatea observaiei tiinifice,
un monument al disciplinei. Descrierea Moldovei este o
oper de erudiie, orizonturi i compoziie fr precedent n
cultura romn, unde i fac loc idei fundamentale ca:
latinitatea limbii, tagmele bisericii, religia i obiceiurile
moldovenilor: (poporul moldovean) i-a pstrat ntreag i
nevtmat rnduiala sa politic i bisericeasc, ei
(moldovenii) nu socotesc nimic mai de ocar dect s se vad
prul unei femei mritate sau al unei vduve.
Istoria ieroglific, o alt capodoper literar a lui
Cantemir, este un pamflet adresat adversarilor si politici,
aceasta fiind un catarsis al amrciunilor i al veninului
acumulat de omul politic contrariat n aspiraiile sale,
artndu-se prin aceasta personalitatea multilateral a lui
Cantemir, care poate crea o adevrat comoar literar i prin

87
criticarea oamenilor politici pe care-i consider necinstii. Ca
de exemplu, Mihai Racovi, protejatul opozantului su politic,
Constantin Brncoveanu, este asociat cu o Struocmil,
reprondu-i astfel, neghiobia i prostia: Dumneaiei,
Struocmila, [...] s nate i triete, tuturor tiut ieste. [...] C
de s-ar fi nscut n prile crivului i s fie trit n prile
austrului, cldura soarelui, umedzala crierilor i-ar fi mai
uscat[...]. Un lucru interesant la aceast oper este c dup
ce te familiarizezi cu stilul att de neobinuit la prima vedere,
ajungi s vezi legtura indisolubil dintre structura bizar a
frazei i umorul pe care-l degaj, astfel nct tradus ntr-
un limbaj cu o sintax normal, modern, proza satiric a lui
Cantemir i pierde mai tot farmecul, aa cum spunea criticul
George Ivacu.
Aadar, Dimitrie Cantemir este cununa umanismului
romnesc, dovada c omul este msura tuturor lucrurilor.

Bibliografie

Cantemir, Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete I (Divanul),


Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
Cantemir, Dimitrie, (2001), Descrierea Moldovei,
Bucureti, Ed. Litera Internaional.
Cantemir, Dimitrie, (2008), Istoria Ieroglific, Prefa de
Dan Horia Mazilu, Bucureti, Ed. Gramar.
Cndea, Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii
la istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia.
Ivacu, George, (1969), Istoria literaturii romne, Ed.
tiinific, Bucureti.

88
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - THE ROMANIAN
SCHOLAR BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Munteanu Mihaela-Roxana,
Liceul Ioan Petru, Otopeni

In The History of the Romanian Literature by George


Ivacu, Dimitrie Cantemirs creation is seen like the
intellectual boldness, the sublime confidence in his own force
which isnt vanity or presumption, but the inner conscience of
the genius who has the certitude of self achievement, because
he can develop an intellectual collective destiny. Thus, the
grandeur of his creation is recognized and his complex
personality is eulogized.
The famous European scholar, Dimitrie Cantemir,
managed to assemble, in his own essence, the qualities of an
extraordinary historian, philosopher, writer, scholar,
composer, ethnologist, linguist, politician, musicologist,
ethnographer, himself being a versatile person, a scholar who
represents the humanists' dream. In this way, his work is the
result of the humanistic movement and though all these
creations, Dimitrie Cantemir shows his admiration for the
values of the Greek and Latin antiquity. This thing is
underlined by Virgil Cndea in the treaty About the Dominant
Judgement, the first philosophical writing published in
Romanian language in 1688. Analysing the first philosophical
work written by a Romanian author and printed in Romania,
The Divan or The Wise Man Parley with the World or The
Judgement of Soul with the Body, Virgil Cndea, the historian,
mentioned: For Romanian thinking, the novelty of this work
89
is that the author didn't solve the problem just asking for the
texts and the traditional Christian writers such as: Stroici,
Plutarch, Epictetus and Seneca and from the new thinkers,
Erasmus and Andrea Wissowatius, were invoked by the young
scholar. In this way, Dimitrie Cantemir highlights () his
erudition and his grand c Within 20 years spent at
Constantinople, in the grand Muslim nobility, Cantemir
became acquainted with the glory and the vicissitudes behind
the imposing Ottoman Empire, being the first political
Romanian thinker and one of the first Europeans who
anticipated the irreversible decline of the Ottoman force.
Speculating in this matter, wrote during his stay in Russia of
Peter the Great The History of Ottoman Empire. In this way,
he hoped to create a favourable public opinion for the
Christian intervention in Moldavia and for Romanians
liberation under the Ottoman yoke. After having published it
in English, French and German, his writing became an oracle
to whom all those willing induct themselves into the Ottoman
reality, because: not only the scientists must consult it, but
also famous writers such as: Voltaire (in his famous writing,
Essay about Habits, in which he quotes Cantemir twice),
Byron (in Don Juan), Victor Hugo, a.s.o.
Moreover, Dimitrie Cantemir or Kantemiroglu
(Cantemirs son), the way how he is was named by the Sultan
Ahmed III, is a part of the classical Turkish composers
because Cantemir wrote a treaty about the Ottoman music and
he invented a new notation system so that he became a
personality of his epoch.
The Divan or The Wise Man's Parley with the World or
The Judgement of the Soul with the Body is a creation which
underlines the ancient philosophical theme of the connections
between the soul and the body in severe perspective of the
Christian moral. It is the first original ethical writing created
by our culture. Talking about his writing, Virgil Cndea said:

90
The quotation, sometimes, the recommendation of the
creations of <<the industrious pagans>> () turn Cantemir
into a modern writer then one of his time who, in report with
the Humanism, demonstrates the freedom, the dignity and the
perfection of the human being. This creation illustrates the
antitheses man-universe, soul-body, more exactly, the attitude
of people concerning all around them, concerning the world
concentrated within the expression of a connection between
macrocosm and microcosm, highlighting in this way the
abilities of a great thinker, of a wise Romanian ruler. This
writing remains the expression of a very well-shaped
personality, rich in images, as also in his bizarre style which
became another way of his individuality: Oh, people, I know
others just like me and even stronger than me were, but,
finally, what did they do? () Where is Xerxes and Artaxerxes,
those one who, without God, they thought about themselves
that they were stronger than all people in the world ().
Descriptio Moldavi, The Description of Moldavia is the
first writing drawn up between 1714-1716 when he lived in
Russia. This is a geographical, historical, institutional,
administrative, etnographical and cultural monograph of his
country (), forming a monument of discipline due to its
detailed plan, its harmonious exposure and its accurate
scientific observation. The Description of Moldavia is an
erudite writing and a unprecedented creation in the Romanian
culture, debating fundamental ideas, such as: the Latin
content of his language, the confraternity of the church, the
religion and habits of Moldavians: the Moldavian people kept
safely his political and religious order, they (the Moldavians)
consider there is nothing more shameful than to see a married
or a widow womans hair.
The Hieroglyphic History, another literary masterpiece of
Dimitrie Cantemir, is a pamphlet towards his political opponents,
being a catharsis of the anguish and of the venom acquired by

91
the politician vexed in his aspirations. Thus, the versatile
personality of Cantemir is set up and it so he can create a true
literary treasure criticizing the politicians about whom he
consider that they were dishonest. For examples, Mihai Racovi,
the protg of his political opponent, Constantin Brncoveanu, is
associated with a mixture between an ostrich and a camel,
showing his foolish and stupidity: Her Highness
(Struocmila) is born and live, known to everybody. () If it
had been born in the northeasterns area and had lived in the
south-western winds area, the suns heat, the brains moisture
would have dried then (). What is interesting about this writing
is that after you get acquainted with his so unusual style, at the
first sight, you will get to see the indissoluble connection between
the bizarre structure of the sentence and the humor which it
emits so, the satirical Cantemirs prose loses its charm if it is
translated in a language with a normal, modern structure, how
said the reviewer George Ivacu.
Therefore, Dimitrie Cantemir is the summit, the peak of
the Romanian humanism, the proof that the man is the
measure of all things.

References

Cantemir, Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete I (Divanul),


Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
Cantemir, Dimitrie, (2001), Descrierea Moldovei,
Bucureti, Ed. Litera Internaional.
Cantemir, Dimitrie, (2008), Istoria Ieroglific, Prefa de
Dan Horia Mazilu, Bucureti, Ed. Gramar.
Cndea, Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii
la istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia.
Ivacu, George, (1969), Istoria literaturii romne, Ed.
tiinific, Bucureti.

92
ISTORIA IEROGLIFIC SAU UNUL DINTRE
PRIMELE ROMANE ALEGORICE DIN
LITERATURA ROMN

Teodorescu Bianca,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

ntr-o comunitate n care accesul la cultur nu era


asigurat ntotdeauna nici mcar liderilor sau persoanelor cu o
oarecare influen n mediul social, Dimitrie Cantemir, mezin
al unei familii de seam, se nate la 26 octombrie 1673, iar
soarta sa este imediat hotrt - pentru a evita o etichetare
asemntoare cu a acestuia (Costinii l numeau dobitoc),
tatl sau pune un mare accent pe educarea constant a
tnrului nc din primii ani. Astfel, preotul Ieremia Cacavela
este adus din Muntenia i aa ncepe iniierea viitorului
succesor la tron n tainele filozofiei i ale literaturii, alturi de
limbile stranie care circulau la acel moment, greaca i latina. n
jurul anului 1688 este trimis n locul fratelui sau, Antioh, la
Constantinopol, fiind sub conducere turceasc, ns nu-i
ntrerupe n niciun fel studiile, se ntoarce la moartea tatlui i
preia conducerea rii, avnd un curs al vieii inedit care i
permite s i lrgeasc necontenit orizonturile, acaparnd
majoritatea domeniilor de nvtur propuse i construindu-
i ntreaga manifestare politic inspirat de modelele din
exterior. Triete att n mediul nvailor turci, pentru ca mai
apoi s se reorienteze spre latura cretin a lumii medievale,
devenind de asemenea prieten cu fanarioii i, n mod evident,

93
cu orice mare profesor i cunosctor al vreuneia dintre tiinele
vechi sau moderne. Cu toate c rmne departe de politic
pentru un deceniu, se hotrte s revin la crma rii,
intuind decderea Imperiului Otoman i ndreptndu-se spre
arul Petru cel Mare. Pe finalul vieii, acesta se integreaz
complet n via cultural european, i ncepe marile opere,
este chemat de ctre Academia de la Berlin n 1714 i ales
membru, pentru ca, revenind n principat, istovit de ctre
boal (diabet), se retrage la moia sa i moare n 1723, lsnd
n urm ceea ce putem denumi una dintre cele mai vaste
izvoare istorice i nu numai din perioada veche.
Cu toate c s-au mplinit peste 300 de ani de cnd marele
iluminist Dimitrie Cantemir a realizat-o, opera lui rmne un
reper important n dezvoltarea ulterioar a literaturii,
definindu-se ca o prim form de manifestare a ficionalului
sau, mai bine spus, o cale mai evoluat de enunare unor
ntmplri la care autorul a fost, ntr-o msur, contemporan.
Cunoscut mai nti de englezi i aprut oficial n spaiul
romnesc n secolul al XIX-lea, Istoria ieoglific -
Hieroglyphica (propter occultata nomina, ita dicta) quibus
continetur historia domestic idiomate moldavo (Hieroglificele
(numite astfel pentru c numele au fost ascunse), care
cuprinde istoria faptelor particulare, n limba moldav) este, n
termeni largi, o scriere alegoric ce studiaz, prin intermediul
faadelor animaliere, polemica intens dintre cele dou
elemente antagonice cu rol definitoriu n via politic a
Moldovei, respectiv rii Romneti n secolul al XVII-lea, mai
exact, cele dou familii boiereti, Cantemiretii i Brncovenii.
Lupta pentru putere capt astfel o valen cu totul nou, fiind
adus la o form simplificat, ns ntregit de o gama variat
de simboluri specifice nclinaiilor autorului, care, apropiat de
micarea umanist ce are loc n Polonia, anim via literar a
Moldovei, dnd natere unor opere semnificative, ntre care un
loc aparte l ocup Descriptio Moldavie, de altfel prima

94
monografie n adevratul sens al cuvntului cunoscut pn la
acest moment. ntreaga lucrare este construit sub taina
animalier pentru ca, la final, autorul s anexeze o scar
unde dezvluie numele istoric reale. Cititorul se confrunt
aadar cu nemulumirile autorului manifestate sub form
judecilor morale care inund toat opera, fiind forma
rudimentar a procedeului ce va defini, n urmtoarele secole,
aceast atitudine scriitoriceasc - mai simplu, ironia.
n acest sens, formarea sa n mediul cosmopolit al
Constantinopolului l mpinge pe autor s creeze o opera de
acest gen, separnd cele dou mari puteri boiereti n dou ri
- cea a dobitoacelor, sau a patrupedelor (sub numele de ara
Leului) i cea a psrilor (ara Vulturului).
Cartea este structurat n dousprezece subcapitole i este
caracterizat de mai multe nuclee narative. Prima parte
ilustreaz adunarea comun a boierilor moldoveni i munteni
(boierimea este reprezentat prin categoria animalelor
rumptoare, iar o alt clas a boierilor, cei mai de jos,
animalele de vnat), realizat cu scopul de a alege un succesor
dup destituirea din funcie a lui Constantin Duca, domnitorul
Moldovei. Constantin Brncoveanu, domnul muntean, i
impune candidatul, pe Mihai Racovi (Struocmil -
interesant aici procedeul de alturare a doi termeni aparinnd
celor dou ri, att pentru a sugera trdarea, ct i pentru a
ilustra, prin intermediul sonoritii comice, prostia ngmfat,
alias simplul instrument politic al vremii; dei moldovean de
origine, Racovi este o unealt a lui Brncoveanu, Corbul, n
dorina sa de obinere a puterii, adic un hibrid de proast
calitate; Lupul lmurete la rndul su: [...] jiganiia aceasta
dobitoc cu patru picioare nu ieste, pasire zburtoare nu ieste,
Cmilnu ieste, Stru aplos nu ieste, de aier nu ieste, de ap nu
ieste. De unde iari dzicem c cea adevrat a ei hotrre
aceasta poate fi: Strutocamila ieste traghelaful firii - cci ieste
la filosofi altul, al chitelii-, carile dintr-mbe monarhiile ieste, i

95
ieste i nu ieste. Ieste, dzic, cci adevrat ntre lucrurile firii
ciud ca aceasta s afl [...]). Cantemiretii riposteaz (printre
ei, hatmanul Lupu Bogdan), ambele pri susin discursuri i se
hotrte definitiv c Vidra, Constantin Duca, nu va fi niciodat
reprimit n funcie (Au nu tu odnoar prin fundul mrii
prinblndu-te i spre vnarea petelui i purindu-te, eu din faa
apei te oglindiiam? Ce poate fi csau nechemat ai vinit la
locul ce nu i s-au cdzut, sau, de te-au chemat cineva prin
greala netiinii aceasta s-au fcut. Cci Cinele Mrii i
Vidra cu jigniile uscatului ce treab sau ce amestec potavea ?
Au doar vii s dzici c din fire ae ieti tocmit, ca de pre
uscat fiind, putere s aibi prin mult vreme n ap,fr a
aierului trebuin a te zbvi spoi?). Intervin clasele sociale
dezavantajate, care i susin, la rndul lor, punctul de vedere.
Adunarea zmbete i sunt evideniate, dup cum menioneaz
i G. Clinescu, gradaiile comice, dublate de rsturnturi de
epitete. Naratorul introduce, la scurt timp, o nou serie de
personaje, ntre care se remarc Ilie Tifescu, din Moldova, i
Constantin Stolnicul Cantacuzino, iar n partea a doua a operei
Brncoveanu ctig o bun parte din opinia public prezent
prin daruri, promisiuni i chiar anumite ameninri, astfel c, n
final, Racovi este ales domn. Partea a treia i ilustreaz pe
aceeai boieri moldoveni i munteni, aflai acum n drum spre
Adrianopol, pentru a dobndi recunoaterea noului domn de
ctre Poart. Se adreseaz, n prima faz, Camilopardului, adic
lui Alexandru Mavrocordat, figur de mare interes a vremii care
putea influena puternic decizia otomanilor (mpria
Petilor). Pe cale alegoric, naratorul nfieaz n aceast parte
lcomia de care turcii dau dovad i care este, de altfel,
definitorie n cadrul alegerilor pe care acetia le fac sub
autoritatea de for conductoare a Principatelor. nelesul de
baz al acestui portret este atent subliniat - se face referire la
efemeritatea ntregului Imperiu, care-i va gsi curnd sfritul
tocmai datorit modului corupt de exercitare a puterii. Boierii

96
sunt astfel nevoii s l plteasc pe Mavrocordat i, indirect, pe
demnitarii turci, obinndu-se confirmarea funciei lui Racovi
i avnd loc o audiere, unde se remarc Marco-baizade, un
pretendent la tron, care enun chiar c este un descendent al
lui Matei Basarab. Partea a patra, ultima de altfel, ilustreaz
rscoala otoman de la 1703, n cadrul creia sultanul este
detronat, iar ntreaga micare ntrzie ntoarcerea n ar a lui
Racovi i i ofer lui Antioh Cantemir oportunitatea de a-i
obine domnia, soldat ns cu un eec. Racovi ajunge n ar
i i exercit atribuiile, devenind unealt de baza a marilor
boieri care sectuiesc de orice resurse ranii simpli, ntr-un
ntreg manifest al corupiei la nivel nalt - se poate observa aici
capacitatea autorului de a sublinia un fapt des ntlnit, mai
exact atribuirea puterii politice, arbitrar, unei marionete,
capului fr crieri. Cantemir ncearc s restabileasc
dreptatea, ns riposta dumanilor i anihileaz ansele, pentru
ca, n final, rnimea (mutele) s organizeze o rscoal de
mari proporii (le mnnc bucatele n timpul unui festin -
Corbul i Struocmil l bnuiesc pe Inorog i uneltesc cu
mpratul Petilor contra lui; Cameleonul l prinde pe Inorog i-
1 pred Crocodililor, adic demnitarilor turci corupi); se
restabilete astfel, parial, balana, n numele dreptii care
nvinge n orice circumstane.
Dup cum menioneaz nc de la nceput - de betejirea
inimilor foarte ferindu-ne, dezvluind, le acoperim, i
acoperindu-le, le dezvluim - procesul alegoriei este voit
reversibil i, involuntar, ofer cea mai clar descriere a
personajelor att timp ct recunoaterea acestora n ciuda noii
forme se face n mod corect. Esena caracterului, adic
principala component a portretului moral, poate fi astfel
analizat fr nicio barier, fr a sfida deci vreun canon, tocmai
datorit transformrii entitii istorice n personaj literar.
La aceasta se adaug i intervenia naratorului, povestitor
pseudo-obiectiv care i manifest uneori dispreul i

97
dezacordul, trdndu-i poziia iniial fa de aciune: O,
Doamne i toi ceretii, lucru ca acesta cum i n ce chip a-l
suferi ai putut? Unde ieste cumpna ceriului cu care tragei
i aedzai fundul pmntului? O, dreptate sfnt, pune-ti
ndreptariul i vedzi strmbe i crjobelucrurile norocului,
ghibul, gtul, flocospieptul, botioase genunchele, ctlige
picioarele, dinoas flcile, ciute urechile, puchinoi ochii,
sucii muchii, ntinsevinele, lboase copitele Cmilei,
cusuleget trupul, cu alb pielia, cu negri i mngioi ochii,
cu supiri degeelele, cu roioare unghioarele, cu molcelue
vinioarele, cu iscusit mijlocelul i curtungior grmgiorul
Helgii, ce potrivire, ce asmnare i ce alturare are?
Naratorul se folosete, de asemenea, de procedee
compoziionale precum tehnica amnuntului descriptiv n
momentul n care realizeaz peisajul dominat de ctre Nil,
ntr-o parte a operei n care Cmila (prescurtare - Mihai
Racovi) trebuie s mearg la sultan s capete firmanul,
avnd o cltorie fabuloas ntr-un tablou exotic: cu vrvurile
munilor de-a tocma cmpul despre apus n lat i n lung s
ntindea, prin mijlocul a cruia apa Nilului, din izvoarle de
unde ieiia, spre blile ce-l sprejiniia lin i frumos curea. Iar
pre esurile cmpului aceluia, i preo parte i pre alt parte
de ap, atta cmpul cu otav nverdziia, ct ochilor preste
tot, tot o tabl de zmaragd meree afi s prea, n carile tot
chipul de flori din fire rzsrite, ca cum cu mna n grdin,
pre rnd i pre socoteal, ar fi sdite, cuvios s mprtiia, i
cnd zepfirul,vntul despre apus, aburiia, tot feliul de bun i
dulce mirosal de pre flori scorniia [...]
Procedeele stilistice se remarc n mod evident -
simbolului i alegoriei li se adaug, la scurt timp, existena
unui fir epic atent structurat, a unei construcii a textului care
are grij s dezvluie cantitatea perfect de informaie la
momentul oportun, integrarea acesteia ntr-o sfer spaial i

98
temporal bine definit, formarea rudimentar a momentelor
subiectului, punndu-se accent pe punctul culminant, variaia
modalitilor de compunere a ntregii opere, existnd n mod
evident o trecere clar de la naraiune la descriere amd.
Dovezile i spun cuvntul i enun faptul c opera este net
superioar clasicelor letopisee, anale, sau, n genere, orice
modalitate de enunare a istoriei pn n punctul respectiv.
Istoria ieroglific poate fi considerat un roman, sau cel
puin o form simplificat a romanului, care abund n dovezi
ale condeiului. Clinescu l compar de altfel pe Cantemir cu
Ion Creang - are limbuia lui Creang n debitarea zictorilor
populare, adugnd c exist o nespus de inteligent tratare
cult a metaforei rneti, premergnd lui Eminescu.
Cantemir posed un amplu talent, are simul oratoriei, iar
o parte din scrierile lui au o ritmicitate, o caden specific
popular: Eu m-am vechit, m-am vetedzit i ca florile de
brum m-am ovilit. Soarele m-au lovit, cldura m-au plit,
vnturile m-au negrit, drumurile m-au ostenit, dzilele m-au
vechit, aii m-au mbtrnit, nopile m-au schimosit i, dect
toate mai cumplit, norocul m-au urisit i din draostele tale
m-au izonit[...]. Fiecare fraz are, n sine, melodia proprie.
n multitudinea de figuri animaliere, autorul ine s se
remarce, lund fa Inorogului, personaj excepional, fabulos,
simbolul omului superior, neneles de societatea mediocr,
dorit i deci urmrit, ademenit, reuind s obin protecia
doar n ascunztoarea din vrful muntelui, inaccesibil
oricrui duman. El este vnat de ctre ceata animalier,
strnit de ctre Corb (Brncoveanu). Situarea Inorogului pe
cel mai nalt nivel n cadrul romanului i permite lui Cantemir
s se elibereze de orice presiune social de care sufer n via
real, unde se poate face observat o anumit frustrare n
raport cu viaa social i politic din acea perioada. Implicarea
i deci afectivitatea contribuie la formarea, ntr-un anume
sens, a unor inserii de natur memorialistic, o subiectivitate

99
ridicat n unele episoade care susine natur special a
ntregii opere - cu toate c include experien personal,
legtura cu realitatea este puternic mascat att de cadrul
fabulos, ct mai ales de cursul aciunilor desemnat de ctre
personaje. Astfel, dei cititorul se confrunt cu o denaturare
a planului real, care n cele mai multe dintre cazuri apare sub
echivalena denigrrii statutului social al oricrui personaj,
Inorogul-Cantemir este mult superior celorlali participani la
aciune, n comparaie cu raporturile dintre adevratul
Dimitrie Cantemir i autohtonul, contemporanul. Acesta este,
de altfel, paradoxul operei, nfind puterea creatoare a
cuvntului c for revelatoare, care are puterea s evolueze, s
metamorfozeze n sens pozitiv orice form de via i nu
numai. Inorogul nu-i gsete un competitor ndeajuns de abil
nct s ncerce mcar s-i egaleze for fizic i/sau
intelectual (acesta antreneaz Soarele, Calea Lactee,
Galateea). Drama lui st sub semnul diferenei clare a
componentei morale dintre el i majoritatea personajelor
participante la aciune, iar destinul su are, ntr-un sens, un
neles tragic - Toate puterile i s-au curmat, toi prietinii l-au
lsat, n lantuje nedezlegate l-au legat, toat greutatea
nepriietinului n opreala Inorogului au statut. Iar de acmu,
n ceriu s zboare, n-a scap, o mie de capete de ar avea,
iarb n-a mai mnca. Cu toate acestea, conexiunea sa
indestructibil cu natura i permite s dezlnuie o serie de
fore nebnuite, la care competitorii lui nu au acces i care
depesc cu mult sfera conceptual a realitii palpabile,
cunoscute.
Inspirndu-se, dup cum i recunoate, din Aethiopica
lui Heliodor sau Teagen i Haricleea (N. Cartojan - Istoria
literaturii romne vechi), Dimitrie Cantemir reuete, prin
intermediul operei sale, ntr-o atent manier baroc, s aduc
n planul literaturii romne vechi o lucrare eterogen
coninnd elemente diverse, de la influene religioase la

100
pamflet, de la comic de limbaj la simbol, de la experien
personal la puterea desvrit a imaginaiei, de la personaje
inspirate din realitate i mascate de alegorie la ntmplri care
i gsesc uor un omolog, de la tehnici narative la ncercri
compoziionale noi, de la fraze lungi, cu topica latineasc la un
ritm, paradoxal, relativ antrenant al romanului. n acest sens,
contribuia autorului este evident i invit, la scurt timp, ali
autori s i manifeste talentul scriitoricesc pe acest teren
compoziional nou, neutru, pentru ca, n final, literatur
romn s dobndeasc structura pe care o cunoatem noi, n
prezent. Cantemir este un iluminist n adevratul sens al
cuvntului, profitnd de evoluia societii contemporane
occidentale pentru a introduce n mediul autohton modelele
strine, a revoluiona stilul romnesc i a impune un set nou
de valori. n aceasta const, de fapt, condeiul i nivelul ridicat
al intelectualitii autorului, o cultur ntins pe mai multe
domenii i atent structurat astfel c, de-a lungul vieii,
Cantemir realizeaz o ntreag gam de lucrri care i-au lsat
amprenta asupra istoriografiei romneti. Reproducerea leit a
faptelor istorice este combtut, aadar, de manifestul
imaginativ, care apare ca atributul de baza al inteligenei unui
autor deschis ctre nou.
De adugat aici ar fi ncheierea capitolului adresat operei
Istoria ieroglific realizat de ctre Clinescu, enun care
nglobeaz ntregul spirit al marelui crturar: Voievod
luminat, ambiios i blazat, om de lume i ascet de bibliotec,
intrigant i solitar, mnuitor de oameni i mizantrop, iubitor de
Moldova lui dup care tnjete i aventurier, cntre n
tambur rigrdean, academician berlinez, prin rus, cronicar
romn, cunosctor al tuturor plcerilor pe care le poate da
lumea, [...] Lorenzo de Medici al nostru.

101
THE HIEROGLYPHIC HISTORY ONE OF THE
FIRST ALLEGORIC NOVELS IN ROMANIAN
LITERATURE

Teodorescu Bianca,
Colegiul Naional Sfntul Sava,
Profesor ndrumtor: Iulia Pop

Dimitrie Cantemir was born on October 26, 1973 in a


community where the access to culture wasnt always ensured
even for the leaders or for people with influence among their
peers. He was the last born in his well-established family and,
to avoid the same branding (the Costin family called him a
moron) his father decided to give to his education the utmost
importance from the very beginning. In this respect, Ieremia
Cacavela the priest is summoned from Muntenia and thus
began the future successor to the thrones initiation into the
secrets of philosophy, literature along with Greek and Latin
which were the foreign languages most in-use at the time.
Around the year 1688, he is sent to Constantinople (which
was under Turkish rule) to replace his brother Antioh.
However, this did not hamper his studies in any way and he
returned upon his fathers death to become the ruler of the
country. His unusual life allowed him to constantly widen his
cultural horizon, to accrue knowledge in a plethora of diverse
fields which in turn, led to him constructing his political ethos
based on foreign role models. He lived surrounded by Turkish
scholars and later on in life he focused his efforts on the
Christian side of the medieval world, befriending the

102
Phanariotes and of course, any great teacher of any of the old
or new sciences.
Towards the end of his life he is fully integrated in
European cultural life, he starts begins his great works, he is
summoned to the Berlin Academy in 1714 where he is elected
member and after he returns to the principality, weary from
disease (diabetes), he retires to his estate and dies in 1723
leaving behind what could be considered one of the vastest
historical sources from his time.
Even though 300 years have passed since the great age of
Enlightenment scholar Dimitrie Cantemir created it, the above
mentioned body of work remains an important cornerstone in the
subsequent development of literature, distinguishing itself as an
early form of fiction or, to put it better, a more evolved way of
describing events that were contemporary with the author.
Initially known in England and appearing officially in the
Romanian cultural environment in the 19th century, Istoria
ieoglifica - Hieroglyphica (propter occultata nomina, ita dicta)
quibus continetur historia domestic idiomate moldavo,
meaning: Hieroglyphs (thusly called because the names have
been obscured), which encompasses the history of particular
facts, in the Moldavian language, is in broad terms and
allegorical piece of written work which studies, through the
animal symbolism, the intense polemic between the two
antagonizing elements that had a definitive role in Moldovian
and Wallachian (ara Romneasc) political life during the 17th
century the two boyar families Cantemir and Brncoveanu.
The struggle for power takes on a new guise, being simplified
but having added a whole range of symbols specific to the
author, which was in tune with the humanist movement in
Poland, lives up the Moldavian literary life, giving rise to a
significant body of work between which a special place is held by
Descriptio Moldavi, which is actually the first monograph in
the true sense of the word. The whole body of work is done

103
using animal symbolism only for the author to annex a table at
the end where he reveals the real life counterparts. The reader is
thus confronted with the author's dissatisfactions manifested as
moral judgments which are abundant throughout the whole
text, this being a rudimentary form of what will, during the next
centuries, be defined as irony.
To that effect, his early education in the cosmopolitan
environment of Constantinople, spurs the author on to create a
body of work of this kind, separating the two great boyar
powers in two countries, the four-legged country (the Lions
country) and the bird country (the Eagles country).
The book is split into twelve sub-chapters and is
characterized by several narrative nuclei. The first part
illustrates the gathering of Moldovan and Muntenian boyars
(the boyar nobility is represented by the romptoare animals
and the lower nobility is represented by hunting animals), with
the purpose of choosing an heir after Constantin Duca the
ruller of Moldova was deposed. Constantin Brncoveanu, the
Muntenian leader sends forth his candidate, Mihai Racovi
(Struocmila which is roughly translated to ostrich-camel. It
is interesting to note the way the two terms belong to the two
countries were used to suggest the treason but also through the
sheer silliness of the combination of the two terms, to suggest
the fact that the candidate is rather stupid and merely a
political instrument of Brncoveanu who is represented by a
raven and is used in a power grab but is in actual fact just an
inadequate hybrid; the wolf makes this obvious with the
following: [...] jiganiia aceasta dobitoc cu patru picioare nu
ieste, pasire zburtoare nu ieste, Cmil nu ieste, Stru aplos
nu ieste, de aier nu ieste, de ap nu ieste. De unde iari
dzicem c cea adevrat a ei hotrre aceasta poate fi:
Struocmila ieste traghelaful firii - cci ieste la filosofi altul, al
chitelii-, carile dintr-mbe monarhiile ieste, i ieste i nu ieste.
Ieste, dzic, cciadevrat ntre lucrurile firii ciud ca aceasta s

104
afl [...] neither a four legged beast nor a flying bird the
ostrich-camel is. Thus we say again that the only taken
decision can be that the ostrichcamel is the deer-goat (from
Greek tragelaphos) of nature. It is between the two kingdoms
and yet it belongs to neither. I say that it is in spite of nature
that it exists at all.). The Cantemir family replied (among them
the hatman Lupu Bogdan), both sides make speeches and it is
decided that the otter Constantin Duca, shall never be
reinstated (Au nu tu odnoar prin fundul mrii
prinblndu-te i spre vnarea petelui i purindu-te, eu din
faa apei te oglindiiam? Ce poate fi csau nechemat ai vinit
la locul ce nu i s-au cdzut, sau, de te-au chemat cineva prin
greala netiinii aceasta s-au fcut. Cci Cinele Mrii i
Vidra cu jigniile uscatului ce treab sau ce amestec pot
avea? Au doar vii s dzici c din fire ae ieti tocmit, ca de
pre uscat fiind, putere s aibi prin mult vreme n ap, fr a
aierului trebuin a te zbvi spoi? Werent you that not
long ago was on the bottom of the sea hunting fish and I would
look at you through the water? What else could have happened
but you to have been called where you didnt belong or were
summoned by ignorace. Because the dog of the sea and the
otter have nothing in common with the beasts of land. You can
only say that you were made that way and that being on land
you have power through spending much time in water without
the need of air). The educated classes intervene and submit
their point of view on the matter. The assembly smiles and, as
G. Clinescu points out, the comical degrees are evident,
doubled by epithets. The narrator then introduces new
characters, of which Ilie Tifescu from Moldova and Constantin
Stolnicul Cantacuzino stand out and, in the second part of the
text, Brncoveanu wins the public favor by a series of gifts,
promises and outright threats, thus in the end Racovi is
elected Prince ruler.

105
The third part of the text shows us the same Moldavian
and Wallachian boyars in their way to Adrianopole to gain
recognition for their new ruler from the High Porte. Initially
they speak to the camel-leopard, which is in fact Alexandru
Mavrocordat, a very interesting character of the time that held
considerable sway over the ottoman decision (which was the
Empire of Fish). Allegorically, the narrator illustrates Turkish
greed which is definitive in regard to the choices they made as
ruling force over the principalities. The main idea of this
portrayal is carefully outlined the ephemeral nature of the
Empire is made clear and the reason put forth for this, is the
corrupt way in which the Empire exercises its power. The
boyars are forced to bribe Mavrocordat and, indirectly the
Turkish dignitaries, thus obtaining confirmation for the newly
elected ruler and a hearing where Marco-baizade a candidate
for the throne, stands out as he even states that he is a
descendent of Matei Basarab.
The fourth and final part, depicts the ottoman uprising of
1703 because of which the Sultan is deposed and which also
delays the return of Racovi and gives Antioch Cantemir the
opportunity to make a bid for the throne however this attempt
ends in failure. Racovi returns to the country and exercises
his prerogatives and in the process becomes a mere tool for the
great boyars which drain the peasantry of all resources in a
display of high level corruption one can clearly see the
authors ability to underline a common occurrence which is the
arbitrary acquisition of power by a political puppet, capului
fr crieri brainless.
Cantemir makes a bid to re-establish justice but the
counter his adversaries throw at him anihilates any chance of
that, in the end the peasantry (the flies) organise a massive
uprising (they eat their food during a feast the crow and the
ostrich-camel suspect the unicorn and conspires with the Fish
Emperor against him, the camelon aprihends the unicord and

106
runs him over to the crocodiles which are the corrupt turkish
dignitaries) and thusly they achieve partial balance for justice
which triumphs under any circumstances.
As is mentioned from the very begining de betejirea
inimilor foarte ferindu-ne, dezvluind, le acoperim, i
acoperindu-le, le dezvluim to keep our hearts safe, we
uncover covering and we cover uncovering the allegoric
process is willingly reversable and involuntary and offers the
best description of character as long as they are correctly
identified. The esence of character, which is the main
component of a moral portrait, can thus be analized without
any barriers, without offending any canons specifically because
the historical entity is transformed into a character.
The authors pseudo-objective interventions sometimes
betray his contempt and dissent towards the action portrayed:
O, Doamne i toi ceretii, lucru ca acesta cum i n ce chip
a-l suferi ai putut? Unde ieste cumpna ceriului cu care
tragei i aedzai fundul pmntului? O, dreptate sfnt,
pune-ti ndreptariul i vedzi strmbe i crjobelucrurile
norocului, ghibul, gtul, flocospieptul, boioase genunchele,
ctligepicioarele, dinoas flcile, ciute urechile, puchinoi
ochii, sucii muchii, ntinsevinele, lboase copitele Cmilei,
cusuleget trupul, cu alb pielia, cu negri i mngioi ochii,
cu supiri degeelele, cu roioare unghioarele, cu molcelue
vinioarele, cu iscusit mijlocelul i curtungior grmgiorul
Helgii, ce potrivire,ce asmnare i ce alturare are? Oh
God and all the heavens how could you endure such a thing?
Where is heavens careful consideration under which you set
all things on earth? Oh holy justice, use your compass and see
the crooked luck, the wooly neck, the chest, the knees, the ugly
feet, the toothy jaws, the raised ears, the beedy eyes, the
twisted muscles, the strung veins and ungainly hooves of the
Camel and what do they have in common with the frail body,

107
the white skin, the dark and comforting eyes, the thin fingers,
red nails, the delicate veins, the tiny waste of Helga?.
The narrator also uses compositional procedures like the
descriptive detail technique when he portrays the Nile
landscape when the Camel (Mihai Racovi) has to cross when
going to the sultan to receive the firman, which turns out to be
a fabulous journey through an exotic land: cu vrvurile
munilor de-a tocma cmpul despre apus n lat i n lung s
ntindea, prin mijlocul a cruia apa Nilului, din izvoarle de
unde ieiia, spre blile ce-l sprejiniia lin i frumos curea. Iar
pre esurile cmpului aceluia, i preo parte i pre alt parte
de ap, atta cmpul cu otav nverdziia, ct ochilor preste
tot, tot o tabl de zmaragd meree afi s prea, n carile tot
chipul de flori dinfire rzsrite, ca cum cu mna n grdin,
pre rnd i pre so coteal, ar fi sdite, cuvios s mprtiia, i
cnd zepfirul, vntul despre apus, aburiia, tot feliul de bun i
dulce mirosal de pre flori scorniia [...] with mountain tops
across, the field towards the twilight through the middle of
which the Niles waters flowed like a belt from the spings
whence it came, towards the lakes that cradeled it gently and
beautifully. And towards the plains lowlands the water made
everything green as far as the eyes could see and it looked like
a sea of emerald in which all tipes of flowers sprung up as if
they had been carefully planted and when the Zephyr blew
from the west one could smell all kinds of flower perfums.
The stylistic techniques are evident a carefully
structured epic narrative to the symbolism and allegory and a
careful textual construction which always reveals the perfect
amount of information and the right time and integrating
everything in a well-defined spacio-temporal sphere, the
rudimentary forming of plot points, accentuating the climax,
the variation of ways of composing the entire work and the
obvious clear transition from narration to description etc. The
overwhelming evidence leads one to categorically state that the

108
present body of work is superior to all contemporary works
(the so called letopisee, historical annals) or in general any
other way of describing history up to that point. The
Hieroglyphic History can be considered to be a novel or at the
very least a simplified early version of the novel that is
abundant in written testimony.
Clinescu compares Cantemir to Ion Creang he has
Creangs verbosity when it comes to reciting folk sayings also
adding that there is an incredibly intelligent way in which he
handles the peasant metaphor preceding Eminescu.
Cantemir has considerable talent and is a gifted orator
and a part of his work have a specific folkloric rhythm: Eu
m-am vechit, m-am vetedzit i ca florile de brum m-am
ovilit. Soarele m-au lovit, cldura m-au plit, vnturile m-au
negrit, drumurile m-au ostenit, dzilele m-au vechit, aii m-au
mbtrnit, nopile m-au schimosit i, dect toate mai
cumplit, norocul m-au urisit i din draostele tale m-au
izonit[...]- I have become old, I have withered along with the
flowers of frost. The sun and the heat struck me, the winds
blackened me, the roads made me tired, the days and years
made me old, the nights made me shrivel, and the worst of all,
luck has willed me out of your love.
Among the multitude of animal characters, the author
makes a special effort to point out the unicorn, exceptional
individual, fabulous, symbolic of a higher human,
misunderstood by the mediocre society, wanted and sought
after, that manages to find protection only in his hide-out on
top of the mountain which is inaccessible to any enemy. He is
hunted by the animal mob spurred on by the raven
(Brncoveanu). Establishing the unicorn on the highest level
allows Cantemir to dispense with any social pressures that
affect his real life, where a certain frustration can be observed
in regards to the social and political realities of the time.
Involvement and affection contribute in forming certain

109
passages of personal and evocative nature and betray a high
degree of subjectivity in areas that uphold the special nature of
the entire work even though it includes personal experience,
any links to reality are masked by the fantastic backdrop as
well as the course of action that the characters take. Thus, even
though the reader is confronted with a hijacking of the real
plan, which in most cases appears as a simple denigration of
the social status of any character, Cantemir the unicorn is
vastly superior to the other participants in the plot, in
comparison to the interactions between the real Dimitrie
Cantemir and the autochthonous and contemporary. This is in
fact the works paradox, revealing the creative force of the
written word which has the power to evolve and
metamorphosize in a positive sense any form of life and not
only that. The unicorn cant find a worthy adversary that could
match his intellectual and physical strength (he sets in motion
the sun, the Milky Way and Galateea). His Drama resides
under the mark of clear difference between his and all the
others moral component and his destiny has in a sense a tragic
outcome: Toate puterile i s-au curmat, toi prietinii l-au
lsat, n lantuje nedezlegate l-au legat, toat greutatea
nepriietinului n opreala Inorogului au statut. Iar de acmu,
n ceriu s zboare, n-a scap, o mie de capete de ar avea,
iarb n-a mai mnca. All his powers waned, all his friends
abandoned him, he was shackled in unbreakable chains, all of
enmitys hardships fell on him. And now, he couldnt escape
even if he could fly and he couldnt eat if he had a thousand
heads. Despite all of this, his unbreakable bond with nature
allows him to unleash unsuspected forces to which his
adversaries do not have access and that far exceed the
conceptual sphere of the palpable and known reality.
Drawing inspiration, by his own admission from
Heliodors Aethiopica or Teagen and Haricleea (N. Cartojan
Istoria literaturii romne vechi), Dimitrie Cantemir

110
manages, through the medium of his work, in a careful
baroque manner to bring to the forefront of old Romanian
literature a heterogeneous body of work, containing diverse
elements, ranging from linguistic and symbolism humor, from
personal experience to the power of imagination, from
characters inspired by real individuals and masked by allegory
to events that have an obvious counterpart, from narrative
techniques to compositional innovations, from long phrases of
Latin construction to a paradoxical and relatively engaging
rhythm of the novel. To that effect, the authors contribution is
evident and shortly spurs other authors to manifest their
writing talent in the same neutral compositional tone. His
influence on Romanian literature led to what we know today.
Cantemir belongs to the age of enlightenment in the true
sense of the word, who took advantage of the evolution of
western contemporary society to introduce foreign role models
to the autochthonous scene, to revolutionize the Romanian
style and to impose a new set of values. This is the true worth
of the authors intellect, throughout his life he created a vast
array of works that have made their mark on Romanian
historiography. The faithful reproduction of historical facts is
disputed by the manifestations of imaginations, which appears
as the main attribute for the authors openness to the new.
Worth mentioning here the final words from G.
Clinescus chapter pertaining the body of work The
Hieroglyphic History which encompasses the great man of
letters entire ethos: Enlightened voivode, ambitious and
jaded, man of the world and library ascetic, intriguing and
solitary, ruler of men and misanthrope, fond of his Moldavia,
after which he yearns and adventurous, tambour player,
inhabitant of arigrad, academician of Berlin, Russian prince,
Romanian chronicler, familiar with all the pleasures in the
world, [] our Lorenzo de Medici.

111
It is a laborious work of art, with hermetic hieroglyphs
which the author attempts to explain in a glossary. This writing
is very difficult to be classified as a literary genre, to all
appearances being a pamphlet-novel which combines the
narrative, the fable and the fairytale.
His entire creation dubs Dimitrie Cantemir The 18th
century man, the one who, long before the particularities of a
people of mixed Roman and Dacian descent were ascertained,
brings irrefutable history-based arguments concerning the
Romanian presence, the origins of the Romanian people, and
thus rounding off the idea of Roman origin uttered by his
predecessors, the foundation myth.
A profoundly gifted spirit, symbolically entwining the
Romanian peoples historic-cultural side with the mythical-
archaic one, he tries with all means available to prove that the
Southeastern European space, and particularly his country, is
an integral part of Europe, infused with European essence and
at the same time, a source of it.
As an encyclopedic spirit, Cantemir commands respect
through his advanced thinking, his enormously valuable opus,
written in a scholastic style which grants it an exclusive place
in the history of the Romanian culture.
In his Pages on the Romanian Soul, Constantin Noica
said that studying Cantemir means re-constructing the shape
of the scientific Europe at the beginning of the 18th century.
He also added: Cantemir will define Romanian thought and,
in turn, it will pledge for Cantemir.
His encounters with the East and the West were beneficial
in the sense that they allowed the Romanian culture to identify
itself within the two great cultures. Thus he managed to
become a spearhead of Romanian culture, an educator of the
Romanians, bringing them universality, with love, passion,
devotion, wisdom, work.

112
Cantemir is the first to feel, in front of the Universe, history
and the future that he is the voice of all Romanians, upon him is
the glory of having first shaped the idea of unity, when he wrote
Chronicle of the Romanians-Moldovians-Wallachians.
Although he spent a lot of time away from his native lands, the
scholar was profoundly knowledgeable of the Romanian
language, the Romanian culture of his time and before. His
greatest achievement was, undoubtedly, the unique way in
which he turned the Romanian peoples face to the future.
The one who now rests in Iai, inside the Trei Ierarhi
Church, was the one whose work captured the Romanian
people, our culture, our history, his ideas and writings being
the most obvious document about the self-consciousness of the
Romanian people country-wide.
Cantemirs genius made him understand that, beyond the
shared heritage of the universal culture, thorough
apperception and the study of its cultural message had to be
placed in a template of our national culture.
Prior to becoming universal, any spirit is first national,
insomuch as, once universal, the same spirit always returns to
its origins and each time it does so to become complete again.
Nicolae Iorga wisely concluded in his work History of
Romanian Literature: Thus, the son of the Moldavian prince
lived in an environment which permitted him and him only in
this entire era in both the East and the West to possess
knowledge of all literatures and cultural forms from Greek and
Latin antiquity to Oriental, Turkish, Arab and Persian culture.
Nevertheless, his spirit is not crushed under this rich
knowledge; he was able to carry it on his shoulders: a soldier
laden with heavy weapons, he was still capable of an assault on
any target and so, his Moldavian singular spirit, his
unquenchable vigour engendered in him the confidence to
approach and the strength to conquer all topics.

113
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, ERUDITUL,
MORALISTUL, EDUCATORUL

Vian-Miu R. Tudor,
Colegiul Naional Gheorghe Lazr,
Profesor ndrumtor: Dumitria Stoica

Dimitrie Cantemir poate fi considerat cea mai


strlucitoare i mai uimitoare personalitate a culturii romne
medievale (Ion Verde), avnd o fascinant de bogat activitate
n foarte multe domenii culturale (istorie, geografie, filosofie,
etnografie, muzic etc.), la care a adus numeroase contribuii
deosebit de importante: este autorul primei lucrri filosofice
romneti Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu lumea sau
giudeul sufletului cu trupul (1698); a elaborat cea mai bun
hart geografic a Moldovei pn n ultimele decenii ale
secolului al XVIII-lea - n Descriptio Moldaviae (1716); este
primul mare intelectual romn de tip european specialist n
probleme orientale (Nicolae Iorga), a elaborat primul sistem
de notaie muzical al muzicii otomane etc. Un erudit de
faim european1 [....], un fel de Lorenzo de Medici al nostru
(George Clinescu), Dimitrie Cantemir a fost domnitor al
Moldovei (1710-1711), primul romn membru al Academiei de
tiine din Berlin (1714) i consilier intim al arului, apoi din
1721 - mpratului Rusiei, Piotr Alexievici Romanov (1682-

1 Despre erudiia lui Cantemir amintete, printre alii, ambasadorul


Poloniei la Iai, Rafael Leszczyski, care, n 1699, l descrie astfel: un brbat
erudit n limba latin i cu educaie aleas, ca i cum ar fi fost educat n
Polonia, cu care se poate discuta despre datoriile prieteniei apud Virgil
Cndea, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii la istoria umanismului
romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia, pp.280-281, citnd (n nota 137) din P.P.
Panaitescu, (1930), Cltori poloni n rile Romne, p.115.

114
1725), fiind investit de acesta drept Principe Serenissim al
Rusiei (1711).

Din nenumratele sale merite, unul important (mai puin


evident) este unul lingvistic, Cantemir avnd un rol important
n structurarea limbii romne. Dei stilul su este greoi
datorit topicii inversate, cercettorul Drago Moldovanu arat
c dislocrile din text sunt actualizri sintactice ale funciei
unui procedeu retoric greco-latin (numit hiperbat n grecete
i verbi transgressio n limba latin), realizate n condiii
analoge cu adaptrile din celelalte literaturi care au suferit
influena retoricii clasice2. Astfel, limba literar folosit de
Cantemir, departe de a fi neromneasc ori schimonisit,
prezint toate graiile unei fraze de crturar (George
Clinescu) i poate fi considerat un moment de tranziie ntre
cuvntul domol, evocator al cronicarului Ion Neculce din
Letopiseul rii Moldovei, i nvolburatele experiene
lingvistice suferite de limba romn n epocile literare viitoare
- n special cea romantic.

n prezenta lucrare voi analiza trei texte fundamentale ale


operei lui Dimitrie Cantemir, urmrind cu precdere statutul
de educator al poporului pe care Dimitrie Cantemir i-l
obine prin scrierea i publicarea acestor lucrri:
Divanul...3 (1698/1699) este considerat prima
oper filosofic romneasc (Sexil Pucariu)4.

2 Drago Moldovanu, Influene ale manierismului greco-latin n


sintaxa lui Dimitrie Cantemir: hiperbatul, n culegerea Studii de limb
literar i filologie, vol. I, Bucureti, 1969 (pp.25-50), pp.46-48, apud Virgil
Cndea, Studiu introductiv - IV. Divanul - oper literar (pp.58-69),
p.62, n Cantemir, Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete I, ediie ngrijit, studiu
introductiv i comentarii de Virgil Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
3 Menionez c, pe lng ediia recomandat n bibliografie (din 1974,

mai jos citat), am avut la dispoziie i ediia din 1969, Ed. pentru Literatur,

115
Cartea, o confruntare nelept-Suflet-Microcosm i Lume-
Trup-Macrocosm, este compus din trei pri:
1. un dialog ntre lume i nelept (teza sau glceava);
2. un comentariu al neleptului (antiteza sau dovedirea
asupra lumii);
3. o conciliere ntre suflet i trup (sinteza sau legtura
pcii), n mare parte o traducere adaptat conform doctrinei
autorului a crii teologului Andrea Wissowatius, Stimuli
virtutum, fraena peccatorum, ut et alia eiusdem generis
opuscula posthuma (Amsterdam, 1682).

Cutnd s afle motivul pentru care Dimitrie Cantemir a


scris aceast carte, a crei alctuire poate prea ciudat n
raport cu formaia sa cultural, acad. Virgil Cndea consider
c Divanul se datoreaz dorinei de afirmare a autorului, un
om al culturii sud-est europene din pragul nnoirii sale,
care, adresndu-se cititorilor de-acas, dorea s-i ateste
calitile n romn i greac (cartea este bilingv): un
domn cretin, cu respectul tradiiilor ideologice dominante n
societatea vremii, iscusit n arta scrisului, erudit de la Biblie
la Sfinii Prini, pn la clasicii greci i romani sau nelepii
orientali, tiind c aceast cultur are o funcie social i
politic, care l-ar fi putut ajuta pentru o eventual accedere la
domnie. n acest sens, Divanul avea avantajul de a fi o
scriere original n domeniul eticii, care oferea ndoitul
avantaj al noutii i al neutralitii5.

ediie ngrijit i studiu introductiv de Virgil Cndea, care, n paralel cu


textul original, ofer i traducerea versiunii greceti, ntr-un text limpede i
modern, care poate ajuta la o mai bun nelegere a celui vechi.
4 Sextil Pucariu, Istoria literaturii romne, Cluj, 1929, p.170 apud

Istoria ieroglific, 1983, Ed. Minerva, vol. I, p.V.


5 Virgil Cndea, Studiu introductiv - II. Geneza Divanului (pp.24-

46), 1. Scopul autorului (pp.23-26), n Cantemir, Dimitrie, (1974), Opere

116
Dup cum observ acelai Virgil Cndea, o semnificativ
parte din text a fost inspirat din alte lucrri, ns, indiferent de
acest fapt, opera nsi reprezint n forma sa ultim o
creaie exclusiv a lui Cantemir, care a cules dup bunul
plac idei din lucrrile a diveri autori (pgni, catolici,
musulmani, eretici), conforme cu propria sa doctrin: Este
atitudinea obinuit a gnditorului umanist, bucuros c ideile
sale gsiser la ali autori o exprimare fericit, pe care o
adopt fr rezerve. Citatele sunt concomitent argumente
de autoritate, ornamente literare i dovad de erudiie6.
Divanul este prima scriere romneasc n care probleme
precum inexistena sufletului, a nemuririi sau a nvierii s fi fost
puse att de explicit (acad. Virgil Cndea), cu precdere prin
intermediul Lumii: de pild, citnd din Eclesiastul: cine au
vzdut duhul omului suindu-s n sus sau a dobitocului
coborndu-s n gios (Ecl, 3, 20-21), Lumea, sceptic i
ncreztoare doar n dovezile concrete, i spune neleptului c n
zadar ostenin i n deert nddje tragi. C macar pe aceasta
socotte: de vrme ce cineva n mine fiind i cu ale mle bunuri
slujindu-s i bine n-au vzduit ieind din mine (adec dup
moarte), ce bine va s mai gsasc sau ce fericire va s-l
mai tlniasc (s.m.)?. Totui, prin nelept, ctigtorul
confruntrii, se opteaz pentru credina n cretinism sens n
care capitolul 22 din Cartea a II-a este un fel de mrturisire de
credin: Isus Hristos Dumndzu i mntuitoriu, nedjdea i
scutirea noastr fu, carele mai denainte prin svinii si proroci
s-au artat. Pn mai pre urm dar, cle scrise prin proroci a
s plini vrmea sosind, singur s-au artat, de ficiorescul pntece
nescrndivindu-s, din Maria Ficioara i din Duhul Sfnt
omenesc trup lund i ntrupndu-s, ptimind i rstignindu-s

complete I, ediie ngrijit, studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil


Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
6 Virgil Cndea, loc.cit. 4. Elaborarea (pp.36-39).

117
i a treia dzi nviind [...], pre tot omenescul nrod, au din mori
sculat.
Dei soluia neleptului recomand atitudinea clasic a
moralei cretine [...] a raiunii ntregi i drepte, bine
orientat doctrinar, opus soluiei hedoniste a Lumii i
domnind pasiunile prin care (aceasta) caut s robeasc pe
om, Cantemir opteaz, asemenea lui Wissowatius, pentru
vieuirea virtuoas ci nu, precum autorii ortodoci canonici,
pentru viaa ascetic: nelepciunea iaste substanie, adec
postanovie, adec suptstare a tot lucrul cu cinste a face
sau dup cinstitele pravile a tri (s.m.); iaste driapt i
ornduit a sufletului ntritur; [...] iaste a omenescului
suflet sntate i acia (adec sntatea sufletului) cu mult
mai vrtoas dect a trupului (Cartea a III-a, cap.6).
Considernd c socotiala dreapt i ndreag pe greitoarea
poft s o stpneasc (Cartea a III-a, Pentru legtura pcii,
Pontul I: Cunoate-te pre tine), Cantemir se ncrede n
capacitatea raiunii de a domina pasiunile (Virgil Cndea)7.
Virtutea (nelepciunea) nu este valoroas doar prin sine, ci a
nelepciunii, a buntii rspltirea, cea prea de sus
prafericita via vcinic iaste (s.m.). Autorul rmne
n limitele unei ortodoxii formale [...] dar desprit de
idealurile eshatologice ale doctrinei tradiionale. Creznd n
compatibilitatea dintre ortodoxie i o anumit filosofie
exterioar a ei, autorul prezint o poziie laicizant,
asemenea umanitilor apuseni cu dou veacuri mai
devreme8.
Titlurile capitolelor transmit mesaje etico-morale de
natur cretin, precum criticile mpotriva poftelor lumeti
(pcatelor): 4. Cu a lumii frumse nu te amgi, deoarece

7 Virgil Cndea, Raiunea dominant...., p.183


8 Virgil Cndea, Opere complete I, loc.cit., III. Divanul Scriere
filosofic i etic (pp.46-58).

118
15. Dragostea frumselor multe stricciuni aduce; 59.
Poftele lumeti ca sirenele, pre om adormindu-l, l iniac;
81, Poftele lumeti, adec pcatele, viaa scurteaz; 68.
Spurcatele pofte nmulindu-s, pn nu pre urm n
prpastea oceanii te liapd; 43.... Bine iaste pcatul a nu-l
face; iar fcndu-l, nu-l tgdui, ce-l ndat mrturiste;
ndemnuri de a munci - 73. Nu celor lnei, ce celor ostenitori
daruri le d -, de a ntoarce binele 44.... n dar ai luat, n
dar s dai; de a fi modest 78. Cnd lumea te laud [...]
singur pre tine te ispitte; nice cu aceasta s te mndreti;
de asumare a statului biblic al omului de ncunurare a creaiei
dumnezeieti - 71. Nu rob, ce stpn lumii Dumndzu i-au
lsat; pentru aceasta tu pe dnsa, iar nu ea pe tine s te
stpneasc -, de ncredere n lumea spiritual - 68. Nu
clea ce trupul vde, ce clea ce sufletul privte, acelora
nedejdiuiate etc.;
n cuprinsul crii, autorul face o critic a lcomiei: 30.
Lacomul toi sraci a fi poftte: neagiungndu-i arinile,
poftte sate; nesturndu-s de sate, poftte trguri;
nendestulndu-s cu trgurile, poftte ceti i alalte. Pentru
c lcomia este rea, neleptul, citnd un pasaj din evanghelii
precum iaste cmilii greu prin urechile acului a ntra, nc mai
cu greu bogatului n [m]priia ceriului (Evanghelia dup
Matei, 19:24) -, recomand srac s fii.
n Cartea a III-a, autorul ofer cititorilor un ndemn de
cercetare a Bibliei: 38. Svinta Scriptur de cetit. Cuvntul lui
Dumndzu [...] cu dragoste i cu toat nevoina citte i
procitte sau rscitte. n acest sens i invit i c cerceteze
Psalmul 1, sh. 2, unde dzice: i n legea lui s va nva dzua
i noaptea. Totodat, ndeamn i la alte lecturi: 39. Alali
scriitori nc de citit prelesne iaste i foloste. Dup svintele
slove, ca printr-o plimbare a minii nnoire, i alte crticle a
citi nu stric, carile ca nite sufleteti nsntoire i alctuire
doftorii sunt, sub sfatul apostolului Pavel din Prima Epistol

119
ctre Tesaloniceni: Toate de ispitit i de cercetat, carile sunt
bune, aclea de inut (Thesal., Cartea 1 gl.5, sh.21) - adic
ncercndu-le pe toate, luai ce e bun. n mod concret,
recomand (folosesc titlul lor modern n.m.), din antici (din
pgni nu nevrdnici): De Officiis, Cicero; cteva lucrri ale
lui Seneca; Moralele lui Epictet; Sftuirea ctre Demonicos,
Isocrate; i, din teologi medievali (dintre cretini nu
puintei), Imitarea lui Hristos (De Imitatione Christi),
Thomas Kempis; Despre ostaul cretin (Enchiridion
militis Christiani), Erasmus din Rotterdam; i Morala
cretin (Ethica christiana), de Johannes Crellius Francus.
La finalul crii, autorul preia din cartea lui Wissowatius,
Stimuli virtutum, Cele zece porunci ale stoicilor, pe care n
mod implicit le recomand cititorilor: 1. Lui Dumndzu i
firii urmadz i lor supus s fii. 2. F fiecui bine prect poi i
nemrui s strici. 3. Aea te poart ctr altul precum ai vrea
ca i altul ctr tine s s poarte. 4. Toat nevoia, asupriala
carea i s face, suffere cu rbdare i ngduine. 5. Toate cle
mpotriv spre bine le socotte [...]; 6. Slujet-te cu cle
bune i lucrurile carile ntr-acest pmnt i sint date, ca cum
-ar fi cu mprumut date, i de la dnsele cu dragoste te
lipste cnd iari de la Dumndzu s cer nnapoi.
7. Aadze-i acea prea de sus a ta fericire n voe lin, carea s
nu-i fie ntr-ascunsul inimii tiutoare de ru. 8. Fii mai cu
de-adins n fapte nelept dect n cuvinte. 9. Gndte pururea
de moarte, dar de dnsa s nu te temi. 10. Odihnte-te i
ndestulit fii n dumdziasca ornduial, socotind ia a fi
preadriapt, preaneliapt i noa prealesne i macar de ni
s-ar prea noa prea aspr.
Citarea i chiar recomandarea operele unor pgni nu
nevrednici i ale stoicilor porunci zece ci nu doar a
autorilor cretini tradiionali - fac din Cantemir, dup cum
observ acad. Virgil Cndea, un autor modern pentru
vremea lui (s.m.). Fr s fi depit graniele gndirii

120
religioase, el tia s preuiasc, n afara ei, autoritatea
filosofilor laici ai antichitii i ai Renaterii [...]9.

Istoria Ieroglific (1705)10, roman medieval cu cheie,


este prima oper literar romneasc n deplinul neles al
cuvntului (N. Manolescu), i totodat ntia scriere care
cuprinde memorii, cu descrierea ampl a ntregii societi
contemporane (Sextil Pucariu)11.
Ieroglifele adic acele chipuri de pasiri, de dobitoace i
de alte jignii i lighioi cu carile vechii n loc de slove s slujiia
(el.) - ofer operei un caracter de generalitate12. Dup cum

9 Virgil Cndea, Raiunea dominant...., p.173


10 Menionez c am avut la dispoziie nu ediia indicat de organizatorii
concursului (Ed. Gramar, 2008, prefa de Dan Horia Maziliu), ci ediia din
1983 de la Ed. Minerva, ediie ngrijit, note i glosar de Ion Verde i P.P.
Panaitescu; prefa i tabel cronologic de Alexandru Duu (n.m. V.M.T.).
11 Sextil Pucariu, loc.cit.
12 Ieroglifele reprezint mai ales personaje, dar i spaii geografice sau

concepte. Majoritatea lor sunt tlmcite n cheia operei. Dintre spaiile


geografice, Moldova apare drept leu (mai tare i mai vrjma dect toate
jigniile cte pre faa pmntului), asociat cu pmntul, ara Romneasc
drept vultur (tuturor zburtoarelor mprat), asociat cu aerul, iar
Imperiul Otoman apare drept mpria petilor, asociat domeniului
acvatic. Dintre personaje, enumr cele mai cunoscute (astzi): inorogul
Dimitrie Cantemir; filul (elefantul) Antioh Cantemir; corbul
domnitorul muntean Constantin Brncoveanu (1688-1714); struocmila
Mihai Racovi, domnitor n Moldova (1703-1705, 1707-1709, 1716-1726) i
ara Romneasc (1730-1731, 1741-1744); brehnacea (acvil de munte)
stolnicul Constantin Cantacuzino; blbanul i uliul domnitorii munteni
erban Cantacuzino (1678-1688) i tefan Cantacuzino, paharnicul (1714-
1716); vidra domnitorul moldovean Constantin Duca (1693-1695; 1700-
1703); leopardul (pardosul) Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu, caimacam al
Moldovei (1807) etc. Ali Cantacuzini sunt Ilie (ma slbatic), Toma
postelnicul (oim), Mihai sptarul (cucuzon), Rducanu (coruiul), iar ali
Ruseteti sunt Scarlat (cameleonul) i Monalache (veveria). Sunt
reprezentate i personaje colective: patrupedele (jiganii) sunt moldovenii,
iar zburtoarele (paserile) muntenii; cini capuchehaie i subalternii

121
observa criticul literar George Clinescu, metoda de a travesti
observaia asupra oamenilor n figuraia zoologic e de o
tradiie strveche i durabil13. Totui, opera lui Cantemir nu
este o istorie secret, dup cum consider criticul literar
Nicolae Manolescu: S-a spus despre (Istoria ieroglific) c
este o istorie secret, uitndu-se c a fost tiprit ndat ce a
fost redactat, n 1705, aadar n timpul vieii autorului i
nainte ca el s fie, a doua oar, domn n Moldova, i, mai
ales c, chiar i fr scara de la urm furnizat de nsui
Cantemir, contemporanii puteau prea lesne recunoate
personajele reale ascunse sub mtile de psri i de animale.
Dac oamenii de pe atunci ar fi avut sensibilitatea noastr,
opera ar fi trebuit s provoace un uria scandal n ntreaga
Europ sud-estic. N-avem ns tire despre aa ceva. [...] mi
se pare mai normal s acceptm c nu din raiuni esoterice
i-a scris Cantemir povestea, ci din raiuni ludice. Toate
cifrurile, numerice sau de alt fel, nu sunt la el dect nite
jocuri de om cultivat i inteligent. Nu lipsete, desigur,
intenia pamfletar14.
Aciunea operei este complicat, fiind legat de
confruntarea politic dintre domnitorul muntean Constantin
Brncoveanu (1688-1714), corbul, aliat cu domnitorul
Moldovei Mihai Racovi (prima domnie: 1703-1705),
struocmila, i fraii Cantemir, Dimitrie (inorogul) i Antioh

lor; ogari clrai (curieri); cotei (cini mai mici) iscoade;


cprioara familia Caragea; mute slugi boiereti; viespi - mercenari.
Prin ieroglife sunt simbolizate i concepte precum cinstea numelui (finicul),
luarea domnii, adaogerea puterii (coarne a boului), agonisita dreapt
(hrana), binele i desftrile lumii (focul), puterea de a face bine i ru
(apa vie i apa moart).
13 George Clinescu, Istoria literaturii romne de la origini pn n

prezent, Ed. Minerva, 1982, Bucureti, p.38


14 Nicolae Manolescu, Istoria critic a literaturii romne, Ed. Minerva,

1990, volumul I, p.77

122
(filul), cu propriile lor pretenii la domnie15, ca fii ai fostului
domnitor moldovean Constantin Cantemir (1685-1693),
monocheroleopardalisul. Conflictul se ncheie cu mpcarea
temporar dintre corb i inorog i plata unei despgubiri din
partea primului, acest lucru fiind considerat o victorie de ctre
Cantemir n epilogul romanului: Corbul, n doa monarhiii s
stpneasc vrnd, supt cea pre an dare mai-micului su
s-au legat. Totui, naraiunea nu este elementul central al
romanului: Cantemir nu i propusese s rememoreze, spre
beneficiul posteritii, lupta meschin pentru un dram de
putere purtat de mini obtuze, aa cum nu valorificase
tezaurul rnesc de lirism i nelepciune n ntretierea
sufocant a unor dialoguri ncrcate de sofistic; autorul
reconsiderase o tradiie de gndire i sensibilitate
(s.m.), preschimbnd chipuri de contemporani, i schiase o
comedie uman care nu putea fi judecat prin raportare la
comedia lui Balzac. (Alexandru Duu, Istoria ieroglific...,
1983, vol. I, p. VI). Opera este o coliziune care a angajat
principii, argumente, idei acceptate i gndiri nnoitoare
(Alex. Duu).
Pe parcursul lucrrii, autorul a semnat 760 de sentenii,
putea-le-am dzice, cuvinte alese (care mpodobesc frumos
lucrarea) n toat cartea i le-a nscris ntre paranteze. Dac
cititorul dorete s urmreasc numai argumentele i

15 Dimitrie Cantemir a fost domn al Moldovei dou luni dup moartea

tatlui (martie aprilie 1693), ns nu a fost confirmat de nalta Poart, n


locul su suindu-se pe tron Constantin Duca (1693-1695; 1700-1703), vidra.
Antioh a devenit domn al Moldovei dup ce mazilirea lui Duca (1695-1700),
care a revenit, ns, mazilit din nou, a fost nlocuit prin decizia adunrii de la
Adrianopol cu Mihai Racovi (1703-1705), struocmila. Eventual, Antioh
obine mazilirea lui Racovi i obine tronul Moldovei (1705-1707). n
schimb, Dimitrie avea pretenii (nerealizate) de a accede la tronul rii
Romneti, n locul lui Brncoveanu. Eventual, a devenit domnul Moldovei
n 1710-1711.

123
evenimentele nu are dect s sar peste paranteze; dac va
dori mai mult, o oper n care fraza frumoas s se mbine cu
gndirea frumoas, nu va renuna la paranteze. Cititorul e
liber s aleag [....] (Alex. Duu, vol. cit, p.IX). Senteniile
au un rol educativ16, de popularizare a unor idei precum critica
mpotriva lcomiei (lcomia nici n hotrele gheometriceti
s oprete...) sau mpotriva dorinei de a obine putere (Eu
sunt un lucru mare i voiu s fiu i mai mare, afirm
struocmila Mihai Racovi), unele fiind ns de o mare
profunzime: de exemplu n aprarea Vidrei (Constantin
Duca) sunt folosite principii de drept: pedepsitului nu trebuie
a i s adaoge pedeapsa (principiul non bis in idem: o fapt nu
poate fi pedepsit de dou ori) i (este) mpotriva a legii
tuturor legilor, cu o mrturie numai senteniia vinovatului
cea de pedeaps a s da (nu se poate da o pedeaps pe baza
depoziiei unui singur martor); de geometrie: carile sunt tot
ntr-un chip ctr altul al triilea, tot ntr-un chip sunt ntre
sine (dou mrimi egale cu a treia sunt egale ntre ele); de
filosofie: doa fire ntr-un ipohimen neputnd sta (dou
naturi diferite nu pot avea o substan comun); de logic:
simperasma trebuie s urmege protaselor (concluzia
urmeaz premiselor). O idee deosebit de important este
faptul c nu poate exista constrngere pentru libertatea
gndirii i voinei: c spre nchisoarea i legarea trupului un
lanuh i o vart destule sunt, iar spre strnsoarea sufletului
i spre opreala voii slobode nici mii de mii de lanuri, nici

16 Valoarea educativ a maximelor a fost observat de omul politic i


scriitorul Winston Churchill: Este un lucru bun pentru un om needucat s
citeasc cri cu citate. [....]. ntiprite n memorie, aceste citate invit la
reflecii i ndeamn la aprofundarea lecturii. (It is a good thing for an
uneducated man to read books of quotations [...]. The quotations, when
engraved upon the memory, give you good thoughts. They also make you
anxious to read the authors and look for more, n My Early Life: A Roving
Commission, 1930, ch.9. Education at Bangalore).

124
dzci de mii de nchisori pot ceva face. Pe scurt: sufletul
filosof asupreal nu are17. Acordarea importanei ultime
pentru spirit, n pofida greutilor trupeti, este mai ales o tez
a moralei cretine, pe care i Dimitrie Cantemir o preia: ce
duhul, ct de srac i slobod, dect mpratul de poft robit
mai bogat ieste, i robul drept dect tiranul strmb mai tare
ieste, c cela n trup, iar cesta n suflet biruiete. Autorul
pledeaz pentru respectarea unei ordini transcedentale drepte
(poruncile dumnezeieti) dect a stpnirii imanente
nedrepte: voia dumndziasc dect porunca stpneasc
cu multul mai stranic a fi trebuie s cunoatem.
Pentru c mprumut termeni strini, autorul simte
nevoia s le tlmceasc: pentru ca de mprumutarea
cuvintelor streine cei mai nedeprini lovind, vreare-a ca ae
a le nlege i n dialectul strein s s deprindz (vol. cit,
p.6). Astfel, ntr-o scar a numerelor i cuvintelor streine
tlcuitoare, Cantemir ofer definiii simple pentru termeni
mprumutai cu precdere din latin i elin - dar i din alte
limbi (ex: turca, araba) - precum argument (lat: dovad,
cuvnt, voroav doveditoare), dialog (el: voroav carea
ieste tocmit ca ntrebare i rspundere), ironic (el: cuvnt
cu care ludm pe cel de hul i hulin pe cel ludat n ag),
comedie (el: figuri, voroave carile scornesc rsul i
nchipuiesc istoriiile adevrate), sentenie (lat: sfatul cel
mai de pe urm. Cuvnt carile ntr-alt chip nu se mai pot muta,
ales). Interesant n mod special este definirea conceptului de
democraie - stpnire n carea cap ales nu ieste, ce toat
ara poate intra la sfat (el.), n spiritul atenian originar, foarte

17 O idee similar poate fi gsit la Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43

.Hr.): chiar dac corpul (neleptului) este strns inut n fru, peste sufletul
su totui nu se pot arunca deloc lanuri (cuius etiamsi corpus
constringatur, animo tamen vincula inici nulla possint, n De finibus
bonorum et malorum, Liber Tertius, 76).

125
diferit de conceptul modern (democraie reprezentativ)18. Un
sens diferit are i cuvntul temperament - aedzmntul,
stmprarea firii, ntregimea sntii (lat.).
Textul educ simul estetic al cititorilor, prin pasaje de
mare valoare poetic precum cel care descrie rsritul
soarelui i revrsatul zorilor: fclia cea de aur n sfenicul de
diamant i lumina cea de obte n casele i mesele tuturor s
pune; sau apusul: printele planetelor i ochiul lumii radzele
supt ipoghei i sloboade i lumina supt pmnt i ascunde.
n mod poetic sunt aduse i critici: cu parahul rutii vinul
vicleului bea.
Opera are i intenii politice cifrate, precum o posibil
unire a rii Romneti i a Moldovei, descris n discursul
Papagaiei (nvatul Ion Comnen): Cine dar n lume [...] se
va afla, carile s socoteasc sau s griasc c cel mpotriv
de supt braul Leului va putea scpa, sau cel supt aripile
Vulturului aciuiat c n primejdie va intra? [...] Acetea dar,
ntr-acesta chip unindu-s i alctuindu-s, cinstea,
slava i odihna [...] cei din ciuburele nc cu fulgi puiori i cei

18 De remarcat c, totui, n cuprinsul textului, autorul folosete


termenul cu un neles mai apropiat sensului: (1) puterea monarhiii noastre
lng noi s orpim i pe dimocratiia voastr epitrop monarhiii noastre
s punem. Dup cum ne lmurete o interpretare critic, afirmaia este
unul din principiile de baz ale gndirii politice cantemirene privind
colaborarea dintre domn, care trebuie s exprime autoritatea politic
nediscutat i nelimitat (puterea monarhiii) i sfatul boieresc (numit de
scriitor dimocraiie), avnd doar atribuia de povuitor, de consilier (aa
ar trebui neleas aici noiunea de epitrop (vol.cit, p.40 nota 2);
(2) unii ctre alii veti pentru adunarea de obte a dimocratiii a trimite
ncepur: Dei, la scar, Cantemir nelege prin democraie stpnirea
n carea cap ales nu ieste, ce toat ara poate intra la sfat, deci un sfat
republican, aici termenul desemneaz adunarea de la Arnut-chioi, care era
democratic ntruct exprima o larg reprezentare a straturilor sociale din
cele dou ri romneti (vol.cit, p.41 nota 2). De asemenea, autorul
evideniaz diverse concepte democratice: alegerea a multora ieste mai
adevrat i mai ntrit dect a unuia sau a doi.

126
nc supt ele maic-sa sugtori a giudeca vor putea. i
statul cel mai fericit dect toat fericirea precum ca rul s
va pogor i ca puhoiul va nbui [...].

Descriptio Antiqui et Hodierni Status Moldavie sau


Descrierea Strii de Odinioar i de Astzi a Moldovei19
(1716)
Scris, conform opiniilor majoritare exprimate n lucrrile
de specialitate, la propunerea Academiei din Berlin20,
Descriptio Moldavie, una dintre crile fundamentale ale
spiritualitii i civilizaiei romneti multiseculare a fost,
ncepnd din secolul XVIII, antrenat n circuitul de valori
ale tiinei i culturii europene, devenind o oper
reprezentativ nu doar a culturii romneti ci i a celei
europene, mai ales drept una dintre proeminentele lucrri
tiinifice cu coninut descriptiv-geografic (enciclopedice) din
prima jumtate a secolului al XVIII-lea (cf. Eanu Valentina i
Andrei, Studiu introductiv la Descrierea Moldovei, I.C.R.,
vol. II, 2007, Considerente generale, pp.5-7).

19 Menionez c am avut la dispoziie nu ediia indicat de organizatorii


concursului (Ed. Litera Internaional, 2001, Bucureti), ci o ediie mai
recent publicat de Institutul Cultural Romn: 2 volume (2006, 2007),
ediie critic ntocmit de Dan Sluanschi, cu o versiune bilingv a
textului: originalul latin (vol. I) i o traducere modern n limba romn (vol.
I, II). Am dat citatele din oper n limba latin din respect fa de original
(n.m. V.M.T.).
20 Conform unei teorii acreditate de Gerard erbnesco, autorul

tratatului Istoria universal a francmasoneriei, primirea lui Dimitrie


Cantemir n Academia Berlinez i cererea de a scrie o istorie a Moldovei a
avut o legtur i cu apartenena sa francmasonic n loja Ritului Scoian
Antic i Acceptat, Cantemir fiind istoric considerat, primul francmason
romn (cf. Michel Barrat, Venerabilul Marii Loje din Frana) - apud
Francmasonul Dimitrie Cantemir i obiceiurile moldovenilor din Secolul
Luminilor, Marius Petrescu, revista Historia,
www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/francmasonul-dimitrie-
cantemir-obiceiurile-moldovenilor-secolul-luminil.

127
Prin structura ei concis, Descrierea Moldovei are un
nalt grad de accesibilitate. Dei scris cu normele unui savant,
lucrarea include i aspecte ce in de tradiia locului, pe care
autorul le povestete dinuntrul lor precum, de exemplu,
originea numelui de Moldova: Ibi, posteaquam, per aliot
saecula, locorum difficultate defensi, suis legibus regibusque
vixissent, tandem, circa annum Domini < >, cum premi se
animadverterent incolarum multitudine, Regis Bogdani filius
Dragosz, cum 300 saltem hominibus, venantis specie,
montium trasitum Ortum versus tendare constituit. Hoc in
itinere casu invenit bovem sylvestrem, Moldavis Dzimbru
dictum, et, dum eum persequitur, ad montium radices
descendit. Porro, cum catula quaedam venatica quam prae
caeteris diligebat - Molda dicta, fortius ferae instaret,
aestuans haec in profluentem se proiicit et telis ibidem
interficitur: canis vero, quae in ipsis aquis quasiverat
fugientem, rapidis fluvoili undis absorbetur. In huius
memoriam, fluvium Moldavam Dragosz primum
apellavit (s.m.), loco, ubi haec acciderant, suae gentis
nomen, Roman indit, bovis vero sylvestris caput novi
Principatus insigne esse voluit (Pars I, Capvt I. De antiquis ed
hodiernis Moldavie nominibus)21. De asemenea, prezint

21 Dup ce au trit acolo, cu legile i regii lor, vreme de cteva


veacuri, aprai de greutatea locurilor, pn la urm, pe la anul Domnului
< >, cum i ddeau seama c-i nghesuiete mulimea locuitorilor, Drago,
fiul Regelui lor, Bogdan, cu doar 300 de oameni, s-a hotrt s ncerce
trecerea munilor ctre Rsrit, sub chip de vntor. Pe calea asta a lui a
dat, din ntmplare, peste un bou slbatic, numit de Moldoveni Dzimbru, i,
ct vreme l urmrete, ajunge s coboare la poalele munilor. Apoi, cum o
capauc de vntoare la care inea mai presus de ceilali cini pe nume
Molda, se ainea mai aprig dup fiar, aceasta, nfierbntat, se arunc
ntr-un ru i este ucis acolo cu suliele: dar ceaua, care se inuse dup
cea care fugea, chiar i ape, este nghiit de repezile unde ale ruorului.
n amintirea ei, Drago a dat, n prima dat, rului numele de
Moldova (s.m.), locului unde se petrecuser acestea i-a dat numele

128
genealogia lui Drago, socotit de el ntemeietor al Moldovei,
dup tradiia locului: licet eius genealogiam nostri Annales
non deducant, e regia tamen veterum Moldavie stirpe, patre
Bogdano, Ioannis filio, a quo Principes omnes semper
Ioannes suis in titulis scribi solent ortum fuisse constans
apud nos est traditio (s.m.) (Pars II, Capvt II. De
electione Principum Moldaviae)22.

Totui, scris n limba latin i adresat europenilor,


lucrarea respect normele tiinifice ale obiectivitii, autorul
urmrind adevrul chiar i atunci cnd este neconvenabil
pentru imaginea propriului popor apreciind totodat
utilitatea sinceritii: Moldavorum mores descripturis rem
alias vel nemini, vel paucis exterorum cognitam amor
patriae instat iubetque eam gentem laudibus effere, in qua
nati sumus, eiusque terrae colons commendare, quae nobis
originem dedit. At obsisti, vicissim, veritas studium
prohibetque ea predicare, quac reprehendenda recta
ratio suaderet (s.m.): consultius fore patriae, ut eius
incolis ea, quibus scaterent, vitia ingenue ob oculos
ponerentur, quam ut blanda adulatione solertique
excusatione deciperentur, ut crederent recte a se agi quae
totus, elegantioribus imbutus moribus, orbis terrarum
vituperat (Pars II, Capvt XVII. De Moldavorum moribus)23.

neamului su, Roman, iar capul boului slbatic a vroit s fie nsemnul
noului su Principat (Partea I. Cap. I. Despre numele vechi i de astzi ale
Moldovei) trad. Dan Sluanschi.
22 cu toate c Annalele noastre nu-i scot genealogia, la noi tradiia

stornic (s.m.) este totui cea c s-a nscut din stirpea regeasc a
vechilor crmuitori ai Moldovei, tat fiindu-i Bogdan, fiul lui Ioan, dup
care toi Principii obinuiesc nencetat s-i spun, n titlurile lor, Ioan
[...] (Partea a II-a, Cap. II. Despre alegerea Principilor Moldovei) trad.
Dan Sluanschi.
23 Avnd noi de gnd a descrie obiceiurile moldovenilor un lucru,

de altfel, ori nimnui cunoscut, ori puinora dintre strini dragostea de

129
Astfel, dintre nsuirile moldovenilor, enumer: au prea multe
vicii, prea puine virtui (cu excepia credinei ortodoxe i a
ospitalitii); ngmfai i trufai, glumei i veseli; nu au suflet
cumptat (moderationem animi nullam noverunt); nu sunt
iubitori de carte etc. Totui, n unele consideraii este mai
degrab subiectiv, precum n aprecierea fa de vinul de
Cotnar: at omnibus Europaeis vinis, nec ipso Tocaiensi
exceptio, praestantius et nobilius esse affirmare ausim (a
cuteza s afirm c este mai presus i mai nobil dect toate
vinurile din Europa, fr a-l lsa laoparte nici pe cel de Tocai /
Tokay), ns ignotum hoc est exteris, quod perdat vim suam,
dum sine decenti cura in doliis vel mari, vel terra vehitur (El
le este necunoscut strinilor, pentru c i pierde puterea, ct
vreme este crat, fie pe mare, fie pe uscat, fr grija cuvenit,
n butoaie). De asemenea, autorul privete unele aspecte ale
rii dintr-o perspectiv de afar, precum prezena (sau
absena) apelor termale, acidulate i minerale din Moldova:
Thermas, acidulas et minerales aquas aut non habet, aut non
detexit Moldavia (Ape termale, acidulate i minerale
Moldova fie c nu are, fie c nu le-a descoperit nc).
Lucrarea ofer i o viziune de ansamblu asupra istoriei
Moldovei. De exemplu, despre teritoriu afirm: Occasum
versus, hodie multo amplior est, quam olim fuit Moldavia
(Ctre Apus, Moldova este astzi mai ntins dect a fost

patrie struie i-mi poruncete s nal cu laud neamul din care ne-am
nscut, i s-i vorbesc de bine pe locuitorii rii, de unde ni-i obria. Dar
ei, la rndu-i, i se mpotrivete nzuina ctre adevr, care ne
mpiedic s le susinem drept bune pe cele pe care dreapta
judecat ne-ar ndemna s le mustrm (s.m.): cci mai cu rost fi-va
pentru patria noastr s li se pun locuitorilor ei sub ochi, cu nevinovie,
viciile care colcie pe la ei, dect s fie nelai, cu blnd linguire i
ndemnatic dezvinovire, astfel nct s cread c bine le fac pe toate
cele pe care ntregul ntins al lumii, cel crescut n moravuri mai alese, le
mustr cu asprime (Partea a II-a, Cap. XVII. Despre moravurile
moldovenilor) trad. Dan Sluanschi.

130
odinioar). Totui, n est, a pierdut o parte din teritoriu: Tota
Moldavia tribus olim absolvebatur partibus Inferiore,
Superiore et Bassarabia, in quibus universim provinciae
minores numerabantur viginti tres. Posteaquam vero,
sequentibus temporibus, Turcarum tyrannide oppressa
esset Bassarabia24, [...], novendecim tantum regiones,
neque hae integrae, hodiernis Principibus remanserunt
(Odinioar, Moldova toat era alctuit din trei pri cea de
Jos, cea de Sus i Basarabia, nluntrul crora, laolalt, se
numrau douzeci i trei de inuturi mai mici. Dar dup ce, n
vremurile urmtoare, Basarabia a fost asuprit sub tirania
turcilor [...], Principiilor de astzi le-au mai rmas doar
nousprezece inuturi, nici acestea ntregi). Un subtext al
crii ine de contextul n care a fost scris: ara Moldovei,
aflat de mai mult vreme sub stpnire otoman [...] trecea
printr-un cumplit declin economic autorul scond n
eviden urmrile nefaste ale dominaiei turceti n Moldova,
precum i necesitatea imperioas de a elibera ara de sub
stpnirea otoman (cf. Eanu Valentina i Andrei, loc.cit).
De exemplu, la finalul capitolului despre alegerea Principiilor
Moldovei (Partea a II-a, Cap. II), i acuz indirect pe turci c au
fcut s cad n desuetudine dreptul de succesiune mereu
bine pzit ct vreme Moldova a fost liber, de la Drago,
care a rentemeiat Moldova, i pn la tefan cel Mare.

24 Ca o not istoric, menionez c Basarabia din vremea lui Cantemir

(1716) nu este aceeai cu Basarabia de astzi: prima Basarabie includea pe


atunci doar Bugeacul, Cetatea Alb (Akkierman), Chilia i Ismail, conceptul
desemnnd partea de Moldov rpit de otomani; a doua Basarabie
desemneaz ntregul teritoriu dintre Nistru i Prut, rpit de rui dup
rzboiul ruso-turc din 1806-1812 (n.m.V.M.T.).

131
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR, SCHOLAR, MORALIST
AND EDUCATOR

Vian-Miu R. Tudor,
Colegiul Naional Gheorghe Lazr

Dimitrie Cantemir can be considered the most brilliant


and amazing personality of the Romanian medieval culture
(Ion Verde), having a fascinating rich activity in various
cultural domains, such as history, geography, philosophy,
etnography, music etc., where he brought contributions of
great importance: he is the author of the first philosophical
Romanian text The Divan or The Wise Man's Parley with
the World or The Judgement of the Soul with the Body
(1698); he made the best geographical map of Moldavia until
the last decades of the XVIIIth century in Descriptio
Moldavi (1716); he is the first great Romanian intellectual
of European formation, specialist in Oriental problems
(Nicolae Iorga), he created the first system of musical notation
of the Ottoman music etc. A scholar of European fame1 [...],
our Lorenzo of Medici (George Clinescu), Dimitrie Cantemir
was ruler of Moldavia (1710-1711), the first Romanian member

1 About Cantemirs vast knowledge speaks, between others, the


Polands ambassador at Jassy, Rafael Leszczyski, who, in 1699, describes
him as a man with knowledge of Latin and a very special education, like he
would have been educated in Poland, with whom he may discuss about the
duties of friendship apud. Virgil Cndea, (1979), Raiunea dominant.
Contribuii la istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj Napoca, Dacia Publishing
House, pages 280-281, quoting (foot note 137) from P.P. Panaitescu, (1930),
Polish travelers in the Romanian countries, p.115.

132
of the Berlin Academy of Science (1714) and the private
counselor of the tsar Peter the Great then and who, starting
from 1721 became the emperor of Russia, Piotr Alexievici
Romanov (1682-1725), being invested by him as Serenissime
Prince of Russia (1711).
From his great merits, an important one (less obvious) is
that one of lingistic nature, Cantemir having an important rol
in the structuring of the Romanian language. Although his
style is stodgy because of the inversed topic, researcher Drago
Moldavianu showed that the dislocations in the test are
syntactic adaptations of the functions of a Greek-Latin
rhetorical method (hiperbat in Greek; very transgressio
in Latin), conducted in analogous conditions to adjustments
in other literatures that have undergone the influence of the
classical rhetoric2. Thereby, the literary language used by
Cantemir, far from being un-Romanian or ugly, has all the
graces of a scholars phrase (George Clinescu) and can be
considered a moment of transition between the mild,
evocative word of the chronicler Ion Neculce in Annals of the
Moldavian Country, to the whirling linguistic experiences of
the Romanian language in the future literary periods
especially the romantic one.
In this study we will analyse three fundamental texts of
Dimitrie Cantemirs work, following especially his statute as
educator of the people, which Cantemir obtained by writing
and publishing these books.

2 Drago Moldavianu, Influene ale manierismului greco-latin n


sintaxa lui Dimitrie Cantemir: hiperbatul, in the collection Studies of
Literary language and philology, vol. I, Bucharest, 1969 (pages 25-50),
pages 46-48, apud Virgil Cndea, Introduction - IV. Divanul - literary
work (pages 58-69), p.62, in Dimitrie Cantemir, (1974), Opere complete I,
edition ordered, introduction and notes by Virgil Cndea, Bucharest,
Academiei Publishing House.

133
The Divan...3 (1698/1699) is considered the first
Romanian philosophical book (Sextil Pucariu)4.
The book, a confrontation between the Wise-Soul-
Microcosm and World-Body-Macrocosm, has three parts:
1. a dialog between the world and the wise (thesis or
quarrel);
2. a commentary of the wise (antithesis or victory in the
argument against the world);
3. a conciliation between soul and body (synthesis or
bond of peace), mostly a translation adapted according to the
authors doctrine of the theologian Andrea Wissowatiuss book,
Stimuli virtutum, frna peccatorum, ut et alia eiusdem
generis opuscula posthuma (Amsterdam, 1682).
Searching for the reason because of which Dimitrie
Cantemir wrote this book, whose creation can seem odd in
relation with his cultural formation, Virgil Cndea considers
that the Divan was written due to the authors wish to affirm
himself, a man of South-Eastern European culture at the
treshold of his renewal. He, addresing to the readers from
home, wanted to show his qualities knowledge in Romanian
and Greek (the book is bilingual): a Christian ruler, with
respect for the dominant ideological traditions from his times,
talented in writing, scholar connoisseur of the Bible and the
Holy Parents writings, of the Greek and Roman classics and
of Oriental wisemen, knew that his culture had a social and
politician function that could help him for an eventual

3 We note that, besides the recommended bibliography (from 1974,


quoted below), we also used the edition of 1969, printed by the Publishing
House for Literature, edition ordered and introduction by Virgil Cndea,
which, alongisde the original text, also offers a translation of the Greek
version, in a clear and modern style, which can help in the understanding
of the old one.
4 Sextil Pucariu, Istoria literaturii romne, Cluj, 1929, p.170 apud

Istoria ieroglific, 1983, Minerva Publishing, vol.I, p.V.

134
accession to the throne. In this regard, the Divan had the
advantage of being an original writing in the domain of
etics, which gave the advantage of originality and
neutrality5.
As Virgil Cndea noticed, an important part of the text
was inspired from other works, but, despite this fact, the book
in its last form represents Cantemirs exclusive creation, who
collected ideas from various authors (pagans, catholics,
muslims, heretics) according to his own doctrine: Its the
attitude of the Humanist thinker, happy in his ideas which
found a better expression at other authors, which he adopts
with no limitations. The quotes are arguments of authority,
literary ornaments and a proof of vast knowledge6.
The Divan is the first Romanian text in which subjects
like the inexistence of the soul, of immortality or ressurection
was put so explicitly (Virgil Cndea), especially through the
World: for example, quoting the Ecclesiastes: who knows if
the human spirit rises upward and if the spirit of the animal
goes down into the earth? (Ecl, 3, 21), the World, sceptical,
believing only in the concrete evidence, tells the Wise that
your effort is useless and your faith is in vain. At least think
this: since someone in me being and serving with my
properties didnt or hasn't a good coming from me (after
death), what good will he be to find or happyness will
he be to meet (m.e.)?. Still, through the Wise, the winner
of the confrontation, the author chooses the faith in
Christianity chapter 22 of the Second Book being like a
testimony of this belief: Jesus Christ God and Saviour, our
faith and absolution was, who before through His holy

5 Virgil Cndea, Introduction II. Creation of the Divan (pages

24-46), 1. Purpose of the writer (pages 23-26), n Cantemir, Dimitrie,


(1974), Opere complete I, edition ordered, introduction and comments by
Virgil Cndea, Bucharest, Academiei Publishing House.
6 Virgil Cndea, loc.cit. 4. Making of (pages 36-39).

135
prophets (prophets) showed. Near the end, those written by
the prophets to be fulfilled when the time come, He showed
Himself, the maiden womb of Virgin Mary not staining, and
from Holy Spirit human body taking and entering it,
suffering and crucifying and in the third day reviving [....],
from the whole crowd the dead rising. Despite the Wise
Mans solution, he, the writer, recommends the classical
attitude of the Christian morality [...] of whole and fair
judgement, with the right doctrine, opposed to the hedonist
solution of the World and the domination of passions through
which (she) seeks to ensvlave man. Cantemir preffers, as
Wissowatius, the virtuous living and not, like the canonical
Ortodhox authors, the ascetical life: Wisdom is substance [...],
namely living fairly and just (m.e.); its fair and ordained
the souls reinforcement; [...] its also healthy for the soul and
also more virtuous than that of the body. (Book 3, chapter 6).
Considering that fair and full judgment can control the
erroneous lust (Book IV, For the bond of peace, Advice 1:
Know yourself), Cantemir belives in the minds capacity to
dominate the passions (Virgil Cndea)7. The Virtue (wisdom)
isnt a value by itself, but wisdoms and kindness reward, the
everhappy afterlife is (m.e.). The author remains in the
limits of a formal Orthodoxy [...] but separated from the
eschatological ideals of the traditional doctrine. Believing in
the compatibility between Orthodoxy and a philosophical
branch exterior to it, the author has a secularizing position, as
the western humanists two centuries earlier8.
The titles of the chapters give ethical and moral messages
of Christian nature, like the criticism against the human lusts
(sins): 4. With the worlds beauty dont deceive yourself,

7Virgil Cndea, Raiunea dominant...., p.183


8 Virgil Cndea, Opere complete I, loc.cit., III. The Divan
pshilosophical and ethical work, (pages 46-58).

136
because 15. Loving the beauties brings many damages; 59.
World lusts are like sirens: dropping the man asleep, they
drown him; 81. World lusts, other said sins, shorten life, 68.
The wrong lusts getting more numerous, in the abyss of the
ocean they make you fall; ... 43. Good is the sin not to make;
and making it, dont deny it, but confess it immediatly;
incentives to work 73. Not to the lazy, but to the hard
workers gifts are brought, to turn back the good 44... In gift
you took, in gift you give; - to be modest 78. When people
praise you [...] they temp you alone; dont be proud for this; to
assume mans biblical statute as culmination of the divine
creation: 71. Not slave, but master of the world that God let
you; for this you must master it, not let it master you, to have
faith in the spiritual world: 68. Not what the body sees, but
what the soul sees, in those have faith etc. The author criticizes
the greed: 30. The greed one all to be poor wishes: not
having enought land, he wishes villages; not having enought
villages, he wishes trade-towns; not having enought trade-
towns, he wishes citadels and other. Because the greed is bad,
the Wise, quoting a passage from the gospels it is easier for a
camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to
enter the kingdom of God (Matthew, 19:24) -, recommends:
be poor.
In the 3rd Book, the author offers the readers an impulse to
study the Bible: 38. The Holy Bible is to be read. Gods word
[...] with love and all necessity read, again and again. On
this matter he invites them to look at Psalm 1, 2: where it
says: In his law day and night be learned. At the same
time, he recommends other books: 39. Other authors to read
is easy and useful. After the Holy Bible, for a novelty of mind,
to read other books isnt bad, being as medicines for the
health of the soul, following the apostle Pauls advice from the
First Epistle to the Thessalonians: testing them all; hold on to
what is good (1 Thesal, 5:21). He recommends the books of

137
antic authors (not unworthy pagans): De Officiis, Cicero;
some of Senecas works; Epictets Morals; Isocrates' Counsel to
Demonicos; and from the Medieval theologians: De Imitatione
Christi, by Thomas Kempis; Enchiridion militis Christiani,
by Erasmus of Rotterdam; Ethica christiana, by Johannes
Cornellius Francus.
At the end of the book, the author quotes from
Wissowatiuss Stimuli virtutum the 10 commandments of the
stoics: 1. Be obedient to God and nature; 2. Do to everyone
good and no damage to anyone. 3. Behave with another like
you want him to behave with you. 4. All wrongings, suffer
with calm and patience. 5. All those against think them as for
good [...]. 6. Use the good and the things which in this land
are given to you, like they would be borrowed to you, and
with love at them rennounce when God takes them back. 7.
Put our joy in calm wish, which is not to be hidden in your
heart as for evil. 8. Be wiser in acts than in words. 9. Always
think about death, but dont fear it. 10. Rest and satiated be in
Gods laws, thinking it as being too fair, too wise and for us
too easy even if we see it as too heavy.
Quoting and use even the recommendation of the not
unworthy pagans and the stoics 10 commandments not
only the traditional Christian authors made Cantemir, as
Virgil Cndea notices, an author modern for his time
(m.e.). Without exceeding the borders of religious faith, he
knew to value, outside it, the authority of the secular
psilosophers of Antiquity and Renaissance [...]9.
The Hierogliphic History (1705)10, Medieval novel
with key, is the first Romanian literary work in the full sense

9Virgil Cndea, Raiunea dominant...., p.173


10We note that we used not the edition indicated by the organizers of
the contest (Gramar Publishing, 2008, foreword by Dan Horia Maziliu), but
the 1983 edition of Minerva Publishing, edition ordered, notes and glossary

138
of the term (N. Manolescu) and also the first book containing
memories, with an ample description of the whole society
(Sextil Pucariu)11.

The hierogliphs which mean faces of birds, animals and


other creatures which the ancients used to write, above words
(from Greek) offer to the book a character of generality12.
As literary criticist George Clinescu noticesd, the method of
disguising observation on people through zoological figures is

by Ion Verde and P.P. Panaitescu; foreword and chronological table by


Alexandru Duu (m.n. V.M.T.).
11 Sextil Pucariu, loc.cit.
12 Hierogliphs represent mostly characters, but also geographical

spaces and concepts. Most are identified in the key of the book. Of the
geographical spaces, Moldavia appears as a lion (stronger and more hostile
than all creatures in the world), associated with land, Wallachia as an eagle
(emperor of all fliers), associated with air, and the Ottoman Empire as the
empire of fishes, associated to the aquatical domain. Among the
characters, we enumerate the best known (today): the unicorn Dimitrie
Cantemir; the elephant Antioh Cantemir; the raven the Wallachian
ruler Constantin Brncoveanu (1688-1714); the ostrichcamel Mihai
Racovi, ruler in Moldavia (1703-1705, 1707-1709, 1716-1726) and Wallachia
(1730-1731, 1741-1744); the mountain eagle the high steward (stolnic)
Constantin Cantacuzino; the blban and the pigeon hawk the
Wallachian rulers erban Cantacuzino (1678-1688) and tefan Cantacuzino,
cupbearer (1714-1716); the otter the Moldavian ruler Constantin Duca
(1693-1695; 1700-1703); the leopard Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu, etc.
Other Cantacuzinos are Ilie (the wild cat), Toma postelnicul (the hawk),
Mihai sptarul (cucuzon), Rducanu (coruia), and other Ruseteti are
Scarlat (the chameleon) and Monalache (the squirrel). Collective
characters are also figured: the terrestrial animals are Moldavians, the flyers
are the Wallachians; the dogs the capuchehaie; the hounds the
messagers; the small dogs the spies; the deer Caragea's family; the flies
the Boyars servants; the wasps the mercenaries. Through hierogliphs are
symbolized concepts such as the names honor (palm), taking power (bulls
horns), fair economies (food), the good and lusts of the world (fire),
power to make good and bad (water of live and dead water).

139
an old and lasting tradition13. Hovever, Cantemirs work isnt
a secret history, as literary criticist Nicolae Manolescu
considers: It was said about (the Hierogliphic History) that
its a secret history, being forgotten that it was printed
immediatly after it was finished, in 1705, so in the authors life
and before he became, the second time, ruler of Moldavia, and
especially because, even without the key given by Cantemir
himself, his contemporaries could easily recognise the real
characters hidden before the masks of birds and animals. If
the people of that time had our sensibilities, the book should
have provoked a huge scandal in the whole south-eastern
Europe. We dont have knowledge of such thing. [...] I find it
normal to accept that not out of esoterical reasons did
Cantemir wrote his story, but ludical ones. All keys, made of
numbers or of other natures, arent at him more than games
made by a cultivated and intelligent man. He doesnt lack, of
course, the pamphlet intention14..
The books plot is pretty complicated, being tied to the
political confrontation between the Wallachian ruler
Constantin Brncoveanu (1688-1714), as the raven, allied with
the Moldavian ruler Mihai Racovi (first reign: 1703-1705),
the ostrichcamel, and Cantemir's brothers, Dimitrie (the
unicorn) and Antioh (the elephant), with their own claims for
the throne15, as sons of former Moldavian ruler Constantin

13 George Clinescu, Istoria literaturii romne de la origini pn n

prezent, Minerva Publishing, 1982, Bucharest, p.38.


14 Nicolae Manolescu, Istoria critic a literaturii romne, Minerva

Publishing House, 1990, volume I, p.77.


15 Dimitrie Cantemir ruled Moldavia two months after his fathers

death (March April 1693), but he wasnt confirmed by the Ottoman Gate,
he being replaced by Constantin Duca (1693-1695; 1700-1703), otter. Antioh
became ruler of Moldavia after Duca was deposed of his rule (1695-1700),
but who came back in a short time, being replaced by the decision of the
Adrianopol assembly with Mihai Racovi (1703-1705), the ostrichcamel.
Eventually, Antioh obtained the dispossession of Racovi and obtained the

140
Cantemir (1685-1693), the monocheroleopardalis. The conflict
closes with the temporary peace between the raven and the
unicorn and the payment of a compensation from the first, this
being considered a victory by Cantemir in the novels epilogue:
The Raven, ruling in two monarchies, to his smaller
opponent he lost. Nevertheless, the plot isnt the main
element of the novel. Cantemir didnt try to recall, for
posterity, the trivial fight for a touch of power carried by
obtuse minds, in the same way he didnt valorify the rustic
jewels for poetry and wisdom in the suffocating crossroads
of sophiststicated dialogues; the author reconsidered an
entire tradition of thought and sensibility (m.e.),
transforming the phaces of his contemporaries, and realising
a human comedy that cannot be judged by reportering to
Balzacs comedies. (Alexandru Duu, Hierogliphical
history..., 1983, vol.I, p.VI). The book is a collision that hired
principles, arguments, accepted ideas and renewing thinking.
Throughtout the book, the author inserted 760
psilosophical thoughts that enrich the text, each written
between paranthesis. If the reader wishes to follow only the
arguments and the events he can skip the paranthesis; but if
he wishes more, a book in which the pretty word is combined
with beautiful thinking, he wont. He is free to choose [....]
(Alex. Duu, vol.cit, p.IX). The thoughts have an educative
role16, to popularize ideas like criticism against greed (greed

throne of Moldavia (1705-1707). On the other hand, Dimitrie had


(unrealised) pretentions to become ruler of Wallachia instead of
Brncoveanu. Eventually, he became ruler of Moldavia in 1710-1711.
16 The educative value of quotes was noticed by politician and writer

Winston Churchill: It is a good thing for an uneducated man to read books


of quotations [...]. The quotations, when engraved upon the memory, give
you good thoughts. They also make you anxious to read the authors and look
for more, in My Early Life: A Roving Commission, 1930, ch.9. Education at
Bangalore.

141
not even in geometrical boundaries doesnt stop) or against
the wish to obtain power (I am a big thing and I want to
become bigger, said the ostrichcamel Mihai Racovi), some
being of great depth: for example in the Otters defense
(Constantin Duca) are used some law principles: like non bis in
idem: a crime must not be punished twice, a punishment
cannot be given upon the deposition of a single witness; of
geometry: two sizes equal to the third are equal between them;
of philosophy: two different natures cannot have a common
substance; of logic: conclusion cames after premises. A very
important idea is the fact that it cannot exist any kind of
constraint against the freedom of thinking and the will:
jailing and bonding of the body with chains are enough,
while for the bonding of the soul and stopping of free will not
even thousands of thousands chains, not even tens of
thousands prisons can do it. Short said: the philosophical
soul cannot be opressed17. According to the last importance
of the soul, despite the physical difficulties, this is a thesis of
Christian morality, which Cantemir takes: the soul, no matter
how poor or free, is richer than that of the emperor enslaved
by his lust for richness, and the fair slave stronger is, because
that in body, but he in soul wins. The author supports the
idea of a fair transcedental order (Gods commandments)
above the unfair wordly rule: Gods will above the masters
will to be more superior must we know.
Because he uses foreign words, the author seems to have
the need to define them: so that the foreign words the
ignorants doesn't understand and from the foreign language
enter into ours (vol.cit, p.6). This way, in the key of numbers

17 A similar idea can be found at Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 .Hr.):

even if the (wisemans) body is enchained, his soul cannot be enchained


(cuius etiamsi corpus constringatur, animo tamen vincula inici nulla
possint, in De finibus bonorum et malorum, Liber Tertius, 76.

142
and foreign words, Cantemir offers simple definition for
terms borrowed from Latin and Greek but also from other
languages (eg. Turk, Arabian) like argument (Lat.: proof),
dialog (Greek: discussion as question and answer), ironic
(Greek: word through which he praise the unworthy and
profane the praised), comedy (Greek.: figures that make
people laught through real histories), thought (Lat.: the last
advice). Especially interesting is the definition of democracy
rule in which the elected leader isnt, the whole country
being able to advice (Greek), in the Athenian originary spirit,
different from the modern concept (representative
democracy)18. A different term has the word temper calm,
full health (Lat.).
The text educates the estethic sense of the readers,
through passages of great poetical value like that in which
its described the sunrise: the golden flame in a diamond pot
and the natural light in the houses and of everyones tables
appears; or the sunset: the father of planets and the worlds
eye frees his rays under earth and hides. Criticism is also

18 It is necessary to be noticed that, throughtout the book, the author


uses the term in a context closer to its meaning: (1) we must replace the
monarchical power with the power of democracy over the monarchy. As a
critical interpretation explains, this sentence expresses one of the
fundamental principles of Cantemirs political thought regarding the
collaboration betwen the ruler, who must express the unlimited and
unchallenged political authority (monarchical power) and the council of
boyars (called by the author democracy), having only advisory
attributions (quot.vol., p.40 note 2); (2) to send each other news
regarding the communal gathering of the democracy they started:
Despite that, in the key, Cantemir understands by democracy the rule in
which there isnt an elected leader, and the whole country can participate at
the council, a republican council, here the term designates the gathering of
Arnut-chioi, which was democratical because it expressed a large
representation of the social layers from the two Romanian countries
(quot.vol., p.41 note 2). Also, the author expreses various democratical
notions: election by many is more legitimate than that by one or two.

143
brought in a poetical way: he drinks with the glass of evil the
wine of mischief.
The text also has secret political intentions, like an
eventual union of Wallachia with Moldova, described in
Papagaias speech (teacher Ion Comnen): He who in the
world [...] will be found, to think or speak that he against the
Lion will escape, or under the Eagles wings, under danger he
will enter? [...] These, uniting, the honor, glory and rest [...]
chicks with flakes and children still sucking their mothers tits
can judge. And the happiest status above al happyness like the
river will flow and the torrent will supress [...].

Descriptio Antiqui et Hodierni Status Moldavie or


Description of the Old and Present Status of Moldavia19
(1716)
Written, according to the most interesting opinions
expressed in specialized works, at the proposal of the Berlin
Academy20, Descriptio Moldavie, one of the fundamental
books of the Romanian spirituality and civilization, was,

19 We note that we used not the edition indicated by the organisers of


the contest (Litera Internaional Publishing, 2001, Bucharest), but a more
recent edition published by the Romanian Cultural Institute: 2 volumes
(2006, 2007), critical edition by Dan Sluanschi, with a bilingual version
of the text: the original in Latin (vol. I) and a modern translation into
Romanian (vol. I, II). We gave the quotes in Latin due to respect for the
original (m.n. V.M.T.).
20 According to a theory embraced by Gerard erbnesco, author of the

treaty Universal history of freemasonry, the acceptation of Dimitrie


Cantemir into the Academy of Berlin and the comission to write a history of
Moldavia was related to his francmasonic membership in the Ancient and
Accepted Scotian Rite lodge, Cantemir being historically considered the
first Romanian freemason (cf.Michel Barrat, Venerable of the French Grand
Lodge) - apud Freemason Dimitrie Cantemir and the habits of the
Moldavians in the Century of Lights, Marius Petrescu, Historia magazine,
www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/francmasonul-dimitrie-
cantemir-obiceiurile-moldovenilor-secolul-luminil.

144
starting from the XVIIIth century, accepted between the
European scientiffic and cultural values, becoming a
representative book not only for the Romanian culture but also
for the European culture, especially as one of the most
proeminent scientiffical text with geographical-descriptive
(enciclopedical) text from the first half of the XVIIIth century (cf.
Eanu Valentina and Andrei, Introduction for Descrierea
Moldovei, I.C.R., vol. II, 2007, General considerations, pp.5-7).
For its compact structure, Description of Moldavia has
a great degree of accesibility. Although written with scientiffic
standards, the book contains aspects related to local tradition,
which the author relates from inside like, for example, the
origin of the name Moldavia: Ibi, posteaquam, per aliot
saecula, locorum difficultate defensi, suis legibus regibusque
vixissent, tandem, circa annum Domini < >, cum premi se
animadverterent incolarum multitudine, Regis Bogdani filius
Dragosz, cum 300 saltem hominibus, venantis specie,
montium trasitum Ortum versus tendare constituit. Hoc in
itinere casu invenit bovem sylvestrem, Moldavis Dzimbru
dictum, et, dum eum persequitur, ad montium radices
descendit. Porro, cum catula quaedam venatica quam prae
caeteris diligebat - Molda dicta, fortius ferae instaret,
aestuans haec in profluentem se proiicit et telis ibidem
interficitur: canis vero, quae in ipsis aquis quasiverat
fugientem, rapidis fluvoili undis absorbetur. In huius
memoriam, fluvium Moldavam Dragosz primum
apellavit (s.m.), loco, ubi haec acciderant, suae gentis
nomen, Roman indit, bovis vero sylvestris caput novi
Principatus insigne esse voluit (Pars I, Capvt I. De antiquis ed
hodiernis Moldavie nominibus)21. Also, he shows the genealogy

21 After they lived there for centuries, with their laws and kings,
protected by geography, in the end, in Anno Domini < >, realising that their
territory is overpopulated, Drago, son of their King, Bogdan, with only

145
of Drago, considered founder of the Moldavian state,
according to tradition: licet eius genealogiam nostri Annales
non deducant, e regia tamen veterum Moldavie stirpe, patre
Bogdano, Ioannis filio, a quo Principes omnes semper
Ioannes suis in titulis scribi solent ortum fuisse constans
apud nos est traditio (s.m.) (Pars II, Capvt II. De
electione Principum Moldaviae)22.
Still, written into Latin and addressed to Europeans, the
book follows the scientiffic standards of objectivity, the author
looking for the truth even when its less convinient for the image
of his own people in the same time respecting the value of
honesty: Moldavorum mores descripturis rem alias vel
nemini, vel paucis exterorum cognitam amor patriae instat
iubetque eam gentem laudibus effere, in qua nati sumus, eiusque
terrae colons commendare, quae nobis originem dedit. At
obsisti, vicissim, veritas studium prohibetque ea
predicare, quac reprehendenda recta ratio suaderet
(s.m.): consultius fore patriae, ut eius incolis ea, quibus
scaterent, vitia ingenue ob oculos ponerentur, quam ut blanda

300 men, decided to trespass the mountains to the east, as a hunter. On his
road, he fell upon a wild bull, called by the Moldavians dzimbru and,
chasing it, descended at the base of the mountains. Then, a hunting she-dog
who he loved most called Molda, chased the creature most fiercely,
until when, throwing itself in the river, the creature is killed by spears; but
the she-dog, who chased it even into the waters, is swalled by the fast
waters of the river. In her memory, Drago called the river Moldavia
(m.s.), to the place where these things happened and gave it the name of his
family, Roman, and the head of his bull became the sign of his new
Kingdom (Part I. Cap. I. On the old and present name of Moldavia) own
translation.
22 despite our annals dont show his genealogy, and ours old

tradition (m.s.) is that he was of Royal descent from the old rulers of
Moldavia, his father being Bogdan, son of Ioan, after who Princes call
themselves, in their titles, Ioan [...] (Part II, Cap. II. On the election of the
Moldavian Princes) own translation.

146
adulatione solertique excusatione deciperentur, ut crederent
recte a se agi quae totus, elegantioribus imbutus moribus, orbis
terrarum vituperat (Pars II, Capvt XVII. De Moldavorum
moribus)23. In this way, founded on the characteristics of the
Moldavians, he enumerates: too many vices, too few virtues (with
the exception of Orthodox faith and hospitality); proud and
arrogant, humorous and happy; they dont have a measured spirit
(moderationem animi nullam noverunt); they dont love
reading etc. Still, in some considerations he is more subjective,
like in that of his appreciation towards the Cotnari wine: at
omnibus Europaeis vinis, nec ipso Tocaiensi exceptio,
praestantius et nobilius esse affirmare ausim (I dare to say its
the most superior and noble wines from Europe, not excepting
even that of Tokay), but ignotum hoc est exteris, quod perdat
vim suam, dum sine decenti cura in doliis vel mari, vel terra
vehitur (It is not known to foreigners because it loses its flavour
when it is shipped on sea or land, without care, in barrels). Also,
the author has in some matters a perspective from abroad, like
the presence (or absence) of thermal, accidulated or mineral
waters in Moldavia: Thermas, acidulas et minerales aquas aut
non habet, aut non detexit Moldavia (Thermal, accidulated and
mineral waters Moldavia either doesnt have, either it didnt
discovered them yet).

23 Wanting to write about the habits of the Moldavians something

not known by the foreigners or known to the foreigners the love for the
country obliges and commands me to glorify my people and talk good
about the natives from where I come. But to this is opposed the love of truth,
which stops me from seeing as good those which fair judgement makes us
rebuke them (m.s.): for more useful for our country is to show their
inhabitants, without guilt, the vices they have, than to be deceived with mild
flattery and skillful exculptation, in the manner they would think it is good
what they do all those that, in the whole world, he who is grown in more
civilised standards, condemns (Part II, Cap. XVII. On the habits of the
Moldavians) own translation.

147
The book gives a general perspective upon the history
of Moldavia. For example, regarding the territory it says:
Occasum versus, hodie multo amplior est, quam olim fuit
Moldavia (Towards the east, Moldavia is vaster than it was
in the past). Still, in the east, it lost some of its territory: Tota
Moldavia tribus olim absolvebatur partibus Inferiore,
Superiore et Bassarabia, in quibus universim provinciae
minores numerabantur viginti tres. Posteaquam vero,
sequentibus temporibus, Turcarum tyrannide oppressa
esset Bassarabia24, [...], novendecim tantum regiones,
neque hae integrae, hodiernis Principibus remanserunt
(Once, Moldavia had three parts the Lower, the Higher and
Bessarabia, having together 23 smaller lands. But after
Bessarabia fell into the Turkish tyranny [...], the Princes of
today were left with only 19 lands, even those not whole). The
subtext of the book is related to the historical context:
Moldavia, falling under the Ottoman occupation [...] suffered
a severe economical decline the author putting into
evidence the nefarious consequences of the Turkish
dommination in Moldavia, as well as the urgent necessity to
release the country out of Ottoman occupation (cf. Eanu
Valentina i Andrei, loc.cit). For example, at the end of the
chapter regarding the election of the Moldavian princes (Pater
II, Cap.II), he indirectly accused the Turks that they made the
always well-kept - right of succesion used when Moldavia
was free, from Drago, who refounded Moldavia, to Stephen
the Great fall into disuse.

24 As a historical note, we observe that the Bessarabia from Cantemirs

period (1716) isnt the same as todays Bessarabia: the first included only the
Bugeac: Akkierman, Chilia and Ismail, the notion signifying the Moldavia
captured by the Ottomans; the second designated the entire territory
between the Dnister and Prut, captured by the Russians after the Russo-
Turkish war of 1806-1812 (m.n.V.M.T.).

148
NELEGEREA ISTORIEI CU AJUTORUL LUI
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR
I A OPEREI SALE ISTORIA IEROGLIFIC

Ilie Maria Victoria,


Rou Diana,
Colegiul Naional Matei Basarab,
Profesor ndrumtor: Carmen Nedelcu

Cantemir e scriitor, creator, aducnd idei i combinaii.


Figura lui umbrit azi, e a unui om superior, voievod luminat,
ambiios i blazat, inteligent i solitar, mnuitor de oameni i
mizantrop, iubitor de Moldova lui dup care tnjete i
aventurier, cntre n tambur, academician berlinez, prin
rus, cronicar roman, cunosctor al tuturor plcerilor pe care le
poate da lumea, Dimitrie Cantemir este Lorenzo de Medici al
nostru. (George Clinescu)
Acest citat, care l descrie pe Dimitrie Cantemir, cuprinde
complexitatea lui i imensitatea bogiei personalitii acestuia.
Este cel mai important umanist al culturii romne, spirit
enciclopedic, care reflect frumuseea poporului romn n
literatur i care aduce o alt lumin asupra rii noastre. A fost
domn al Moldovei (1693 i 1710-1711) pentru o perioad scurt,
iar n ultimii ani ai vieii s-a retras la curtea prietenului su, arul
Petru cel Mare. Domeniile culturale care l-au interesat n mod
deosebit au fost literatura, istoria, filosofia, logica, muzica,
etnografia, avnd o gndire complex i deschis.
Istoria ieroglific trdeaz complexitatea minii
autorului, ce a nvat la colile greceti i care a trit n mediul
musulmano-grecesc, ct i unicitatea personajelor romanului.

149
Pentru Cantemir era o alegorie politic transcris cu mijloace
artistice. Critica literar are dou opinii referitoare la aceasta
carte. Unii consider c este primul roman romnesc (primul
roman alegoric), iar alii sunt de prere c este o fabul de mari
proporii. Aceste dou idei diferite reies din aciunea i
personajele crii, avnd ca tem conflictul politic ntre ara
Romneasca i Moldova, mai exact ntre boierii i domnitorii
celor dou provincii romneti i ca personaje, persoane din
lumea real transpuse ca animale: pasri (cei din ara
Romneasc) i animale (cei din Moldova). Titlul romanului ne
apare ca o antifraz, form clasic a ironiei. Cantemir folosete
alegoria cu un scop defensiv, pentru a putea vorbi liber, n voie
despre evenimente i personaliti contemporane. El voia s
lase un document asupra evenimentelor istorice, s-i justifice
demersul i s explice motivele pentru care nu se putea
pronuna mai clar, fr primejdii. Nota plasat n faa primului
capitol: Istoria ieroglific/n doasprdzece pri mprit,
/aijderea cu 760 de sentenii frumos mpodobit,/la
nceptur cu scar a numerelor dezvlitoare./ Iar la sfrit cu
a numerelor streine/tlcuitoare,/ Alctuit de/dimitriu/
cantemir (Marcu, Mdlina, Pamfletul politic- ,,Istoria
Ieroglific - Dimitrie Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i
Comunicare, p. 14) reprezint numele ntreg al operei.
n carte, Cantemir dezbate probleme de conducere a
statului, fcnd indirect o demonstraie a calitilor ideale ale
domnitorului luminat. El a crezut, n sens umanist, c valorile
spirituale hotrsc mersul istoriei. Istoria Ieroglific este o
proz n care istoria adevrat pierde n ctigul literaturii.
(Marcu, Mdlina, Pamfletul politic- ,,Istoria Ieroglific-
Dimitrie Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i Comunicare, p. 13).
Cartea este un labirint plin de metafore, descrieri i comparaii
tipice pentru Dimitrie Cantemir, avnd un text codat ce poate
trece neobservat cititorilor neexperimentai, avnd ironie,

150
sarcasm, alegorie, ntmplri comice ce ascund diferite
nelesuri. Aceasta este demonstrat de comentariul lui
Clinescu: Cronicarii au farmec lingvistic i dar de povestire,
Cantemir e scriitor (Marcu, Mdlina, Pamfletul politic-
Istoria Ieroglific -Dimitrie Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i
Comunicare, p. 11). Personajele crii sunt transpuse sub form
de chip animalic, avnd drept scop crearea unei imagini ct mai
potrivit firii fiecrui tip de caracter. Aceste personaje
reprezint esena fiecrei personaliti, nu numai ale vremii
respective i persoanelor politice ce se aflau n conflict, ci i
personalitilor din ziua de azi ce pot intra uor n graniele
descrierilor crii. Cartea are la sfrit un fel de dicionar n care
explic anumii termeni (puii-feciorii; tulee bani, lei; cap alb -
btrn; penele, aripile, fulgii-banii, avuia; unul dintre Corbi-
unul dintre domnii munteni; dobitoc platonicesc-omul)
precizeaz care personaje particip la aciune, de exemplu: Ma
Slbatec este Ilie Cantacuzino; Constantin Brncoveanu este
numit Corbul; Mihai Racovi este numit Cmil; Mihai-Vod
este Struocmila; Epitrop Vulturului este domnul rii
Romneti; Radu Golescu este Eretele .a.m.d. (Ivan, Vasilica,
Ivan, Ioan, Istoria Ieroglific i iganiada sau Tabra-
iganilor pe nelesul tuturor, Ed. Niculescu, p. 119-123).
Dimitrie Cantemir se autodescrie ca fiind un inorog crend
astfel imaginea de superioritate fa de ceilali. Cu toat
multitudinea animalelor, Cantemir nu a fost mulumit,
considernd c anumite tipuri de personaliti nu pot fi
caracterizate doar ntr-o singur specie de animal crend alte
tipuri de animale, de exemplu Mihai-Vod este numit
Struocmil, Alexandru Mavrocordul este Camilopardalul .a.
Pe lng personajele crii, se observ i alte comparaii, de
exemplu: cpue pline cu snge - pungi cu bani; ccreaza
Cmilei - banii pe care i strnge Mihai-Vod; zidirea
Babilonului nceperea nenelegerilor; eufratul - lcomia fr

151
limite .a. Personajele Istoriei Ieroglifice dau o frumusee
aparte crii crend n jurul acesteia, pe lng teoriile filozofice
ce se pot observa din faptele personajelor i din vorbele
acestora, o aur ce descrie subtil situaia din vremea respectiv.
Animalele alese de Cantemir ajut la crearea unei mai
bune imagini asupra sufletului fiecruia, unele animale ale
cror suflet tnjete dup libertate i corectitudine. n carte
apare un patruped ce i arat nemulumirea fa de
nesupunerea sufletului, protestnd plin de convingere i
suprare mpotriva constrngerii. Cu ajutorul personajului
Vulpea, autorul reuete s creeze o imagine ct mai bun
asupra autenticitii ntmplrilor narate. Aceasta jur pe
coada e avnd un aer ironic i privind cu superioritate
considerndu-se mai presus de ceilali i spunnd c ce cu
ochii am privit, aceia cu gura v povestesc. Prin aceast
poveste a Vulpii, autorul i acord cititorului un rgaz de a
considera vorbele Vulpii adevrate sau false, ns animalul,
sub stimulul asculttorilor promte, nareaz i o a doua poveste
ce dorete s transmit o teorie filozofic despre nelepciunea
din capul Lupului. Autorul creeaz personajelor sale starea de
vis, un vis ce reflect propriile dorine, cum ar fi n visul
Cameleonului unde acesta l viseaz pe Inorog mai presus de el
fiind astfel, chinuit de superioritatea acestuia: [...] prin cteva
a nopii ceasuri Inorogul cu oimul voroava fcnd,
Cameleonul [...] la lcaul su ducndu-sa prin marea relelor
socotele notand [...] n valurile vicleugurilor tvlindu-sa [...]
n somn fr somn l chinuia.
Episodul cu visul devine un punct de reper n roman,
datorit povestirii ce sugereaz efortul acesteia dndu-i ct mai
mult putere i dorina de a fi mai presus de ceilali, ns visul
devine i un simbol prin care se exprim rutatea i spiritul
malefic al Cameleonului, acela de a-i dori s l tie pe Inorog
mai jos dect el. Personajul sugereaz, prin comportament, dar

152
i prin nfiare, o persoan cu mai multe fee i o persoan ce
i urmrete interesele i propriile scopuri (cameleonul este
un animal ce i poate schimba culoare pielii dup cum dorete
pentru a-l ajuta s se ascund de prdtori).
n paginile crii vom gsi, pe lng o lectur profund i
plin de nelesuri, o lectur plcut i o vorbire interioar care
personajele o induc. Aceast vorbire se reflect, n primul
rnd, prin personajele animale, ce oglindesc sufletul
persoanelor din istoria Moldovei, iar prin aciunea lor se
reflect fapte inspirate din adevr. Cantemir a scris astfel,
istoria sub influena greac, dar i prin gndul de a se putea
exprima liber i a putea s scrie adevrul fr s aib dificulti
din partea poporului moldovean.
Istoria Ieroglific, scris ntr-o limb grea, cu fraze lungi
i cu topica limbii latine, creeaz prima oper literar
adevrat, iar pe Dimitrie Cantemir ca fiind primul nostru
scriitor adevrat n literatura romn.
Aceast carte prezint adevrul despre Moldova i despre
cele mai dorite lucruri, ns, cu toate c a fost scris ntr-un mod n
care s poat exprima ntr-un mod ct mai subtil adevrul i
pentru a induce cititorului ideea subneleas a adevrului, cartea
reflect, pe lng istoria i adevrul zilelor noastre, i tristeea de a
ti c oamenii sunt condui de aceeai putere i dorina stpnit
de o foamete continu, o foame pentru putere.
Cantemir ne-a druit o carte unde adevrul este cel ce iese
mereu la suprafa, strecurndu-se pe lng viciile oamenilor,
dorinele negre ale acestora i falsitatea lucrurilor, o carte unde
putem s nelegem mai bine firea omului i a realiza adevrata
fa ce se ascunde sub masca pe care timpul o creeaz asupra
noastr, o masc ce are rolul uneori de a proteja puritatea ce se
afl dedesubtul ei, dar i pentru a ascunde rutatea ce ne
stpnete mintea.

153
UNDERSTANDING HISTORY HELP BY
DIMITRIEI CANTEMIR
AND HIS CREATION ISTORIA IEROGLIFICA

Ilie Maria Victoria,


Rou Diana,
Colegiul Naional Matei Basarab

Cantemir is a writer, a creator who brought new ideas


and combinations. His figure, shaded today, is one of a
superior man, enlightened voivode, ambitious and jaded,
intelligent and solitary, redeemer of men and misanthrope,
hankering for his beloved Moldavia and an adventurer, a
tanbur singer, an academic from Berlin, a Russian prince, a
Romanian historian, versant with every pleasure of this world,
Dimitrie Cantemir is our Lorenzo de Medici. (George
Clinescu).
This quote that describes Dimitrie Cantemir, renders his
complexity and the immensity of his rich personality. He is the
most important humanist of the Romanian culture, an
encyclopaedically spirit, who has reflected in literature the
beauty of the Romanian people and gave another view upon
our country. He was the Prince of Moldavia (1693; 1710-1711)
for a brief period of time, living the years left of his life at the
courtyard of his friend, the tsar Peter the Great. From all
cultural domains the ones which interested him the most were
literature, history, philosophy, logic, music, ethnography, the
scholar having a complex mind.

154
Istoria ieroglifica shows not only the complex mind of
the author, who studied in Greek schools and has lived in the
Arabian-Greek environment but also the unique characters of
the novel. For Cantemir this was a politic apologue transcribed
by means of figures of style. Literary critique has two opinions
about this book. Some consider it to be the first Romanian
novel (the first allegoric novel), and others think that it is a
very important fable. These two ideas came from the action
and the characters of the book, having as a theme the political
conflict between Moldavia and Wallachia, more precisely
between the boyars and lords of these two Romanian provinces
and has for the characters people from the real world imagined
as animals: birds (those from Wallachia) and animals (those
from Moldavia). The novels title is an anti-phrase, a classic
form of irony. Cantemir uses the allegory with a defensive
purpose, to speak freely, about the occurrences and the
contemporary personalities. His wish was to leave a document
about the historical facts, that justifies his actions and to
explain the reasons for that he could not be more precise,
without trouble. The note before the first chapter: Istoria
ieroglifica / divided in twelve parts / similar with 760 of
epigrams beautifully constructed / at the beginning of a scale
of revealing numbers. / And at the end with the unknown
numbers / interpreted. / Made by /Dimitriu/Cantemir
(Marcu, Mdlina, Pamfletul politic-,,Istoria Ieroglific-
Dimitrie Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i Comunicare, pagina
14) represents the entire name of the creation.
In this book, Cantemir debates the problems of leading
the state, making indirectly a demonstration of ideal qualities
of the enlightened regnant. In an humanist meaning he
thought that the spiritual values decide the history. Istoria
ieroglifica is a prose in which the real history loses its literature
gain. Dimitrie Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i Comunicare,
pagina 13). Books are a labyrinth full of metaphores,

155
descriptions and comparisons which contains the obvious style
of Cantemir, having an encoded text which can't be unnoticed
by untrained readers, irony, sarcasm, allegory, funny
occurrences which hide different meanings. This is proved by
Clinescus commentary: Historians have linguistic charm
and a gift for narrating, Cantemir is a writer. (Marcu,
Mdlina, Pamfletul politic-,,Istoria Ieroglific -Dimitrie
Cantemir, Colecia nr.17 Limb i Comunicare, p.11).
The characters of the book are narrated as animals, having
the purpose of creating a suitable image of every type of spirit.
These characters represent the essence of every personality,
not only the ones from that certain period and the politic
members who were in conflict, but the personalities of
nowadays who may easily enter in the margins of descriptions
of these books. The book has at its end a kind of dictionary in
which certain terms are explained ((puii-feciorii (sons); tulee-
bani, lei (money); cap alb-batrn (old man); penele, aripile,
fulgii-banii, avuia (money, wealth, inheritance); unul din
Corbi- unul din domnii munteni/ one of the Wallachian
Princes; dobitoc platonicesc-omul (the man)) he specifies
which characters are involved in the action, for example: Ma
Slbatec (the Wild Cat) is Ilie Cantacuzino; Constantin
Brncoveanu is the raven Corbul; Mihai Racovi is named the
camel / Camil; Mihai-Vod is the ostrichcamel Struocmila;
Epitrop Vulturul is the Prince of Wallachia; Radu Golescu is
the hawk a.s.o.. (Ivan, Vasilica, Ivan, Ioan, Istoria ieroglific i
iganiada sau Tabra-iganilor pe nelesul tuturor,
Niculescu Publishing House, pag 119-123). Dimitrie Cantemir
describes himself as an: unicorn creating an image of
superiority. With all those numerous animals, Cantemir wasnt
satisfied, considering that some types of personalities cant be
characterized by only one breed, and he created other species
of animals, for example Mihai-Vod is named Struocamil
ostrichcamel, Alexandru Mavrocord is Camilopardalul.

156
Besides the characters from the book some other
comparisons can be noticed, for example: cpue pline cu
snge/ticks full of blood - pungi cu bani (bags of money);
ccreaza Cmilei/the Camel's shit - banii pe care i strnge
Mihai-Vod (the money which Mihai Vod saves); zidirea
Babilonului nceperea nenelegerilor/beginning of
missunderstandings; the Eufrat - lcomia fr limite / the
unbounded greed. The characters of Istoria ieroglifica have
an impact on making the book more interesting, creating an
aura besides the philosophic theories which can be noticed
from what characters say and act, an aura which describes
discreetly the situation from that certain date.
The animals that Cantemir created help to bring into life
an improved image of everyones soul, some animals have a
soul which craves for freedom and justice. In the book it is
described a tetrapodous that claims his complaint for
insubordination of the soul, complaining full of belief and
anger against compulsion. By the character Fox the author
succeeds to create the best image which sustains the
authenticity of the narrated events. He swears on the tail of
the character, ironically and being superior above all saying
that what have I seen with my eyes, with my mouth I am
telling. By this narration of the Fox the author gives to the
reader a moment to consider what the Fox says, true or false,
but the animal leaded by the stimulation of the listeners
promises a second story that wishes to transmit a philosophic
theory about the wisdom from the head of the Wolf. The
author creates for his characters the state of dreaming, a
dream that reflects their own wishes, just like the dream of the
Chameleon when he dreams about the Unicorn being above
him, struggled by its superiority: by several nightwatch the
unicorn with falcon quarrel making[]from its slot by going to
the great evil sea swimming[..]in waves of deceit [..]sleep
without sleep he struggled.

157
The episode with the dream becomes a very important
and reliable point in the novel, because of the narration which
suggests its effort, assigning him with strength and will to be
above the other ones, but the dream becomes also a symbol
which expresses the malice and the malefic spirit of the
Chameleon, that of knowing the Unicorn inferior. The
character expresses not only through his behavior but also
through his appearance as a double-faced person who follows
his own purposes and interests (the Chameleon is an animal
that can change the color of its skin in order to help himself
hide from predatories).
Reading the book at certain pages we will find besides a
profound lection full of meaning, a pleasant lection and an
interior voice which the characters induce. This kind of voice is
rendered by the characters, which reflect the soul of people
from the history of Moldavia, and the action is rendered by
real facts. Cantemir wrote this way, a history under Greek
influence but also through the fact that he can express himself
freely by writing the truth without having other difficulties
from the people of Moldavia.
Istoria ieroglifica was written in a difficult language,
with long phrases based on the Latin language topic, created
this book as the first literary paper, and made Dimitrie
Cantemir as our first real writer in the Romanian literature.
This book represents the truth about Moldavia and about
the most wanted things, but although it was written to express
all in a subtle way, to express the truth and to induce to the
reader the idea of the truth, so, the book reflects besides
history and reality in our days, the sadness knowing the fact
that people are led by the same power and will be controlled by
a continuous fight for power.
Cantemir left us a book where the truth is the one that
always comes out to the surface, hiding throughout mans
vicious, negative wishes and the deceitfulness of things, a book

158
in which we can understand better the mankind and to realize
the true face that hides under the mask that time creates on
ourselves, a mask that sometimes has the role to protect the
purity from beneath but also for hiding the hatred that
possesses our mind.

References

Ivan Vasile i Ivan Ioan, Istoria ieroglific i iganiada


sau Tabra-iganilor pe nelesul tuturor, Niculescu
Publishing House.
Marcu Mdlina, Pamfletul Politic Istoria ieroglific-
Dimitrie Cantemi, Else Publishing House.

159
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR SAVANTUL I
EDUCATORUL

Merlan Laura,
Clin Paula,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

Printre toi scriitorii notri din trecut,


figura lui Dimitrie Cantemir se impune cu att
mai mult, cu ct surprindem n ea pe
adevratul erudit, doritor de a cerceta i studia
faptele pe baza unui mai mare i mai bogat
numr de cunotine. Stpn pe o cultur tot
att de vast ca oricare nvat din Apus,
numele lui trecu dincolo de hotarele Moldovei,
fcndu-se cunoscut n lumea scriitorilor din
Occident. Importana i valoarea scrierilor sale
ajunse s fie recunoscute de toi, iar publicarea
ctorva din ele scoase mai bine n eviden
erudiiunea autorului. ncepnd de la 1714,
cnd Cantemir fu numit membru al Academiei
din Berlin, numele i meritele lui literare sunt
amintite n mai multe scrieri aprute n secolul
trecut.
(Ovid Densusianu)

Scriitor valoros, nc din primele opere se dovedete un


adevrat umanist. Prima lucrare i este tiprit n anul 1698 cu
numele de Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu lumea sau
Giudeul sufletului cu trupul. Aceast prim lucrare denot
att preocuparea sa pentru fenomenul religiei, ct i nclinaia
ctre filosofie. Odat scris, lucrarea i nscrie autorul drept

160
ntemeietor al filosofiei romneti. Dei ntr-o msur mai
mic, se remarc i viitoarele nclinaii ale gnditorului social
politic. Spre deosebire de predecesorii si istoriografi,
Cantemir face n opera sa o violent critic boierimii, care va
culmina n operele sale de maturitate. Lucrare de tineree,
Divanul prezint elemente raionaliste i de critic social, ce
prefigureaz personalitatea de mai trziu a scriitorului.
n anul 1700, termin Sacrosanctae scientia
indepingibilis imago (Imaginea tiinei sacre care nu se poate
descrie). Orientarea general a lucrrii este mistic-religioas,
punnd n discuie problemele filosofice ale vremii sale cum ar
fi: teoria cunoaterii, teoria originii materiei sau problema
timpului. Prima dat scris n limba latin, creaia sa va fi
tradus i n roman sub titlul de Metafizic (1928). Aceast
lucrare ne descoper latura patriotic a lui Cantemir; aprnd
ortodoxia n faa religiei catolice, el afirm drepturile la
independena politic.
Lucrarea surprinde superioritatea sa fa de
contemporani, prin nivelul de informare puin obinuit i prin
tentativele de explicaii abordate. Astfel, plecnd de la premisa
bisericii c adevrata cunotin a lucrurilor este revelaia, de
natura mistic, autorul se bazeaz pe concepiile unor filosofi
care au introdus serioase elemente raionaliste, pe fundament
religios. De exemplu, n ncercarea sa sublim de a da o
explicaie plauzibil problemei originii universului, Cantemir
recurge la nvtura unui alchimist i medic flamand, i
anume Ioan Baptist van Helmont, discipol al lui Paracelsius.
Abordnd o corelaie special ntre tiin i religie, scriitorul
accept punctul de vedere religios asupra creaiei, ns
consider c natura are o evoluie independent. De asemenea,
se poate spune c aceasta este cartea de filosofie prevestit de
Divanul, cuprinznd 800 de pagini la care Cantemir a lucrat
cu contiina unui om de tiin.
Din alt perspectiv, dorina de a da un manual clar,

161
destinat studiului, l ndeamn pe Cantemir s scrie n jurul
anului 1701 lucrarea n limba latin intitulat Compendiolum
universae logices institutores. La noi, apare n 1883, sub
numele Logica, n Operele principelui Dimitrie Cantemir".
Prin organizarea, sistematizarea i coeziunea materialului,
aceasta are caracterul unui manual de nvmnt. Eruditul
accept o logic natural, aceea a gndirii de fiecare zi, urmnd
principiile lui Aristotel.
Avnd nclinri n domenii vaste, talentul principelui
moldovean se remarc i n muzic. La cererea elevilor lui,
elaboreaz manualul Tarifu ilmi musiki ala veghi kus
(Explicarea muzicii teoretice pe scurt), singura lucrare scris
n limba turc, tradus n romn sub denumirea Tratatul de
muzic turceasc. Motivul acestei scrieri este inexistena la
momentul respectiv a unui sistem unitar de notare a semnelor
muzicale, fapt ce mpiedica studiul muzicii orientale.
Talentat, Cantemir ajunge s i depeasc maetri,
remarcndu-se ca priceput cntre de tambur, dup cum
afirm Neculce i Nicolae Costin. Astfel, el i-a ctigat faima i
prin compunerea unor cntece, unele dintre ele devenind
celebre i ajungnd n repertoriul lutresc.
Cu aceast oper n domeniul muzical, se ncheie prima
perioad a creaiei lui Dimitrie Cantemir, perioad ce ne
ngduie s observm evoluia acestui savant remarcabil.
Fondul su original de idei, spiritual tiinific, nclinat mai ales
spre cercetri n domeniul istoriei, dezvluie treptat formarea
unei personaliti remarcabile.
n anul 1705, scrie primul roman alegoric al literaturii
romne, adevrat Roman de Renard romnesc, ns cu scopuri
polemice (G. Clinescu). Istoria ieroglific reprezint o istorie
secret a rivalitii dintre Cantemireti i Brncoveneti,
nfindu-l pe Cantemir drept primul nostru scriitor social de
nuan progresist. Romanul reflect, pe de-o parte, ura
mpotriva boierimii, alturi de simpatia fa de rani, iar pe de

162
alt parte, atitudinea sa fa de asuprirea turceasc i intuiia
decderii Porii. Scriitorul nu-i propune s trateze evenimentele
ca un istoric, ci ca un literat; aciunea este bine condus i fluent.
Cititorul care s-a familiarizat cu limbajul savant elaborat parcurge
Istoria ieroglific ntr-un mod plcut.
De asemenea, pn la aceast scriere, Cantemir i
dovedise predilecia pentru lucrrile filosofice, ns Istoria
ieroglific marcheaz o apropiere de raionalism, fr a se
desprinde de concepia teologic. Astfel, savantul se situeaz
pe o poziie avansat, apropiat de cea a marilor gnditori ai
timpului, considernd c misiunea filosofului este aceea de a
explica fenomenele, cutnd n ele ordinea necesar.
Ceea ce face din Istoria ieroglific o oper remarcabil
este concepia social-politic a lui Dimitrie Cantemir,
maturizat prin studierea sistematic a istoriei i prin propria
experien. Contient c prin scrierile cronicarilor nu se
fcuser dect pai timizi n crearea unei limbi literare, el i
propune s contribuie nu numai la nchegarea unui stil al
literaturii beletristice, dar s creeze i un limbaj tiinific i
filosofic. mprumuturile le face din limbile universale ale
timpului, respectiv greaca i latina, dar i din slavon i turc;
termenii mprumutai trebuie asimilai n limb, integrai
spiritului acesteia.
Dup ce a reuit s ctige titlul de domnitor al Moldovei
pentru fratele su, Antioh Cantemir, devine el nsui domn, ntre
anii 1710 1711. Idealul lui Dimitrie Cantemir este nlturarea
oligarhiei boiereti. Pe plan extern, acesta este reprezentat de
lupta mpotriva dominaiei otomane. Astfel, alege s se alieze cu
Rusia, avnd n vedere c este singura ar vecin ce poate ajuta
Moldova. n acest scop, ncheie tratatul de la Luk, cu Petru I,
arul Rusiei, tratat ce prevede nlturarea jugului otoman. Cu
toate acestea, n urma nfrngerii de la Stnileti, Cantemir
prsete Moldova, stabilindu-se n Rusia.

163
La 11 iunie 1714, este ales membru al Academiei din
Berlin, devenind primul romn care devine membru al unui
for tiinific de mare importan din strintate. La cererea
exclusiv a Academiei, scrie Descriptio Moldaviae, Lucrare
antropologic, reprezint o fresc social, politic i economic
a Moldovei. nceputul este dedicat argumentrii descendenei
acestui popor din cel daco-roman. Portretul moral al romnilor
este realizat din lumini i umbre, bazat pe contraste, porniri
impulsive i excese. Necesitatea obiectivitii pe care Cantemir
o resimte n cursul scrierii acestei opere ne este mrturisit
prin cuvintele eruditului: ...dragostea ce avem pentru patria
noastr ne ndeamn, pe de o parte, sa ludm neamul din
care ne-am nscut i s nfim pe locuitorii rii din care ne
tragem, iar pe de alt parte, dragostea de adevr ne mpiedic,
ntr-aceeai msur, s ludm ceea ce ar fi, dup dreptate, de
osndit. Pe lng expunerea caracteristicilor locuitorilor din
zona Moldovei, n Descrierea Moldovei apar i informaii
precum datele referitoare la sistemul crmuirii, organizarea
statului, cultur i obiceiuri. De asemenea, Cantemir cuprinde
n paginile crii sale i descrieri ale plaiurilor moldovene
neasemuit de frumoase.
Toate aceste aspecte sunt prezentate n trei pri. Partea
dinti este cea geografic. Aici sunt descrise inuturile,
trgurile, munii, pdurile i cmpiile Moldovei. Totodat,
aceste tablouri amintesc i de bogiile rii. Urmtoarea parte
este cea politic. Prezint referiri la forma de stat, clasele
sociale, venituri i legi, relaiile internaionale cu Poarta. n
ultima parte sunt date informaii despre religia, cultura i
limba moldovenilor. Cea mai important parte este aceea n
care sunt descrise moravurile moldovenilor, dar i aspecte
sociale ce in de acetia. Interesul acordat elementelor
populare (precum dansurile populare, obiceiurile i tradiiile)
denot o nelegere n profunzime a importanei folclorului
pentru specificul poporului.

164
Opera lui Cantemir surprinde, nu doar prin farmecul
scrierii i prin multitudinea de informaii ce pot alctui un
tablou exact, dar i prin prima cartografiere a Moldovei. n
ciuda deficienelor, capt o imens valoare documentar.
Alturi de harta Constantinopolului, susine calitatea lui
Cantemir de a fi un bun geograf.
Descrierea Moldovei are o mare importan literaturii
noastre, ntruct a fost prima sa carte ce ne-a ncadrat n
circuitul european, fcndu-ne cunoscui opiniei publice.
Cam n acelai timp cu redactarea lucrrii Descriptio
Moldaviae, scrie i Creterea i descreterea Imperiului
Otoman, oper ce i dezvluie latura de expert n chestiunea
oriental. Documentaia pentru redactarea acestei istorii este
reprezentat de experiena sa cu Imperiul Otoman. Datorit
relaiilor sale cu marii crturari turci i observarea poporului
cu mare atenie, reuete s i ghiceasc slbiciunile i s aib
viziunea declinului su. Documentele pe care s-a bazat au fost
doar o parte din toate cele ntocmite n Constantinopol. Din
biblioteca imperial reuise s obin portretele sultanilor, pe
care le copiase, ns odat cu prsirea Moldovei, ele intraser
n posesia lui Ioan Mavrocordat, succesorul lui Alexandru
Mavrocordat. Din acest motiv, o parte din informaii sunt
reconstituite cu ajutorul propriei memorii, care, n ciuda
ctorva infideliti, poate explica anumite caracteristici pe care
Cantemir le vede n oamenii Imperiului Otoman. Este prima
dat cnd cineva privete din aceast perspectiv, pentru c,
fa de ali istorici care analizeaz fenomenul oriental din
afar, eruditul are la baz propria experien, dar i preuirea
istoriografiei turceti. n aceast privin, el afirm: Mai
bucuros m altur la scriitorii turci, ca unii care sunt i mai
bine informai i mai exaci.
Istoria sa cuprinde realitile Imperiului Otoman ncepnd
cu 1300, de la Osman sultanul, pn n anul 1711, anul n care
Cantemir i-a pierdut tronul. Sunt prezentate i explicate etapele

165
de cretere i descretere politic. Autorul consider c partea de
evoluie se termin n anul 1683, odat cu asediul Vienei, cu toate
c de fapt, se ncheiase nc din 1672, fapt semnalat de altfel de
Cantemir, care expune declinul politic i militar ncepnd cu acel
an: De la anul Hagirei 611 (1214) pn la 1083 (1672) aceasta a
fost cea din urm victorie care a adus ceva de folos statului, sau
prin ctigarea unor ceti, sau prin anexarea unor provincii la
vechile confinii ale imperiului.
ntre 1716 - 1718, scrie ntia biografie istoric
romneasc, care este totodat i prima monografie
modern, ca spirit i metod, a unei domnii (George Ivacu).
Astfel, el pledeaz pentru dreptul de motenitor al tatlui su,
argumentndu-l cu date exacte, concrete. n paginile crii, se
observ tendina lui Cantemir de a-i idolatriza tatl.
Unicitatea operei se observ n stilul impecabil de narator, stil
ce nu mai este ntlnit nicieri n totalitatea creaiilor lui.
Scris sub forma memoriilor sale, este de remarcat distingerea
de tipul de lucrare ce conine doar informaia seac. Spre
deosebire de alte studii, transmite o cldura sufleteasc mai
ales prin anumite scene de familie.
Alt carte scris tot n aceast perioad poart numele de
Evenimentele Cantacuzinilor i Brncovenilor. Cantemir
contureaz prin aceast scriere ideea c nenelegerile dintre
cele dou familii au reprezentat unul dintre factorii ce au
favorizat ntrirea jugului otoman.
n anul 1717, din nou la cererea Academiei din Berlin,
Cantemir scrie o lucrare de 96 de pagini n limba latin.
Inedita Historia moldo-vlahic are rolul de a demonstra
romanitatea poporului roman, precum i unitatea de popor i
limb, continuitatea pe teritoriul vechii Dacii.
La 1722, ia parte la o expediie n Caucaz, alturi de Petru
I. Tot din porunca acestuia, tiprete Sistema religiei
mahomedane, oper ce cuprinde o descriere a civilizaiei
musulmane din diverse puncte de vedere (religie, organizare a

166
nvmntului, creaie artistic, filosofie, justiie, via
popular, medicin). Titlul lucrrii sugereaz concepia
autorului n care religia are un sens mult mai larg.
Ultima lucrare a lui Dimitrie Cantemir este Hronicul
Vechimei a romno-moldo-vlahilor. Aceasta este socotit un
adevrat testament politic adresat norodului moldovean, scris
din dragostea fa de patrie. Susinnd ideea cronicreasc,
merge pe teoria descendenei latine a poporului, realiznd o
istorie pe baza scrierilor cronicarilor romni.
La data de 21 august 1723, moare la moia ce-i purta
numele. n aceast zi se stinge cel mai nvat principe al vechii
istorii a poporului nostru, lsnd n urm amintirea unui
scriitor desvrit, a unui geograf, muzician i istoric nvat, a
unei personaliti uriae ce va dinui n istorie.

Bibliografie

(1979), Dicionar literar romn de la origine pn la


1900, Ed. Academiei Romne.
(1969), Istoria limbii romne, Bucureti, Ed. tiinific.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Opere Complete (Divanul),
Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
Cantemir Dimitrie, Descrierea Moldovei, Bucureti, Ed.
Litera.
Mciuc, Constantin, (1962), Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti,
Ed. Tineretului.

167
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR THE SAVANT AND THE
EDUCATOR

Merlan Laura,
Clin Paula,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

Among all of our past writers, the image


of Dimitrie Cantemir asserts even more, as we
intercept within it the true erudite, eager to
research and study the facts, based on larger
and bolder knowledge. Master of a culture as
wide as of any other lettered from the West, his
name passed beyond the borders of Moldova,
placing itself into the world of the writers from
the Occident. The importance and value of his
writings become recognized by everyone, and
the publication of some of them underlined the
wisdom of the author. Starting in 1714, when
Cantemir was chosen as member of the
Academy from Berlin, his name and his literary
merits are reminded in several writings
published in the last century.
(Ovid Densuianu)

Valuable author, Cantemir proves to be a true humanist


even from his early writings. His first book is published in
1698, under the name Divanul [The Divan] or Glceava
neleptului cu lumea The Wise Man's Parley with the World
or Giudeul sufletului cu trupul The Judgement of the Soul

168
with the Body. This first paper denotes not only his concern
for religion, but also his interest in philosophy. Once written,
the text aligns its author as the founder of the Romanian
philosophy. Although not so obvious, the opinions of a future
social-politic thinker can be also distinguished. Unlike his
predecessors, Cantemir brings a violent criticism to the
aristocrats, ideas which will culminate in his following
writings. The early work, Divanul presents the rationalist
elements and the social critique, which foreshadow the
upcoming personality of the writer.
In 1700, he finishes Sacrosanct scientia indepingibilis
imago [The image of the sacred science which cannot be
described]. The general direction of this work is a mystical-
religious one, challenging the philosophical ideas of his time,
such as: the theory of knowledge, the theory of origins, matter
of and time. Written for the first time in Latin, the text will be
translated into Romanian as Metafizic [Metaphysics] in
1928. This paper shows the patriotic side of Cantemir;
defending the Orthodoxy against the Catholicism, he claims
the rights to a political independence.
This text shows his superiority over the other people living
in his time, based on his unusual wisdom and on the tentative
of explanations that he approaches. Hence, starting from the
premise which belongs to the church that the true
knowledge of matters is the revelation of the mystical nature
, the author rests upon the conceptions of great philosophers
who brought in important rational elements, on religious
fundament. For example, in his transcendent attempt to
explain the origins of the Universe, Cantemir turns to the
theory of a Fleming medic and alchemist, named Ioan Baptist
van Helmont, who was a disciple of Paracelsius. Approaching a
special connection between science and religion, the author
adopts the religious point of view concerning the creation, but
he considers that the nature has an independent evolution

169
itself. Furthermore, this can be described as the book promised
by Divanul, adding in 800 pages on which Cantemir worked
at with the consciousness of a science man.
From another perspective, the desire to give a clear
textbook, intended for study, prompts Cantemir to write,
around the year 1701, the paper in Latin entitled
Compendiolum univers logices institutores. On our land, it
is released in 1883, under the name Logica [The Logic],
included in Operele principelui Dimitrie Canemir [The work
of Prince Dimitrie Cantemir]. Through the organization,
systematization and cohesion of the material, the work
resembles with a school book. The erudite accepts a natural
logic, that of every-day thinking, following the principles of
Aristotel.
Having propensities in broad areas, the Moldavian
princes talent stands out in music as well. At his pupils
request, he elaborates the textbook: Kitab-i-musiki (The brief
explanation of theoretical music), the only work written in
Turkish, translated in Romanian under the name Tratatul de
muzic turceasc [Treatise on Turkish music]. The reason for
writing this paper is the inexistence, at that time, of a unitary
system of writing the musical symbols, fact that hindered the
study of oriental music.
Talented, Cantemir manages to surpass his masters,
standing out as a very skilled tambour player, as Neculce and
Nicolae Costin claim. Thus, he also earned his fame through
the composition of several songs, some of them even becoming
famous and being included in the fiddlers repertory.
With this piece of work into the music field, the first cycle
which allows us notice the evolution of the remarcable
savant of Dimitrie Cantemirs creation ends. His original
background of ideas, spiritual scientific, inclined to research in
the hystory field, gradually reveals the shaping of a remarcable
personality.

170
In 1705, he writes the first alegoric novel of the Romanian
literature, a true Romanian Renard Novel (G. Clinescu).
Istoria ieroglific [The hieroglyphic history] represents a
secret history of the rivalry between the Cantemir family and
the Brncoveanu family, revealing Cantemir as our first social
writer of progressive orientation. On the one hand, the novel
reflects the hatred against the aristocrats, but also the
sympathy for the peasantry, and on the other hand, the
authors attitude against the Ottoman oppression and the
intuition of the Ottoman Empires decline. The writer doesnt
unfold the events as a historian, but as a man of letters; the
action is well led and fluent. The reader that is familiarized
with the elaborate scholarly speech will read Istoria
ieroglific in a pleasant way.
Even until this creation, Cantemir had already proven his
predilection for the philosophic works, but Istoria ieroglific
marks an approach from the rationalism, without getting rid of
the religious conception. Thus, the savant situates himself on an
advanced position, close to the one of the greatest thinkers of his
time, deeming that the philosophers mission is to explain
phenomens, trying to discover a neccesar order within them.
What makes Istoria ieroglific a remarkable work is
Dimitrie Cantemirs social-political conception, matured
through the systematic study of history and through his own
experience. Realizing that the writings of the chroniclers were
only timid steps in creating a literary language, he is
determined to contribute not only in contouring a belletristic
literature style, but also in creating a scientific and philosophic
language. The new words are borrowed from the universal
languages of the time, Greek and Latin, but also from Slavonic
and Turkish; these terms must be assimilated into the
language, integrated in its spirit.
After succeeding in winning the title of Prince of Moldova
for his brother, Antioh Cantemir, he becomes himself Prince

171
between 1710-1711. Dimitrie Cantemirs ideal is the elimination
of the manorial oligarchy. Externally, this ideal is represented
by the fight against Ottoman supremacy. Therefore, he decided
to form an alliance with Russia, considering the fact that it is
the only neighboring country that can help Moldova. For this,
he signs the Lutk treaty with Petru I the Great, tsar of Russia,
treaty which stipulated the annihilation of the Ottoman yoke.
Nevertheless, after the defeat at Stnileti, Cantemir leaves
Moldavia and settles in Russia.
On the 11st of June, 1714, he is elected as a member of the
Academy from Berlin, becoming the first Romanian to be
chosen as a part of an important foreign scientific forum. At
the demand of this Academy, Cantemir writes Descriptio
Moldavi. Anthropological paper, it represents a social,
political and economical fresco of Moldova. The beginning is
dedicated to the succession of these people from the Dacians.
The picture of Romanian people is created from lights and
shadows, based on contrasts, impulsive weakness and
transgressions. Considering the manner in which the paper is
written, the author states: the love which we hold for our
homeland impels us, on the one hand, to praise our lineage
and to depict the habitants of our land, but on the other hand,
the love for truth forbids us to praise those things that we
should, in fact, convict. Besides the disquisition on the social
characteristics, Descrierea Moldovei [The Description of
Moldavia] also contains information referring to the
organisation of the state, government matters, culture and
traditions. Moreover, Cantemir marks out in the pages of his
book beautiful descriptions of the Moldavian landscapes.
All these aspects are structured in three parts. The
geographical part is the first. Here, the author describes the
lands, markets, mountains, forests and plains of Moldavia. At
the same time, these landscapes remind the reader of the
beauty and luxury of the country. Next is the political part. It

172
presents aspects concerning the form of the state, the social
hierarchy, laws, incomings and the international relationship
with the Ottoman Empire. The last section provides
information related to the Moldavian religion, culture and
language. Here, the most interesting are the aspects describing
the habits of the people, but also some social elements. The
attention given to the popular matters such as traditional
dances, unwritten laws indicates the deep understanding for
the importance of folklore.
Cantemirs work astonishes not only by the charm of
writing and the multitude of information which is able to
recreate a precise scene , but also by containing the first map
drawing of Moldavia. Despite the deficiencies, it gains a great
documentary value. Along with the map of Constantinople,
this sustains the quality of Cantemir as a valuable geographer.
Around the same time when he wrote Descriptio
Moldaviae, he also wrote Creterea i descreterea
Imperiului Otoman, The History of the Growth and Decay of
the Ottoman Empire, work which shows his experience in the
Oriental matters. The information regarding this historical
work is represented by his experience living in Orient. Thanks
to his relations to popular Turkish scholars and the close-
watching of the people, he manages to guess their weaknesses
and see their decline. The documents on which he based off his
writing were only a part from Constantinople. From the
imperial library he managed to see the Padishahs portraits,
which he hand-copied, but when he left Moldova, they became
the possession of Ioan Mavrocordat, the successor of
Alexandru Mavrocordat. Because of that, part of the
information is reconstituted from his own memory. With
insignificant infidelities, these elements can explain certain
traits which Cantemir saw in the people of the Ottoman
Empire. It is the first time when someone can see from this
perspective, because, different from other historians analyzing

173
this movement from the outside, the Moldavian erudite can
base his writings on his personal experience, but also on the
precious Turkish historical writings.
His historical writings contain the realities of the Ottoman
Empire beginning of 13th century, from Padishah Osman, until
1711, the year when Cantemir lost his power as Prince ruler of
Moldavia. The ups and downs of the political power are
explained in steps. The author considers that part of the
evolution stops in 1683, by the time of the Wien siege, even
though it had finished in 1672.
Between 1716 and 1718 he wrote the first Romanian
historical biography, which is also the first modern
monograph, through spirit and method, of a government
(according to George Ivacu). Thus, he pleads for the
inheritance right his father has, reasoning with exact and
concrete data. In the pages of this book, Cantemir shows his
tendency to idolize his father. The uniqueness of the work can
be observed in his flawless narrating style, which cant be seen
in other works of his. Written under the form of memoire, it is
to be noted the distinction from the type of works which
contains only dull information. Different from other studies, it
sends off warmth, especially when portraying family moments.
Another one of his works is entitled Evenimentele
Cantacuzinilor i Brncovenilor [The events of the Cantacuzino
and Brancoveanu families]. Cantemir contours in this writing the
misunderstandings these families have went through and which
favored the stronger hold of the Ottoman ruling.
In the year 1717, again by the request of the Berlin
Academy, Cantemir wrote a 97 page long Latin work. The new
and exciting Historia moldo-vlahica plays a role in the
explanation of Romanian people's continuity on Dacian land,
but also the uniqueness of the land and language.
In 1722, he took part in a Caucas expedition, with Peter I the
Great. By the will of the latter one, he wrote Sistema religiei

174
mahomedane [The system of the Muslim religion], work
containing a description of the Muslim civilization from different
standpoints (religious, educational, artistic, philosophic, lawful,
everyday life, medical). The title of the work shows the authors
concept, through which this religion is much broader in meaning.
The last work of Dimitrie Cantemir was Hronicul
vechimei a romano-moldo-vlahilor [The Chronicle of the
durability of Romans-Moldovians-Wallachians]. This is
considered to be a real political testament which addresses to
the Moldavian people, written for his love for the people.
Supporting the scholarly idea, of the peoples Latin lineage, he
realized a historical work based off on the previous scholars.
On the 21st of august 1723, he dies at the estate that will take
his name. That day sees the end the most knowledgeable prince
of the old Romanian history, leaving behind the memory of a
complete writer, a geographer, musician and historian, and of a
huge personality which will last throughout history.

References

(1979), Dicionar literar romn de la origine pn la


1900, Ed. Academiei Romne.
(1969), Istoria limbii romne, Bucureti, Ed. tiinific.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Opere Complete (Divanul),
Ediie ngrijit, Studiu introductiv i comentarii de Virgil
Cndea, Bucureti, Ed. Academiei.
Cantemir Dimitrie, Descrierea Moldovei, Bucureti, Ed.
Litera.
Mciuc, Constantin, (1962), Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti,
Ed. Tineretului.

175
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR - EDUCATOR AL
ROMNILOR

Anghelina Simona Octavia,


Colegiul Naional Octav Onicescu Bucureti,
Profesor ndrumtor: Marcela Graianu

Constantin Noica nota,


n lucrarea sa Jurnal
filosofic, Cultura noastr
ncepe cu Dimitrie Cantemir.
Opera sa, literar, filosofic,
tiinific i muzicografic
echivaleaz cu aceea a unei
ntregi societi literare i
tiinifice.
Spiritul aceluia care a
fost Dimitrie Cantemir a
reprezentat temelia formrii
att a umanismului, ct i a iluminismului,
influenat n mod copleitor de opera Antichitii greceti i
romane.
Cantemir, prinul-filosof, Omul-Academie, i-a
desvrit condiia de homo universalis, att de drag i
inaccesibil sau greu accesibil, n viziunea clasicilor culturii
antice, iar dup dobndirea acestui statut spiritual, a aezat
la locul cuvenit, prin operele sale, raiunea, deschiznd,
practic, calea iluminismului.

176
Acea raiune superioar, unic vehicul spiritual, era creat
pentru a ptrunde n lumea celor trei mari taine: cunoaterea de
sine, cunoaterea lui Dumnezeu, cunoaterea Lumii.
Marele crturar, considerat primul european din Orient,
a reuit s urce att de sus pe scara geniului uman, avnd la
fundamentul evoluiei sale ntreaga cultur a umanitii, fiind
stpnit de devotament i dragoste pentru tiin, druindu-se
studiului tuturor limbilor culturii universale, n scopul
descifrrii acesteia n toat originalitatea sa.
Fr a avea o domnie suficient de lung, care s i permit
s-i pun n practic ideile novatoare, Dimitrie Cantemir
rmne una dintre cele mai ilustre personaliti ale istoriei i
culturii noastre, cea dinti i cea mai pregnant figur cu
adevrat universal, generat de spiritualitatea romneasc,
om politic, diplomat, om de litere, enciclopedist, etnograf,
geograf, lingvist poliglot, muzicolog, figur remarcabil nu
numai la noi, ci i n ntreaga Europ. Personalitate complex,
Cantemir, dup o implicare profund n politic i diplomaie,
se ndeprteaz de aceste domenii, ns retragerea lui n lumea
crilor nu trebuie privit ca o nfrngere, ca o abdicare a lui n
faa realitii adverse.
El a continuat s lupte pentru cauza poporului nostru prin
toat opera sa, prin tot ceea ce a scris. Crile sale pot prea
astzi destul de greu de neles, scrise fiind ntr-o limb
greoaie... aceasta este aparena. Tratatele lui tiinifice,
ncercrile literare, ntreaga sa oper reprezint piatra
fundamental a colii Ardelene, aducnd argumente solide n
susinerea caracterului latin al limbii romne, n susinerea
apartenenei limbii i poporului romn la familia romanic.
Cu siguran, Romnia de astzi, ntreag, unitar i
independent, a putut fi cldit n bun msur i graie
strdaniei marelui crturar i om politic care a fost Dimitrie
Cantemir, pasiunii lui pentru cunoatere, zestrei culturale pe care

177
a druit-o poporului romn, de-a lungul scurtei sale existene.
Marele gnditor a realizat, prin intermediul operei sale,
educaia i culturalizarea propriului popor, pentru c n opera
sa i dau ntlnire umanismul i iluminismul, sinteza valorilor
tradiiei anunnd aproape expres tema cultului libertii,
tiinei i luminrii.
Sufletul odihn nu poate afla pn nu gsete adevrul,
carile l cearc orict de departe i orict de cu trud i-ar fi a-l
nimeri. Aceasta era deviza sa, a unui mare crturar umanist,
deschis ctre lume i progres, unul dintre cei mai erudii
umaniti, una dintre puinele personaliti multilaterale ale
culturii noastre, primul mare nume, urmat de I.H. Rdulescu,
B.P. Hadeu, N. Iorga, G. Clinescu.
Valenele personalitii sale sunt multiple i aproape
imposibil de demarcat: savant i istoric, muzicolog i literat,
cercettor al limbii i al folclorului, filosof i ptrunztor n
sistemul religiilor. A dorit, cu o nemrginit pasiune, s ptrund
n marile taine ale lucrurilor, ale lumii, ale ntregului Univers,
impunndu-se prin credina n cercetare, prin tiin. Apoi s-a
axat pe filosofie, subliniind superioritatea vieii spirituale asupra
celei biologice, n creaia sa Divanul sau Glceava neleptului.
Contribuia sa major este, cu siguran, cea din domeniul
istoric. n lucrarea Hronicul vechimei a romno-moldo-
vlahilor, Cantemir pune n discuie ndelung disputata tem a
originii i continuitii tuturor romnilor n teritoriu, afirmnd
c sunt moii i strmoii notri, ai romnilor.
Domnitor moldovean, Dimitrie Cantemir realizeaz prima
oper monografic asupra Moldovei, Descriptio Moldaviae,
structurat n trei mari pri: geografia rii i prima propunere
de hart, organizarea administrativ i politic i o ultim parte
ce conine detalii interesante despre tradiii, limb, religie.
Cu mare dragoste de ar, crturarul pune iari n
discuie problema latinitii limbii romne, realizeaz o

178
descriere ampl i documentat n plan geografic i politic,
cerceteaz cu pertinen etnografia i folclorul. El dorete cu
adevrat s arate strintii imaginea unui popor eroic, a unei
ri frumoase i bogate, dei relatrile sunt subiective.
Lucrarea sa prezint att cusururi, ct i caliti ale
moldovenilor, att umbre, ct i lumini... ndrznei, semei,
veseli, petrecrei, oteni pricepui i curajoi ce mnuiesc paloul
cu mult ndemnare, dar i lenei i nu prea iubitori de carte.
Este prezentat ntr-o lumin deosebit vestita ospitalitate a
acestui popor srac, ce ofer cu mare drag, din puinul lui,
mncare i gzduire oaspeilor, fr a cere nimic n schimb.
Tirania turceasc, jugul otoman ce ngenuncheaz
Moldova, srcia ranilor moldoveni, n ciuda bogiei
pmntului i a recoltelor, sunt prezentate cu realism.
Cantemir descrie, cu dragoste i lux de amnunte,
neasemuitele bogii ale plaiurilor moldoveneti, ogoarele,
pdurile, luncile, apele, ce fac din Moldova un trm de vis, o
ar de basm. Se mbin elementele vizuale, cromatice i
auditive n imagini artistice plastice ce descriu minuniile
Ceahlului, muntele mitologic.
Dezvoltnd ideile cronicarilor notri, n Descriptio
Moldaviae Cantemir pune accentul pe originea latin a
poporului i a limbii romne.
Opera literar a marelui crturar este reprezentat n mod
special de Istoria ieroglific, n viziunea multor cercettori
cel dinti roman romnesc de realitate istoric, chiar social-
filosofic, patriotic, o lucrare alegoric, o fabul de mari
proporii, nfind o ntreag epoc sub semnul luptei dintre
inorog i corb. Aciunea operei este simplist, reprezentnd
lupta familiilor Cantemir i Brncoveanu. Autorul ptrunde
chiar i n realitatea politic a Imperiului Otoman, viznd o
posibil descretere a acestuia.
Este o lucrare greoaie, cu hieroglife greu de neles, pe care

179
crturarul ncearc s le explice ntr-un glosar. Opera aceasta
este foarte dificil de clasificat ca gen literar, aprnd ca un
roman-pamflet n care se mbin naraiunea, fabula, basmul.
ntreaga sa scriere l numete pe Dimitrie Cantemir drept
Omul secolului al XVIII-lea, cel care, cu mult timp naintea
enunrii particularitilor unui popor de descenden mixt,
daco-roman, aduce argumente de netgduit, bazate pe date
istorice certe, n ceea ce privete prezena romneasc, originea
poporului romn, finaliznd ideea de romanitate a
predecesorilor si, mitul ntemeierii.
Spirit deosebit de nzestrat, ce mbin simbolic latura
istoric-cultural i cea mitic-arhaic a poporului romn,
ncearc cu toate mijloacele s demonstreze c spaiul sud-est
european, ndeosebi ara sa, este parte integrant a Europei,
ptruns de spiritul european, surs a acestuia.
Spirit enciclopedic, Cantemir impune prin ideile sale
progresiste, prin lucrrile sale de o valoare inestimabil, scrise n
stil erudit, ce i confer un loc special n istoria culturii romne.
Constantin Noica, n lucrarea sa Pagini despre sufletul
romnesc, spunea c a studia pe Dimitrie Cantemir nseamn a
reface starea Europei tiinifice de la nceputul secolului al XVIII-
lea. Tot el completa: Cantemir va defini gndirea romneasc i
aceasta va avea s garanteze pentru Cantemir.
ntlnirile sale cu Orientul i Occidentul au fost benefice
n sensul identificrii culturii neamului romnesc n interiorul
celor dou mari culturi. A reuit s devin astfel un nceptor
al culturii romne, un educator al romnilor, aducnd
universalitatea romnilor, cu dragoste, pasiune, druire,
nelepciune, trud.
Cantemir este primul care se simte n faa Universului, a
istoriei i a viitorului purttorul de cuvnt al tuturor
romnilor, lui revenindu-i gloria de a fi furit prima idee de
unitate, cnd a scris Hronicul romno-moldo-vlahilor. Chiar

180
dac a stat mult vreme departe de locurile natale, crturarul
era un profund cunosctor al limbii romne, al culturii
romaneti din timpul su i de dinaintea sa. Cea mai mare
reuit a sa a fost, cu siguran, felul unic n care a ntors
poporul romn cu faa ctre viitor.
Cel care acum se odihnete n Iai, la Trei Ierarhi, a fost cel
care a surprins n opera sa poporul romn, cultura acestuia,
istoria noastr, ideile i scrierile lui fiind documentul cel mai
evident despre contiina de sine a neamului romnesc de
pretutindeni.
Cantemir a neles, n genialitatea sa, c, dincolo de
patrimoniul comun al culturii universale, nelegerea deplin,
nvarea mesajului cultural al acesteia trebuiau aezate
ntr-o matc a culturii naionale.
nainte de a deveni universal, orice spirit este naional,
dup cum, odat devenit universal, acelai spirit se rentoarce
la origini mereu i de fiecare dat pentru a se remplini.
Nicolae Iorga concluziona cu profunzime n lucrarea sa
Istoria literaturii romne: Astfel, fiul de Domn moldovean a
trit ntr-un mediu care i-a ngduit lui i numai lui n toat
aceast epoc, n Rsrit i Apus, s aib cunotina tuturor
literaturilor i tuturor formelor de cultur de la Antichitatea
greac i latin pn la cultura oriental, turceasc, arab,
persan. i totui, de aceast bogat informaie, spiritul su nu
se las strivit; el a putut-o purta pe umeri: soldat mpovrat cu
arme grele, era capabil ns a merge la asalt, pentru oriice
int i atunci, din spiritul lui moldovenesc, plin de
originalitate, din vigoarea aceasta pe care nimic nu o putea
nbui, a rezultat ncrederea cu care el a atacat i puterea cu
care a biruit toate subiectele.

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DIMITRIE CANTEMIR EDUCATOR OF THE
ROMANIANS

Anghelina Simona Octavia,


Colegiul Naional Octav Onicescu Bucureti

Constantin Noica wrote in his Philosophical Journal


that Our culture starts with Dimitrie Cantemir. His works of
literature, philosophy, science and musicography equal that
one of an entire literary and
scientific society.
The spirit of the man who
was Dimitrie Cantemir
represented the foundation of
both Humanism and the
Enlightenment, being
overwhelmingly influenced by
the culture of Greek and
Roman antiquity.
Cantemir, the
philosopher prince, the
Academy-man, accomplished his condition as
homo universalis, which was so cherished and also
unattainable or rarely attainable in the mindset of the classics
of ancient culture, and having reached this spiritual status,
he put reason in its rightful place through his paper, practically
opening up the path for the Enlightenment.
That higher reason, that unique spiritual vehicle, was
created in order to allow to the world to discover and

182
understand the three great mysteries: the knowledge of the
self, the knowledge of God, the knowledge of the World.
The great scholar, considered as the first European in the
Orient, succeeded in climbing so high on the ladder of human
genius by grounding his evolution in the entire culture of
humanity, being endowed with devotion and love for science
and being able to dedicate himself to the study of some of the
languages of the universal culture with a view to deciphering
them in their entire originality.
Without a reign long enough to allow him to put his
innovative ideas into practice, Dimitrie Cantemir still remains
one of the most illustrious public figures of our culture and
history, the first and the most distinguished of our truly
universal personalities, generated by the Romanian
spirituality, politician, diplomat, man of letters, encyclopdist,
ethnographer, geographer, multilingual philologist,
musicographer, a remarkable character not only for us, but for
the whole Europe.
Complex personality, Cantemir retires from politics and
diplomacy after an intense involvement in these areas, but,
however, his retirement in the world of books must not be
regarded as a defeat or an abdication in the face of the adverse
reality.
He continued to fight the cause of our people through his
entire work, through everything he wrote. Today his books
may be difficult to be understood, being written in a graceless
language ... but this is only an appearance. His scientific
treatises, his literary attempts, his entire body of work
represents the corner stone of the Transylvanian School
movement, conveying strong arguments in supporting both the
Latin makeup of the Romanian language and also the idea that
the Romanian language and people belong to the Romance
family.

183
The nowadays Romania, as a whole, unified and
independent country was definitely built, in a great measure,
owing to the endeavors of the great scholar and statesman
Dimitrie Cantemir, by his thirst for knowledge and the cultural
heritage he handed to the Romanian people in his short life.
Through his work, the great thinker accomplished the
education and illumination of his people, as Humanism and
Enlightenment we meet in his creation, the synthesis of
traditional values anticipating, almost intently, the faith in
freedom, science and enlightenment as a cultural theme.
The soul cannot find rest until it discovers the
truth, which entices him from afar and, no matter the
travail, it is finally found. This was his dictum, the slogan
of a great humanist scholar, who embraced the world and the
progress, one of the most erudite humanists, one of the few
multilateral personalities of our culture, our first great name,
later to be followed by I.H. Rdulescu, B.P. Hadeu, N. Iorga,
G. Clinescu.
The facets of his personality are manifold and almost
impossible to delimitate: scientist and historian, musicologist
and man of letters, a student of languages and folklore,
philosopher and explorer of religious systems. He desired
passionately to penetrate the great mysteries of things, of the
world, of the entire Universe, establishing his name through
his belief in research, through his knowledge. Later he focused
on philosophy, emphasising the superiority of the spiritual
over the biological life, in his creation Divanul sau Glceava
neleptului cu lumea (The Divan or The Wise Man's Parley
with the World or The Judgement of the Soul with the Body).
His major contribution is, undoubtedly, in history. In his
Hronicul vechimei a romano-moldo-vlahilor (Chronicle of
the durability of Romans-Moldovians-Wallachians),
Cantemir considers the extensively debated topic of the origins

184
and continuity of all Romans over this land, stating that they
are our ancestors.
As a Moldavian ruler, Dimitrie Cantemir writes the first
monographic work of Moldavia, Descriptio Moldavi,
structured in three parts: the countrys geography and its first
proposed map, the administrative and political organisation
and a final part containing interesting details about traditions,
language and religion.
With a great love for his country, the scholar considers
again the problem regarding the Latin character of the
Romanian language, makes an ample and well-documented
geographic and political description and aptly investigates the
ethnography and the folklore. He truly desires to show
foreigners the image of a heroic people and a beautiful, rich
country although the accounts may be subjective.
His work presents both the Moldavians faults and
qualities, both shadows and lights... daring, temerarious,
joyful, convivial, knowledgeable brave soldiers who master the
sword, but at the same time lazy and not particularly partial to
books. A special light is thrown upon the famous hospitability
of this poor people, who fondly offer their guests food and
shelter from the little they have, without asking for anything in
return.
The Turkish tyranny, the Ottoman shackles which brought
Moldova to her knees, the poverty of the Moldavian peasants
defying the richness of the land and the harvests are all
presented convincingly.
Cantemir describes lovingly and minutely the
incomparable riches of the Moldavian country, the fields,
forests, meadows, waters that all mingle to make Moldavia a
dream land, a fairytale realm. The visual elements combine
with the chromatic and auditory ones in creating pictorial
artistic images describing the wonders of the Ceahlu, the
mythical mountain.

185
Elaborated upon the ideas articulated by our chroniclers,
Cantemir's Descriptio Moldaviae underlines the Latin origins
of the Romanian people and language.
The literary creation of the great scholar is best
represented by Istoria ieroglific (The Hieroglyphic
History), which is, in many researchers view, the first
Romanian novel depicting the social realities, a socio-
philosophic, patriotic, and allegoric novel, a wide-scale fable,
illustrating an entire era situated under the sign of the fight
between the unicorn and the raven. The plot is simple,
representing the clash of the Cantemir and Brncoveanu
families. The author even probes into the politics of the
Ottoman Empire, envisaging its possible decline.
It is a laborious work of art, with hermetic hieroglyphs
which the author attempts to explain in a glossary. This writing
is very difficult to be classified as a literary genre, to all
appearances being a pamphlet-novel which combines the
narrative, the fable and the fairytale.
His entire creation dubs Dimitrie Cantemir The 18th
century man, the one who, long before the particularities of a
people of mixed Roman and Dacian descent were ascertained,
brings irrefutable history-based arguments concerning the
Romanian presence, the origins of the Romanian people, and
thus rounding off the idea of Roman origin uttered by his
predecessors, the foundation myth.
A profoundly gifted spirit, symbolically entwining the
Romanian peoples historic-cultural side with the mythical-
archaic one, he tries with all means available to prove that the
Southeastern European space, and particularly his country, is
an integral part of Europe, infused with European essence and
at the same time, a source of it.
As an encyclopedic spirit, Cantemir commands respect
through his advanced thinking, his enormously valuable opus,

186
written in a scholastic style which grants it an exclusive place
in the history of the Romanian culture.
In his Pages on the Romanian Soul, Constantin Noica
said that studying Cantemir means re-constructing the shape
of the scientific Europe at the beginning of the 18th century.
He also added: Cantemir will define Romanian thought and,
in turn, it will pledge for Cantemir.
His encounters with the East and the West were beneficial
in the sense that they allowed the Romanian culture to identify
itself within the two great cultures. Thus he managed to
become a spearhead of Romanian culture, an educator of the
Romanians, bringing them universality, with love, passion,
devotion, wisdom, work.
Cantemir is the first to feel, in front of the Universe, history
and the future that he is the voice of all Romanians, upon him is
the glory of having first shaped the idea of unity, when he wrote
Chronicle of the Romanians-Moldovians-Wallachians.
Although he spent a lot of time away from his native lands, the
scholar was profoundly knowledgeable of the Romanian
language, the Romanian culture of his time and before. His
greatest achievement was, undoubtedly, the unique way in which
he turned the Romanian peoples face to the future.
The one who now rests in Iai, inside the Trei Ierarhi
Church, was the one whose work captured the Romanian
people, our culture, our history, his ideas and writings being
the most obvious document about the self-consciousness of the
Romanian people country-wide.
Cantemirs genius made him understand that, beyond the
shared heritage of the universal culture, thorough
apperception and the study of its cultural message had to be
placed in a template of our national culture.
Prior to becoming universal, any spirit is first national,
insomuch as, once universal, the same spirit always returns to
its origins and each time it does so to become complete again.

187
Nicolae Iorga wisely concluded in his work History of
Romanian Literature: Thus, the son of the Moldavian prince
lived in an environment which permitted him and him only in
this entire era in both the East and the West to possess
knowledge of all literatures and cultural forms from Greek and
Latin antiquity to Oriental, Turkish, Arab and Persian culture.
Nevertheless, his spirit is not crushed under this rich
knowledge; he was able to carry it on his shoulders: a soldier
laden with heavy weapons, he was still capable of an assault on
any target and so, his Moldavian singular spirit, his
unquenchable vigour engendered in him the confidence to
approach and the strength to conquer all topics.

188
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR PRINUL RENATERII
DE RSRIT

Drleci Simona,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

Personalitate fervent i genuin, Dimitrie Cantemir


domin rile romne n secolul al XVIII-lea, instaurndu-i
eternitatea prin memoria colectiv a generaiilor de dup.
Despre acesta s-au scris, ineluctabil, polemici diverse, ntruct
nsui Cantemir a reprezentat un labirint de mistere, greu de
neles, adeseori indescifrabil pentru contemporanii si dar i
pentru oamenii de cultur din zilele de astzi. Cu toate acestea,
motenirea acestuia l plaseaz drept un adevrat prin al
culturii umaniste, i nu doar al acestui domeniu, ci al sublimei
Renateri Rsritene, pe care el o va reprezenta n mod excelent.
Pentru a-l plasa n umanismul Renaterii este necesar o
explicaie a acestui fenomen. Umanismul este descris ca fiind
un curent cultural din secolul al XIV XVI-lea, a crui
chintesen se leag de ideologia burghez. Aprut mai nti n
Italia, el se rspndete ulterior n Frana, Germania, rile de
Jos, Polonia. Pune accent pe domenii precum istoria,
geografie, etic, filologie, desvrindu-se prin literatur.
Curent laic, el se opune dogmei ecleziastice, lundu-se drept
model creaiile antichitii greco-romne, considerate ca
fcnd parte dintr-o cultur pgn. De aici i termenul de
Renatere, care determin o trimitere la renviere, pasre
Phoenix, renatere, dar i reconstruire.

189
Preceptul spiritual al lui Cantemir este legat de ara sa
natal i de toate aspectele vernaculare acesteia, lucru observat
n numeroasele lucrri pe care le deine. Dimitrie a nceput s
scrie ca autor de cri filozofice cu caracter religios i a atins
paroxismul odat cu opere tiinifice. Bineneles, n activitatea
deosebit a acestuia trebuie remarcat creterea ascendent,
evoluia de la un punct de plecare pn la desvrirea lui. n
aceast metamorfozare care se rezum la douzeci i cinci de ani
ntre prima i ultima lui scriere este uor de urmrit o linie
dreapt. Lucrrile sunt astfel exhaustive - el scrie despre istorie,
geografie, compune versuri, dar i proz; se remarc o sintez
metafizic, trage concluzii politice i sociale din trecut i
prezent; i ndreapt atenia spre muzic, matematic,
astronomie i fizic. Crestomaia s este asemenea unui armilar,
unde Pmntul este constituit de efuziunea ctre poporul sau,
iar cercurile concentrice reprezint cte o scriere. Acest prin al
Renaterii de Rsrit a scris un numr consistent de opere n
limba latin, care era graiul universal al tiinei dorind s se
adreseze persoanelor cu un nivel cultural mai ridicat.. Totui,
prima scriere, denumit Divanul sau Glceav neleptului cu
lumea sau Giudeul sufletului cu trupul, ct i ultima,
cunoscut sub numele de Hronicul romno-moldo-vlahilor,
sunt scrise n limba romn, demonstrnd naionalismul
savantului de talie european, care cunotea un numr
impresionant de limbi europene i orientale franceza,
germana, polona, turca, araba, persana n care se putea
exprima. Cu toate acestea, el a ales una singur, nc vag
construit i nu pe deplin maturizat: limba romn, n care s-
au nscut ascendenii si, limba n care va gndi, cugeta, medita,
scrie i revitaliza literatura. Iubirea pentru popor este
peremtorie, lucru care se remarca foarte bine n ultima sa
creaie, n care abordeaz tema originii romnilor. Ce mai
trebuie reinut la aceast oper este multitudinea de material

190
informativ care a fost valorificat n crearea ei i ideea de a
prezenta istoria poporului romn din toate provinciile sale, i nu
doar exacerbnd o regiune specific.
Dimitrie Cantemir i gsete echivalentul n cultura
european prin persoana lui Leonardo da Vinci, amndoi
exemple ideale pentru homo universalis. Pe de o parte,
italianul funambulesc va excela n epistemologie i domeniu
artistic. Pe de alt parte, moldoveanul enciclopedic abordeaz,
pe lng tiin i art, domenii precum muzica, lingvistica i
etnografia. Remanena evolurii acestora este cunoscut pn
n zilele noastre, spiritualitatea lor uranica fiind venic.
Departe c ambii s fie caracterizai de acribie emfatic, munca
lui Cantemir se remarc printr-o diversitate de teme abordate,
ntocmai ca modelul sau. De asemenea, domnitorul Moldovei
va scrie, n primii ani n care se va afla ostatic la Poarta
Otoman pentru a-i desvri studiile, un tratat despre
muzica turc, intitulat Kitab-i-musiki Cartea muzicii n
care va mpleti elemente laice i ecleziastice. Succesul acestei
lucrri este imediat, rezultatul fiind eternizarea n istoria
muzicii otomane a scriitorului romn i acordarea acestuia
numele de Cantemiroglu. Pare a fi marcat de maxima Aut
Caesar, aut nihil, ntruct acesta nu accept mai puin dect
mreie sempitern. Se impune, se remarc, se face auzit, este
cunoscut, este apreciat, este ludat cuvintele, n dimensiunea
lor microscopic fa de adevrata personalitate, nu sunt
suficiente n orice domeniu atins. Toate vor purta, fr nicio
excepie, amprenta spiritual i eteric a acestui brbat.
O alt oper care l apropie pe Cantemir de cultur
european este Descriptio Moldaviae, lucrare fundamental
pentru istoria literaturii romne i o capodoper pentru
numeroii exegei. Fiind cea mai cunoscut dintre operele sale,
a fost redactat n limba latin i publicat n anul 1716, la
cererea Academiei din Berlin. Numele complet este Descriptio

191
antiqui et hodierni status Moldaviae, iar abia n anul 1825 a
fost publicat n limba romn. Lucrarea este mprit n trei
pri, cuprinznd o descriere geografic, economic i
bisericeasc, adugndu-se tot aici elemente despre nvtura
moldoveneasc. Ceea ce se remarc este apariia, pentru prima
data, a descrierii obiceiurilor de la nuni i nmormntri,
enumerarea tuturor figurilor fabuloase din tradiia popular
paparudele, drgaic, znele, zburtorii legendele locale
cum ar fi cea a Ceahlului. Pentru istorici, Descriptio
Moldaviae reprezint cea mai preuit oper a lui Cantemir,
de o valoare incomensurabil i n zilele noastre. Se remarc
ideile politice ale scriitorului, n care se amintete de luptele
mpotriva jugului otoman, efortul pentru formarea n Moldova
a unui stat autoritar domnesc care s nlocuiasc formula
statului nobilar. O alt motivaie pentru celebritatea operei o
constituie multitudinea de informaii zugrvite n aceasta,
abordnd subiecte de istorie, geografie, etnografie, tiinele
naturii, arheologie, folcloristic i chiar psihologie social.
Moldova lui Cantemir este descris ca un spaiu edenic, ca o
matrice a spiritualitii romneti: Nu se poate afl nicieri
n vreo alt ara ct Moldova de mic tot attea ape i natur
mpodobit de asemenea locuri minunate ca aici, iar cartea
pare a fi scris sub influena unei hierofanii. O afirmaie
asemntoare va fi reluat i de ctre Mihail Koglniceanu,
care va spune, peste ani, c N-a schimb sraca Moldova
nici pentru ntiul tron din lume, demonstrnd valabilitatea
i generalitatea abordrii operei. Astfel, Cantemir dei
particularizeaz prin prisma propriei spiritualiti are o
viziune permanent, care se va pstra n legtura infrangibil
dintre timp i spaiu.
Avnd o pregtire desvrit, acesta nu doar c
remprospteaz cultura romn printr-o serie de lucrri cu
caracter tiinific printre care se remarc Compendiolum

192
universae logices institutionis Prescurtare a sistemului
logicii generale ci i aduce o ofrand suprem prin cel dinti
romn al literaturii romne, Istoria ieroglific, n care sunt
prezentate, sub o cheie alegoric simpl, evenimente politice
contemporane cu autorul. El trece printr-un proces de zeificare
persoane adevrate, iar n acest fel Constantin Brncoveanu
devine Corbul; Mihail Racovi Struo-cmil, Toma
Cantacuzino oim, Duca vod este Vidra, iar Cantemir
nsui se numete Inorog. Dup cum a remarcat i Ovidiu
Moceanu, Istoria ieroglific este, prin excelen, cartea
naterii personajului ca element fundamental ntr-o
construcie narativ. Opera este i o carte de cugetare social
i politic. Brbatul nu submineaz faptele reale, cci sunt
denunai boierii i toate viciile regimului nobiliar, cu o
vehemen care nu se mai ntlnete nicieri n literatur
veche. Autorul este pentru un absolutism luminat, care s
frneze atotputernicia feudalilor. De aceea, rscoala popular
(mutele care atac pe cei adunai la banchet) este justificat.
Arhetipul operei Istoria ieroglific l plaseaz pe
Cantemir n sfera umanitilor din Rsrit. Aa cum detaliaz i
Elvira Sorohan n Cantemir n cartea hierogligic, rdcinile
acestei opere alimenteaz eflorescena luxuriant a
romanului. n ntreg mapamondul metafora prin intermediul
alegoriei este pentru prima dat cunoscut n opera
Fiziologul, tiprit iniial n Alexandria Egiptului, prin
secolul al II-lea. De la acest prim punct se vor adaug
Bestiarii varianta occidental a primei menionate
Panciatantra oper arhaic ce cuprinde povestiri indice n
ram clasicul elen Lupta broatelor cu oarecii, Povestea
patrupedelor, aparinnd secolului al XIV-lea, Iconologia
lui Cesare Ripa, Povestea psrilor din secolul al XVIII-lea,
iar lista poate continua. Cantemir se raporteaz la unele dintre
acestea, racordnd tema sa la viziunea universal care a fost
pn n acel moment. El intuiete funcia fundamental a
193
alegoriei c fiind o form de supravieuire din punct de vedere
mintal, o percepe ca pe o digresiune labirintic, ascuns
deseori n perifraza, inversiune cum ar fi cmila psrit i
pasre cmilit ambiguitate i ironie. Provocnd
metamorfoze i inducnd o stare cathartic, alegoria reprezint
o alchimie spiritual, dup cum precizeaz Elvira Sorohan,
n care tendina pamfletar, fondul de idei, eterogenitatea
simbolurilor, impunerea unei lecturi mitice plaseaz opera
ntr-o apartenen att de oscilant ntre Evul Mediu i
Renatere.
ncadrarea lui Cantemir n spaiul de civilizaie de Rsrit
prin Istoria ieroglific este motivat i prin caracterul
egiptean al lucrrii, sugerat prin nsui titlul acesteia. Trebuie
remarcat faptul c hermenautica spaiului de civilizaie a
Egiptului antic nu se poate reprezenta dect prin simboluri i
alegorii. Se remarc o opera mai veche, Lingua aegiptiaca
restituta, n care autorul, Athanasius Kircher, ofer un
dicionar de profil enciclopedic, avnd trei coloane distinctive:
una egiptean, alta latin, iar cealalt arab. Din ntreg
studiu se remarc seciunea a II-a, ntitulat Scala magna n
care se prezint Animalia ferocia seu rapacia Animale
violente i viclene dintre care se evideniaz Leo, Elephas,
Monoceros, Pardos, Lupus, Vulpes, iar apoi se continu cu
animale Non rapacia: Camelopardalis, Unicornu,
Camelus. Astfel, se poate observa n mod peremptoriu
asemnare romanului cu opera de talie universal. Irefutabil,
nceputul operei lui Cantemir se aseamn cu cea a lui Kircher.
Se prezint personajele att principale, ct i cele secundare,
toate prezentate simbolic cu ajutorul animalelor. Armata
condus de ctre Leu Moldova este reprezentat de ctre
jigniile n patru picioare cltitoare, n timp ce Vulturul
ara Romneasc are alturi pre cele prin aer cu pene i cu
aripi zburtoare ca la un sfat ndat le chemar i n clipal

194
le adunar. Dup aceast prim aezare ncepe descrierea
minuioas a tuturor: denaintea Leului st Pardosul, Ursul,
Lupul, Hulpea, Cialul, Ma Slbatec i altele c acestea,
crile de vrsarea sngelui nevinovat s bucur, n timp ce
naintea Vulturului stau psirile crile sau n clon, sau n
unghii lange otrvite, aductoare de rne netmduite au,
precum iete Brehnacea, oimul, Uleul, Cucunozul, Coruiul,
Haratul, Balabanul, Blendaul i altele asemenea acestora.
De asemenea, se mai remarc nc un fapt: amndou lucrrile
conin o parte explicativ, n care sunt expuse inechivoc
evenimentele i personajele prezentate. n egiptomanie se
gsete o scar pentru cititori De terminis philosophicis
n care este precizat o terminologie filozofic, asemntoare
celei din opera lui Cantemir, Scar a numerelor i cuvintelor
ieroglificeti tlcuitoare, n care se precizeaz, spre exemplu:
Uleul tefan paharnicul, Cucunoz Mihai sptar ()
Rmasul brbatului cu trntitur muierilor Iete poveste,
c, vrnd dou muieri s s trnteasc dzicea, oricarea s-a
birui s fac voia brbatului. Brbatul ndat a s gti
ncepnd, iele dzicea: Ce te gteti? El rspunsa: Ori ae,
ori ae, eu tot voi s dobndesc. Pilda aceast va s s
inleag c oricum lucrul s-ar tmpl, tot pe voie iete s
fie. Odat cu el, taumaturgia prinde un contur real, puterea
mistic nu este dat, ns, de forele supranaturale existente n
opera s cu precdere n Istoria ierogligica ci de
revitalizarea literaturii, care pn n acel moment era
dominat de ctre cronicile istorice.
De asemenea, este de menionat a doua lucrare a lui
Cantemir din epoca sa de formaie, cunoscut n limba latin
sub numele de Sacrosanctae scrientiae indepingibilis imago
Imaginea tiinei sacre, care nu se poate zugrvi titlu care
cuprinde n mod deloc contingent un paradox. tiina
sacr este reprezentat de ctre teologie - ea nu se poate

195
zugrvi, avnd un caracter abstract, inaccesibil mundanului,
dar care este susceptibil de a fi neleas printr-o imagine
alegoric. Scrierea este dedicat fostului su profesor grec,
Cacavela, fiind conceput n dou volume i redactat n anul
1700 cnd autorul avea douzeci i apte de ani n spaiul
de cultur al Constantinopolului. Ea va rmne, totui,
neterminat, i cuprinde tratarea unor probleme de metafizic
i de etic. Creaia lui Cantemir i are originea n dogma
bisericeasc, dar are alturi i principalele probleme ale
filosofiei laice discutate pe vremea sa. Ca i n cealalt scriere,
expunerea este una alegoric: revelaia constituie o oglind,
creatorul este un btrn etc. A doua parte este bazat pe
Filozofia fizic, scriitorul reproducnd, ntr-un anumit
procent, ideile date de ctre Jean B. van Helmon, care
propusese o teorie atomic. Urmtoarele pri cuprind
dezvoltarea, evoluia creaiei, problema timpului, liberul
arbitru i predestinaia. Aceast oper este prima scriere
metafizic din istoria literaturii romneti, putnd fi pus
alturi de scrierile lui Kant, spre exemplu, dar, desigur, la un
alt nivel specific poporului din care provine moldoveanul.
n mod peremtoriu, despre cea mai proeminent
personalitate a Moldovei apar multe divergene i polemici n
legtur cu plurivalena i caracterul enciclopedic avut de ctre
acesta, fapt demonstrat prin ntrebarea Adrianei Babei, care
i pune problema vieii acestuia astfel: Un Cantemir
medieval? Un umanist de tip renascentist? Un Cantemir
baroc? Contemporan Luminilor? Sau chiaranticipnd
preromantismul?. Aadar, unul dintre aspectele gndirii sale
este constituit de ctre elasticitatea i mobilitatea cu care el
reuete s sparg bariera cronotopului obinuit. ncepnd cu
sociogonia i ajungnd n contemporalitate, diacronica literar
s-a bucurat de un melanj funambulesc format din sunete
eterice ale contiinei universale, idiomuri cu sens nc

196
nedecelat, reminiscene susceptibile de a fasona i astzi
structuri spirituale tinere, toate acestea materializate n omul
Dimitrie Cantemir. Cte oare s-au afirmat de la naterea sa i
pn n zilele de astzi despre el? Mai ales, ct de acurate sunt
i ct de mult se apropie de adevrata gndire a acestuia?
Rspunsul este indicibil; nimeni nu poate cunoate, n detaliu,
reala concepie despre univers a acestuia. Cnd cineva se
apropie de o latura a lui, va avea n scurt timp ocul s
descopere o alta, nu doar complementar, ci, chiar, aparinnd
metoniei. Att gnoseologia, ct i epistemologia i cer
apartenen, el fiind aproape de latura divin a omului prin
prezena exhaustiv caracteristic fiinei supreme. Intangibile,
cunotinele lui par a fi matusalemice, fr capt, cu limite vagi
precizate i conturate slab.
Astfel, brbatul aparine unui alt domeniu, inaccesibil. Se
dematerializeaz de lumea nconjurtoare i se adpostete
ntr-un turn de filde. Reprezentnd un model pentru
generaiile viitoare, el nu va putea fi niciodat egalat, nu doar
din perspectiva temelor abordate n decursul vieii, ci i
realizndu-se o referire la cadrul perioadei istorice n care se
afl. Cronicile lui Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Ion Neculce
nu pot fi comparate. Istoria este depit prin literatur, prin
amprenta subiectiv pregnant i dominant, stropul de
fantezie uranic, dar, mai ales, prin revitalizarea concepiei
despre lume i via. Abordarea lucrrilor sale este inovatoare,
iar cadrul generaiilor de dup acesta prezint amprenta
specific personalitii sale. Dimensiunea multilateral a
acestuia l plaseaz ireversibil n istorie, drept care, cuvintele
lui Leonardo da Vinci, Io continuer Voi dinui sunt
susceptibile de a se apropia de un postulat sempitern n ceea ce
l privete pe Dimitrie Cantemir.

197
Bibliografie

Academia Republicii Populare Romne, (1964), Istoria


literaturii romne, Bucureti.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Opere complete, Bucureti, Ed.
Academiei.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2001), Descrierea Moldovei,
Bucureti, Ed. Litera Internaional.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2008), Istoria ieroglific, Bucureti,
Ed. Gramar.
Cndea Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant. Contribuii la
istoria umanismului romnesc, Cluj-Napoca, Ed. Dacia.
Institutul de lingvistic, istorie literar i folclor al
Universitii I. Cuza, (1979), Dicionarul literaturii romne de
la origini pn la 1900, Iai.
Sorohan Elvira, (1978), Cantemir n cartea hieroglifelor,
Bucureti, Ed. Minerva.
Vaida Petru, (1972) Dimitrie Cantemir i umanismul,
Bucureti, Ed. Minerva.

198
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR THE PRINCE OF THE
ORIENTAL RENAISSANCE

Drleci Simona,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang

Dimitrie Cantemir rules over the Romanian lands in the


eighteenth century, being a fervent and genuine personality
and establishing his cultural immortality through the cultural
treasure he left to the future generations, who considered him
to be like a mysterious labyrinth, difficult or maybe not meant
to be understood not only by his contemporaries, but also by
the scholars nowadays. However, the cultural inheritance he
left proclaims him not only as a veritable prince of the
humanist culture, but also of the amazing Oriental
Renaissance, of which he is a key representative.
In order for him to be placed in the Eastern humanism, an
explanation of this phenomenon is required. Humanism is
defined as a cultural and intellectual movement related to the
bourgeois ideology, which took place between the fourteenth
and the sixteenth centuries. It first appeared in Italy and was
subsequently spread in France, Germany, Netherlands and
Poland. It focuses on a variety of fields such as history,
geography, ethics, philology and literature. Being a secular
movement, it opposed to the ecclesiastic doctrine, taking the
writings of the Greek and Roman antiquity, which were
considered as being part of the pagan culture, as a model. This
is where the word Renaissance comes from referring to
revival, but also to reconstruction.

199
Dimitrie Cantemirs spiritual concept is related to his
homeland and all its vernacular aspects, which can be noticed
in his writings. He started writing as a philosophy books
author, sometimes enunciating, or just mentioning religious
notions, and he reached his cultural apex through his scientific
writings. Obviously, the evolution of the scholar is easily
noticeable in this metamorphosis which lasted 25 years
between his first and his last writing. His work is encyclopedic
he writes about history, geography; he writes poems, but also
prose, metaphysical synthesis. He takes past and present
political and social conclusions, then focuses on fields such as
math, physics, astronomy and music.
His chrestomathy is like an armillary, where the Earth is
kept alive by the effusion to its people, and each of the
concentric circles represents a writing. The Prince of the
Oriental Renaissance wrote an impressive number of books in
Latin, which was the universal language of science at that time
in order to be understood by people who had a higher
cultural level. However, his first book The Divan or The Wise
Man's Parley with the World or The Judgment of the Soul
with the Body and the last one, named The Chronicle of the
durability of RomansMoldavians Wallachians (1719-1722)
were written in Romanian, making the proof of the European
scholars nationalism, especially because he could speak
French, German, Polish, Arabic, Persian and Turkish fluently,
yet he chose to write his work in Romanian, which was not
ready to face the cultural society at that time.
The love he shows for his countrys people is undeniable
and can be noticed in his last writing, which refers to the origin
of the Romanians. The idea of approaching such an interesting
subject by putting various information of all that is related to it
in one piece of writing is one of the reasons why his works
should be considered one of the most important Romanian
historical documents.

200
Dimitrie Cantemir is similar to Leonardo Da Vinci in the
European cultural society, both of them being perfect examples
for what is known as homo universalis. On the one hand, the
Italian scholar would exceed in epistemology and arts field. On
the other hand, the encyclopedic Moldavian scholar would
approach not only fields like science and arts, but also
linguistics and ethnography. The reminiscence of their evolution
is known even in this day and age, making the proof of the
immortality of their deep spirituality. Apart from being
described as declamatory accuracy, Cantemirs work
distinguishes through the variety of the subjects he approaches,
exactly like Leonardo Da Vinci. Also, finding himself in the
Ottoman Empire as a hostage, he starts writing a treaty of
Turkish music, named Kitab-i-musiki, which means The
Music Book, where laic and ecclesiastic elements which were
put together. The book becomes very famous a short time after
it was written and was named Cantemiroglu. He seems to be
guided by the dictum Aut Caesar, aut nihil, because he doesnt
accept less than eternal greatness. He imposes, distinguishes,
makes himself heard; he is known, appreciated and praised. The
words, microscopic as they are compared to the real personality,
are not enough no matter the field. All of them will have the
spiritual and the ethereal sign of this man.
Another writing which approaches Cantemir to the
European culture is Descriptio Moldavi, being fundamental
for the history of the Romanian literature and considered to be a
masterpiece by lots of exegetes. It was written in Latin and
published in 1716 at the request of Berlin Academy. Its complete
name is Descriptio antiqui et hodierni status Moldavi and
was published in Romanian in the year 1825. It is divided into
three parts, including a geographical, economical and religious
description and social and cultural facts. The information about
the wedding and funeral practices those days, the legends and
their fictional characters, such as the Paparuda, Drgaica or

201
the fairies first appeared in this book. For the historians,
Descriptio Moldavi is Dimitrie Cantemirs most important
and valuable writing. In his political principles, the author
reminds of the fights against the Ottoman domination, the effort
that was put into forming a royal authoritarian system, which
could replace the noble country system. Another reason for this
books popularity is the variety of the information that can be
found in it, approaching fields such as history, geography,
ethnography, natural sciences, architecture, folklore and even
social psychology.
Moldavia, as it appears in Cantemirs book, is described as
a sublime territory1, and the book seems to have been
influenced by hierophany. Although Cantemir customized the
things he wrote because of his own spiritual concepts, he had a
permanent point of view, which survived throughout the years.
Having a strong knowledge on various fields, not only that
he purifies the Romanian culture by a series of scientific
writings such as Compendiolum universae logices
institutionis, but it also brings to it a homage through the very
first novel of the Romanian literature, The Hieroglyphic
History2, in which there are mentioned the political events
which took place in the authors life's time, by using a simple
allegorical code. He takes his characters through a deification
process this way, Constantin Brncoveanu becomes the
Raven, Mihail Racovi, the Ostrich-camel, Toma
Cantacuzino, the Hawk, and Cantemir calls himself The

1Dimitrie Cantemir in Descriptio Moldaviae: There is no place as


small as Moldavia where you can find so many waters and the nature
decorated with such beautiful places like here. Mihail Kogalniceanu would
eventually make a similar statement: I wouldnt change the poor Moldavia,
not even for the strongest throne in the world.
2 According to the fact that Ovidiu Moceanu also noticed, The

Hieroglyphic History is, indubitably, the book of the creation of the


character as the main element in a narrative construction.

202
Unicorn. It is also a book of political and social thinking. The
author doesnt undermine the real facts the boyars and all
the vices of the noble system are vehemently denounced. He
supports the idea of the enlightened absolutism, which is
meant to stop the almightiness of the feudal remains. This is
why the uprising of the flies which attack the people from the
banquet is justified.
The archetype of the Hieroglyphic History places
Cantemir among the scholars of the Renaissance3. The
metaphor through allegory first appeared in The Physiologist,
originally printed in Alexandria, Egypt in the second century.
Thenceforward there will appear The Bestiaries the oriental
version of the first one mentioned, Panchatantra an archaic
writing which contains frame stories the classical Hellenic
The battle of frogs and mice, The Story of Quatruped
belonging to the fourteenth century, The Iconology, written by
Cesare Ripa, The story of the birds from the eighteenth
century and so on. Cantemir refers to one of these, connecting
the topic to the universal contemporary vision. He anticipates
the fundamental function of the allegory as a way of a mental
survival; he perceives it as a labyrinthine digression,
sometimes hidden in periphrases, inversions, such as camel
bird and bird camel ambiguity and irony4.
The placement of Dimitrie Cantemir in the Oriental
culture because of the Hieroglyphic History is also motivated
by the Egyptian nature of the writing, suggested by the title
itself. Also, there is another thing to be mentioned the

3 According to Elvira Sorohan in Cantemir in the hieroglyphic book,


the roots of this writing feed the luxuriant efflorescence of the novel.
4 Inducing metamorphosis and a cathartic atmosphere, the allegory can

be defined as a spiritual alchemy, according to Elvira Sorohans statement,


in which the pamphleteer tendency, the fund of ideas, the heterogeneity of
the symbols and the mythical nature of the writing place it in such an
oscillating position between the Middle Age and the Renaissance.

203
hermeneutics of the ancient Egyptian civilization can only
consist of symbols and allegories. There is an older work,
Lingua aegyptiaca restituta, in which Athanasius Kircher, the
author, provides an encyclopedic dictionary, which contains
three distinct columns an Egyptian, a Latin and an Arabic
one. From the entire work there can be distinguished the
second section, entitled Scala magna, in which there are
presented Animalia ferocia seu rapacia Violent and sly
animals, where the most important is Leo, Elephas,
Monoceros, Pardos, Lupus, Vulpes and then Non rapacia:
Camelopardalis, Unicorn, Camelus.
Therefore, we can undeniably notice the resemblance
between Cantemirs novel and the universal works. It is
obvious that Cantemirs novels beginning is similar to the
Kirchers. Not only the main characters, but all of them are
described and symbolically represented by various animals.
The Army, led by the Lion Moldavia is represented by the
quadrupeds, while the Eagle Wallachia is supported by the
ones in the air which have feathers and flying wings, which
were called for the council and have immediately gathered5.
Then, the authors starts describing them thoroughly6. There is
also another thing to be mentioned both writings contain an
explanatory part, where the events and the characters are
presented unequivocally. Starting with him, the thaumaturgy
takes a real shape. However, the mystical power is not
determined by the supernatural forces in his writings
especially in the Hieroglyphic History - but of the revival of
the literature which had been dominated until then by the
historical chronicles.

5Dimitrie Cantemir, The Hieroglyphic History.


6Dimitrie Cantemir in The Hieroglyphic History: In front of the
Lion there are: the Leopard, the Bear, the Wolf, the Fox, the Horse, the Wild
Cat, who enjoy seeing the blood of the innocent people, while in front of the
Eagle there are the birds which hold poison under their nails.

204
Dimitrie Cantemirs second writing of his formation era,
known as Sacrosanct sacrienti indepingibilis imago -
The image of the sacred science, which cannot be painted
should also be mentioned. Its title contains a paradox. The
sacred science refers to theology it is abstract and cannot be
painted. It is not approachable to the world but it is more likely
to be understood when using an allegoric code. This writing
was dedicated to the authors Greek former teacher, Ieremia
Cacavela, and was written in two volumes in 1700, when
Cantemir was twenty-seven years old, in the cultural society of
Constantinople. It refers to subjects such as metaphysics and
ethics and was left incomplete.
Cantemirs work was inspired by the religious dogma but it
also approaches the contemporary laic philosophy matters. As a
resemblance to the other work, the narration is allegorical the
revelation is a mirror, the creator is an old man and so on.
The second part is based on the Physical Philosophy, in
which the writer reproduces some of Jean B. van Helmons
ideas, who had came with the idea of an atomic theory. The
next parts include the development, the evolution of the
creation, the matter of time, the free will and predestination.
This work is the first metaphysical writing in the history of the
Romanian literature and could be easily compared to Kants
writings, for example, but obviously at the level of the
population from where the Moldavian scholar comes.
There are lots of polemics related to the encyclopedic
personality of Dimitrie Cantemir7. Therefore, one of the aspects
of his mentality is represented by the elasticity and mobility he
uses in order to break the barrier of the usual chronotope.

7 For example, Adriana Babei questions it as in the following words: A

medieval Cantemir? A Renaissance humanist? A Baroque Cantemir?


Contemporary to the Enlightenment? Or even anticipating the pre-
romanticism?.

205
The question is how many of the things that have been
said about him are really accurate and how much do they
approach to his true mentality? It seems like the answer is not
meant to be found yet when one gets close to one of his sides,
they will eventually be amazed to discover another one, a lot
different from the first one. His level of knowledge is
intangible and seems to have no limits.
In conclusion, Dimitrie Cantemir belongs to an
inaccessible area, being dematerialized from the world. He is
an example for the next generations and will never be equaled,
not only because of the variety of subjects he approached, but
also because of the historical period in which he lived. History
is overcome by literature, the subjectivism, fantasy and
especially by the revival of the concept about the world and
life; his approach is innovative. His multilateral dimension
gives him a certain place in history, so Leonardo da Vincis
words - Io continuero are most likely to describe Dimitrie
Cantemirs immortality.

References

Cantemir Dimitrie, (1974), Complete writings, Bucharest,


Academiei Publishing House.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2008), Hieroglyphic History,
Bucharest, Gramar Publishing House.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (2001), Description of Moldavia
Bucharest, Litera Internaional Publishing House.
Cndea Virgil, (1979), The Dominant Reason.
Contributions to the history of the Romanian humanism, Cluj-
Napoca, Dacia Publishing House.
Sorohan Elvira, (1978), Cantemir in the book of the
hieroglyphs, Bucharest, Minerva Publishing House.
Vaida Petru, (1972), Dimitrie Cantemir and the
humanism, Bucharest, Minerva Publishing House.

206
The Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania, (1964),
The history of the Romanian literature, Bucharest.
(1979), The linguistics, literature history and folklore
institute of the I. Cuza University, The dictionary of the
Romanian literature from the origins to 1900, Iai.

207
COORDONATA REFLEXIV A OPEREI LUI
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR

Vintil-Anton Teona-Ioana,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

Cantemir traverseaz literatura


romn i universal urmat de
cortegiul hieroglifelor revitalizate cu
seva istoric a unei ri aflate mereu
n cumpna schimbrilor.
(Sorohan Elvira)

Europa renascentist este marcat de mai multe curente


ideologice, care ajut la propulsarea gndirii critice pe o nou
treapt. Fiind o perioad de tranziie, antemergtoare primelor
creaii literare complexe (lucrrile lui Shakespeare, Divina
Comedia a lui Dante) i premergtoare revoluiilor care vor
schimba cursul omenirii, setul de gndiri din aceast perioad
va contribui la instituirea unui grup de intelectuali cu viziune
progresist. Renascentismul este curentul de gndire ce pune
n centrul universului omul, axndu-se pe dezvoltarea lui pe
toate planurile. Intelectual, omul are parte att de intriga din
literatur, ct i de formarea unor noi teorii n politic i
tiin, care vor conduce nspre un cu totul alt mod de gndire.
n rile Romne, gndirea intelectual se afl la
nceputuri. Printre cei care au contribuit la dezvoltarea acesteia
concomitent cu cea european se afl Dimitrie Cantemir,
personalitatea marcant a acestei perioade. Acest erudit al

208
Moldovei ajunge s fie un important punct de reper n literatura
romneasc datorit impactului produs de scrierea sa. Este
trimis la Constantinopol, capitala Imperiului Otoman, ca
ostatic, n locul fratelui su mai mare, Antioh. Acolo i face
studiile i i demonstreaz gndirea profund prin redactarea
unor lucrri cu teme tot mai diferite, largi i complexe. Una din
primele sale lucrri este Cartea tiinei muzicii, ce
sistematizeaz muzica otoman laic i religioas, dar include i
unele opere de origine moldoveneasc, precum i creaii proprii.
Una dintre cele mai importante scrieri cantemiriene este
Istoria ieroglific, lucrare autobiografic alegoric ce reprezint
ncadrarea n societatea acelei perioade, autorul fiind
ntruchipat de Inorog. Descrierea sub o form alegoric a
situaiei socio-politice a perioadei relev n Cantemir un creator
literar de finee, care gsete modalitatea de a se exprima liber
n legtur mediul n care triete, fr a-i face dumani.
Fiecare animal ntruchipeaz cte un atribut, care devine
definitoriu pentru personalitatea sa. Ca urmare, Inorogul,
nsui Cantemir, este figura suprapmntean care coboar n
mijlocul poporului pentru a-i ajuta i a le da o lecie. Corbul,
principalul duman al Inorogului, este reprezentarea lui
Constantin Brncoveanu, membru al familiei Cantacuzino, cu
care Cantemir se afl n conflict.
Cele de mai sus aduc aminte de ideile exprimate de
englezul George Orwell n a sa Ferm a animalelor Toate
animalele sunt egale, dar unele sunt mai egale dect altele.
Mergnd pe ideea sugerat de doamna Elvira Sorohan,
conform creia Istoria ieroglific este un roman psihologic al
luptei pentru adevr i putere, devine evident faptul c
Dimitrie Cantemir, personaj cu importan pe scena politic a
Moldovei secolului XV, i asum, sau dorete asumarea unei
influene, fiind deranjat de faptul c nu are susinerea
necesar. Pe lng acestea, faptul c i se pun bee n roate,

209
venite de la Corb i susintorii si (n realitate personajele
reprezentnd familia Cantacuzino); acestea l provoac pe
autor s i foloseasc umorul i metaforele pentru a-i exprima
n scris neplcerile. Scrierea cifrat a naturii, a lumii, a
istoriei, a chipului omenescsinonim cu ceea ce este scrierea
hieroglific (E.R. Curtius, Literatura european i evul
mediul latin) reprezint nu numai modalitatea prin care
autorul i poate expune liber prerile i sentimentele aa cum
am mai menionat deja -dar este i n concordan cu
dezvoltarea literaturii de acest gen n Europa.
De la Swift la Montesquieu, de la Budai-Deleanu la
Erasmus din Rotterdam, Voltaire, Chaucer i chiar Platon,
influenele i asemnrile lui Cantemir cu diferii ali autori
sunt uneori evidente, alteori se relev motive comune.
ncepnd cu Heliodor, care este primul reper n scrierea
alegoric cu care Cantemir intr n contact, i ajungnd pn la
Erasmus, cu Elogiul nebuniei, devine evident faptul c
romnul Cantemir nu numai c a avut de unde s se inspire,
dar s-a i conformat perioadei, introducnd n literatura
romn prima creaie de acest gen. Lucrri asemntoare, care
au personaje animale reprezentnd sfera politic a perioadei o
reprezint Parlamentul bufnielor (G. Chaucer) i Fiziologul,
lucrarea anonim egiptean.
O asemnare pe care cercettorii cantemirieni o fac
constant este ntre iganiada lui Budai-Deleanu i Istoria
ieroglific. Asemnrile nu sunt foarte mari, dar suficient
nct s fie evidente. Una dintre ele este aceea c ambii autori
au fost iniiatori i deschiztori de drumuri n anumite domenii
literare. Budai-Deleanu redacteaz o epopee, prima i singura
finisat din limba romn, care vorbete despre diferene
sociale, conducere, lupt i iubire n Transilvania secolului XV.
Asemenea lui, Cantemir scrie primul roman, care are n comun
cu epopeea motivul revoltei sociale. Personajul colectiv se

210
revolt mpotriva asupririi, dorindu-i, n mod cert, un mod de
via mai bun. Este impresionant de studiat cum cei doi autori
au fcut cercetri adnci despre istoria limbii romneti, dar n
acelai timp dnd dovad i de o adevrat gndire universal.
Cu certitudine cel mai personal text al lui Cantemir,
Istoria ieroglific, relev frustrrile i suferinele acestui prin,
care, dei nu se afl la conducere, tot mai pstreaz o not
pozitiv, cu care se i ncheie textul izbnda Inorogului.
Umanismul lui Cantemir se relev nu numai prin lucrrile
sale, dar i prin modul su de gndire i aciunile sale. Devenit un
confident al sultanului Ahmed al III-lea, moldoveanul se folosete
de informaiile din interior pentru a redacta lucrare Creterea i
descreterea Imperiului Otoman, considerat lucrare de referin
pentru nelegerea gndirii turceti, dar i a istoriei politice a
Porii. Cantemir rmne n continuare fidel rii sale de origine,
adunnd informaii i ncercnd s ajung la puterea Moldovei. n
acelai timp, ncearc s gseasc o modalitate de a elibera
teritoriul de la sud de Dunre de sub dominaia otoman. I se
ofer oportunitatea de a conduce Moldova, dar ncheie un tratat
cu arul Petru cel Mare, aciune care va conduce la exilul familiei
Cantemir n Rusia. Acolo este locul unde acest filosof i
redacteaz cele mai importante lucrri, printre care i Descriptio
Moldaviae, cerut de Academia din Berlin. n aceasta se regsete
istoria inutului, descrierea lui tehnic, alturi de o hart, dar i o
descriere a limbii locale.
Specific umanismului romnesc, Dimitrie Cantemir scrie
despre originea limbii i poporului romn. De seam pe
aceast tem este Hronicul de vechime a romno-moldo-
vlahilor, lucrare ce susine continuitatea dacic pe teritoriul
actualei Romnii. Aceast lucrare vast se pare c a avut n jur
de 150 de alte lucrri de referin i a fost redactat iniial n
limba latin, manuscris pierdut ntr-un naufragiu. Varianta n

211
limba romn a rmas i ea neterminat dar importana ei
rmne valid pn n ziua de astzi.
Un alt domeniu literar deschis de acest crturar
moldovean este cel al biografiilor, n acest sens el redactnd
Vita Constantini Cantemyri, o alt cerere a Academiei din
Berlin. Este important de menionat faptul c Dimitrie
Cantemir este primul membru romn al Academiei, un alt
element care i demonstreaz universalitatea i importana.
Crturarul este cunosctor al multor limbi, att europene, att
occidentale ct i orientale, redacteaz preponderent n limba
latin i romn, dar i n alte limbi. Divanul este redactat n
limba greac, Cartea tiinei muzicii este redactat n turc,
Sistema religiei mahomedane n rus.
Lucrarea care arat cel mai clar gndirea i spiritul larg al
lui Cantemir este Divanul sau Glceava neleptului cu
Lumea. Aceasta, structurat sub forma unor dialoguri,
abordeaz teme diverse, de la natur, la natura omului i spirit.
Prima carte este reprezentat de dialogul propriu-zis al
neleptului cu personajul Lumea. Lumea, adic pmntul, este
cea mai mare creaie a lui Dumnezeu i mama tuturor
oamenilor. neleptul, reprezentnd omenirea, cu istoria sa, i
pune ntrebri Lumii, aceasta devenind din ce n ce mai
dezamgit i nemulumit de acesta. Lumea, acest personaj de
o deosebit importan, care a fost de fa la desfurarea
istoriei, este pus fa n fa cu un om care o subapreciaz.
neleptul ajunge s i cear Lumii avere, pe care aceasta i-o
ofer, numai c omul i arat nesbuina, cerndu-i din ce n
ce mai mult, ajungnd de la bani i terenuri la putere politic.
Acest moment din lucrare arat nu numai dezvoltarea omului
de-a lungul timpului, ci i pe cea a ranului romn.
Opera n integralitatea ei este o adunare de idei transpuse
cu talentul caracteristic cantemirian, redactat similar Utopiei
lui Tomas Morus. Cele dou lucrri abordeaz, pe lng tema

212
principal (la Cantemir spiritualitatea n totalitatea ei, la Morus
descrierea insulei Utopia), o serie de teme care nu numai c
definesc problemele existeniale ale perioadei, dar prezint i un
deosebit spirit critic al celor doi. Structura similar scrisorile
de la nceput, care pregtesc cititorul pentru coninutul lucrrii
propriu-zise, structurate n mai multe cri este interesant
de remarcat la ambii intelectuali.
Lucrarea conine o serie de ntrebri retorice pe care autorul
ncearc s le explice, de obicei folosindu-se de lucrri religioase
cretine. Cu toate c n Divan predomin explicaiile de acest gen,
gndirea autorului s-a dezvoltat de-a lungul timpului cu ajutorul
unei serii de scrieri de origine arab i indian. Coranul,
Paciatantra, Kalilah i Dimnah, acestea au fost toate lucrri care
l-au ajutat pe Cantemir s se orienteze ntr-o cultur nou, unde
gndirea era complet diferit fa de cea est-european.
Cunoaterea profund a istoriei lumii i a miturilor au fost un alt
mod n care prinul moldovean a reuit s i formeze o cultur
larg, care n cele din urm l-au ajutat la redactarea unor serii de
lucrri care s duc literatura romneasc la un nivel mai nalt,
apropiat de cel european. Nu numai lucrrile mai sus menionate
arat faptul c prinul moldovean este un bun cunosctor al
filosofiei religioase orientale, ci i faptul c a elaborat o lucrare
despre religia musulman (Sistema religiei mahomedane), cu
toate c rspndirea acesteia nu a fost att de mare, datorit
redactrii ei n limba rus.
Este important de reinut elementul retoricii
cantemiriene, prezente n Divanul sau Glceava neleptului
cu Lumea element subliniat pn i de Ieremia Cacavela,
nvtorul cu care Dimitrie Cantemir studiase pe cnd se afla
nc pe teritoriul romnesc, ntr-o scrisoare prezentat n
nceputul Divanului.
Sintetizat, Cantemir reprezint un punct de referin att
n literatura romneasc, ct i cea universal, fiind o

213
personalitate complex, complet, care nu poate fi evitat.
Datorit lui s-au dezvoltat mai multe genuri literare, teritoriul
romnesc ajungnd la un nivel mult mai nalt pe plan literar.
Dimitrie Cantemir este, totui, mai mult dect un filosof i un
cartograf. Dimitrie Cantemir este mai mult dect un filosof
ntr-o anumit perioad a evoluiei gndirii romneti. El
anun, prin dimensiunile sale renascentiste, apariia
urmtoarei epoci: cea a luminilor.

Bibliografie

Budai-Deleanu Ioan, (1965), iganiada, Ed. Tineretului.


Cantemir Dimitrie, (1983), Istoria Ieroglific, Ed. Minerva.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (1987), Opere complete, sub ngrijirea
lui Virgil Cndea, Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia.
Cantemir Dimitrie, (1990), Divanul sau Glceava
neleptului cu Lumea, Ed. Minerva.
Drgoi Gabriela, (1979), Dicionarul literaturii romne de
la origini pn la 1900, Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste
Romnia.
Morus Tomas, (1997), Utopia, Wordsworth Editions
Limited.
Sorohan Elvira, (1978), Cantemir n cartea hieroglifelor,
Ed. Minerva.
Verde Ion, (1977), Texte comentate - Dimitrie Cantemir,
Istoria Ieroglific, Ed. Albatros.

214
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SIDE OF CANTEMIRS
WORKS

Vintil-Anton Teona-Ioana,
Colegiul Naional Ion Creang,
Profesor ndrumtor: Diana Hrtescu

Renaissance Europe is marked by many ideological


currents that help propel critical thinking to a new level. Being,
as it is, a transitional period, previous to all literary complex
creation (the works of Shakespeare, Dante's Divine Comedy
etc.) and previous to all the revolutions that will make a change
in the course of humanity, the wise minds of this period will
contribute to the establishment of a group of intellectuals with
progressive vision. Renaissance is the current which puts the
man at the centre of the universe, focusing on his development
on all areas. Intellectually speaking, the man gets not only the
intrigue from literature, but he also forms new political and
scientific theories that will lead towards a different way of
thinking.
In the Romanian countries, intellectual thinking was at its
beginnings. Among those who contributed to the development
of our nations thinking was Dimitrie Cantemir, whose
personality marked this period. The Moldavian erudite
becomes an important landmark in Romanian literature due to
the impact of his writing. He was sent to Constantinople, the
capital of the Ottoman Empire as a hostage, instead of his
older brother, Antioch. He there studies and demonstrates his
deep thinking by writing papers on increasingly different and

215
complex topics. One of his first works is Cartea stiintei muzicii
[The science of music]; book that systemizes the Ottoman
religious music but also includes some works of Moldovan
origin and even some of his own creations.
One of Cantemirs most important writings is the
Hieroglyphic History, allegorical and autobiographical work
that depicts the society of that period, the author being
represented by the Unicorn. The description created in a socio-
political allegory of the period reveals within Cantemir a literary
finesse as he finds a way to express himself freely about the
environment in which he lives, without making any enemies.
Each animal embodies one attribute that becomes the
very definition of its personality. As a result, the Unicorn, as
Cantemir, is the surreal, descending figure among the people,
meant to help and give them lessons. While the Raven, the
main enemy of the Unicorn, is the representation of
Constantin Brancoveanu, member of the Cantacuzino family
and who is in permanent conflict with Cantemir.
The ideas already mentioned are expressed in Orwell's
Animal farm: All animals are equal, but some animals are
more equal than others.
According to the idea suggested by Mrs. Elvira Sorohan
that the Hieroglyphic History is a novel of the psychological
fight for truth and power, it becomes obvious the fact that
Dimitrie Cantemir, important character on the political scene
of the 15th century, assumes, or wishes to, a certain power. The
Raven and his supporters (in reality the characters
representing the Cantacuzino family) go out of their way to
stop him; elements which push the author to use his humor
and metaphors to write down his displeasures. The ciphered
writing of nature, of the world, of history, of human
naturesynonymous to what hieroglyphic writing is (E.R.
Curtius, European literature and the Latin middle ages)
represents not only the way through which the author can

216
freely express his thoughts and feelings like we already
mentioned but is in correlation to the European development
of this type of literature.
From Swift to Montesquieu, from Budai-Deleanu to
Erasmus of Rotterdam, Voltaire, Chaucer and even Plato, the
influences and similarities of Cantemir with different other
authors are sometimes obvious, sometimes with common
grounds. Starting with Heliodor, who was the first author
Cantemir took contact with, regarding this specific type of
literature, and leading up to Erasmus, with his Praise of Folly,
it becomes obvious that Cantemir not only had the inspiration,
but also introduced in the Romanian literature the first
creation of this type. Similar works, containing animal
characters representing the political sphere of the era, are
represented by Chaucers Parlement of Fouls and The
Physiologist, an anonymous Egyptian writing.
A similarity that the researchers specialized in Cantemir
always point out, is between Budai-Deleanus Tiganiada
[About the Gypsies] and the Hieroglyphic History. Their
similarities arent exceptionally big, but enough to be obvious.
One of them is that the authors were both initiators and path
breakers in certain literary fields. Budai-Deleanu wrote an
epopee, the first and only completed in Romanian, which
discusses social differences, leadership, love and fight in
Transylvania of the 15th century. Like him, Cantemir wrote the
first novel, which has in common with the epic poem the topic
of social uprising. The collective character wishes, certainly, a
better life, for which it creates an uprising. It is impressive to
study the way the two authors have conducted bedrock
research about the history of Romanian language, but at the
same time proving a universal way of thinking.
Certainly Cantemirs most personal text, Hieroglyphic
History reveals the frustrations and sufferings of this prince
who, although not in a position of power, still keeps a positive

217
note, in which the text ends the victory of the Unicorn.
Cantemirs humanism is revealed not only through his
works, but also through his way of thinking and his actions. As
the padishahs Ahmed III confident, the Moldavian uses the
information from the inside to write Creterea i descreterea
Imperiului Otoman [The ups and downs of the Ottoman
Empire], considered to be a reference work for the understanding
of the Turkish way of thinking, but also of the Ottomans political
history. Cantemir remains faithful to his native country,
gathering information and come to the lead of Moldavia. At the
same time he tries to liberate the territory southern of the
Danube from Ottoman domination. He is offered the opportunity
to lead Moldavia, but signs an agreement with Peter the Great,
action which will lead to the exile of the Cantemir family in
Russia. That is the place where his most important works,
including Descriptio Moldaviae, requested by the Academy of
Berlin, will be written. In the book can be found a history of the
land, its technical description, right next to a map, but also a
description of the local language.
Specific to the Romanian humanism, Dimitrie Cantemir
writes about the origins of the language and Romanian people.
Conclusive on this topic is Hronicul de vechime a romano-
moldo-vlahilor [The chronicle of the Moldavians leading back
to the Vlachs], work which supports the continuity of Dacians
on Romanian land. It seems that this vast work has had about
150 reference works and was initially written in Latin, but the
manuscript was lost in a shipwreck. The Romanian version
was not finished, but it is still of importance to the day.
Another literary field opened by this Moldavian scholar is
the one of biographies. For this he wrote Vita Constantini
Cantemyri, another request of the Berlin Academy. It is
important to mention the fact that he was the first Romanian
invited to be a member of the Berlin Academy, another
element proving his importance and universality. The scholar

218
is a polyglot, being able to speak both European and Eastern
languages, but he mostly wrote in Romanian and Latin. The
Divan was written in Greek, The science of music in Turkish
and Sistema religiei mahomedane [The system of Muslim
religion] in Russian.
The work that shows his spirit and thinking the clearest is
Divanul sau Glceava Inteleptului cu Lumea [The Divan or the
fight of the Wise man with the World]. Structured as a set of
dialogues, it discusses different topics, from nature, to human
nature and spirit.
The first book is represented by the actual dialogue
between the Wise man and the World. The character called
World is God's biggest creation, and the mother of all people.
The Wise man, representing humanity with its history, asks
the World many questions, the latter one becoming
increasingly disappointed and saddened by him. The World,
this outstandingly important character, who partook in the
development of the history, is faced with a man who under
appreciates it. The Wise man end up asking from the world
wealth, but he shows his recklessness by asking even more, in
the end requesting for even more, money and political power.
This does not only show the development of the humanity
throughout history, but also the one of the Romanian peasant.
His integral work is a collection of ideas, transposed in the
usual Cantemir manner, written similarly to Moores Utopia. The
two works, besides the main theme (for Cantemir is spirituality in
its unity, for Moore is the description of the Utopia island), a
series of topics that not only define the existential problems of the
era, but present a critical spirit in the two authors. The similar
structures the letters in the beginning, which prepare the reader
for the actual content, structured in multiple books is
interesting to be noted in both authors.
The work contains a series of rhetorical questions that the
author tries to answer, usually making use of Christian

219
writings. Although in The Divan these types of explanations
are norm, the author's thinking wad developed through a
series of writings of Arabic and Indian origins. The Quran,
Panchatantra and Kalila wa Dimna were all writings which
helped Cantemir become acquainted with a new culture, where
the way of thinking way completely different from the East-
European one. The profound knowledge of history and myths
were another way through which the Moldavian prince
managed to gather a vast knowledge, this element helping him
in the writing of a series of works that took the Romanian
literature to a higher, European level. Not only do the already
mentioned works show the fact that the Moldavian prince is
knowledgeable about Oriental religious philosophy, but also
the fact that he elaborated a work on the Muslim religion (The
system of Muslim religion), although it wasn't of a big
importance, giving its language, Russian.
It is important to note Cantemir's rhetoric, present in The
Divan element mentioned even by Ieremia Cacavela, his
teacher from back when he still lived on Romanian land.
As a conclusion, Cantemir represents a reference point in
the Romanian literature, but also the universal one, being a
complex and complete personality which cannot be avoided.
Many literary genres have developed thanks to him, the
Romanian territory reaching a higher literary level. He is,
though, more than a philosopher and historian. Dimitrie
Cantemir is more than a philosopher is the development of the
Romanian way of thinking. He represents the transition to a
new and bigger age: the one of the enlightment.

References

Budai-Deleanu Ioan, (1965), iganiada, Editura Tineretului.


Dimitrie Cantemir, (1983), Istoria Ieroglific, Editura
Minerva,

220
Dimitrie Cantemir, (1987), Opere complete, sub ngrijirea
lui Virgil Cndea, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste
Romnia.
Dimitrie Cantemir, (1990), Divanul sau Glceava
neleptului cu Lumea, Editura Minerva.
Drgoi Gabriela, (1979), Dicionarul literaturii romne de
la origini pn la 1900, Editura Academiei Republicii
Socialiste Romnia.
Morus Tomas, (1997), Utopia, Wordsworth Editions
Limited.
Sorohan Elvira, (1978), Cantemir n cartea hieroglifelor,
Editura Minerva.
Verde Ion, (1977), Texte comentate- Dimitrie Cantemir,
Istoria Ieroglific, Editura Albatros.

221
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR. O PERSONALITATE
ROMNEASC A TREI PARADIGME.

Apreotesei I. Adrian,
Colegiul Naional de Informatic Tudor Vianu

Dedicm, din cte mi este neles, aceste rnduri


aniversrii a 300 de ani de la alegerea lui Dimitrie Cantemir ca
membru al Academiei din Berlin. O aceeai cifr, aceea de 300
de ani, se mplinea acum mai bine de patru ani, atunci cnd, n
incinta Parlamentului European, crturarul romn i, totodat,
unul european, era omagiat la mplinirea a trei secole de la
urcarea sa pe tronul rii Moldovei.1

Cred n aducerea n contemporan a personalitii lui


Cantemir, aa cum cred i n prezentul ca o continuare fireasc
a trecutului, n cunoaterea istoriei ca pe o parte din
identitatea noastr, a umanitii n sensul cel mai larg, nu ca pe
o paradigm, pe o nlnuire de cliee, nvate silnic n coli.
Odat cu aceasta, cred c, n mod inevitabil, redescoperim un
personaj de o actualitate neprevzut.

S ne fie permis, aadar, ca n ntmpinarea temei ce


urmeaz, s mprtim cteva crmpeie zilele lui Cantemir,
att de frumos rememorate la sfritul traducerii englezeti

1Dabija, Nicolae, Dimitrie Cantemir, La Parlamentul European.


Dimitrie Cantemir, La Parlamentul European, Cotidianul, 09 decembrie
2010. Web. 27 martie 2014.

222
The History Of The Growth And Decay Of The Othman
Empire:
Dimitrie era de o nlime medie, mai degrab usciv
dect gras. Avea o nfiare agreabil, i obinuia s vorbeasc
cu afabilitate, blndee i grij. Obiceiul su consta n a se trezi
la cinci dimineaa i, fumnd dintr-o pip alturi de o cafea,
fcut n maniera cea turceasc, se retrgea pentru studiile sale
pn la masa, care avea loc n mod constant la amiaz. Prnzea
n general un singur fel, preferatul su fiind puiul cu mcri. La
mese ar fi but vinul ntotdeauna cu ap. [...] Dormea sumar
dup mas, pentru ca restul zilei s i-o petreac studiind i,
aceasta, pn la ora apte. Atunci i vedea familia i, cinnd la
zece, se culca la dousprezece.2

Cu ocazia Zilelor culturii ruse. Din Rusia cu sufletul


deschis, care au avut loc n perioada noiembrie - decembrie
2012, eveniment n cadrul cruia a avut loc i gestul donrii
ctre Academia Romn a primelor 25 de volume din
Integrala Manuscriselor Dimitrie Cantemir, acad. Dan
Berindei afirma c personalitatea remarcabil a lui Dimitrie
Cantemir a mbogit, prin opera sa, trei culturi: cultura
romn, cultura turc i cultura rus.

2 n original, "Demetrius was a middle-size, rather lean than fat. He


had an agreeable countenance, and always spoke with affability, mildness
and caution. His custom was to rise at five in the morning, and, smoking a
pipe of tobacco over a dish of coffee after the Turkish manner, he retired to
his study till dinner, which was constantly at noon. He generally dined
upon one dish, his favourite dish being small chicked with forrel. At his
meals he always drank water with his wine. [...] He slept a little after
dinner, and the rest of the day was spend in his study till seven in the
evening. Then he saw his family, and supping at ten, went to bed at twelve."
(Dimitrie Cantemir (Voivode of Moldavia); Nicolas Tindal (traductor). The
history of the growth and decay of the Othman empire .... J.J., and P.
Knapton; 1734, p. 459.

223
Dar ce-ar fi s mergem mai departe de att, n a afirma c,
dac, sincronic, opera lui Dimitrie Cantemir ar fi traversat
aceste trei culturi, diacronicete vorbind, s-ar putea spune c
Dimitrie Cantemir a fost, totodat, un om al Bizanului, unul al
Renaterii, al Umanismului, i unul al Luminilor? Aadar, o
biografie n portrete...

n capitolul despre religia moldovenilor, parte a


Descrierii Moldovei, Cantemir ncepe prin a pune n baza
lenevirii strmoilor notri trecutul incert al eresului
moldovenilor.

n explicarea adoptrii religiei cretine, pe care acesta o


leag de vremea domniei lui Constantin cel Mare, Dimitrie
Cantemir aduce o mrturie pe care o gsesc foarte ilustrativ,
referitoare la reticena sincer a romnilor n faa ereziilor de
orice fel. O erezie sau un eretic, spune Cantemir, nu s-au
artat vreodat n Moldova i cu att mai puin s-ar fi putut
rspndi. i aceasta, pentru c simplitatea Evangheliei i
nvtura sfinilor prini bisericeti ar fi fost ndestultoare
pentru mntuirea sufletului i fr coal.

Ctre sfritul capitolului, vorbind despre eres, zice c,


altminteri, norodul i la noi n Moldova, ca i n alte ri pe
care tiina nu le-a luminat nc este foarte plecat spre eres
i nc nu s-a curat desvrit de necuria cea veche, nct
se mai nchin i acuma n poezii i cntece, la nuni,
ngropciuni i alte ntmplri tiute, la civa zei necunoscui
i care se vede c se trag din idolii cei vechi ai dacilor.

Fr a m avnta n explicarea premiselor gndirii


intelectuale est-europene, care ar cere, probabil, instrumentele
unei adevrate teorii sociale, vd n aceasta, n primul rnd,

224
mrturia sorginii bizantine, creia spaiul romnesc se
subscria la acel moment n expresia lui Nicolae Iorga:
Bizanul de dup Bizan. Acest aspect l-a rezuma, ns, unui
raport dintre tradiie i desacralizare, pentru c se cere ca
desacralizarea s se rezume msurii epoci i, deci, nu putem
accepta o atitudine iluminist avant la lettre. Direcia,
dimensiunea sunt altele, dar originea, aa cum se vede, este
aceeai.

Afirm Virgil Cndea, ntr-o conferin intitulat Despre


tradiie i desacralizare, n acest sens, c adevrul, n gndirea
tradiionalist, are o natur divin prin excelen adevrul
s-ar manifesta la origini, iar actualizarea lui ar avea loc prin
revelaii, inaccesibile fiecrei generaii. Raportat la sine,
individul tria responsabilitatea fa de ceea ce este dat, fa
de tradiie, de datin, de predanie, de legea cea de moie de
a transmite aceste adevruri mai departe, nealterate, n
evitarea unei inevitabile maladive regresii i, o doua
responsabilitate, din care deriv raionamentul primei dintre
acestea, i anume, aceea de a nu interveni asupra adevrului:
n expresia lui Virgil Cndea, de a nu interveni n acest
depozit sacru primit de la Dumnezeu.3

Acestea cred c sunt premisele i natura educaiei timpurii


a personalitii lui Dimitrie Cantemir, acesta este spaiul
cultural cruia i datoreaz originea. Acesta este Omul
Bizantin.

nainte de a discuta despre Omul Renaterii, voi aminti un


ultim dialog ntre Cantemir i Saadi Efendi, matematician i,
totodat, mentor al celui dinti. Cantemir remarc, aici, o

3 Cndea, Virgil, Academicianul Virgil Cndea - Despre tradiie i


desacralizare. Doxologia, 14 iulie 2011. Web. 27 martie 2014.

225
dependen formal fa de concepiile i prescripiile
religioase ale Islamului a intelectualului musulman, n acest
caz, turc, aflat ntr-un conflict moral foarte asemntor,
probabil, cu acel al intelectualului sud-est european.

De la Cndea citire, pp. 317-318:


Trebuie s mrturisesc c nu toi turcii au o credin
att de implicit; exist printre ei unii mai luminai dect alii
care nu cred tot ce se citete n Alcoran, dar i rein
sentimentele i nu ndrznesc s se declare pe fa. A da ca
pild potrivnic pe prea nvatul turc Saadi Efendi cruia i
sunt exclusiv dator pentru tot ce tiu. Mi-am luat libertatea
ntr-o zi s-l ntreb cum se fcea c un mare matematician ca
el, cunosctor al principiilor lui Democrit, putea crede c
Mahomet ar fi rupt o constelaie ca luna i ar fi primit n
mnec o jumtate czut din cer. Mi-a rspuns c n
ordinea naturii aceasta era cu neputin i chiar siluia
principiile, dar c aceast minune fiind scris n Alcoran ca o
realitate, el renun la raiune i se supune credinei. Pentru
c, adug el, Dumnezeu poate face orice vrea.

Pentru nc o dat s ne oprim la Omul Bizantin, pentru a


discuta mrturii ale dimensiunii romneti, ca logos al operei
lui Cantemir...

Potrivit unui studiu al lui Ion C. Chiimia, n care acesta


subliniaz ponderea important a folclorului n substana
literaturii romne vechi pentru care este interesant c
gsete, mai departe, chiar o continuitate care ar traversa
opera lui Cantemir, dar i aceea a lui Eminescu, Blaga sau Ion
Barbu , mai mult dect att, D. Cantemir ar fi fost un excelent
cunosctor al culturii populare romneti, iar, aici, mrturie
stau evocrile de ordin etnografic din Descriptio Moldaviae.

226
Mai departe, acesta observ reminiscene ale poeziei de
sorginte folcloric, fie ca rezultat al inserrii, fie al modelrii,
n romanul de tip alegoric Istoria ieroglific. (CHIIMIA, p.
442-444).

Este vorba aici de imagini deosebit de plastice, care aduc


cu expresivitatea descntecelor populare; s dm citire plnsul
Inorogului, n reconstituirea lui Ion C. Chiimia (CHIIMIA,
p. 443):

Muni crpai,
Copaci v despicai,
Pietri v frmai [...]
Grdinile pleasc-se,
Vestejeasc-se;
Nu-nfloreasc
Nu-nverzeasc [...]
Pe stpnul lor,
Suspinnd,
Tnguind,
Ne-ncetat s pomeneasc [...]

iar, n continuare:

Potop de holbur,
ntunerec de negur
Vntul s aduc.
Soarele zimii s-i rteze,
Luna, siindu-se,
S se ruineze.
Stelele nu scnteieze,
Nici Galatea s lumineze.

227
Mai departe, acelai Chiimia identific, n tnguirea
Cameleonului, ceea ce pare s reproduc un descntec de
scris, aa cum este el cunoscut n literatura de specialitate:

Eu m-am vehcit,
[M-am vechit],
M-am vetejit
i ca florile de brum m-am ovilit.
Soarele m-au lovit,
Cldura m-au plit,
Vnturile m-au negrit,
Drumurile m-au ostenit [...],
Norocul m-au urgisit
i din dragostele tale m-au izgonit.

Dei poate aflat asincron, Dimitrie Cantemir a rmas n


istoria culturii romneti, ca un ilustru reprezentant al
umanismului nostru. Virgil Cndea afirm, n acest caz, c n
perioada predecesoare aceleia n care Cantemir i redacteaz
operele n neolatin, la curtea lui Petru cel Mare, Cantemir
trebuie s fi cunoscut cel puin dou mesaje umaniste: cel
european i cel persan. Aceasta pentru c, cronologic vorbind,
nu s-ar putea spune c umanismul este un privilegiu al culturii
europene. (CNDEA, pp. 20-21)

Aflat la Constantinopol, acesta trebuie s se fi aflat n


contact att cu crturarii europeni de la ambasadele francez
sau olandez, ct i cu dasclii greci, prin Marea coal a
Patriarhiei. Mai mult, relaiile sale cu intelectualii turci nu ar
trebui subestimate, potrivit lui V. Cndea. O mrturie a acestei
deschideri culturale const n Divanul, prima oper a acestuia:
sunt citai autori cretini, autori greci, autori latini sau persani.
(ibidem)

228
Mai departe, n discutarea motivului Cantemir - umanist
i om al Luminilor, s ne rezumm la un motiv recurent al
oricrui spirit nvat al neamului romnesc: romanitatea i
contiina romanitii romnilor.

Adolf Armbruster, n a sa Romanitatea romnilor. Istoria


unei idei, l identific pe Dimitrie Cantemir ca fiind tipul
umanistului medieval romn: exponent al clasei dominante,
reprezentant al unei puternice i bine conturate orientri
politice, erudit de seam cu o pregtire tiinific de nivel
european, istoric n primul rnd.

Tot acesta, continu prin a face o distincie clar n jurul


personalitii lui D. Cantemir:...dac pn la Dimitrie
Cantemir, lumea savant romneasc apela la producia
tiinific extern pentru argumentarea i demonstrarea
tiinific a originii romane a romnilor, destinate deopotriv
cititorilor romni, ncepnd cu Dimitrie Cantemir, acest raport
se inverseaz: lumea savant european apeleaz la savani
romni pentru a afla argumentarea i dovezile romanitii.

O caracteristic a studiilor sale este reprezentat i de o


concepie unitar asupra etnogenezei romneti, o concepie
care depune mrturie de erudiia umanist a acestuia:
descendena pur roman, struina nentrerupt a romno-
moldo-vlahilor n ara Romneasc, adic n Dacia roman
i unitatea acestora n spaiul carpato-danubian.

n acest caz, este poate surprinztoare, aici, i manifestul


contiinei unei romniti balcanice, aa cum apare aceasta n
capitolul despre graiul moldovenilor - Descriptio Moldaviae:
i cu mult mai prost vorbesc Cuovlahii, care locuiesc n
Rumele pe hotarul Macedoniei, cci ei i amestec limba

229
foarte ciudat cu cea gre-ceasc i albanez, amestecnd n
cuvintele Romneti uneori cte un vers ntreg grecesc i
alteori cte unul arnuesc, i ei neleg ntre sine destul de
bine limba aceasta ncurcat; iar un Grec, sau Albanit, sau
Moldovean nu este puternic s neleag nimic; ns cnd ar
fi cte trei acetia la un loc i auzind vre un Coovlah vorbind,
ar putea s neleag ceeace zice el, cnd i vor tlmci
fiecarele versul limbei sale unul la altul.
n cele din urm, cronologic vorbind, Dimitrie Cantemir a
aparinut Secolului Luminilor, cel care a adus lumii un model
de libertate inedit paradigmelor culturale ale epocii, dar s-a
suprapus, n acelai timp, i cu tiranie, despotism, rzboaie i
mult suferin. Dac ne gndim la rile romne, trdrile
repetate ale domnilor romni, n mod particular: ale lui
Dimitrie Cantemir i Constantin Brncoveanu, i-au determinat
pe turci s instaureze modelul fanariot, care, n ciuda
accenturii dependenei otomane, a rmas ataat de idealurile
romneti i europene.
Iar atunci cnd lum n calcul raporturile dintre Dimitrie
Cantemir i Voltaire, sau influena istoriei otomane a lui
Cantemir fa opera lui Edward Gibon, a vorbi despre un
Cantemir iluminist devine nimic altceva dect un truism.
n concluzie, faptul c Dimitrie Cantemir i-a dedicat
ntreaga erudiie demonstrrii caracterul latin al poporului
romn i, prin aceasta, nobleea i legitimitatea acestui popor,
nu poate fi dect onorant pentru romnitatea de oricnd i,
pentru noi, cei de astzi, o veritabil invitaie la cultur, la
cunoatere i, n cele din urm, la educaie: Dimitrie
Cantemir, un educator al romnilor.
Cu alte cuvinte, ne aflm n faa lui Dimitrie Cantemir,
domn al rii Moldovei i personalitate romneasc de valen
european.

230
Bibliografie

Berza Mihai, (1985), Pentru o istorie a vechii culturi


romneti: culegere de studii / Bucureti: Ed. Eminescu.
Cndea Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant: Contribuii
la istoria umanismului romnesc / Cluj-Napoca: Dacia.
Cndea Virgil, (1987), Opere complete. Volumul 8, tomul
2: Sistemul sau ntocmirea religiei Muhammedane /
Bucureti: Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia.
Chiimia Ion C., (1972), Probleme de baz ale literaturii
romne vechi / Bucureti: Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste
Romnia.
Iorga Nicolae, (1972), Bizan dup Bizan / Bucureti: Ed.
Enciclopedic Romn.

231
DIMITRIE CANTEMIR. A ROMANIAN
PERSONALITY OF THREE PARADIGMS

Apreotesei I. Adrian,
Colegiul Naional de Informatic Tudor Vianu

We dedicate, - in our opinion, - these lines to the


celebration of 300 years since the election of Dimitrie
Cantemir as a member of the Berlin Academy. It happens that
the same period of time, that of 300 years, was also celebrated
four years ago, when, on the premises of the European
Parliament, the accession to the Moldovan throne of the
Romanian scholar, and, nevertheless, the European scholar,
Dimitrie Cantemir, was commemorated.1
We believe that, in bringing the personality of Cantemir to
our contemporary century, - and, to the same extent, - we believe
in the present as a natural continuation of the past as his
contemporary epoch, in an understanding of the history as a part
of our identity, that this is a part of the human condition, as
opposed to the sterile succession of clichs, the paradigms
forcibly taughted in schools. Hence, we believe in the rediscovery
of a character of unexpected relevance to the present.
So, we understand to share, therefore, a few words on
Cantemirs usual schedule, written so in a sensitive way at the
end of the English translation of his work, The History of the
Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire:

1Dabija, Nicolae, Dimitrie Cantemir, At The European Parliament,


Cotidianul, 09 decembrie 2010. Web. 27th of March 2014.

232
Demetrius was a middle-size (mai bine: middle-sized
man), rather sturdy than fat. He had an agreeable
countenance, and always spoke with affability, mildness and
caution. His custom was to rise at five in the morning, and,
smoking a pipe of tobacco over a dish of coffee after the
Turkish manner, he retired to his study till dinner, which was
constantly at noon. He generally dined upon one dish, his
favourite dish being small chicken with sorrel. At his meals he
always drank water with his wine. [...] He slept a little after
dinner, and the rest of the day was spend in his study till seven
in the evening. Then he saw his family, and supping at ten,
went to bed at twelve.2 (Dimitrie Cantemir (Voivode of
Moldavia); Nicolas Tindal (translator). The History of the
Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire .... J.J., and P.
Knapton; 1734, p. 459.
In a talk at the Days of Russian Culture. From Russia
with an open heart3 event, which have taken place during
November-December 2012, celebration during which it was
done the donation of the first 25 volumes of the Integrala
Manuscriselor Dimitrie Cantemir4 towards the Romanian
Academy, occasion with which the Academician Dan Berindei
stated that the remarkable personality of Dimitrie Cantemir
had enriched, through his work, three cultures: the Romanian
culture, the Turkish culture and the Russian one.
What if would we go even further, so to affirm that, if,
synchronically speaking, Dimitrie Cantemirs works have
developed across three cultures, diachronically speaking, we
may say that Dimitrie Cantemir has been, at the same time, a

2 Dimitrie Cantemir, Voivode of Moldavia; Nicolas Tindal, translator.

The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire ... J. J., and P.
Knapton; 1734, p. 459
3 Zilele culturii ruse. Din Rusia cu sufletul deschis.
4 The Complete Series of Dimitrie Cantemir Manuscripts.

233
Byzantine Man, a Renaissance Man, and an Enlightenment
Man? A biography in portraits

In his chapter on the religion of the Moldavians, part of


Descriptio Moldavi, Cantemir begins by explaining the
uncertain past of the Moldavian eres, the indolence of the
ancestors.

While explaining the adoption of the Christian faith,


among Wallachians and Moldavians, which links them to the
reign of Constantine the Great, Dimitrie Cantemir brings a
proof which we it find very illustrative, with regard to the
sincere reticence of Wallachians and Moldavians towards
heresies of any kind. An heresy or an heretic, Cantemir says,
has never been heard of in Moldavia, and even less likely,
would have been able to disseminate. That is, because the
simplicity of the Gospel and the teachings of the church's
fathers has been enough for the redemption of the spirit
without further education.
Towards the end of the chapter, while writing about eres,
Cantemir holds that, the people here in Moldavia, just as in
other lands where Science didn't bring already the enlightened
is very prone to the eres, and didn't, yet, completely quit the
older uncleanness, hence the worshiping through poetry and
songs, during weddings, burials and other such moments, to
unknown gods, which ought to be remnants of the old Dacian
idols.
It is not our intention to dash into explaining the premises
of the East-European intellectual thought, which would
probably require the instruments of an actual social theory, but
this is what we understand as being, in the first place, as a
testimony of Byzantine origin, to which the Wallachian and
Moldavian space subscribed at that moment in the
expression of Nicolae Iorga: the Byzantium [that came] after

234
the Byzantium (Bizanul de dup Bizan). We would
summarize this aspect as a relationship between tradition and
desacralization.
In a conference entitled Despre tradiie i desacralizare
(On Tradition and Desacralization), Virgil Cndea holds that
the truth, in the traditionalist thought, has, by excellence, a
divine nature truth, hence, it would be manifested only at the
origins, and its actualization would only take place through
revelations, but inaccessible to each human generation. As for
the individual, one would live under the responsibility with
regard to what has been given, by tradition in order to
further transmit these truths to the next generations,
unaltered, in order to avoid an inevitable truely morbid
regression, and, under a second responsibility: do not
intervene on the truth, in Virgil Cndea's words: not to
intervene into this sacred chest, received from God5.
With regard to the exercise of a Wallachian and
Moldavian dimension, as a logos of Cantemir's works, we
would like to mention Ion C. Chiimia's study, in which he
underlines on the important share of folklore in the substance
of the old Wallachian and Moldavian literature within which
it is interesting that he finds, more over, much than a
continuity, that would go through a multitude of authors,
ranging from Cantemir's works, towards the Romanian writers
Eminescu, Blaga, or even Ion Barbu , and, - even more than
that, Dimitrie Cantemir, as Chiimia claims, has been an
excellent connoisseur of the Romanian traditional, peasant
culture, and that he backs with the ethnographic references
from his Descriptio Moldaviae. Other such occurrences are to
be found, either as a result of insertion, or adaptation, in the
allegorical novel Istoria ieroglific (CHIIMIA, p. 442-444).

5 de a nu interveni n acest depozit sacru primit de la Dumnezeu

235
Although, probably, situated somewhat, asynchronously,
Dimitrie Cantemir has been recognized by the history of the
Romanian culture, as a gifted representative of the
Renaissance Humanism. Virgil Cndea argues, in this case,
that, in the period before that, when Cantemir was working on
his Neo-Latin papers, the Romanian scholar ought to expose at
least two Humanist messages: the European one, and the
Persian one. That can be explained by the fact that,
chronologically speaking, it cannot be affirmed that the
Humanism is an exclusive privilege of the European culture.
(CNDEA, pp. 20-21)
While living at Constantinople, it can be assumed that he
has been in contact with the European scholars from both the
French and Dutch Embassies, and with the Greek ones, by the
means of the Great School of the Patriarchate. Even more, his
relations with the Turkish intellectuals should not be
underestimated, V. Cndea says. An argument towards this
conclusion is that of the cultural openness that the Divanul
expresses, within Cantemir's first work: both Christian, Greek,
Latin, and Persian authors are cited. (ibidem)

Moreover, in discussing the subject about Cantemir - a


humanist and a man of enlightenment, we will resume to a
recurrent motif of any Romanian educated erudite: the
Romanity of Romanians, and the conscience of Romanity
among Romanians.
Adolf Armbruster, in his Romanitatea romnilor. Istoria
unei idei (The Romanity of the Romanians. The History of an
Idea), identifies Dimitrie Cantemir as being the type of the
Romanian Enlightenment's humanist: exponent of the
dominant class, representative of a powerful and well outlined
political orientation, a remarcable scholar with a scientifical
education of an European level, and a historian of the first
level.

236
The same author continues by making a clear distinction
around D. Cantemir's personality: ...if, till Dimitrie Cantemir,
the Romanian scholarly world would have used the foreign
scientifical written testimonies, when backing their
argumentation and scientifical demonstration of the Roman
origin of the Romanians, then, beginning with Dimitrie
Cantemir, this ratio converses: the European scholars get to
seek for the Romanian scholars to learn the arguments and
the evidence of Romance.
A characteristic of his studies is represented by a unitary
understanding of the Romanian ethnogenesis, a concept that
proves, among the others, his humanist erudition: a pure
Roman descent, the continuity of the roman-moldo-vlachs in
the Romanian Land, that is, the Roman Dacia, - and their
unity within the Carpathian-Danubian space.

Ultimately, but not lastly, chronologically speaking,


Dimitrie Cantemir belonged to the Age of Enlightenment, the
age that brought to the world a model of liberty unknown, - till
then, - to the cultural paradigms of the epoch, but which has
overlapped with tyranny, with despotism, wars and a lot of
suffering. If we think of the Romanian polities and politics, the
repeated betrayals of the Romanian Princes, in particular:
those of Dimitrie Cantemir and Constantin Brncoveanu's,
which have determined the Turks to bring on the two
Romanian Principalities the Phanariot model.
Later, having in mind the connections between Dimitrie
Cantemirs works and Voltaire's, or, we can also say, the
influence of Cantemir's Ottoman History to Edward Gibbon's,
only to speak about Cantemir and Enlightenment, it isnt, by
any means, exceptional or ill-timed.
In conclusion, the fact that Dimitrie Cantemir had
dedicated his entire erudition in order to demonstrate the
Latin character of the Romanian people and language, and, by

237
this, the nobleness and legitimity of it, it can't be but obliging
for Romanians of whensoever, and, for those of us living on
this territory today, a great invitation to culture, to knowledge,
and, nevertheless, to education, because can be perceived:
Dimitrie Cantemir as an educator of Romanians.
That is to be said, we still find ourselves in front of
Dimitrie Cantemir, the Prince of Moldavia and a Romanian
personality within European dimensions.

References

Cndea Virgil, (1979), Raiunea dominant: Contribuii


la istoria umanismului romnesc / Cluj-Napoca, Dacia.
Berza Mihai, (1985), Pentru o istorie a vechii culturi
romneti: culegere de studii / Bucureti, Editura Eminescu.
Iorga Nicolae, (1972), Bizan dup Bizan / Bucureti,
Editura Enciclopedic Romn.
Cndea Virgil, (1987), Opere complete. Volumul 8, tomul
2: Sistemul sau ntocmirea religiei Muhammedane /
Bucureti, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia.
Chiimia Ion C., (1972), Probleme de baz ale literaturii
romne vechi / Bucureti, Editura Academiei Republicii
Socialiste Romnia.

238